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Introducing Semantic Differentiation Technique and Its Application in Assessment of Semantic Representation of Depressed Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  AbstractIntroduction: The aim of this study was to assess the semantic representation of depressed patients and also the efficacy of semantic differentiation technique for this kind of assessment.Method: Subjects (30 depressed  and 30 non- depressed persons) were selected through convenient sampling. The instruments used included a modified version of a semantic differentiation task, which?embodied four stimulus concepts of me, past, life and future, and Beck’s Depression Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods, t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and regression analysis.Results: There was a significant difference in the total semantic differentiation scores between dep-?ressed and normal subjects.There was a positive correlation between the severity of depression and negative semantic representation. Negative representation of the concept “me” was the strongest predictor of depression.Conclusion: Depressed patients have a negative meaning representation of life, past, future, and in?particular self that must be addressed by the therapists. The semantic differentiation technique is effective for clinical assessments.

?Gh. Naziry; H. Ghasemzadeh; M. K. Atefvahid; A. Bayanzadeh

2005-01-01

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Differential electrophysiological signatures of semantic and syntactic scene processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In sentence processing, semantic and syntactic violations elicit differential brain responses observable in event-related potentials: An N400 signals semantic violations, whereas a P600 marks inconsistent syntactic structure. Does the brain register similar distinctions in scene perception? To address this question, we presented participants with semantic inconsistencies, in which an object was incongruent with a scene's meaning, and syntactic inconsistencies, in which an object violated structural rules. We found a clear dissociation between semantic and syntactic processing: Semantic inconsistencies produced negative deflections in the N300-N400 time window, whereas mild syntactic inconsistencies elicited a late positivity resembling the P600 found for syntactic inconsistencies in sentence processing. Extreme syntactic violations, such as a hovering beer bottle defying gravity, were associated with earlier perceptual processing difficulties reflected in the N300 response, but failed to produce a P600 effect. We therefore conclude that different neural populations are active during semantic and syntactic processing of scenes, and that syntactically impossible object placements are processed in a categorically different manner than are syntactically resolvable object misplacements.

Võ ML; Wolfe JM

2013-09-01

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Semantic dementia versus nonfluent progressive aphasia: neuropsychological characterization and differentiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Early progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) may be difficult to differentiate from semantic dementia (SD) in a nonspecialist setting. There are descriptions of the clinical and neuropsychological profiles of patients with PNFA and SD but few systematic comparisons. METHOD: We compared the performance of groups with SD (n=27) and PNFA (n=16) with comparable ages, education, disease duration, and severity of dementia as measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Principal components analysis and intergroup comparisons were used. RESULTS: A 5-factor solution accounted for 78.4% of the total variance with good separation of neuropsychological variables. As expected, both groups were anomic with preserved visuospatial function and mental speed. Patients with SD had lower scores on comprehension-based semantic tests and better performance on verbal working memory and phonological processing tasks. The opposite pattern was found in the PNFA group. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological tests that examine verbal and nonverbal semantic associations, verbal working memory, and phonological processing are the most helpful for distinguishing between PNFA and SD.

Carthery-Goulart MT; Knibb JA; Patterson K; Hodges JR

2012-01-01

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Analysis of gender differences in the perception of properties: An application for differential semantics  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the application of differential semantics to identify the semantic space (structure) used by men and women to describe their perception of properties on sale. 112 men and 43 women evaluated 112 images of flats on sale at the time of the study in the city of Valencia (Spain) using 60 adjectives. The set of attributes or variables which capture the user’s perception of a property in his own words (semantic axes) was identified using factor analysis of principal components. The semantic space of a property was described by 15 independent axes which explained 64% of the variability for males and 17 axes which explained 72.3% of the variance for females. The connection between the subject’s emotional response, expressed through the set of axes (15 for males and 17 for females) and the global evaluation in terms of the purchase decision was established. The results demonstrated significant differences in the variables used by both genders to express their perception of a property on sale and the weight of these variables on the purchase decision.

Carmen Llinares; Alvaro Page

2009-01-01

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[Assessment Instruments: Semantic Differential Survey: Science, Form AF; Student Opinion Survey: Science Methods; Elementary Education Field Experience Survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document comprises the second of two appendices (B) to a final report of a study, completed at Central Michigan University, focusing on the development of a competency-based elementary teacher preparation module in science education. Contained in this appendix are the assessment instruments used in the study--Semantic Differential Survey:…

Oana, Robert G.; Eiszler, Charles F.

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Application of a methodology for categorizing and differentiating urban soundscapes using acoustical descriptors and semantic-differential attributes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A subjective and physical categorization of an ambient sound is the first step to evaluate the soundscape and provides a basis for designing or adapting this ambient sound to match people's expectations. For this reason, the main goal of this work is to develop a categorization and differentiation analysis of soundscapes on the basis of acoustical and perceptual variables. A hierarchical cluster analysis, using 15 semantic-differential attributes and acoustical descriptors to include an equivalent sound-pressure level, maximum-minimum sound-pressure level, impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level, sound-pressure level time course, and spectral composition, was conducted to classify soundscapes into different typologies. This analysis identified 15 different soundscape typologies. Furthermore, based on a discriminant analysis the acoustical descriptors, the crest factor (impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level), and the sound level at 125?Hz were found to be the acoustical variables with the highest impact in the differentiation of the recognized types of soundscapes. Finally, to determine how the different soundscape typologies differed from each other, both subjectively and acoustically, a study was performed. PMID:23862885

Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, A F

2013-07-01

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Application of a methodology for categorizing and differentiating urban soundscapes using acoustical descriptors and semantic-differential attributes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A subjective and physical categorization of an ambient sound is the first step to evaluate the soundscape and provides a basis for designing or adapting this ambient sound to match people's expectations. For this reason, the main goal of this work is to develop a categorization and differentiation analysis of soundscapes on the basis of acoustical and perceptual variables. A hierarchical cluster analysis, using 15 semantic-differential attributes and acoustical descriptors to include an equivalent sound-pressure level, maximum-minimum sound-pressure level, impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level, sound-pressure level time course, and spectral composition, was conducted to classify soundscapes into different typologies. This analysis identified 15 different soundscape typologies. Furthermore, based on a discriminant analysis the acoustical descriptors, the crest factor (impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level), and the sound level at 125?Hz were found to be the acoustical variables with the highest impact in the differentiation of the recognized types of soundscapes. Finally, to determine how the different soundscape typologies differed from each other, both subjectively and acoustically, a study was performed.

Torija AJ; Ruiz DP; Ramos-Ridao AF

2013-07-01

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Noetics in pastoral counselling: The making of a semantic differential analysis in pastoral care and counselling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Praxis in pastoral care and counselling entails more than merely practice and practicalities (communication skills). Praxis refers to the intentionality within human action and behaviour. Praxis exhibits the realm of intentionality and meaning as displayed within and by human attitudes. It is hypothesised that due to the noetic dimension in human actions, the making of a pastoral diagnosis (a qualitative assessment of the impact of Christian spirituality and the meaning on the system of existential, relational networking) should deal with the realm of significant and purposeful intentionality. The latter is already implied in the phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl’s eidetic observation or inspection (phenomenological consciousness). In order to incorporate noetics in pastoral care and counselling, a pastoral semantic differential analysis (PSDA) within the making of a pastoral diagnosis was proposed. The PSDA was linked to the need for a qualitative approach regarding the impact of Godimages on religious association and existential life experiences.

Daniël J. Louw

2011-01-01

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Clustering and switching during a semantic verbal fluency test contribute to differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The verbal fluency test (VFT) can be dissociated into "clustering" (generating words within subcategories) and "switching" (shifting between clusters), which may be valuable in differential diagnosis. In the current study, we investigated the validity of VFT in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 65), vascular dementia (VaD, n = 65), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 92), and vascular cognitive impairment without dementia (VCIND, n = 76) relative to cognitively normal senior controls (NC, n = 374). We found that in the NC group, the total correct score was significantly correlated with age and education; males generated more subcategories; cluster size increased with education, and subcategory and switching decreased with age. A significantly progressive advantage was observed in VFT scores in the sequence NC > MCI/VCIND > AD/VaD, and this significantly discriminated dementia patients from the other groups. AD patients performed better in all four VFT scores than VaD patients. Subcategory and switching scores significantly distinguished AD from VaD patients (AD > VaD; mean difference, 0.50 for subcategory, P <0.05; 0.71 for switching, P <0.05). MCI patients scored higher than VCIND patients, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that semantic VFT is useful for the detection of MCI and VCIND, and in the differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment.

Zhao Q; Guo Q; Hong Z

2013-02-01

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Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD) data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD) rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal) and disease (cancer) sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (? = 0.95) identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4). Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1), chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2), hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3) and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4). Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3), HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1) are significantly down regulated. All down regulated genes in this panel were highly up regulated in most other types of cancers. These panels of proteins may represent signature biomarkers for lung cancer and will aid in lung cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring as well as in the prediction of responses to therapeutics.

Srivastava Mousami; Khurana Pankaj; Sugadev Ragumani

2012-01-01

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Judging the other: psychiatric nurses' attitudes towards identified inpatients as measured by the semantic differential technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nurses' attitudes towards psychiatric patients can be expressed in terms of either a symptom-oriented approach or a personhood-focused approach where the latter is characterized by the ambition to establish a genuine and lasting relationship, while the former places the emphasis on correcting 'defective' patient behaviour. To study whether previous typologies found in a qualitative in-depth interview study exist in a larger quantitative investigation and, if so, to identify and describe a structure for the nurses' attitudes connected to each of the identified typologies. Six psychiatric group dwellings and six acute psychiatric hospital wards participated in the study. In all, 2700 assessments of 163 patients were sent out to 160 respondents and 2436 answers were returned, that is, the external dropout rate was 9.8%. The semantic differential technique was used. This is a method for quantifying the meaning that is attached to an identified phenomenon through series of bipolar pairs of adjectives. The scale has 57 bipolar pairs of adjectives, which estimates an unknown number of dimensions of nurses' attitudes towards an identified patient. The respondents' answers were analysed through entropy-based measures of association combined with structural plots. The analysis revealed that the four typologies existed as a delimited group, especially the groups of 'good' and 'evil' patients, while the 'crazy' and 'invisible' patients existed in a more blurred form. The analysis also revealed that the two groups, 'good' and 'evil', were connected to the nurses' ethical and aesthetic attitude structure, while the 'crazy' patients were linked to the cognitive structure and the 'invisible' patients to the empathetic structure. The study indicates that the two typologies, 'good' and 'evil', could be seen as each other's antithesis and, together with the other two typologies, 'crazy' and 'invisible', they touched upon a structure of the nurses' attitudes that was closely connected to a negative view of the patient except in one case -'the good' patients, which was probably based on his/her exterior symptoms.

Lilja L; Ordell M; Dahl A; Hellzén O

2004-10-01

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Priming nouns and verbs: differential influences of semantic and grammatical cues in the two cerebral hemispheres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current experiment investigated how sentential form-class expectancies influenced lexical-semantic priming within each hemisphere. Sentences were presented that led readers to expect a noun or a verb and the sentence-final target word was presented to one visual field/hemisphere for a lexical decision response. Noun and verb targets in the semantically related condition were compared to an unrelated prime condition, which also predicted part of speech but did not contain any lexical-semantic associates of the target word. The semantic priming effect was strongly modulated by form-class expectancy for RVF/LH targets, for both nouns and verbs. In the LVF/RH, semantic priming was obtained in all conditions, regardless of whether the form-class expectancy was violated. However, the nouns that were preceded by a noun-predicting sentence showed an extremely high priming value in the LVF/RH, suggesting that the RH may have some sensitivity to grammatical predictions for nouns. Comparisons of LVF/RH priming to calculations derived from the LSA model of language representation, which does not utilize word order, suggested that the RH might derive message-level meaning primarily from lexical-semantic relatedness.

Arambel SR; Chiarello C

2006-04-01

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Priming nouns and verbs: differential influences of semantic and grammatical cues in the two cerebral hemispheres.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current experiment investigated how sentential form-class expectancies influenced lexical-semantic priming within each hemisphere. Sentences were presented that led readers to expect a noun or a verb and the sentence-final target word was presented to one visual field/hemisphere for a lexical decision response. Noun and verb targets in the semantically related condition were compared to an unrelated prime condition, which also predicted part of speech but did not contain any lexical-semantic associates of the target word. The semantic priming effect was strongly modulated by form-class expectancy for RVF/LH targets, for both nouns and verbs. In the LVF/RH, semantic priming was obtained in all conditions, regardless of whether the form-class expectancy was violated. However, the nouns that were preceded by a noun-predicting sentence showed an extremely high priming value in the LVF/RH, suggesting that the RH may have some sensitivity to grammatical predictions for nouns. Comparisons of LVF/RH priming to calculations derived from the LSA model of language representation, which does not utilize word order, suggested that the RH might derive message-level meaning primarily from lexical-semantic relatedness. PMID:16099493

Arambel, Stella R; Chiarello, Christine

2005-08-15

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Assessment of the Relatedness of Equivalent Stimuli through a Semantic Differential  

Science.gov (United States)

|If stimulus equivalence is a model of meaning, abstract stimuli should acquire the meaning of meaningful stimuli equivalent to them. In Experiment 1, college students matched faces expressing emotions to arbitrary pictures, forming three classes of equivalent stimuli, each comprising an emotional expression and three arbitrary pictures. Semantic

Bortoloti, Renato; de Rose, Julio C.

2009-01-01

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Implementation of Various Semantic Differential Coding Strategies as a Function of Responses to the Ideal Source in the Prediction of Overall Credibility and Homophily.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was designed to investigate the consequences of various coding strategies on the semantic differential as a function of responses to an ideal source in the prediction of overall credibility and homophily. The study was also intended to provide additional evidence for the disconfirmation of the underlying extremity assumption of the…

Hellweg, Susan A.

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Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

2009-01-01

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Research on the scenic meaning of rooftop greening with semantic differential measure and join-count statistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clarification of the scenic improvement effects of rooftop greening are necessary in order to promote rooftop greening as one form of urban greenery. A study was conducted in order to establish a method for quantitatively clarifying the effects of rooftop greening in improving scenery. An evaluation experiment was conducted using photographs of actual rooftop greening. This paper discussed the methods and results of this study. The study extracted factors influencing scenery using the repertory grid technique, which investigates the style in which the theme is explored. An evaluation experiment was then conducted based on the semantic differential measure, which is a psychological estimation method, using the factors as the evaluation yardstick. In order to understand the relationship between the psychological evaluation and the scenery components, a multiple regression analysis and a factor analysis were also conducted. In addition, photographs of the scenery were made into a mesh form. The layout of greenery was quantitatively analysed using join-count statistics, which can calculate the degree to which two kinds of things are mixed within a space. It was concluded that the scenery of rooftop greening varies according to the distance between the viewers and the rooftop greening, the layout of the greenery, and the form of rooftop greening and that these factors need to be taken into account when planning rooftop greening. In addition, it was concluded that the importance of the medium distance view in external scenery lies in the degree to which the greenery is mixed, and that the degree of this mixing can be effectively gauged with join-count statistics. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

Lee, H.; Koshimiz, H. [Meiji Univ., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture

2006-07-01

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A Developmental Study of Conceptual, Semantic Differential, and Acoustical Dimensions as Encoding Categories in Short-Term Memory. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of this research was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes. It attempted to determine the extent to which children of varying ages utilize semantic (denotative or connotative) and acoustical encoding categories in a short-term memory task. It appears to be a reasonable assumption that as associational hierarchies…

Pender, Nola J.

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Semantic Web Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication) within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013). As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee) where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data) which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web) on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence).The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication) within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013). As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee) where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data) which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web) on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence).

Anna Lamandini

2011-01-01

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A Pilot Study Measuring Changes in Student Impressions before and after Clinical Training Using a Questionnaire Based on the Semantic Differential Technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Students with a positive impression of their studies can become more motivated. This study measured the learning impact of clinical training by comparing student impressions before and after clinical training. The study included 32 students of radiological technology in their final year with the Division of Radiological Science and Technology, Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Hokkaido University. To measure student impressions of x-ray examination training, we developed a questionnaire using the semantic differential technique. The resulting factor analysis identified 2 factors that accounted for 44.9% of the 10 bipolar adjective scales. Factor 1 represented a "resistance" impression of x-ray examination training, and factor 2 represented a "responsibility" impression. The differences in factor scores before and after the clinical training suggest that student impressions are affected by clinical training.

Tamura N; Terashita T; Ogasawara K

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Canadian Semantic Web  

CERN Multimedia

Based on the first Canadian Web Working Symposium, June 2006, in Quebec, Canada. This volume includes the following topics: "Trust, Privacy, Security on the Semantic Web," "Semantic Grid and Semantic Grid Services" and "Semantic Web Mining."

Koné, Mamadou Tadiou

2006-01-01

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Jigsaw Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.) ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017575313451Dekker, Paul. 2004. ‘Grounding Dynamic Semantics’. In Anne Bezuidenhout & Marga Reimer (eds.) ‘Descriptions and Beyond: An Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays on Definite and Indefinite Descriptions and other Related Phenomena’, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Dekker, Paul. 2007. ‘Optimal Inquisitive Discourse’. In Maria Aloni, Alastair Butler & Paul Dekker (eds.) ‘Questions in Dynamic Semantics’, CRiSPI 17, pp. 83–101. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Frege, Gottlob. 1892. ‘Über Sinn und Bedeutung’. Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik NF 100: pp. 25–50.Ginzburg, Jonathan. 1995. ‘Resolving Questions, I & II’. Linguistics and Philosophy 18, no. 5,6: pp. 459–527 and 567–609.Ginzburg, Jonathan. To appear. The Interactive Stance: Meaning for Conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen. 1999. ‘The Logic of Interrogation’. In T. Matthews & D. Strolovitch (eds.) ‘Proceedings of SALT IX’, Also appeared in Aloni, M., Butler, A., and Dekker, P., 2007, Questions in Dynamic Semantics, CRiSPI, Elsevier.: CLC Publications.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Roelofsen, Floris. 2009. ‘Inquisitive Semantics and Pragmatics’. In Jesus M. Larrazabal & Larraitz Zubeldia (eds.) ‘Meaning, Content, and Argument: Proceedings of the ILCLI International Workshop on Semantics, Pragmatics, and Rhetoric’, Bilbao: University of the Basque Country Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Stokhof, Martin. 1991. ‘Dynamic Predicate Logic’. Linguistics and Philosophy 14, no. 1: pp. 39–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628304Hulstijn, Joris. 1997. ‘Structured Information States. Raising and Resolving Issues’. In Anton Benz & Gerhard Jäger (eds.) ‘Proceedings of MunDial97’, pp. 99–117. University of Munich.Jäger, Gerhard. 1996. ‘Only Updates. On the Dynamics of the Focus Particle only’. In Martin Stokhof & Paul Dekker (eds.) ‘Proceedings of the Tenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, pp. 387–405. Amsterdam: ILLC, University of Amsterdam.Lascarides, Alex & Asher, Nicholas. 2009. ‘The Int

Paul J. E. Dekker

2010-01-01

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Generative Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of the program are a matter of some controversy and have been extensively debated. Generative semanticists took Chomsky's concept of deep structure and ran with it, assuming (contrary to later work by Chomsky and Ray Jackendoff) that deep structures were the sole input to semantic interpretation. This assumption, combined with a tendency to consider a wider rang of empirical evidence than Chomskyan linguists, lead generative semanticists to develop considerably more abstract and complex theories of deep structure than those advocated by Chomsky and his students. Throughout the late 1960s and 1970s, there were heated debates between generative semanticists and more orthodox Chomskyans. The generative semanticists lost the debate, in so far as their research program ground to a halt by the 1980s. However, this was in part because the interests of key generative semanticists such as George Lakoff had gradually shifted away from the narrow study of syntax and semantics. A number of ideas from later work in generative semantics have been incorporated into cognitive linguistics (and indeed into main stream Chomskyan linguistics, often without citation)

Karim Bagha

2011-01-01

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Semantic Reachability  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is an approach to combine the reachability problem with semantic notionslike bisimulation equivalence. It deals with questions of the following form: Isthere a reachable state that is bisimulation equivalent to a given state ? Here weshow some decidability results for process algebras and Petri nets.1 IntroductionThe reachability problem plays an important role in the theory of concurrentsystems. The question is if a given state is reachable from the initial state bya sequence of actions. The complexity of this problem has been extensivelystudied (for example it is decidable and EXPSPACE-hard for general Petrinets and NP-complete for Basic Parallel Processes (BPP) [4]).Here we generalize the reachability problem by regarding classes of semanticallyequivalent states instead of single states. The question is now if astate is reachable (from the initial state) that is a member of a given class.In other words: Is it possible to reach a state that is at least semant...

Richard Mayr

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Evaluation of Semantic Clusters  

CERN Multimedia

Semantic clusters of a domain form an important feature that can be useful for performing syntactic and semantic disambiguation. Several attempts have been made to extract the semantic clusters of a domain by probabilistic or taxonomic techniques. However, not much progress has been made in evaluating the obtained semantic clusters. This paper focuses on an evaluation mechanism that can be used to evaluate semantic clusters produced by a system against those provided by human experts.

Agarwal, R

1995-01-01

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Improving Semantic Schema Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Schema matching is a critical step in many applications, such as data warehouse loading, Online Analytical Process (OLAP), Data mining, semantic web and schema integration. This task is defined for finding the semantic correspondences between elements of two schemas. Recently, schema matching has found considerable interest in both research and practice. In this paper, some approaches for supporting semantic schema matching compared and then we suggest three solutions for improving semantic schema matching problem.

Zahra Sheikhnajdy; Mehran Mohsenzadeh; , Mashalah Abbasi Dezfuli

2011-01-01

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The Social Semantic Web  

CERN Multimedia

Presenting a short overview of both the Social Web and the Semantic Web, this title describes some popular social media and social networking applications, lists their strengths and limitations, and explains some applications of Semantic Web technology to address their shortcomings by enhancing them with semantics

Breslin, John G

2009-01-01

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Semantics via Machine Translation  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

Culhane, P. T.

1977-01-01

29

Pragmatics for formal semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal semantics from another.

Danvy, Olivier

2011-01-01

30

Knitting the semantic web  

CERN Multimedia

The Semantic Web, extends the popular, day-to-day Web, enabling computers and people to effectively work together by giving information well-defined meaning. Knitting the Semantic Web explains the interdisciplinary efforts underway to build a more library-like Web through "semantic knitting." The book examines foundation activities and initiatives leading to standardized semantic metadata. These efforts lead to the Semantic Web-a network able to support computational activities and provide people with services efficiently. Leaders in library and information science, computer science,

Greenberg, Jane

2013-01-01

31

Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

Splendiani Andrea; Burger Albert; Paschke Adrian; Romano Paolo; Marshall M

2011-01-01

32

Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web  

CERN Document Server

The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

Ashish, Naveen

2011-01-01

33

Semantic search: issues and technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems and general algorithm of a semantic search are considered in the paper. Distinctive features of the semantic search algorithm are described. The existing realization problems of semantic search engines are revealed.

Basipov Andrey Alekseevich; Demich Olga Valerievna

2012-01-01

34

Applied Semantic Web Technologies  

CERN Document Server

The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

Sugumaran, Vijayan

2011-01-01

35

Semantic Role Labeling  

CERN Multimedia

This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

2011-01-01

36

[Semantic dementia--a multimodal disorder of conceptual knowledge].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Semantic dementia (SD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive loss of semantic memory/ conceptual knowledge and by bilateral, but usually asymmetric, atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes (ATLS). On the basis of the neuropsychological findings of SD, the two theoretical implications for the organization of semantic memory have been suggested. First, selective impairment of semantic memory in the early stages of SD contrasts with the isolated loss of episodic memory in patients with damage to the medial temporal lobes and other Papez's circuit components. This double dissociation provides empirical evidence for fractionation of explicit memory into the two subsystems with different neural underpinnings. Second, the multimodal nature of semantic deficits in SD leads to a seminal view that semantic memory is organized as an amodal system. The ATLs play a pivotal role as a 'convergence zone' or 'semantic hub' integrating abundant verbal and perceptual attributes that are represented in the posterior temporal and temporo-occipital cortices. To develop further comprehensive theories regarding semantic memory, we should understand differential roles of the left and right ATLs and clarify the clinicoanatomical relationship between verbal, visual, and emotional aspects of semantic memory loss and the detailed anatomical localization of the lesions.

Nishio Y; Mori E

2009-11-01

37

Towards Semantic Interoperability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explain how semantic interoperability is important for the Norwegian public sector. Important aspects for a technical solution are discussed. We choose UML to help us with our semantic interoperability efforts. Some of UML’s strong point and week point are considered. Our resulting TOR system is ...

Lilleng, Jeanine

38

Data Flow Semantics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper studies the semantics of data flow. First it assigns a history based operational semantics to data flow nets, which models a net as a function from inputs to sets of possible outputs. Moreover, it presents an alternative definition in which it a...

J. N. Kok

1988-01-01

39

On Quantifying Semantic Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to look at some existing methods of semantic information quantification and suggest some alternatives. It begins with an outline of Bar-Hillel and Carnap’s theory of semantic information before going on to look at Floridi’s theory of strongly semantic information. The latter then serves to initiate an in-depth investigation into the idea of utilising the notion of truthlikeness to quantify semantic information. Firstly, a couple of approaches to measure truthlikeness are drawn from the literature and explored, with a focus on their applicability to semantic information quantification. Secondly, a similar but new approach to measure truthlikeness/information is presented and some supplementary points are made.

Simon D’Alfonso

2011-01-01

40

A Semantic Graph Query Language  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

Kaplan, I L

2006-10-16

 
 
 
 
41

Pretty-Big-Step Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In spite of the popularity of small-step semantics, big-step semantics remain used by many researchers. However, big-step semantics suffer from a serious duplication problem, which appears as soon as the semantics account for exceptions and/or divergence. In particular, many premises need to be copy...

Charguéraud, Arthur

42

Learning from Semantic Flora Fauna  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We argue that for a personal agent working within a Semantic Web framework, machine learning is essential. We identify two topologies in the Semantic Web, and refer to these as: (1) semantic forests (disjoint trees) and (2) true semantic webs (complex interconnected graphs). An example of (1) is Citeseer BibTeX mapped to RDF

Gunnar Aastr; Pete Edwards; Alun Preece

43

UML 2 Semantics and Applications  

CERN Multimedia

A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

Lano, Kevin

2009-01-01

44

Semantics of Ontology Alignment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ontology alignment is a foundational problem area for semantic interoperability. We discuss the complexity faced by automated alignment solutions and describe an ontology-based approach for describing and evaluating alignments.

B. C. Ashpole T. C. Hughes

2004-01-01

45

Semantic Models for a Version of PARLOG.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four semantics for PARLOG are given, two operational samantics based on a transition system, a declarative semantics, and a denotational semantics. One operational and the declarative semantics model the success set of a PARLOG program, that is, the set o...

F. S. Deboer J. N. Kok C. Palamidessi J. J. M. M. Rutten

1989-01-01

46

Semantic Schema Matching Using DBpedia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In semantic computing, Match is an operator that takes as an input two graph-like structures; it can be database schemas or XML schemas and generates a mapping between the corresponding nodes of the two graphs. In semantic schema matching, we attempt to explore the mappings between the two schemas; based on their semantics by employing any semantic similarity measure. In this study, we have defined taxonomy of all possible semantic similarity measures; moreover we also proposed an approach that exploits semantic relations stored in the DBpedia dataset while utilizing a hybrid ranking system to dig out the similarity between nodes of the two graphs.

Saira Gillani; Muhammad Naeem; Raja Habibullah; Amir Qayyum

2013-01-01

47

Uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto: evaluación mediante diferencial semántico Use of the mirror in the second stage of labor: evaluation by means of semantic differential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: examinar la actitud de la mujer y su pareja, sobre el uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado en el Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón. A partir de un estudio piloto realizado sobre una muestra de 92 sujetos, se elaboró una escala de 14 ítems basada en la técnica del diferencial semántico. Una muestra de 159 sujetos completó la escala así como el cuestionario estado-rasgo (STAI). Resultados: el porcentaje de aceptación fue del 90%. Las puntuaciones medias superan el valor neutro en todos los ítems. El 88,5% (IC 95%:78,8 a 98,1) de la mujeres que experimentaron la vivencia consideraron que el uso del espejo estimula pujar frente al 73,6% (IC 95%:62,7 a 84,4) que lo manifestaron como expectativa. Conclusiones: El uso del espejo durante el periodo expulsivo es valorado favorablemente por la mayoría de las mujeres y sus parejas.Aims: To know the attitude of the woman and her partner the use of the mirror in the second stage of labor. Methods: This descriptive cross - sectional study was carried at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, Spain). The data were collected using an 14 Items scale based on the semantic differential technique developed from a pilot study with 92 subjects. A sample de 159 subjects they completed the scale, as well as the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: The percentage of acceptance was of 90%. The mean score in the scale overcame the neutral value in all items. The 88,5% (CI 95%:78,8 a 98,1) of women who experienced the experience thought that the use of the mirror stimulates to push versus 73,6% (CI 95%:62,7 a 84,4) before the delivery. Conclusions: The use of the mirror during the second stage of labor is valued favorably by the majority of the women and her pairs.

Emilio José Becerra-Maya; Gloria Lapuente-Jambrina; Verónica María Alonso-Ortega

2011-01-01

48

Populating the Semantic Web  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

The vision of the Semantic Web is that a vast store of online information "meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities". Unfortunately, the vast majority of information on the Web is formatted to be easily read by human users, not computer applications. In order to make the vision of the Semantic Web a reality, tools for automatically annotating Web content with semantic labels will be required. We describe the ADEL system that automatically extracts records from Web sites and semantically labels the fields. The system exploits similarities in the layout of Web pages in order to learn the grammar that generated these pages. It then uses this grammar to extract structured records from these Web pages. ADEL system also exploits the fact that sites in the same domain will provide the same, or similar data. By collecting labeled examples of data during the training stage, we are able to learn structural descriptions of data fields and later use these descriptions to semantically label new data fields. We show that on a Used Car shopping domain, ADEL achieves precision of 64% and recall of 89% on extracting and labeling data columns.

2004-01-01

49

Ready Trace Semantics for Concrete Process Algebra with Priority Operator.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process semantics intermediate between bisimulation semantics and readiness semantics, called ready trace semantics is considered. The advantage of this semantics is that, while retaining the simplicity of readiness semantics, it is possible to augment ...

J. C. M. Baeten J. A. Bergstra J. W. Klop

1985-01-01

50

Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

2007-08-07

51

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

52

Semantic clustering as a neuropsychological predictor for amnestic-MCI.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent research has demonstrated that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show deficits in semantic processing when compared to cognitively healthy individuals. This difference is thought to be attributed to losses in higher cortical systems that are predominantly associated with executive functioning. The first aim of the study will be to determine if differences in semantic clustering can accurately differentiate patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from cognitively normal (CN) individuals. The second aim will be to determine the extent to which semantic processing might be associated with executive functions. Data from 202 (134 CN, 68 aMCI) participants were analyzed to quantify differences in semantic clustering ratios on the HVLT-R. Study participants ages ranged from 51 to 87 with education ranging from 6 to 20 years. ANCOVA revealed statistically significant differences on semantic clustering ratios (p < .001). Moderate correlations between semantic clustering Category Fluency Test (r = .45) were also found. Statistically significant group differences were also present on Trails-B and WAIS-R Digit Symbol performance (p < .001). Overall, these data indicate that deficits in semantic clustering are present in aMCI patients.

Malek-Ahmadi M; Raj A; Small BJ

2011-05-01

53

Semantic clustering as a neuropsychological predictor for amnestic-MCI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has demonstrated that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show deficits in semantic processing when compared to cognitively healthy individuals. This difference is thought to be attributed to losses in higher cortical systems that are predominantly associated with executive functioning. The first aim of the study will be to determine if differences in semantic clustering can accurately differentiate patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from cognitively normal (CN) individuals. The second aim will be to determine the extent to which semantic processing might be associated with executive functions. Data from 202 (134 CN, 68 aMCI) participants were analyzed to quantify differences in semantic clustering ratios on the HVLT-R. Study participants ages ranged from 51 to 87 with education ranging from 6 to 20 years. ANCOVA revealed statistically significant differences on semantic clustering ratios (p < .001). Moderate correlations between semantic clustering Category Fluency Test (r = .45) were also found. Statistically significant group differences were also present on Trails-B and WAIS-R Digit Symbol performance (p < .001). Overall, these data indicate that deficits in semantic clustering are present in aMCI patients. PMID:21347885

Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Raj, Ashok; Small, Brent J

2011-02-22

54

Semantic Observation Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

Sven Schade; Frank Ostermann; Laura Spinsanti; Werner Kuhn

2012-01-01

55

The semantic priming project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies.

Hutchison KA; Balota DA; Neely JH; Cortese MJ; Cohen-Shikora ER; Tse CS; Yap MJ; Bengson JJ; Niemeyer D; Buchanan E

2013-01-01

56

Semantic Web Services  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

hose properties, capabilities,interfaces, and effects are encoded in an unambiguous,machine-understandable form.The realization of the Semantic Web is underwaywith the development of new AI-inspired contentmarkup languages, such as OIL,3DAML+OIL(www.daml.org/2000/10/daml-oil), and DAML-L (thelast two are members of the DARPA Agent MarkupLanguage (DAML) family of languages).4These languageshave a well-defined semantics and enable themarkup and manipulation of complex taxonomic andlogical relations between entities on the Web. A fundamentalcomponent of the Semantic Web will be themarkup of Web services to make them computer-interpretable,use-apparent, and agent-ready. This articleaddresses precisely this component.We present an approach to Web service markup thatprovides an agent-independent declarative API capturingthe data and metadata associated with a servicetogether with specifications of its pro

Sheila A. Mcilraith

57

Deep Semantics for Dependency Structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although dependency parsers have become increasingly popular, little work has been done on how to associate dependency structures with deep semantic representations. In this paper, we propose a semantic calculus for dependency structures which can be used to construct deep semantic representations f...

Bedaride, Paul; Gardent, Claire

58

Causal premise semantics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rise of causality and the attendant graph-theoretic modeling tools in the study of counterfactual reasoning has had resounding effects in many areas of cognitive science, but it has thus far not permeated the mainstream in linguistic theory to a comparable degree. In this study I show that a version of the predominant framework for the formal semantic analysis of conditionals, Kratzer-style premise semantics, allows for a straightforward implementation of the crucial ideas and insights of Pearl-style causal networks. I spell out the details of such an implementation, focusing especially on the notions of intervention on a network and backtracking interpretations of counterfactuals.

Kaufmann S

2013-08-01

59

Evolution of semantic systems  

CERN Document Server

Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

2013-01-01

60

Semantic e-Science  

CERN Multimedia

The Semantic Web has been a very important development in how knowledge is disseminated and manipulated on the Web, but it has been of particular importance to the flow of scientific knowledge, and will continue to shape how data is stored and accessed in a broad range of disciplines, including life sciences, earth science, materials science, and the social sciences. Many books and papers have been published on the semantic web (particularly by Springer), but nothing to date has specifically illustrated how applications can be used to acquire, integrate, and deliver knowledge in so many scient

Chen, Huajun; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Semantator: Semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference.

Tao C; Song D; Sharma D; Chute CG

2013-10-01

62

Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference. PMID:23867104

Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

2013-07-15

63

A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory  

CERN Document Server

The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

2008-01-01

64

Comparative semantic profiles in semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, also known as semantic dementia, and Alzheimer's disease have deficits in semantic memory. However, few comparative studies have been performed to determine whether these patient groups have distinct semantic memory impairments. We asked 15 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and 57 patients with Alzheimer's disease to judge semantic category membership of coloured photos and printed words that are members of familiar natural and manufactured categories, and we related performance to grey matter atrophy. We found that both semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease are significantly impaired on this task. Moreover, patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia had a significantly more prominent deficit for natural objects than their own deficit judging manufactured objects. Both semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease had atrophy that included portions of the left temporal lobe. Regression analyses related performance in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia to ventral and medial portions of the left temporal lobe, while regression analyses in Alzheimer's disease related performance to these ventral and medial temporal areas as well as lateral temporal-parietal regions in the left hemisphere. We conclude that both semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease are significantly impaired in a simple category membership judgement task and the selective impairment for natural kinds in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia is related in part to disease in visual association cortex in ventral-medial portions of the left temporal lobe. We discuss factors that may contribute to the semantic memory deficit in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia.

Libon DJ; Rascovsky K; Powers J; Irwin DJ; Boller A; Weinberg D; McMillan CT; Grossman M

2013-08-01

65

[Schizophrenia and semantic priming effects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: This article is a review of studies using the semantic priming paradigm to assess the functioning of semantic memory in schizophrenic patients. CONTEXT: Semantic priming describes the phenomenon of increasing the speed with which a string of letters (the target) is recognized as a word (lexical decision task) by presenting to the subject a semantically related word (the prime) prior to the appearance of the target word. This semantic priming is linked to both automatic and controlled processes depending on experimental conditions (stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), percentage of related words and explicit memory instructions). Automatic process observed with short SOA, low related word percentage and instructions asking only to process the target, could be linked to the "automatic spreading activation" through the semantic network. Controlled processes involve "semantic matching" (the number of related and unrelated pairs influences the subjects decision) and "expectancy" (the prime leads the subject to generate an expectancy set of potential target to the prime). These processes can be observed whatever the SOA for the former and with long SOA for the later, but both with only high related word percentage and explicit memory instructions. LITERATURE FINDINGS: Studies evaluating semantic priming effects in schizophrenia show conflicting results: schizophrenic patients can present hyperpriming (semantic priming effect is larger in patients than in controls), hypopriming (semantic priming effect is lower in patients than in controls) or equal semantic priming effects compared to control subjects. DISCUSSION: These results could be associated to a global impairment of controlled processes in schizophrenia, essentially to a dysfunction of semantic matching process. On the other hand, efficiency of semantic automatic spreading activation process is controversial. These discrepancies could be linked to the different experimental conditions used (duration of SOA, proportion of related pairs and instructions), which influence on the degree of involvement of controlled processes and therefore prevent to really assess its functioning. In addition, manipulations of the relation between prime and target (semantic distance, type of semantic relation and strength of semantic relation) seem to influence reaction times. However, the relation between prime and target (mediated priming) frequently used could not be the most relevant relation to understand the way of spreading of activation in semantic network in patients with schizophrenia. Finally, patients with formal thought disorders present particularly high priming effects relative to controls. CONCLUSION: These abnormal semantic priming effects could reflect a dysfunction of automatic spreading activation process and consequently an exaggerated diffusion of activation in the semantic network. In the future, the inclusion of different groups schizophrenic subjects could allow us to determine whether semantic memory disorders are pathognomonic or specific of a particular group of patients with schizophrenia.

Lecardeur L; Giffard B; Eustache F; Dollfus S

2006-01-01

66

Semantic Observation Integration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), makes it even...

Sven Schade; Frank Ostermann; Laura Spinsanti; Werner Kuhn

67

Semantic based DNS Forensics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages semantic and natural language processing tools in order to analyze large volumes of DNS data. T...

Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

68

Centering in Dynamic Semantics  

CERN Multimedia

Centering theory posits a discourse center, a distinguished discourse entity that is the topic of a discourse. A simplified version of this theory is developed in a Dynamic Semantics framework. In the resulting system, the mechanism of center shift allows a simple, elegant analysis of a variety of phenomena involving sloppy identity in ellipsis and ``paycheck pronouns''.

Hardt, D

1998-01-01

69

Is Semantic Priming Automatic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The time to decide that a letter string (e.g., 'doctor') is a word is reduced when it is preceeded by a related word ('nurse'). At least some component of this semantic priming effect is thought to be automatic and therefore free of attentional limitation...

J. E. Hoffman F. W. MacMillan

1984-01-01

70

Translation using Minimal Recursion Semantics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe minimal recursion semantics (MRS), a framework for semantics within HPSG, which considerablysimplifies transfer and generation. We discuss why, in general, a semantic representation withminimal structure is desirable for transfer and illustrate how a descriptively adequate representation witha non-recursive structure may be achieved. The paper illustrates the application of MRS to transfer witha series of examples and compares the approach to others which have been previously adopted withinunification based frameworks. Our account involves the use of both language-specific and interlingualpredicates or relations and we illustrate how this may be exploited to allow MRS to be used to investigatedifferent lexical semantic approaches.1 Semantic representation and transferIn this paper we describe a semantic representation for HPSG known as minimal recursion semantics(MRS), which is being utilized in the English grammar being developed for the Verbmobil project.Verbm...

Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger; Rob Malouf; Susanne Riehemann; Ivan Sag

71

SEmantic portAL - The SEAL approach  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The core idea of the Semantic Web is to make information accessible to human and softwareagents on a semantic basis. Hence, web sites may feed directly from the Semantic Web exploitingthe underlying structures for human and machine access. We have developed a generic approachfor developing semantic portals, viz. SEAL (SEmantic portAL), that exploits semantics for providingand accessing information at a portal as well as constructing and maintaining the portal.In this paper, we discuss the role that semantic structures make for establishing communicationbetween different agents in general. We elaborate on a number of intelligent means that makesemantic web sites accessible from the outside, viz. semantics-based browsing, semantic queryingand querying with semantic similarity, semantic personalization, and machine access to semanticinformation at a semantic portal. As a case study we refer to the AIFB web site --- a place that isincreasingly driven by Semantic Web tec...

Alexander Maedche; Steffen Staab; Nenad Stojanovic; Rudi Studer

72

From Data to Semantic Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

Luciano Floridi

2003-01-01

73

Causality in the Semantics of Esterel: Revisited  

CERN Multimedia

We re-examine the challenges concerning causality in the semantics of Esterel and show that they pertain to the known issues in the semantics of Structured Operational Semantics with negative premises. We show that the solutions offered for the semantics of SOS also provide answers to the semantic challenges of Esterel and that they satisfy the intuitive requirements set by the language designers.

Mousavi, MohammadReza

2010-01-01

74

A SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MEASURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Similarity measures are the most important tools in information retrieval and natural language processing. Sentence similarities are of capital importance in online translation. Words-to-document similarity is the key factor to compute query relevance. Text similarities play a big role in data mining. A lot of similarity measures have been used in different domains. Most of the measures are corpus dependent or language dependent. When some measures are good to compute word-to-document matching, they are unable to compute document-to-document similarity and vice versa. In this paper we present a method that can be used to compute any kind of semantic similarity. The method is neither corpus dependent nor language dependent, and gives a way to compare more accurately semantic relatedness.

Abdoulahi Boubacar; Niu Zhendong

2013-01-01

75

Semantic interpretation of nominalizations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

1996-12-31

76

Standards for Semantic Interoperability  

Science.gov (United States)

Metadata serves multiple purposes, including data discovery, access, and understanding. Data understanding is advanced through the use of semantic metadata that describes the meaning of the data via association with ontology elements. The use of OWL as a language standard has helped ensure sharing of concepts across ontologies. Yet the language is still weak enough that there are many different ways to express common relations such as "part of", "causes", "after", etc. to supplement the limited built-in relations of OWL. Standardization enables tools to be developed that understand such relations. This presentation presents a plan of action to advance an "OWL-Science" extension to OWL that will help advance semantic interoperability in Earth science.

Raskin, R. G.

2011-12-01

77

Design and Semantics of  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the semantics of Quantum,a language that was specifically designed to controlresource consumption of distributed computations,such as mobile agent style applications. InQuantum, computations can be driven by masteringtheir resource consumption. Resources can be understoodas processors cycles, geographical expansion,bandwidth or duration of communications, etc.We adopt a generic view by saying that computationsneed energy to be performed. Quantum relieson three new primitives that deal with energy. Thefirst primitive creates a tank of energy associatedwith a computation. Asynchronous notifications informthe user of energy exhaustion and computationtermination. The other two primitives allow us toimplement suspension and resumption of computationsby emptying a tank and by supplying moreenergy to a tank. The semantics takes the form ofan abstract machine with explicit parallelism andenergy-related primitives.1 IntroductionMillions of computers ...

Luc Moreau; Christian Queinnec

78

The Semantic Interpreter Pattern  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IntroductionSoftware interoperability may be defined as the ability for multiple software componentsto interact regardless of their implementation programming language or hardwareplatform. The available mechanisms for software interoperability are [HOW,96]:. Data-type interoperability: distributed and disparate programs support structuredexchange of information through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) invokedover a computer network.. Specification-level interoperability: same as the previous one but also encapsulatesknowledge representation differences at the level of abstract data types (e.g. a Table,Tree etc.). This enables programs to communicate at higher levels of abstraction andincreases the degree of information hiding. CORBA and Enterprise Java Beans (EJB)fall into this category.. Semantic interoperability: unlike the above two types of interoperability which areconcerned with the form (structured description) at the integration interface, semantic

Pronab Ganguly; Fethi A. Rabhi; Pradeep K. Ray

79

Semantic Search Engine: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search engines which gives the selected results which the user searching for. So here in this paper, a survey is done about the semantic search engines to revel the promising features of the semantic search engines(SSE).It deals about the description of some of the best semantic search engines

Anusree.ramachandran; R.Sujatha

2011-01-01

80

Universal Semantics in Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which applications are also briefly looked into.

Zhenying Wang

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Insensitive Enough Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1) “It is raining” and (2) “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005) summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5). They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1)/(2) are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1)/(2) are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1)/(2) raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

Richard Vallée

2006-01-01

82

A Timed Semantics for SDL  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics allows true concurrency. We show how it can be used to address issues such as the verification oftemporal properties, process scheduling, and the nature of viewed (shared) variables.

MØrk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian

1996-01-01

83

A novel insight into Gene Ontology semantic similarity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Existing methods for computing the semantic similarity between Gene Ontology (GO) terms are often based on external datasets and, therefore are not intrinsic to GO. Furthermore, they not only fail to handle identical annotations but also show a strong bias toward well-annotated proteins when being used for measuring similarity of proteins. Inspired by the concept of cellular differentiation and dedifferentiation in developmental biology, we propose a shortest semantic differentiation distance (SSDD) based on the concept of semantic totipotency to measure the semantic similarity of GO terms and further compare the functional similarity of proteins. Using human ratings and a benchmark dataset, SSDD was found to improve upon existing methods for computing the semantic similarity of GO terms. An in-depth analysis shows that SSDD is able to distinguish identical annotations and does not depend on annotation richness, thus producing more unbiased and reliable results. Online services can be accessed at the Gene Functional Similarity Analysis Tools website (GFSAT: http://nclab.hit.edu.cn/GFSAT).

Xu Y; Guo M; Shi W; Liu X; Wang C

2013-06-01

84

Semantic Representatives of the Concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

Elena N. Tsay; Olessya V. Tkachenko

2013-01-01

85

Resource modalities in game semantics  

CERN Multimedia

The description of resources in game semantics has never achieved the simplicity and precision of linear logic, because of a misleading conception: the belief that linear logic is more primitive than game semantics. We advocate instead the contrary: that game semantics is conceptually more primitive than linear logic. Starting from this revised point of view, we design a categorical model of resources in game semantics, and construct an arena game model where the usual notion of bracketing is extended to multi- bracketing in order to capture various resource policies: linear, af?ne and exponential.

Melliès, Paul-André

2007-01-01

86

Event in Compositional Dynamic Semantics  

CERN Multimedia

We present a framework which constructs an event-style dis- course semantics. The discourse dynamics are encoded in continuation semantics and various rhetorical relations are embedded in the resulting interpretation of the framework. We assume discourse and sentence are distinct semantic objects, that play different roles in meaning evalua- tion. Moreover, two sets of composition functions, for handling different discourse relations, are introduced. The paper first gives the necessary background and motivation for event and dynamic semantics, then the framework with detailed examples will be introduced.

Qian, Sai

2011-01-01

87

Semantic and phonological processing in illiteracy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers of cognitive processing in illiteracy have proposed that the acquisition of literacy modifies the functional organization of the brain. They have suggested that, while illiterate individuals have access only to innate semantic processing skills, those who have learned the correspondence between graphemes and phonemes have several mechanisms available to them through which to process oral language. We conducted 2 experiments to verify that suggestion with respect to language processing, and to elucidate further the differences between literate and illiterate individuals in the cognitive strategies used to process oral language, as well as hemispheric specialization for these processes. Our findings suggest that semantic processing strategies are qualitatively the same in literates and illiterates, despite the fact that overall performance is augmented by increased education. In contrast, explicit processing of oral information based on phonological characteristics appears to be qualitatively different between literates and illiterates: effective strategies in the processing of phonological information depend upon having had a formal education, regardless of the level of education. We also confirmed the differential abilities needed for the processing of semantic and phonological information and related them to hemisphere-specific processing. PMID:15637772

Kosmidis, Mary H; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Folia, Vasiliki; Vlahou, Christina H; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

2004-10-01

88

Semantic and phonological processing in illiteracy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Researchers of cognitive processing in illiteracy have proposed that the acquisition of literacy modifies the functional organization of the brain. They have suggested that, while illiterate individuals have access only to innate semantic processing skills, those who have learned the correspondence between graphemes and phonemes have several mechanisms available to them through which to process oral language. We conducted 2 experiments to verify that suggestion with respect to language processing, and to elucidate further the differences between literate and illiterate individuals in the cognitive strategies used to process oral language, as well as hemispheric specialization for these processes. Our findings suggest that semantic processing strategies are qualitatively the same in literates and illiterates, despite the fact that overall performance is augmented by increased education. In contrast, explicit processing of oral information based on phonological characteristics appears to be qualitatively different between literates and illiterates: effective strategies in the processing of phonological information depend upon having had a formal education, regardless of the level of education. We also confirmed the differential abilities needed for the processing of semantic and phonological information and related them to hemisphere-specific processing.

Kosmidis MH; Tsapkini K; Folia V; Vlahou CH; Kiosseoglou G

2004-10-01

89

A Short Introduction to Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantics is the study of meaning in language. Although it can be conceived as concerned with meaning in general, it is often confined to those aspects which are relatively stable and context-free, in contrast to pragmatics, which is concerned with meaning variation with context. Semantics is someti...

Karim Nazari Bagha

90

Qubit Semantics and Quantum Trees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the qubit semantics the meaning of any sentence is represented by a quregister: a unit vector of the n-fold tensor product, where n depends on the number of occurrences of atomic sentences in a formula. The logic characterized by this semantics, called quantum computational logic (QCL), is unshar...

DALLA CHIARA, MARIA LUISA; GIUNTINI, ROBERTO; LEPORATI, ALBERTO; LEPORINI, ROBERTO

91

Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

Skorokhodko, E. F.

1970-01-01

92

Computing Semantic Relatedness using DBPedia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extracting the semantic relatedness of terms is an important topic in several areas, including data mining, information retrieval and web recommendation. This paper presents an approach for computing the semantic relatedness of terms using the knowledge base of DBpedia - a community effort to extrac...

Leal, José Paulo; Rodrigues, Vânia; Queirós, Ricardo

93

Translation using Minimal Recursion Semantics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe minimal recursion semantics (MRS), a framework for semantics within HPSG,which considerably simplies transfer and generation. We discuss why, in general, asemantic representation with minimal structure is desirable for transfer and illustrate howa descriptively adequate representation with a non-recursive structure may be achieved.The paper illustrates the application of MRS to transfer with a series of examples andcompares the approach to others which have been previously adopted within unicationbased frameworks. Our account involves the use of both language-specic and interlingualpredicates or relations and we illustrate how this may be exploited to allow MRS to beused to investigate dierent lexical semantic approaches.1 Semantic representation and transferIn this paper we describe a semantic representation for HPSG known as minimal recursionsemantics (MRS), which is being utilized in the English grammar being developed for theVerbmobil project. Verbmobil...

Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger; Rob Malouf; Susanne Riehemann; Ivan Sag

94

Translation using Minimal Recursion Semantics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe minimal recursion semantics (MRS), a framework for semantics within HPSG,which considerably simplifies transfer and generation. We discuss why, in general, asemantic representation with minimal structure is desirable for transfer and illustrate howa descriptively adequate representation with a non-recursive structure may be achieved.The paper illustrates the application of MRS to transfer with a series of examples andcompares the approach to others which have been previously adopted within unificationbased frameworks. Our account involves the use of both language-specific and interlingualpredicates or relations and we illustrate how this may be exploited to allow MRS to beused to investigate different lexical semantic approaches.1 Semantic representation and transferIn this paper we describe a semantic representation for HPSG known as minimal recursionsemantics (MRS), which is being utilized in the English grammar being developed for theVerbmobil project. Verbm...

Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger; Rob Malouf; Susanne Riehemann; Ivan Sag

95

[Semantic information. Internal language. Thinking  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Semantic information has reached an objective condition after a lengthy history of semantic inquiries that instrumental neurophysiological devices--such as event-related potentials, electroencephalographic spectral analysis, regional brain circulation, PET scan, deep brain electrodes, and other--have made easier. In turn, internal language, as screened according to Vigotsky's perspective, is considered a product of semantic information circulation understood as neurosemae interconnection. Finally, in normal adults, thinking processes are assumed to be made up by both sensoperceptive information (proprioceptive information included) and semantic information. Thus, an "extraverbal thinking" can be distinguished, whose activity is hardly describable in healthy adults but should be considered as a condition of non-educated deaf persons, and a "verbal thinking", or internal language, made up by semantic information.

Azcoaga JE

1993-06-01

96

Semantics of Informational Independence  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

mpositional. Subformulasof a sentence, like for instance, 9w=fxgRxyzw; did not receive a semanticalinterpretation.There exist at this moment three semantics for IF first-order sentences.Each of them is compositional and agrees with the Hintikka-Sandu interpretationon sentences. Each of them interprets an IF first-order formula withrespect to a set of assignments, and not with respect to a an assignment, asin ordinary first-order logic. Thus the key concept for all of them isA j= X 'where X is a set of assignments. We regard an assignment f as a functionf : V !j A j; where V is a set of natural numbers.The first to give such a semantics was Hodges [4]. The second-one isgiven by Caicedo and Krynicki [1], and the third one by Vaananen [6]. It isstraightforward to show that the three interpretations are equivalent.The basic idea in each of them should be clear from the following fewclauses:Definition 1 (a) A j= X ' , 8x 2 X(A j= '(f(i 1 ); :::; f(i m ))); with '(v i 1

Gabriel Sandu

97

Denotational semantics of parallel programming languages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concise explanation of the principles and then the development and application of denotational semantic for a class of parallel programming languages is given. The semantics of monitor type language constructs, which serve the synchronization of concurrent processes, is expressed by a designed system of semantic domains and semantic functions. The development model is applied to a parallel programming language. 8 references.

Brezany, P.

1983-01-01

98

Semantic understanding of Image content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large amounts of spatial data are becoming available today due to the rapid development of remote sensing techniques. Several retrieval systems are proposed to retrieve necessary, interested and effective information such as key- word based image retrieval and content based image retrieval. However, the results of these approaches are generally unsatisfactory, unpredictable and do not match human perception due to the well gap between visual features and semantic concepts. In this paper, we propose a new approach allowing semantic satellite image retrieval, describing the semantic image content and managing uncertain information. It is based on ontology model which represents spatial knowledge in order to provide semantic understanding of image content. Our retrieval system is based on two modules: ontological model merging and semantic strategic image retrieval. The first module allows developing ontological models which represent spatial knowledge of the satellite image, and managing uncertain information. The second module allows retrieving satellite images basing on their ontological model. In order to improve the quality of retrieval system and to facilitate the retrieval process, we propose two retrieval strategies which are the opportunist strategy and the hypothetic strategy. Our approach attempts to improve the quality of image retrieval, to reduce the semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts and to provide an automatic solution for efficient satellite image retrieval.

D D Dhobale; B S Patil; S B Patil; V R Ghorpade

2011-01-01

99

Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

2012-01-01

100

Enhancing Web Search with Heterogeneous Semantic Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores four kinds of semantic knowledge to improve keyword-based Web search, including thesauruses, categories, ontologies, and social annotations. These heterogeneous semantic knowledge represent meanings of Web information, thus they can be used to improve search results in respect of semantic relevance. Currently, different semantic search paradigms have been developed for different kind of semantic knowledge respectively. However, how to make the most of all heterogeneous semantic knowledge to optimize Web search is still a big challenge in practice. To these ends, this paper proposes an integrated semantic search mechanism to incorporate textual information and keyword search with heterogeneous semantic knowledge and semantic search. Experiments show that the proposed mechanism effectively integrates heterogeneous semantic knowledge to improve Web search.

Huang, Rui; Shi, Zhongzhi

 
 
 
 
101

The Semantics of Graph Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available GP (for Graph Programs) is a rule-based, nondeterministic programming language for solving graph problems at a high level of abstraction, freeing programmers from handling low-level data structures. The core of GP consists of four constructs: single-step application of a set of conditional graph-transformation rules, sequential composition, branching and iteration. We present a formal semantics for GP in the style of structural operational semantics. A special feature of our semantics is the use of finitely failing programs to define GP's powerful branching and iteration commands.

Detlef Plump; Sandra Steinert

2010-01-01

102

Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrate its potential by two applications. As a first application, we localize lane structures by the semantic descriptors and their relations in a Bayesian framework. As the second application, which is in the context of vision based grasping, we show how the semantic relations can be associated to actions that allow for grasping without using any object knowledge.

Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre

2008-01-01

103

High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

2011-06-02

104

Metaphor and Lexical Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper shows that several sorts of expressions cannot be interpreted metaphorically, including determiners, tenses, etc. Generally, functional categories cannot be interpreted metaphorically, while lexical categories can. This reveals a semantic property of functional categories, and it shows that metaphor can be used as a probe for investigating them. It also reveals an important linguistic constraint on metaphor. The paper argues this constraint applies to the interface between the cognitive systems for language and metaphor. However, the constraint does not completely prevent structural elements of language from being available to the metaphor system. The paper shows that linguistic structure within the lexicon, specifically, aspectual structure, is available to the metaphor system.

Michael Glanzberg

2008-01-01

105

Building a biomedical semantic network in Wikipedia with Semantic Wiki Links.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wikipedia is increasingly used as a platform for collaborative data curation, but its current technical implementation has significant limitations that hinder its use in biocuration applications. Specifically, while editors can easily link between two articles in Wikipedia to indicate a relationship, there is no way to indicate the nature of that relationship in a way that is computationally accessible to the system or to external developers. For example, in addition to noting a relationship between a gene and a disease, it would be useful to differentiate the cases where genetic mutation or altered expression causes the disease. Here, we introduce a straightforward method that allows Wikipedia editors to embed computable semantic relations directly in the context of current Wikipedia articles. In addition, we demonstrate two novel applications enabled by the presence of these new relationships. The first is a dynamically generated information box that can be rendered on all semantically enhanced Wikipedia articles. The second is a prototype gene annotation system that draws its content from the gene-centric articles on Wikipedia and exposes the new semantic relationships to enable previously impossible, user-defined queries. DATABASE URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki. PMID:22434829

Good, Benjamin M; Clarke, Erik L; Loguercio, Salvatore; Su, Andrew I

2012-03-20

106

Building a biomedical semantic network in Wikipedia with Semantic Wiki Links.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wikipedia is increasingly used as a platform for collaborative data curation, but its current technical implementation has significant limitations that hinder its use in biocuration applications. Specifically, while editors can easily link between two articles in Wikipedia to indicate a relationship, there is no way to indicate the nature of that relationship in a way that is computationally accessible to the system or to external developers. For example, in addition to noting a relationship between a gene and a disease, it would be useful to differentiate the cases where genetic mutation or altered expression causes the disease. Here, we introduce a straightforward method that allows Wikipedia editors to embed computable semantic relations directly in the context of current Wikipedia articles. In addition, we demonstrate two novel applications enabled by the presence of these new relationships. The first is a dynamically generated information box that can be rendered on all semantically enhanced Wikipedia articles. The second is a prototype gene annotation system that draws its content from the gene-centric articles on Wikipedia and exposes the new semantic relationships to enable previously impossible, user-defined queries. DATABASE URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki.

Good BM; Clarke EL; Loguercio S; Su AI

2012-01-01

107

Primary progressive aphasia: A comparative study of progressive nonfluent aphasia and semantic dementia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a degenerative disorder, is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer?s disease. Its subtypes, semantic dementia (SD), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), are often difficult to differentiate from each other. Our objective was to highlight the differences in the language profiles of patients with SD and PNFA. To bring out these differences, we report two patients with PPA, one with SD and the other with PNFA. They were administered the Western aphasia battery (WAB) and a semantic battery, which assesses semantic memory. The profiles of language impairment on the WAB indicated that the patient with PNFA had syntactic errors in expressive speech but relatively preserved semantics and comprehension, whereas the patient with SD had preserved syntax but made semantic errors in expressive speech, and had impaired comprehension. There were differences in their performance on the semantic battery too. The patient with SD made relatively less errors on confrontation naming, although on the pointing task he failed to point to those line drawings, which he was unable to name on confrontation. In contrast, the finding of the PNFA patient was the reverse of this. Supplementing conventional neuropsychological tests with formal tests for assessment of language functions is useful in the early diagnosis of PPA. The performance of PPA patients on a detailed assessment of language that includes use of formal tests such as the semantic battery helps to differentiate PNFA from SD.

George Annamma; Mathuranath P

2005-01-01

108

Semantic Web for Program Administration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Typically, administrative systems involving information in an academic environment are disjoint, spread across various departments and support independent queries. The objectives in this work include investigation on integrating these independent systems to provide support to intelligent queries run on the integrated platform. A framework is proposed that enriches data in the legacy systems to provide a value-added semantic layer where annotation, query and reasoning can be carried out to support management requirements. The development of this framework with a case study of a typical engineering program is discussed to show how semantic web technologies can be used by stack holders of the program for better academic program administration. The comparative work is described to show applications where semantic web have been explored. The issues related to implementation of the semantic web to academic program administration are also highlighted and discussed.

Qurban A Memon; Shakeel Khoja

2010-01-01

109

Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS) propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS. The algorithm uses the description of the service capabilities to match the semantic values. The traditional matching has been improved using ontologies which constitute a step further in the matching algorithms. To implement the algorithm, an agent FIPA compliant architecture has been designed and developed. The results obtained are positive. The semantic web services framework developed in combination with the use of the matchmaking algorithm, which allows finding services based on their similarities.

J. Javier Samper; F. Javier Adell; Leo van den Berg; J. José Martinez

2008-01-01

110

Redundancy gain for semantic features.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a go/no-go experiment, semantic redundancy gain was assessed for responses to single written words. Specifically, we asked participants to respond only to words whose meaning matched at least one semantic target feature-that is, the target category (e.g., animal), the target color (e.g., gray), or both. On redundant-target trials, the word (e.g., elephant) matched both semantic target features (i.e., gray and animal). On single-target trials, the word (e.g., beaver) matched one target feature (i.e., animal) and a nontarget feature (i.e., brown). We observed shorter reaction times in the redundant-target condition than in the faster single-target condition. Hence, the present study provides the first evidence that redundancy gain is not limited to responses to redundant proximal stimulus features but can also be observed for responses to semantic feature information. PMID:23250760

Fiedler, Anja; Schröter, Hannes; Ulrich, Rolf

2013-06-01

111

Redundancy gain for semantic features.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a go/no-go experiment, semantic redundancy gain was assessed for responses to single written words. Specifically, we asked participants to respond only to words whose meaning matched at least one semantic target feature-that is, the target category (e.g., animal), the target color (e.g., gray), or both. On redundant-target trials, the word (e.g., elephant) matched both semantic target features (i.e., gray and animal). On single-target trials, the word (e.g., beaver) matched one target feature (i.e., animal) and a nontarget feature (i.e., brown). We observed shorter reaction times in the redundant-target condition than in the faster single-target condition. Hence, the present study provides the first evidence that redundancy gain is not limited to responses to redundant proximal stimulus features but can also be observed for responses to semantic feature information.

Fiedler A; Schröter H; Ulrich R

2013-06-01

112

Semantic Web Logic Programming Tools  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The last two decades of research in Logic Programming,both at the theoretical and practical levels, have addressed several topicshighly relevant for the Semantic Web e#ort, providing very concreteanswers to some open questions.

J. J. Alferes; C. V. Damasio; L. M. Pereira

113

Operational semantics for signal handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

Maxim Strygin; Hayo Thielecke

2012-01-01

114

Semantic priming from crowded words.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment.

Yeh SL; He S; Cavanagh P

2012-06-01

115

Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics  

CERN Multimedia

Most natural language processing tasks require lexical semantic information. Automated acquisition of this information would thus increase the robustness and portability of NLP systems. This paper describes an acquisition method which makes use of fixed correspondences between derivational affixes and lexical semantic information. One advantage of this method, and of other methods that rely only on surface characteristics of language, is that the necessary input is currently available.

Light, M

1996-01-01

116

Projection semantics for rigid loops  

CERN Document Server

A rigid loop is a for-loop with a counter not accessible to the loop body or any other part of a program. Special instructions for rigid loops are introduced on top of the syntax of the program algebra PGA. Two different semantic projections are provided and proven equivalent. One of these is taken to have definitional status on the basis of two criteria: `normative semantic adequacy' and `indicative algorithmic adequacy'.

Bergstra, Jan A

2007-01-01

117

An Asynchronous Automata Approach to the Semantics of Temporal Logic  

CERN Multimedia

The paper presents the differential equations that characterize an asynchronous automaton and gives their solution x:R->{0,1}x...x{0,1}. Remarks are made on the connection between the continuous time and the discrete time of the approach. The continuous and the discrete time, the linear and the branching temporal logics have the semantics depending on x and their formulas give the properties of the automaton.

Vlad, S E

2001-01-01

118

Semantic Features in Argument Selection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the problems that has to be dealt with by theorists of early language acquisition theory is the mismatch between semantic constructs, like Agent, and syntactic ones, like subject. It is proposed that the linguistic system is based on semantic features that are more fine-grained than thematic roles, and that selection of subject and direct object can be accounted for by merely four semantic features. These features are conceived of as properties of participants in the lexical entries of verbs, and in this respect, too, they are unlike thematic roles, which are ascribed to NPs in sentences. Thematic roles play a part only in the realization of certain other arguments, notably, the oblique object. It is shown that this different treatment of direct and oblique objects permits a parsimonious explanation of certain linguistic regularities that have posed problems for other theories. Early language acquisition can be explained in terms of the acquisition of these semantic features, and this account thus supersedes the semantic assimilation hypothesis proposed previously to deal with the lack of congruence between thematic roles and syntactic categories.

Izchak M. Schlesinger

2013-01-01

119

Semantic Web Technologies for Aerospace  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emerging Semantic Web technology such as theDARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) will supportadvanced semantic interoperability in the next generation ofaerospace architectures. The basic idea of DAML is to markup artifacts (e.g., documents, sensors, databases, legacysoftware) so that software agents can interpret and reasonwith the information. DAML will support the representationof ontologies (which include taxonomies of terms andsemantic relations) via extensions to XML. XML alone isnot sufficient for agents because it provides only syntacticinteroperability that depends on implicit semanticagreements. DAML is the official starting point for the WebOntology Language, an emerging standard from the WorldWide Web Consortium. This paper will cover promisingaerospace applications and significant challenges forSemantic Web technologies. Potential applications includehigher-level information fusion, collaboration in bothoperational and engineering environments and rapid systemsintegration. The challenges that will be discussed include thecomplexity of ontology development, automation of markup,semantic mismatch between current object-oriented modelsand Semantic Web ontologies, scalability issues related toreasoning with large knowledge bases and technologytransition issues. The paper will explain ongoing researchthat is focused on addressing these challenges.

Paul Kogut; Jeff Heflin

120

Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network  

CERN Document Server

Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meaningful ways. However, new models have emerged that explicitly encode procedural information within the semantic network substrate. With these new technologies, the Semantic Web has evolved from a data modeling medium to a computational medium. This article provides a classification of existing computational modeling efforts and the requirements of supporting technologies that will aid in the further growth of this burgeoning domain.

Rodriguez, Marko A

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

ENGLISH TO SANSKRIT MACHINE TRANSLATION SEMANTIC MAPPER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we propose to develop a converter which converts English Statement to Sanskrit statement Using Rule based approach of Machine Translation .The proposed method has following features: The Proposed modules are as follows:MODULE 1: LEXICAL PARSERMODULE 2: SEMANTIC MAPPERMODULE 3: ITRANSLATORMODULE 4: COMPOSERHere we would concentrate only on the Second module that is Semantic Mapper. To map the English semantic word with Sanskrit semantic word

VAISHALI M. BARKADE,; PRAKASH R. DEVALE

2010-01-01

122

Network Multi-layer Semantic Analysis  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we studied how to extract and integrate semantic information from different layers of network. Based on Hierarchical Semantic Extraction techniques, we integrate these heterogeneous semantic information and build exUCL(extended Uniform Content Locator) label to represent semantic information across different layers. We further use these established exUCL to study the network users’ behavior and interest models.

Tan Shunhua

2012-01-01

123

Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics  

CERN Multimedia

Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic systems and systems biology.

Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.32

2010-01-01

124

Semantic Services for Wikipedia  

Science.gov (United States)

Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

125

Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHYOpsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die tekskorpusmetode kan nie gebruik word vir minderheidstale waarin tekste ontbreek nie. Om in die behoefte te voorsien, het die skrywer 'n lys van 1 600 semantiese domeine opgestel wat hy suksesvol gebruik het om woorde te versamel. In 'n werksessie-omgewing kan 'n groep sprekers tot soveel as 17 000 woorde in tien dae versamel. Hierdie metode lei tot 'n geklassifiseerde woordelys wat doeltreffend uitgebrei kan word tot 'n volledige woordeboek. Die metode werk omdat die mentale leksikon 'n groot web is wat rondom sleutelbegrippe gestruktureer is. 'n Semantiese domein kan gedefinieer word as 'n belangrike kon-sep saam met die woorde wat direk daarmee verband hou vanweë leksikale verwantskappe. 'n Persoon kan die mentale web gebruik om vinnig van woord tot woord binne 'n domein te spring. Die skrywer is besig om vir elke domein 'n profiel te ontwikkel om te help met die versameling van woorde en met die beskrywing van hul semantiek. 'n Ondersoek van semantiek binne die konteks van 'n domein lewer baie insigte. Die metode laat die totstandbrenging van sowel alfabeties as semanties gerangskikte woordeboeke toe. Die lys domeine is bedoel om univer-seel in omvang en toepassing te wees. Moontlik as gevolg van universalia van menslike ervaring en universalia van taalkundige vermoë, is daar treffende ooreenkomste tussen verskillende lyste semantiese domeine wat ontwikkel is vir tale oor die hele wêreld. Die gebruik van 'n gestandaardi-seerde lys domeine om veelsoortige woordeboeke te klassifiseer, skep moontlikhede vir kruislin-guistiese navorsing oor semantiese en leksikale universalia. Sleutelwoorde: SEMANTIESE DOMEINE, SEMANTIESE VELDE, SEMANTIESE KATE-GORIEË, LEKSIKALE VERWANTSKAPPE, SEMANTIESE PRIMITIEWES, DOMEINPROFIELE, MENTALE LEKSIKON, SEMANTIESE UNIVERSALIA, MINDERHEIDSTALE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE

Ronald Moe

2011-01-01

126

Operational Semantics for Lazy Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An operational semantics for lazy evaluation of a calculus without higher order functions was defined. Although it optimizes many aspects of implementation, e.g. there is a sharing in the recursive computation, there is no ? conversion, the heap is automatically reclaimed, and an attempt to evaluate an argument is done at most once. It is still suitable for reasoning about program behavior and proofs of program correctness; this is primarily due to the definition via inferences and axioms which allows for proofs by induction on the height of the proof tree. We also proved the correctness of this operational semantics by showing that it is equivalent with respect to the values calculated to the operational semantics of LAZY-PCF+SHAR due to S. Purushothaman Iyer and Jill Seaman.

Mahmoud A. AbouGhaly; Sameh S. Daoud; Azza A. Taha; Salwa M. Aly

2007-01-01

127

Semantics for Possibilistic Disjunctive Programs  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, a possibilistic disjunctive logic programming approach for modeling uncertain, incomplete and inconsistent information is defined. This approach introduces the use of possibilistic disjunctive clauses which are able to capture incomplete information and incomplete states of a knowledge base at the same time. By considering a possibilistic logic program as a possibilistic logic theory, a construction of a possibilistic logic programming semantic based on answer sets and the proof theory of possibilistic logic is defined. It shows that this possibilistic semantics for disjunctive logic programs can be characterized by a fixed-point operator. It is also shown that the suggested possibilistic semantics can be computed by a resolution algorithm and the consideration of optimal refutations from a possibilistic logic theory. In order to manage inconsistent possibilistic logic programs, a preference criterion between inconsistent possibilistic models is defined; in addition, the approach of cuts for re...

Nieves, Juan Carlos; Cortés, Ulises

2011-01-01

128

Combining Valuations with Society Semantics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Society Semantics, introduced in [5] by W. Carnielli and M. LimaMarques,is a method for obtaining new logics from the combination ofagents (valuations) of a given logic. The goal of this paper is to presentseveral generalizations of this method, as well as to show some applicationsto many-valued logics. After a reformulation of Society Semantics in awider setting, we develop in detail two examples of application of the newformalism, characterizing a hierarchy of paraconsistent logics called Pn(for n 2 N) and a hierarchy of paracomplete logics In(for n 2 N). Wealso propose three increasing generalizations, obtaining Society Semanticsfor several many-valued logics, including a hierarchy of logics called InPkwhich are both paraconsistent and paracomplete.Keywords: society semantics, paraconsistent logics, paracomplete logics, manyvaluedlogics, combinations of logics, agents.

V. L. Fern; M. E. Coniglio

129

Small Worlds in Semantic Networks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present graph-theoretic analyses of three types ofsemantic networks: associative networks, WordNet, andRoget' s thesaurus. We show that they have a smallworldstructure: they are sparse, exhibit short averagepath-lengths between words as well as strong localclustering. In addition, the distributions of the number ofconnections follow power laws that suggests a hubstructure similar to the WWW. We propose a networkmodel that over time acquires new concepts andintegrates them into the existing network. Bypreferentially attaching new concepts to well connectedconcepts and its neigbors, the model captures the smallworldcharacteristics of semantic networks and alsoexhibits power-law distributions in the number ofconnections. With age of acquisition norms for adultsand children, we confirm the model' s prediction thatconcepts acquired early on are concepts with richconnectivity.IntroductionSemantic networks are useful tools as representationsfor semant...

Mark Steyvers; Josh Tenenbaum

130

Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.

Jean-Mary YR; Shironoshita EP; Kabuka MR

2009-09-01

131

Studying of Semantic Similarity Methods in Ontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Humans are able to easily judge if a pair of concepts are related in some way. Understanding of how humans are able to perform this task is not easy. Semantic similarity denotes computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not necessarily lexically similar. Semantic similarity between concepts plays an important role in Semantic Web, knowledge sharing, Web mining, semantic sense understanding and text summarization. This also is an important problem in Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval Researches. These techniques are becoming important components of most of the Information Retrieval (IR), Information Extraction (IE) and other intelligent knowledge based systems. Therefore it has received considerable attention in the literature. Ontology has a good hierarchical structure of concepts. In the ontology, semantic information can be realized through the semantic relationship of concepts. Ontology-based semantic similarity techniques can estimate the semantic similarity between two hierarchically expressed concepts in a given ontology or taxonomy. Semantic similarity is usually computed by mapping concepts to ontology and by examining their relationships in it. The most popular semantic similarity methods are implemented and evaluated using WordNet and MeSH. Several algorithmic approaches for computing semantic similarity have been proposed. This paper discusses the various approaches used for identifying semantically similar concepts in ontology.

Vahideh Reshadat; Mohammad-Reza Feizi-Derakhshi

2012-01-01

132

Semantic Web Services, Processes and Applications  

CERN Multimedia

Semantics, Web services, and Web processes promise better re-use, universal interoperability and integration. This book brings contributions from researchers who study, explore and understand the semantic enabling of all phases of semantic Web processes. This encompasses design, annotation, discovery, choreography and composition.

Cardoso, Jorge

2006-01-01

133

Web to Semantic Web & Role of Ontology  

CERN Multimedia

In this research paper we are briefly presenting current major web problems and introducing semantic web technologies with the claim of solving existing web's problems. Furthermore we are describing Ontology as the main building block of semantic web and focusing on its contributions to semantic web progress and current limitations.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

134

Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

Rajab Abd al-Hamed

2007-01-01

135

Episodic memory: insights from semantic dementia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic dementia, also known as the temporal lobe variant of fronto-temporal dementia, results in a progressive yet relatively pure loss of semantic knowledge about words, objects and people, and is associated with asymmetric, focal atrophy of the antero-lateral temporal lobes. Semantic dementia pr...

Hodges, J R; Graham, K S

136

G’3-stable semantics and inconsistency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an overview on how to perform non-monotonic reasoning based on paraconsistent logics. In particular, we show that one can define a logic programming semantics based on the paraconsistent logic G’3 which is called G’3-stable semantics. This semantics defines a frame for performing non-mono...

Osorio, Mauricio; Zepeda, Claudia; Nieves Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Carballido, José Luis

137

Towards a principled approach to semantic interoperability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic interoperability is the faculty of interpreting knowledge imported from other languages at the semantic level, i.e. to ascribe to each imported piece of knowledge the correct interpretation or set of models. It is a very important requirement for delivering a worldwide semantic web. This pa...

Euzenat, Jérôme

138

Semantic effects on Chinese character recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experiments investigated whether knowledge of semantic radicals has an effect on Chinese character recognition. Experiment 1 used a lexical decision task to manipulate character frequency and combinability of the semantic radical defined as the number of characters in which the semantic radical ...

Su, IF; Weekes, B

139

Semantic processing in information retrieval.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intuition suggests that one way to enhance the information retrieval process would be the use of phrases to characterize the contents of text. A number of researchers, however, have noted that phrases alone do not improve retrieval effectiveness. In this paper we briefly review the use of phrases in information retrieval and then suggest extensions to this paradigm using semantic information. We claim that semantic processing, which can be viewed as expressing relations between the concepts represented by phrases, will in fact enhance retrieval effectiveness. The availability of the UMLS domain model, which we exploit extensively, significantly contributes to the feasibility of this processing.

Rindflesch TC; Aronson AR

1993-01-01

140

Semantic Web Meets Electronic Commerce  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Even though the Semantic Web initiative is gaining momentum, developments in this area have yet to be deployed to everyday applications such as business-tobusiness electronic commerce. In this paper we address this point with three major contributions. We provide an easy framework allowing the declarative specification of agents acting in supply chain management or workflow systems. Furthermore, we enable a migration path by allowing the integration of legacy data and existing technology such as Web Services. Finally and most importantly, our proposed Semantic Web based design standards are realized entirely with mainstream off the shelf software components.

Andreas Eberhart

 
 
 
 
141

Semantic embodiment, disembodiment or misembodiment? In search of meaning in modules and neuron circuits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"Embodied" proposals claim that the meaning of at least some words, concepts and constructions is grounded in knowledge about actions and objects. An alternative "disembodied" position locates semantics in a symbolic system functionally detached from sensorimotor modules. This latter view is not tenable theoretically and has been empirically falsified by neuroscience research. A minimally-embodied approach now claims that action-perception systems may "color", but not represent, meaning; however, such minimal embodiment (misembodiment?) still fails to explain why action and perception systems exert causal effects on the processing of symbols from specific semantic classes. Action perception theory (APT) offers neurobiological mechanisms for "embodied" referential, affective and action semantics along with "disembodied" mechanisms of semantic abstraction, generalization and symbol combination, which draw upon multimodal brain systems. In this sense, APT suggests integrative-neuromechanistic explanations of why both sensorimotor and multimodal areas of the human brain differentially contribute to specific facets of meaning and concepts.

Pulvermüller F

2013-08-01

142

Evaluation of the Project Management Competences Based on the Semantic Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the testing and evaluation facilities of the SinPers system. The SinPers is a web based learning environment in project management, capable of building and conducting a complete and personalized training cycle, from the definition of the learning objectives to the assessment of the learning results for each learner. The testing and evaluation facilities of SinPers system are based on the ontological approach. The educational ontology is mapped on a semantic network. Further, the semantic network is projected into a concept space graph. The semantic computability of the concept space graph is used to design the tests. The paper focuses on the applicability of the system in the certification, for the knowledge assessment, related to each element of competence. The semantic computability is used for differentiating between different certification levels.

Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

2008-01-01

143

Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito.OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de validación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama.OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and calculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulting measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

Juliana de Lima Lopes; Luiz Antonio Nogueira-Martins; Alexsandro Luiz de Andrade; Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de Barros

2011-01-01

144

Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho/ Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing/ Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS (more) : A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de validación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad d (more) e Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and calculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulti (more) ng measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

Lopes, Juliana de Lima; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antonio; Andrade, Alexsandro Luiz de; Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de

2011-01-01

145

Multimedia Semantics Metadata, Analysis and Interaction  

CERN Multimedia

In this book, the authors present the latest research results in the multimedia and semantic web communities, bridging the "Semantic Gap" This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science,

Troncy, Raphael; Schenk, Simon

2011-01-01

146

Action representation: Crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

Prinz W

2013-08-01

147

Paraconsistent Stable Semantics for Extended Disjunctive Programs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents declarative semantics of possibly inconsistent disjunctivelogic programs. We introduce the paraconsistent minimal andstable model semantics for extended disjunctive programs, which candistinguish inconsistent information from others in a program. These semanticsare based on lattice-structured multi-valued logics, and are characterizedby a new fixpoint semantics of extended disjunctive programs.Applications of the paraconsistent semantics for reasoning in inconsistentprograms are also presented.Keywords: Extended disjunctive programs, inconsistency, multi-valuedlogic, paraconsistent stable model semantics.3Journal of Logic and Computation 5: 265-285, Oxford University Press, 1995.11

Chiaki Sakama; Katsumi Inoue

148

Action representation: Crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) Semantics is grounded in Pragmatics, (ii) Pragmatics is anchored in Semantics, and (iii) Pragmatics is part and parcel of Semantics.

Prinz W

2013-08-01

149

The semantic conception of proof  

CERN Multimedia

We analyze the informal semantic conception of proof and axiomatize the proof relation and the provability operator. A self referential propositional calculus which admits provable liar type sentences is introduced and proven consistent. We also investigate the problem of interpreting arbitrary formal systems in systems which include a provability operator.

Weaver, Nik

2011-01-01

150

Semantic adaptation of multimedia documents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multimedia documents have to be played on multiple device types. Hence, usage and platform diversity requires document adaptation according to execution contexts, not generally predictable at design time. In an earlier work, a semantic framework for multimedia document adaptation was proposed. In th...

Laborie, Sébastien; Euzenat, Jérôme; Layaïda, Nabil

151

Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrate i...

Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas; Kalkan, S.; Wörgötter, F.; Krüger, Norbert

152

Semantics of Data Flow Diagrams.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ways in which semantics can be attached to data flow diagrams are described. A method for transforming a Data Flow Diagram (DFD) into a petri net which specificies the synchronization aspects of a DFD is presented. A sketch of how a DFD may be transformed...

P. D. Bruza T. P. Vanderweide

1989-01-01

153

Matrix Semantics for Annotated Logics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A matrix semantics for paraconsistent systems SAL ofannotated logics is developed. Systems SAL are extensions of thesystems P S, previously proven algebraizable by the authors. Theresults reported here will be useful in the study of the class of algebrasthat arise in the process of algebrizing the systems.1.

R. A. Lewin; I. F. Mikenberg

154

Agents and the Semantic Web  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article offers a few pointers to this emerging area and shows how the ontology languages of the Semantic Web can lead directly to more powerful agent-based approaches---that is, to the realization of my colleague's "science fiction " vision.

James Hendler

155

Russian nominal semantics and morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which are also rooted in the lexical-semantic classification of Russian nouns. The presentation focuses on semantics, both lexical and grammatical, and not least the connection between these two levels of content. The principal theoretical impact is the insight that grammar and lexis should not be seen as a random collection of subsystems, but as a comprehensive structure of interconnected oppositions, repeating the same semantic distinctions at different levels and in different lexical and grammatical classes. The book is of interest to students of Russian and linguists with some command, stronger or weaker, of Russian. Students will see a pattern in what is traditionally described as disparate subsystems, and linguists may be inspired to consider the theoretical points concerning language as a coherent system, determining usage.

NØrgård-SØrensen, Jens

2011-01-01

156

WEASEL: Vodafone Corporate Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 2006 Gartner emerging technology curve highlights the relevance of the Corporate Semantic Web as one of the most promising IT areas in the next five years. The work presented herein describes WEASEL, an initiative funded by Vodafone to apply and evaluate such technology in the context of a large...

Valverde, Juan José; Buil-Aranda, C.; Gómez-Pérez, José Manuel

157

Three principles of representation for semantic networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic networks are so intuitive and easy to use that they are often employed without much thought as to the phenomenon of semantic nets themselves. Since they are becoming more and more a tool of artificial intelligence and now database technology, it is appropriate to focus on the principles of semantic nets. Such focus finds a harmonious and consistent base which can increase the semantic quality and usefulness of such nets. Three rules of representation are presented which achieve greater conceptual simplicity for users, simplifications in semantic net implementations and maintenance, and greater consistency across semantic net applications. These rules, applied to elements of the net itself, reveal how fundamental structures should be organized, and show that the common labeled-edge semantic net can be derived from a more primitive structure involving only nodes and membership relationships (and special nodes which represent names). Also, the correlation between binary and n-ary relations is presented. 53 references.

Griffith, R.L.

1982-09-01

158

A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate distributed code using the original Statemate semantics. The new, distributed semantics has the advantages that, first, it enables the generation of efficient distributed code, second, it preserves many aspects of the original semantics for those parts of a model that are not distributed, and third, the changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation for embedded control applications.

Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen

2003-01-01

159

Semantics of Complex Sentences in Japanese  

CERN Document Server

The important part of semantics of complex sentence is captured as relations among semantic roles in subordinate and main clause respectively. However if there can be relations between every pair of semantic roles, the amount of computation to identify the relations that hold in the given sentence is extremely large. In this paper, for semantics of Japanese complex sentence, we introduce new pragmatic roles called `observer' and `motivated' respectively to bridge semantic roles of subordinate and those of main clauses. By these new roles constraints on the relations among semantic/pragmatic roles are known to be almost local within subordinate or main clause. In other words, as for the semantics of the whole complex sentence, the only role we should deal with is a motivated.

Nakagawa, H; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Shin'ichiro

1994-01-01

160

Schema Correspondences between Objects with Semantic Proximity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a multidatabase system, schematic conflicts between two objects are usuallyof interest only when the objects have some semantic similarity. In this paperwe try to reconcile the schematic and semantic perspectives. We introduce a uniformformalism called schema correspondences to represent structural similaritiesbetween the objects. We represent the semantic similarities between the objects usingthe concept of semantic proximity. We show how the reconciliation is achievedby illustrating the association of the schema correspondence(s) with and as component(s) of the semantic proximity. We also provide a data model independentsemantic taxonomy on the basis of the semantic proximity defined. We then enumerateand classify the schematic and data conflicts. The association between theschema correspondences and semantic proximity helps represent the possible semanticsimilarities between two objects having these conflicts. One representation ofuncertain information using semanti...

Vipul Kashyap

 
 
 
 
161

Linking the Semantic Web with Existing Sources  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Semantic Web aims at providing Web data sources ona semantic level. On the other hand, most of the Web dataitself is not suitably prepared (e.g., by annotations). In thispaper, we describe a semantic layer that integrates existingdata sources with the Semantic Web by combining semanticmodeling with links that associate the semantic notionswith actual data on the Web. The semantic level consists ofspecialized service providers -- which can be seen as agents-- for each application domain. Each agent contains ontologicalknowledge represented in XML where the links tothe actual data are embedded as XPath expressions, similarto XLink. The agent uses its knowledge with an internalreasoning mechanism to combine the links for translating aSemantic Web query into a Web query that is then evaluatedagainst the individual sources.

162

A left cerebral hemisphere's superiority in processing spatial-categorical information in a non-verbal semantic format.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been shown that the left and right cerebral hemispheres (LH and RH) respectively process qualitative or "categorical" spatial relations and metric or "coordinate" spatial relations. However, categorical spatial information could be thought as divided into two types: semantically-coded and visuospatially-coded categorical information. We examined whether a LH's advantage in processing semantic-categorical information is observed in a non-verbal format, and also whether semantic- and visuospatial-categorical processing are differentially lateralized. We manipulated the colors and positions of the standard traffic light sign as semantic- and visuospatial-categorical information respectively, and tested performance with the divided visual field method. In the semantic-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the semantic-categorical information of a successive cue and target was the same, a right visual field advantage was observed, suggesting a LH's preference for processing semantic-categorical information in a non-verbal format. In the visuospatial-categorical matching task, in which the participants judged if the visuospatial-categorical information of a successive cue and target was identical, a left visual field advantage was obtained. These results suggest that the processing of semantic-categorical information is lateralized in LH, and we discuss the dissociation between the two types of categorical information.

Suegami T; Laeng B

2013-03-01

163

Well-Founded Argumentation Semantics for Extended Logic Programming  

CERN Multimedia

This paper defines an argumentation semantics for extended logic programming and shows its equivalence to the well-founded semantics with explicit negation. We set up a general framework in which we extensively compare this semantics to other argumentation semantics, including those of Dung, and Prakken and Sartor. We present a general dialectical proof theory for these argumentation semantics.

Schweimeier, R; Schweimeier, Ralf; Schroeder, Michael

2002-01-01

164

Semantic Information Units as L. Florodi’s Ideas Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes the semantic information units. They are additional to the ideas of L. Floridi, concerning the creation of semantic theory of information. The work features semantic information units, shows semantic information units structure and their distinguishing features, describes the properties of semantic information units, defined by their relative position, justifies that the proposals develop the ideas of L. Floridi.

Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

2012-01-01

165

[Language impairment and semantic memory loss of semantic dementia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by atrophy of the anterior temporal regions and progressive loss of semantic memory. SD has recently been reported to be associated with a pathologic diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with Tar DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-TDP) type 2 by Mackenzie. In the first several years of the disease, SD patients, especially those with left hemisphere-dominant temporal atrophy, present with primary progressive aphasia, in which language deterioration is obvious; however, they do not have other cognitive and behavioral impairments. The language impairment in SD is termed as word meaning aphasia, in which patients experience both word finding difficulties and word recognizing difficulties (two-way anomia). Phonemic cues are not effective in improving anomia. In addition, SD patients do not experience a sense of familiarity with words that they cannot find or recognize. While reading and writing Japanese words, SD patients, except those who also have motor neuron disease, exhibit well-preserved kana (phonogram) processing. However, in the case of kanji, they often exhibit surface dyslexia while reading and also exhibit phonetic miswriting. In the aphasic stage, SD patients can explain what the objects are and can use them appropriately; however, they cannot find or recognize the names of the objects. On progressing to the semantic memory impairment stage, the patients do not exhibit any familiarity with the objects whose names they cannot find or recognize and are unable to appropriately use these objects. Semantic memory impairment in SD is attributed to damage of gray matter and of superior and inferior white matter connections in the anterior temporal lobe.

Kazui H; Takeda M

2011-10-01

166

Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse its transition function with its driver loop, obtaining the functional implementation of a big-step abstract machine; (2) we adjust this big-step abstract machine so that it is in defunctionalized form, obtaining the functional implementation of a second big-step abstract machine; (3) we refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation of a denotational semantics in continuation style. We then compare this valuation function with that of Clinger's original denotational semantics of Scheme.

Danvy, Olivier

2008-01-01

167

Neuropsychological differentiation of adaptive creativity and schizotypal cognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Both creativity and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders have been associated with activation of remote semantic concepts, but this activation results in innovative output in one case and communication disturbances in the other. The present study examined the relationship between monitoring semantic information (which relies on executive brain function), creativity, and characteristics of schizotypy in an undergraduate population. Results indicate that executive function differentiates the use of semantic information in creativity and schizotypy. Specification of the balance between executive monitoring and activation of semantic information is important for determining how communication disturbances manifest, and for the measurement of creativity and schizotypy in the general population.

Fisher JE; Heller W; Miller GA

2013-01-01

168

Neuropsychological differentiation of adaptive creativity and schizotypal cognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both creativity and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders have been associated with activation of remote semantic concepts, but this activation results in innovative output in one case and communication disturbances in the other. The present study examined the relationship between monitoring semantic information (which relies on executive brain function), creativity, and characteristics of schizotypy in an undergraduate population. Results indicate that executive function differentiates the use of semantic information in creativity and schizotypy. Specification of the balance between executive monitoring and activation of semantic information is important for determining how communication disturbances manifest, and for the measurement of creativity and schizotypy in the general population. PMID:23109749

Fisher, Joscelyn E; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A

2013-01-01

169

Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web Services are mounting as an inventive mechanism for rendering services to subjective devices over the WWW. As a consequence of the rapid growth of Web Services applications and the plenty of Service Providers, the consumer is facing with the inevitability of selecting the “right” Service Provider. In such a scenario the Quality of Service (QoS) serves as a target to differentiate Service Providers. To select the best Web Services / Service Providers, Ranking and Optimization of Web Service Compositions are challenging areas of research with significant implications for the realization of the “Web of Services” revelation. The “Semantic Web Services” use formal semantic descriptions of Web Service functionality and interface to enable automated reasoning over Web Service Compositions. This study from its experimental results revealed that the existing Semantic Web Services faces a few challenging issues such as poor prediction of best Web Services and optimized Service Providers, which leads to QoS degradation of Semantic Web. To address and overcome these identified issues, this research work is calculating the semantic similarities, utilization of various Web Services and Service Providers. After measuring these parameters, all the Web Services are ranked based on their Utilization. Finally, our proposed technique, selected best Web Services based on their ranking and placed in Web Services Composition. From the experimental results, it is established that our proposed mechanism improves the performance of Semantic Web in terms of Execution Time, Processor Utilization and Memory Management.

R. Bala Krishnan; N.K. Sakthivel

2012-01-01

170

Semantic Interoperability Measure: Template-Based Assurance of Semantic Interoperability in Software Composition (TBASSCO).  

Science.gov (United States)

SIM-TBASSCO (semantic Interoperability Measures: Template-Based Assurance of Semantic Interoperability in Software Composition) addresses a longstanding software engineering goal of assembling software from components. Conventional approaches support comp...

K. Yao R. Neches I. Ko R. MacGregor

2004-01-01

171

Automatic Learning for Semantic Collocation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The real difficulty in development of practicalNLP systems comes from the fact that we donot have effective means for gathering "knowledge". In this paper, we propose an algorithmwhich acquires automatically knowledge of semanticcollocations among "words" from samplecorpora.The algorithm proposed in this paper tries todiscover semantic collocations which will beuseful for disambiguating structurally ambiguoussentences, by a statistical approach. Thealgorithm requires a corpus and minimum linguisticknowledge (parts-of-speech of words,simple inflection rules, and a small number ofgeneral syntactic rules).We conducted two experiments of applying thealgorithm to different corpora to extract differenttypes of semantic collocations. Thoughthere are some unsolved problems, the resultsshowed the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.1 IntroductionQuite a few grammatical formalisms have been proposedby computational linguists, which are claimed to be"good" (declarativ...

Satoshi Sekine; Jeremy J. Carroll; Sofia Ananiadou

172

Linguistic semantics for parallel computation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model and a semantics for an extended grammar notation is given. The sentences of the language defined by the grammar correspond to a certain type of parallel composition of linear strings of values. They are refered to as data streams or simply streams. The notation can be used as a programming language involving procedures, parallelism, and multiple input-output but no communication; in a design stage where the internal communication among subsystems is of no concern. A version of it was used in the development of a computerized power network telecontrol system. Properties and laws of the semantic and syntactic domains are introduced, and some of them are informally proved. A set of transformation laws has been proved confluent with the help of a computerized equational reasoning system. Formal proofs of the properties of the model will be developed in the future with the help of the system.

Bertran-Salvans, M.

1987-04-01

173

Viewing the Semantic Web Through  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Personalized access and content syndication involving diverseconceptual representations of information resources are two of thekey challenges of real-scale Semantic Web (SW) applications, such as eCommerce,e-Learning or e-Science portals. RDF/S represents nowadaysthe core SW language for creating and exchanging resource descriptionsworldwide. Unfortunately, full-fledged view definition languages for theRDF/S data model are still missing. We propose RVL, a view definitionlanguage capable of creating not only virtual resource descriptions, butalso virtual RDF/S schemas from (meta)classes, properties, as well as,resource descriptions available on the Semantic Web. RVL exploits thefunctional nature and type system of the RQL query language in orderto navigate, filter and restructure complex RDF/S schema and resourcedescription graphs.

Aimilia Magkanaraki; Val Tannen; Vassilis Christophides

174

Qubit semantics and quantum trees  

CERN Multimedia

In the qubit semantics the \\emph{meaning} of any sentence $\\alpha$ is represented by a \\emph{quregister}: a unit vector of the $n$--fold tensor product $\\otimes^n \\C^2$, where $n$ depends on the number of occurrences of atomic sentences in $\\alpha$. The logic characterized by this semantics, called {\\it quantum computational logic} (QCL), is {\\it unsharp}, because the non-contradiction principle is violated. We show that QCL does not admit any logical truth. In this framework, any sentence $\\alpha$ gives rise to a \\emph{quantum tree}, consisting of a sequence of unitary operators. The quantum tree of $\\alpha$ can be regarded as a quantum circuit that transforms the quregister associated to the atomic subformulas of $\\alpha$ into the quregster associated to $\\alpha$.

Chiara, M L D; Leporini, R; Leporati, A

2002-01-01

175

Semantic priming of familiar songs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

Johnson SK; Halpern AR

2012-05-01

176

Semantic annotation of medical images  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis and treatment planning for patients can be significantly improved by comparing with clinical images of other patients with similar anatomical and pathological characteristics. This requires the images to be annotated using common vocabulary from clinical ontologies. Current approaches to such annotation are typically manual, consuming extensive clinician time, and cannot be scaled to large amounts of imaging data in hospitals. On the other hand, automated image analysis while being very scalable do not leverage standardized semantics and thus cannot be used across specific applications. In our work, we describe an automated and context-sensitive workflow based on an image parsing system complemented by an ontology-based context-sensitive annotation tool. An unique characteristic of our framework is that it brings together the diverse paradigms of machine learning based image analysis and ontology based modeling for accurate and scalable semantic image annotation.

Seifert, Sascha; Kelm, Michael; Moeller, Manuel; Mukherjee, Saikat; Cavallaro, Alexander; Huber, Martin; Comaniciu, Dorin

2010-03-01

177

Combining Valuations with Society Semantics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Society Semantics, introduced in [5] by W. Carnielli and M. LimaMarques,is a method for obtaining new logics from the combination ofagents (valuations) of a given logic. The goal of this paper is to presentseveral generalizations of this method, as well as to show some applicationsto many-valued logics. After a reformulation of Society Semantics in awider setting, we develop in detail two examples of application of the newformalism, characterizing a hierarchy of paraconsistent logics called P(for n 2 N) and a hierarchy of paracomplete logics I(for n 2 N). Wealso propose three increasing generalizations, obtaining Society Semanticsfor several many-valued logics, including a hierarchy of logics called Iwhich are both paraconsistent and paracomplete.

178

Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word“Semantic” refers to “meaning” – a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and resultoriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding informationon the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision oflinking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream,hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines toyield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework thenaïve approach of searching information on the syntactic web is cliché. This paper proposes an optimisedsemantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with aproposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to accessand time saving.

Siddharth Gupta; Narina Thakur

2010-01-01

179

From Causal Semantics To Duration Timed Models  

CERN Document Server

The interleaving semantics is not compatible with both action refinement and durational actions. Since many true concurrency semantics are congruent w.r.t. action refinement, notably the causality and the maximality ones, this has challenged us to study the dense time behavior -- where the actions are of arbitrary fixed duration -- within the causality semantics of Da Costa. We extend the causal transition systems with the clocks and the timed constraints, and thus we obtain an over class of timed automata where the actions need not to be atomic. We define a real time extension of the formal description technique CSP, called duration-CSP, by attributing the duration to actions. We give the operational timed causal semantics of duration-CSP as well as its denotational semantics over the class of timed causal transition systems. Finally, we prove that the two semantics are equivalent.

Belkhir, Walid

2009-01-01

180

A Semantic Copying Model For Understanding Comparatives  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose a model of computational semantic interpretation of comparatives whichis based on a mechanism for semantic copying. While the treatment of phrasal andclausal forms of comparatives we give is in line with previous approaches to theirsemantic description, our model also incorporates the analysis of textual phenomenathat interact with the interpretation of comparatives, viz. metonymies, textualellipses and omitted complements. In order to allow for efficient processing(non-)heuristic guidance from syntactic, semantic, contextual, and world knowledgesources is supplied. An empirical evaluation demonstrates the current scope of ourproposal.Appeared in:Proc. of the 2nd Intern. Workshop on Computational Semantics(IWCS-II). Tilburg, NL, 1997, pp. 274-286In:Proc.ofthe2ndIntl.WorkshoponComputationalSemantics,Tilburg,NL,1997,pp.274-286.A Semantic Copying Model for Understanding ComparativesSteffen Staab & Udo HahnL I FComputational Linguistics GroupU...

Steffen Staab; Udo Hahn; Computational Linguistics

 
 
 
 
181

A variable-free dynamic semantics  

CERN Multimedia

I propose a variable-free treatment of dynamic semantics. By "dynamic semantics" I mean analyses of donkey sentences ("Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it") and other binding and anaphora phenomena in natural language where meanings of constituents are updates to information states, for instance as proposed by Groenendijk and Stokhof. By "variable-free" I mean denotational semantics in which functional combinators replace variable indices and assignment functions, for instance as advocated by Jacobson. The new theory presented here achieves a compositional treatment of dynamic anaphora that does not involve assignment functions, and separates the combinatorics of variable-free semantics from the particular linguistic phenomena it treats. Integrating variable-free semantics and dynamic semantics gives rise to interactions that make new empirical predictions, for example "donkey weak crossover" effects.

Shan, C

2002-01-01

182

Automatic and volitional semantic processing in aphasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study investigated the status of semantic information in aphasia by comparing the performances of aphasic and nonaphasic subjects on two tasks: an automatic semantic facilitation task and a volitional task of relatedness judgment. Both the aphasic and nonaphasic groups evidenced a semantic facilitation effect, in an on-line task of semantic processing. However, those aphasics with severe comprehension and naming disturbances (termed low comprehension aphasics) demonstrated considerable difficulty in judging the relatedness between a pictured object and members of that object's semantic field, the severity of the impairment being greater for those pictures that the low comprehension aphasics were unable to name. The pattern of results can best be explained by supposing the structural integrity of the store of semantic information in aphasia, and in particular in low comprehension aphasia: information that is retrieved and manipulated in judgment-mediated tasks with considerable difficulty.

Chenery HJ; Ingram JC; Murdoch BE

1990-02-01

183

Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning  

CERN Multimedia

In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Systems in this research paper.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

184

Argumentation Semantics for Defeasible Logic  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Defeasible reasoning is a simple but efficient rule-based approach to nonmonotonic reasoning. It haspowerful implementations and shows promise to be applied in the areas of legal reasoning and themodeling of business rules. This paper establishes significant links between defeasible reasoning andargumentation. In particular, Dung-like argumentation semantics is provided for two key defeasiblelogics, of which one is ambiguity propagating and the other ambiguity blocking.

Guido Governatori; Micheal J. Maher; Grigoris Antoniou; David Billington

185

Argumentation Semantics for Defeasible Logics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Defeasible logic is a simple but efficient rule-based non-monotoniclogic. It has powerful implementations and shows promise to be applied in theareas of legal reasoning and the modelling of business rules. So far defeasiblelogic has been defined only proof-theoretically. Argumentation-based semanticshave become popular in the area of logic programming. In this paper we give anargumentation-based semantics for defeasible logic.

G. Governatori; M. J. Maher; G. Antoniou; D. Billington

186

Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

Juha Puustjarvi

2010-01-01

187

Entropy, semantic relatedness and proximity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although word co-occurrences within a document have been demonstrated to be semantically useful, word interactions over a local range have been largely neglected by psychologists due to practical challenges. Shannon's (Bell Systems Technical Journal, 27, 379-423, 623-665, 1948) conceptualization of information theory suggests that these interactions should be useful for understanding communication. Computational advances make an examination of local word-word interactions possible for a large text corpus. We used Brants and Franz's (2006) dataset to generate conditional probabilities for 62,474 word pairs and entropy calculations for 9,917 words in Nelson, McEvoy, and Schreiber's (Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 402-407, 2004) free association norms. Semantic associativity correlated moderately with the probabilities and was stronger when the two words were not adjacent. The number of semantic associates for a word and the entropy of a word were also correlated. Finally, language entropy decreases from 11 bits for single words to 6 bits per word for four-word sequences. The probabilities and entropies discussed here are included in the supplemental materials for the article.

Hahn LW; Sivley RM

2011-09-01

188

Referential Actions: From Logical Semantics to Implementation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Referential actions (rac's) are specialized triggers used to automatically maintain referential integrity. While their local effects can be grasped easily, it is far from obvious what the global semantics of a set RA of interacting rac's should be. To capture the intended meaning of RA, we first present an abstract non-constructive semantics. By formalizing RA as a logic program PRA , a constructive semantics is obtained.

Bertram Ludascher; Wolfgang May

189

Semantic Plagiarism Detection System Using Ontology Mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism detection can play an important role in detecting stealing of original ideas in papers, journals and internet web sites. Checking these manually is simply impossible nowadays due to existence of large digital repository. Ontology is a way of describing documents semantics. Ontology mapping can resolve semantic heterogeneity in documents. Our paper proposes an automatic system for semantic plagiarism detection based on ontology mapping.

Manjula Shenoy K; U.Dinesh Acharya; K.C.Shet

2012-01-01

190

Premorbid expertise produces category-specific impairment in a domain-general semantic disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For decades, category-specific semantic impairment - i.e., better comprehension of items from one semantic category than another - has been the driving force behind many claims about the organisation of conceptual knowledge in the brain. Double dissociations between patients with category-specific disorders are widely interpreted as showing that different conceptual domains are necessarily supported by functionally independent systems. We show that, to the contrary, even strong or classical dissociations can also arise from individual differences in premorbid expertise. We examined two patients with global and progressive semantic degradation who, unusually, had known areas of premorbid expertise. Patient 1, a former automotive worker, showed selective preservation of car knowledge, whereas Patient 2, a former botanist, showed selective preservation of information about plants. In non-expert domains, these patients showed the typical pattern: i.e., an inability to differentiate between highly similar concepts (e.g., rose and daisy), but retention of broader distinctions (e.g., between rose and cat). Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of semantic cognition show that expertise in a particular domain increases the differentiation of specific-level concepts, such that the semantic distance between these items resembles non-expert basic-level distinctions. We propose that these structural changes interact with global semantic degradation, particularly when expert knowledge is acquired early and when exposure to expert concepts continues during disease progression. Therefore, category-specific semantic impairment can arise from at least two distinct mechanisms: damage to representations that are critical for a particular category (e.g., knowledge of hand shape and action for the category 'tools') and differences in premorbid experience.

Jefferies E; Rogers TT; Ralph MA

2011-10-01

191

Functional Heterogeneity within the Default Network during Semantic Processing and Speech Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

This fMRI study investigated the functional heterogeneity of the core nodes of the default mode network (DMN) during language processing. The core nodes of the DMN were defined as task-induced deactivations over multiple tasks in 94 healthy subjects. We used a factorial design that manipulated different tasks (semantic matching or speech production) and stimuli (familiar words and objects or unfamiliar stimuli), alternating with periods of fixation/rest. Our findings revealed several consistent effects in the DMN, namely less deactivations in the left inferior parietal lobule during semantic than perceptual matching in parallel with greater deactivations during semantic matching in anterior subdivisions of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). This suggests that, when the brain is engaged in effortful semantic tasks, a part of the DMN in the left angular gyrus was less deactivated as five other nodes of the DMN were more deactivated. These five DMN areas, where deactivation was greater for semantic than perceptual matching, were further differentiated because deactivation was greater in (i) posterior ventral MPFC for speech production relative to semantic matching, (ii) posterior precuneus and PCC for perceptual processing relative to speech production, and (iii) right inferior parietal cortex for pictures of objects relative to written words during both naming and semantic decisions. Our results thus highlight that task difficulty alone cannot fully explain the functional variability in task-induced deactivations. Together these results emphasize that core nodes within the DMN are functionally heterogeneous and differentially sensitive to the type of language processing. PMID:22905029

Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

2012-08-13

192

The Method of Automatic Acquisition of Semantic Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a semantic relation database, and uses the semantic relation database automatic acquisition of syntactic patterns and new relationships, and syntactic patterns to obtain a method of semantic relations.

Niguang Tian

2013-01-01

193

Minimal founded semantics for disjunctive logic programs and deductive databases  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper, we propose a variant of stable model semantics for disjunctive logic programming and deductive databases. The semantics, called minimal founded, generalizes stable model semantics for normal (i.e. non disjunctive) programs but differs from disjunctive stable model semantics (the extension of stable model semantics for disjunctive programs). Compared with disjunctive stable model semantics, minimal founded semantics seems to be more intuitive, it gives meaning to programs which are meaningless under stable model semantics and is no harder to compute. More specifically, minimal founded semantics differs from stable model semantics only for disjunctive programs having constraint rules or rules working as constraints. We study the expressive power of the semantics and show that for general disjunctive datalog programs it has the same power as disjunctive stable model semantics.

Furfaro, F; Greco, S; Furfaro, Filippo; Greco, Gianluigi; Greco, Sergio

2004-01-01

194

Generalized Disjunctive Well-Founded Semantics for Logic Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Generalized disjunction well founded semantics (GDWFS) is an extension generalized well founded semantics (GWFS) of Baral, Lobo and Minker, to disjunctive logic programs. We describe fixpoint, model theoretic and procedural semantics and show their equiva...

C. Baral J. Lobo J. Minker

1990-01-01

195

Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female) terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical meanings of the female proverbs connote worse qualities than those connoted by the male proverbs.

Azam Estaji; Fakhteh Nakhavali

2011-01-01

196

Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female) terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical meanings of the female proverbs connote worse qualities than those connoted by the male proverbs.

Azam Estaji; Fakhteh Nakhavali

2012-01-01

197

Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems  

CERN Document Server

Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

2013-01-01

198

Semantic Clustering Based Relevance Language Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to effectively generate clusters and use the information in clusters to improve information retrieval performance are still open research questions. By viewing a document as an interaction of a set of independent hidden topics, we propose a novel semantic clustering technique using independent component analysis. Then within language modeling framework, we apply the obtained semantic topic clusters into the estimation process of relevance model. We expect that semantic clustering will filter out those noisy documents so that the estimation of relevance model is only based on relevant documents and some useful semantic information. A semantic cluster is activated to be the most similar to a user’s information need by user’s query, the documents in the activated semantic cluster and the keywords of representing the activated semantic cluster are used for the estimation of relevance model. Therefore, we obtain a semantic cluster based relevance language model that uses pseudo relevance feedback technique without requiring any relevance training information. We applied the model in experiments on five TREC data sets. The experiment results show that our model can significantly improve retrieval performance over previous language models including relevance-based language models. We think that the main contribution of the improved performance comes from the estimation of relevance model on the semantic cluster that is closely related to a user’s information need.

Qiang Pu; Daqing He

2010-01-01

199

Canadian Semantic Web Technologies and Applications  

CERN Document Server

The emergence of Web technologies for data and knowledge interaction gives rise to the need for supportive frameworks for knowledge distribution. Semantic Web technologies aim at providing shared semantic spaces for Web contents, such that people, applications and communities can use a common platform to share information. Also, many of the challenging aspects of the research problems tackled in the Semantic Web area fall in the realm of artificial intelligence or employment of AI techniques. "Canadian Semantic Web: Technologies and Applications" is an edited volume contributed by wo

Du, Weichang

2010-01-01

200

Semantic Web Framework for Development of Very Large Ontologies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper deals with the development of the Semantic Web framework for very large ontologies. The Semantic Web is often associated with specific XML-based standards for semantics, such as RDF and OWL. Application of lexical ontologies such as WordNet and others for different tasks on the Semantic Web requires their representation in RDF and/or OWL formats with possibility of the different ontology mappings, semantic workflows, services and other semantic technologies.

Yablonsky, Sergey

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

SEAL - A Framework for Developing SEmantic PortALs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The core idea of the Semantic Web is to make information accessibleto human and software agents on a semantic basis. Hence,web sites may feed directly from the Semantic Web exploiting theunderlying structures for human and machine access. We have developeda generic approach for developing semantic portals, viz.SEAL (SEmantic portAL), that exploits semantics for providingand accessing information at a portal as well as constructing andmaintaining the portal.

Nenad Stojanovic; Alexander Maedche; Steffen Staab; Rudi Studer

202

HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ON SEMANTIC WEB :(SEMANTIC HIM)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information technology have changed information media by networking and internet .using technology inhealth as same as another part improve efficieincy and effectivness. currently the medical document isReality-based medicine, so that is the most important ,richest and the most realistic source of medical andhealth information.Health information management systems that require systems to the storage, retrieval,storage and elimination of health records (by law), and adjust to the rules of professional. these processare difficult and time consumig for human. In the meantime semantic HIM seem best solution.KEYWORDS

Nasim Khozoie

2012-01-01

203

On Special Semantic Meaning of Securities English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues that securities English has its own semantic meaning especially nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs have their unique semantic meaning that can’t be owned by their common words and that it is imperative this linguistic features be grasped in order that this kind of English should be faithfully and correctly understood and translated and proficiently applied.

Guineng Mei

2011-01-01

204

Compositional Semantics Grounded in Commonsense Metaphysics  

CERN Multimedia

We argue for a compositional semantics grounded in a strongly typed ontology that reflects our commonsense view of the world and the way we talk about it in ordinary language. Assuming the existence of such a structure, we show that the semantics of various natural language phenomena may become nearly trivial.

Saba, Walid S

2007-01-01

205

Approaching semantic interoperability in Health Level Seven  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Interoperability’ is a driving objective behind many of Health Level Seven's standards. The objective in this paper is to take a step back, and consider what semantic interoperability means, assess whether or not it has been achieved, and, if not, determine what concrete next steps can be ...

Dolin, Robert H; Alschuler, Liora

206

How Controlled English can Improve Semantic Wikis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The motivation of semantic wikis is to make acquisition, maintenance, and mining of formal knowledge simpler, faster, and more flexible. However, most existing semantic wikis have a very technical interface and are restricted to a relatively low level of expressivity. In this paper, we explain how A...

Kuhn, T

207

An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language of trust policies. The operational semantics is given in terms of a composition of I/O automata. We prove that this semantics is faithful to its corresponding denotational semantics, in the sense that any run of the I/O automaton ``converges to'' the denotational semantics of the policies. Furthermore, as I/O automata are a natural model of asynchronous distributed computation, the semantics coincides with an asynchronous algorithm for distributedly computing the trust-state, suitable in the application environment.

Krukow, Karl

2006-01-01

208

Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds  

Science.gov (United States)

|A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

2010-01-01

209

Extracting Semantic Representations from Large Text Corpora  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many connectionist language processing models have now reached a level ofdetail at which more realistic representations of semantics are required. Inthis paper we discuss the extraction of semantic representations from theword co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora and present a preliminaryinvestigation into the validation and optimisation of such representations.

Malti Patel; John A. Bullinaria; Joseph P. Levy

210

A formal semantics for weighted ontology mappings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ontology mappings are often assigned a weight or confidence factor by matchers. Nonetheless, few semantic accounts have been given so far for such weights. This paper presents a formal semantics for weighted mappings between different ontologies. It is based on a classificational interpretation of m...

Atencia, Manuel; Borgida, Alexander; Euzenat, Jérôme; Ghidini, Chiara; Serafini, Luciano

211

Semantics of OCL Specified with QVT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Object Constraint Language (OCL) has been for many years formalized both in its syntax and semantics in the language standard. While the official definition of OCL’s syntax is already widely accepted and strictly supported by most OCL tools, there is no such agreement on OCL’s semantics, yet. In...

Markovi?, Slaviša; Baar, Thomas

212

Definitional verbal patterns for semantic relation extraction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present a description of the role of definitional verbal patterns for the extraction of semantic relations. Several studies show that semantic relations can be extracted from analytic definitions contained in machine-readable dictionaries (MRDs). In addition, definitions found in sp...

Bach, Carme; Sierra, Gerardo; Alarcón Martínez, Rodrigo; Aguilar, César

213

A Petri Net Semantics for BPEL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a pattern-based Petri net semantics for the Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL). Our semantics is complete - it covers the standard behaviour of BPEL as well as the exceptional behaviour (e.g. faults, events, compensation). Therefore every business process specifie...

Stahl, Christian

214

Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

2013-01-01

215

Constructing Semantic Space Models from Parsed Corpora  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional vector-based models use word co-occurrence counts from large corpora to represent lexical meaning. In this paper we present a novel approach for constructing semantic spaces that takes syntactic relations into account. We introduce a formalisation for this class of models and evaluate their adequacy on two modelling tasks: semantic priming and automatic discrimination of lexical relations.

Mirella Lapata

216

Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program ver...

Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

217

Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program verification and nets.

Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

1982-01-01

218

Semantic Integration in the IFF  

CERN Document Server

The IEEE P1600.1 Standard Upper Ontology (SUO) project aims to specify an upper ontology that will provide a structure and a set of general concepts upon which domain ontologies could be constructed. The Information Flow Framework (IFF), which is being developed under the auspices of the SUO Working Group, represents the structural aspect of the SUO. The IFF is based on category theory. Semantic integration of object-level ontologies in the IFF is represented with its fusion construction. The IFF maintains ontologies using powerful composition primitives, which includes the fusion construction.

Kent, Robert E

2011-01-01

219

Logic with a Probability Semantics  

CERN Document Server

The present study is an extension of the topic introduced in Dr. Hailperin's Sentential Probability Logic, where the usual true-false semantics for logic is replaced with one based more on probability, and where values ranging from 0 to 1 are subject to probability axioms. Moreover, as the word "sentential" in the title of that work indicates, the language there under consideration was limited to sentences constructed from atomic (not inner logical components) sentences, by use of sentential connectives ("no," "and," "or," etc.) but not including quantifiers ("for all," "there is"). An initial

Hailperin, Theodore

2010-01-01

220

Formal semantic and computer text processing, 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer processing of large nonpreedited natural language texts has often been limited either to managing and editing or to analysing basic levels of content (indexes, concordances, clusters, etc.). Few systems approach syntactic information, even less semantic information. Because of the complexity and the originality of the underlying semantic information of any text it is not possible to import directly the AI and computational semantic concepts. It is necessary to explore news paths. The research presented here is oriented toward the understanding of certain semantic aspects in computer text processing (words and meaning representation and inference patterns). This is done through a model theoretic approach embedded in an algebraic language. The hypothesis which governs the concepts and the distinctions is the following: discourse in a text constitutes a semantic space built of an ordered set of sentences which are of different logical types and which present a specific pattern of coherence expressible in a syntactic manner. 47 references.

Meunier, J.G.; Lepage, F.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Mapping the structure of semantic memory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals have a small-world structure with short distances between words and high clustering. The distribution of links follows a power law truncated by an exponential cutoff, meaning that most words are poorly connected and a minority of words has a high, although bounded, number of connections. Existing aggregate networks mirror the individual link distributions, and so they are not scale-free, as has been previously assumed; still, there are properties of individual structure that the aggregate networks do not reflect. A simulation of the new sampling process suggests that it can uncover the true structure of an individual's semantic memory.

Morais AS; Olsson H; Schooler LJ

2013-01-01

222

Approaching semantic interoperability in Health Level Seven.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Semantic Interoperability' is a driving objective behind many of Health Level Seven's standards. The objective in this paper is to take a step back, and consider what semantic interoperability means, assess whether or not it has been achieved, and, if not, determine what concrete next steps can be taken to get closer. A framework for measuring semantic interoperability is proposed, using a technique called the 'Single Logical Information Model' framework, which relies on an operational definition of semantic interoperability and an understanding that interoperability improves incrementally. Whether semantic interoperability tomorrow will enable one computer to talk to another, much as one person can talk to another person, is a matter for speculation. It is assumed, however, that what gets measured gets improved, and in that spirit this framework is offered as a means to improvement. PMID:21106995

Dolin, Robert H; Alschuler, Liora

2010-11-24

223

Approaching semantic interoperability in Health Level Seven.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

'Semantic Interoperability' is a driving objective behind many of Health Level Seven's standards. The objective in this paper is to take a step back, and consider what semantic interoperability means, assess whether or not it has been achieved, and, if not, determine what concrete next steps can be taken to get closer. A framework for measuring semantic interoperability is proposed, using a technique called the 'Single Logical Information Model' framework, which relies on an operational definition of semantic interoperability and an understanding that interoperability improves incrementally. Whether semantic interoperability tomorrow will enable one computer to talk to another, much as one person can talk to another person, is a matter for speculation. It is assumed, however, that what gets measured gets improved, and in that spirit this framework is offered as a means to improvement.

Dolin RH; Alschuler L

2011-01-01

224

Extracting Semantic Representations from Large Text Corpora  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many connectionist language processing models have now reached a level ofdetail at which more realistic representations of semantics are required. Inthis paper we discuss the extraction of semantic representations from theword co-occurrence statistics of large text corpora and present a preliminaryinvestigation into the validation and optimisation of such representations.We find that there is significantly more variation across the extractionprocedures and evaluation criteria than is commonly assumed.1 IntroductionHow to represent semantics has been a difficult problem for many years, and as yetthere is no consensus as to exactly what is stored and how. With the rise ofcognitive modelling, the problem of representing semantic information must now beaddressed if any headway is to be made. Although semantics obviously plays a veryimportant role in language, cognitive models concerned with language have either notattempted to implement this component [2, 20], or implemented...

Malti Patel; John A. Bullinaria; Joseph P. Levy

225

Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model) and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM)) approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

Chu Wei-Ta; Cheng Wen-Huang; Wu Ja-Ling

2006-01-01

226

Modular Denotational Semantics for Compiler Construction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We show the benefits of applying modular monadic semantics tocompiler construction. Modular monadic semantics allows us to define alanguage with a rich set of features from reusable building blocks, anduse program transformation and equational reasoning to improve code.Compared to denotational semantics, reasoning in monadic style offers theadded benefits of highly modularized proofs and more widely applicableresults. To demonstrate, we present an axiomatization of environments,and use it to prove the correctness of a well-known compilation technique.The monadic approach also facilitates generating code in various targetlanguages with different sets of built-in features.1 IntroductionWe propose a modular semantics which allows language designers to add (orremove) programming language features without causing global changes to theexisting specification, derive a compilation scheme from semantic descriptions,prove the correctness of program transformation and c...

Sheng Liang; Paul Hudak

227

Modular Denotational Semantics for Compiler Construction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We show the benefits of applying modular monadic semantics tocompiler construction. Modular monadic semantics allows us to define alanguage with a rich set of features from reusable building blocks, anduse program transformation and equational reasoning to improve code.Compared to denotational semantics, reasoning in monadic style offers theadded benefits of highly modularized proofs and more widely applicableresults. To demonstrate, we present an axiomatization of environments,and use it to prove the correctness of a well-known compilation technique.The monadic approach also facilitates generating code in various targetlanguages with different sets of built-in features.1 IntroductionWe propose a modular semantics which allows language designers to add (orremove) programming language features without causing global changes to theexisting specification, derive a compilation scheme from semantic descriptions,prove the correctness of program transformation and compilation...

Sheng Liang; Paul Hudak

228

The Algebraic Semantics of Interrogative NPs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We suggest a new semantic interpretation of interrogative NPs, basedon a novel algebraic theory of the semantics of questions. We discuss the role of interrogativeNPs in compositionally deriving the semantics of wh-questions, examinethe coordination of interrogative NPs, and apply notions from generalized quantifiertheory to their interpretation.Keywords: generalized quantifiers,semantics,questions1. IntroductionIn this paper we present a new interpretation of interrogative NPs(INPs), also referred to as wh-phrases, such as which woman. Suchan investigation has two main motivations. First, INPs obviously playan important role in driving the interpretation of wh-questions. Asthe wide literature on the semantics of questions shows (see (Higginbotham,1996; Groenendijk and Stokhof, 1997) for recent surveys),compositionally deriving the meanings of questions is notoriously difficult,especially when multiple INPs or interactions of INPs with otherquantifiers are involved....

Rani Nelken; Nissim Francez

229

ASD: The Action Semantic Description Tools  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

covering the ASD abstract syntax notation; and (2) anAsf+Sdf module called CONCRETE containing the concrete notation, aswell as a function (signature and defining equations) mapping the CONCRETErepresentation to the ABSTRACT one.Rewriting: The semantic equations given in an action semantic descriptionspecify the mapping between ABSTRACT trees and Action Notation (generallyextended with specific notation). The semantic function definitionsare directly translated to Asf+Sdf rewrite rules. Together with the ABSTRACTand CONCRETE steps, these can be used to translate actualprogram sources automatically to their action semantic denotation.Further features (e.g., "pretty-printing") are currently being implemented,using the generator technology as described in [2].The demonstration will be based on the newest version of the ASD Tools(2.5) which is not only approximately 10 times as fast as the version showedduring AMAST'93, but also capable of handling much larger action semant...

Arie Van Deursen; Peter D. Mosses

230

Semantic priming of familiar songs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities. PMID:22227862

Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

2012-05-01

231

Learning Analogies and Semantic Relations  

CERN Document Server

We present an algorithm for learning from unlabeled text, based on the Vector Space Model (VSM) of information retrieval, that can solve verbal analogy questions of the kind found in the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A verbal analogy has the form A:B::C:D, meaning "A is to B as C is to D"; for example, mason:stone::carpenter:wood. SAT analogy questions provide a word pair, A:B, and the problem is to select the most analogous word pair, C:D, from a set of five choices. The VSM algorithm correctly answers 47% of a collection of 374 college-level analogy questions (random guessing would yield 20% correct). We motivate this research by relating it to work in cognitive science and linguistics, and by applying it to a difficult problem in natural language processing, determining semantic relations in noun-modifier pairs. The problem is to classify a noun-modifier pair, such as "laser printer", according to the semantic relation between the noun (printer) and the modifier (laser). We use a supervised nearest-neigh...

Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Littman, Michael L.

2003-01-01

232

Latent semantics as cognitive components  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures, which we suggest might function as cognitive components for perceiving the underlying structure in lyrics.

Petersen, Michael Kai; MØrup, Morten

2010-01-01

233

Demonstrating the qualitative differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia: a novel exploration of nonverbal semantic processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Semantic dementia (SD) implicates the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) as a critical substrate for semantic memory. Multi-modal semantic impairment can also be a feature of post-stroke aphasia (referred to here as "semantic aphasia" or SA) where patients show impaired regulatory control accompanied by lesions to the frontal and/or temporo-parietal cortices, and thus the two patient groups demonstrate qualitatively different patterns of semantic impairment [1]. Previous comparisons of these two patient groups have tended to focus on verbal receptive tasks. Accordingly, this study investigated nonverbal receptive abilities via a comparison of reality decision judgements in SD and SA. Pictures of objects were presented alongside non-real distracters whose features were altered to make them more/less plausible for the semantic category. The results highlighted a number of critical differences between the two groups. Compared to SD patients, SA patients: (1) were relatively unimpaired on the two alternative forced choice (2AFC) decisions despite showing a comparable degree of semantic impairment on other assessments; (2) showed minimal effects of the plausibility manipulation; (3) were strongly influenced by variations in the regulatory requirements of tasks; and (4) exhibited a reversed effect of familiarity - i.e., better performance on less commonly encountered items. These results support a distinction between semantic impairments which arise from impaired regulatory processes (e.g., SA) versus those where degraded semantic knowledge is the causal factor (e.g., SD). SA patients performed relatively well because the task structure reduced the requirement for internally generated control. In contrast, SD patients performed poorly because their degraded knowledge did not allow the fine-grained distinctions required to complete the task.

Noonan KA; Jefferies E; Garrard P; Eshan S; Lambon Ralph MA

2013-01-01

234

SRBIR: Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval by Extracting the Dominant Region and Semantic Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval (SRBIR) system that automatically segments the dominant foreground region, consisting of the semantic concept of the image, such as elephants, roses and does the semantic learning, is proposed. Approach: The system segments an image into different regions and finds the dominant foreground region in it, which is the semantic concept of that image. Then it extracts the low-level features of that dominant foreground region. The Support Vector Machine-Binary Decision Tree (SVM-BDT) is used for semantic learning and it finds the semantic category of an image. The low level features of the dominant region of each category image are used to find the semantic template of that category. The SVM-BDT is constructed with the help of these semantic templates. The high level concept of the query image is obtained using this SVM-BDT. Similarity matching is done between the query image and the set of images belonging to the semantic category of the query image and the top images with least distances are retrieved. Results: Experiments were conducted using the COREL dataset consisting of 10,000 images and its subset with 1000 images of 10 different semantic categories. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, compared to those of the commonly used region based image retrieval approaches. Conclusion: Efficient image searching, browsing and retrieval are required by users from various domains, such as medicine, fashion, architecture, training and teaching. The proposed SRBIR system aims at retrieving images based on their semantic content by extracting the dominant foreground region in the image and learning its semantic concept with the help of the SVM-BDT. The proposed SRBIR system provides an efficient image search based on semantics, with high accuracy and less access time.

I. F. Rajam; S. Valli

2011-01-01

235

Scott-Strachey style denotational semantics, parallelism implies nondeterminism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A minimum algebraic structure needed in Scott-Strachey style denotational semantics for parallel programs is developed. Some elementary algebra shows that nondeterministic semantics is inherently and uniquely present. Conversely, any simple nondeterministic semantics provides uniquely a semantics for a minimal parallel computation capability. 16 references.

Benson, D.B.

1982-07-01

236

Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

2011-01-01

237

Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarit...

Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

238

[Construction of semantic scales for the subjective evaluation of noise  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is the first stage of a research the aim of which is to construct proper scales for the subjective evaluation of noise, using Osgood's Differential Semantic Technique. 137 adjectives were selected using two criteria. For the first criterium a method based on Gougenheim's and Hogenraad's researches was used. 200 subjects were asked to write 30 adjectives that could be used for qualifying sonorous stimuli. The frequencies of the adjectives given by the subjects were calculated and 25 of them were selected for being under the 10% limit of the probability, arbitrarily chosen as a criterium for the selection. For the second criterium 10 acoustic researchers were asked to write all those adjectives they considered important for noise evaluation. Thus, 112 adjectives were selected. The 137 adjectives got by the two criteria were judged by 15 university professors of different careers, for getting their opposites. A level of agreement of at least 6 of 15 judges was considered. 62 adjectives with their opposites were got and using other two criteria they were reduced to 37. A hypothesis was formulated grouping the adjectives into 8 factors taking into account the three universal factors: Evaluation (E), Potency (P) and Activity (A) according to the Differential Semantic Technique. Seven point scales were constructed with the adjectives. The construction of the scales, the selection of concepts, the application of them to a sample of subjects and data analysis will be the second stage of this research.

Verzini de Romera AM; Biassoni de Serra EC; Suárez de Bonet MD

1983-12-01

239

Extracting Generalized Semantic Roles from Corpus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the oldest constructs of linguistic theory is semantic role. Automatic extraction of semantic roles in a sentence is a movement towards semantic processing of texts which has been the focus of attention in recent years. Extraction of semantic roles from a text contains some essential parts. Recognition of verb(s) of the sentence, recognition of noun phrases and their heads, and labeling the role of each phrase in the sentence as a semantic argument of verb are general parts of a system that does this task. There is a wide variety of definitions for semantic roles from verb specific roles to some general roles known as thematic roles, This paper focuses on a generalization of thematic roles called proto-roles or generalized semantic roles which includes two roles; actor and undergoer. In this paper we extract proto-roles in a Persian sentence exploiting POS tags. We use Peykareh as our input corpus and apply a rule based approach to extract actor and undergoer of verb(s).

Fateme Jafarinejad; Mehrnoush Shamsfard

2012-01-01

240

Nicotine does not enhance basic semantic priming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: Utilising a cognitively demanding strategy-based priming paradigm, we recently observed that acute transdermal nicotine selectively influenced controlled semantic processing but not related-word links within semantic memory per se as reported by Holmes et al. (Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 11:389-399, 2008). OBJECTIVE: The current study employed a less cognitively demanding priming paradigm to investigate whether nicotine influences the activation/access of links within semantic memory, and if the selective nicotinic influence on controlled but not automatic semantic processing could also be observed with these more general priming procedures. METHODS: Transdermal nicotine patches (7 mg/24 h) were administered to healthy young adults in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The automatic priming task ( n = 18) had a low relatedness proportion (RP) and was presented at a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), while the controlled priming task ( n = 18) had a high RP and long SOA. RESULTS: The patterns of priming effects indicated that automatic and controlled processing were operating for the respective tasks. However, a nicotinic influence on semantic processing was not evident for either task, nor was interplay of nicotine and relatedness observed. CONCLUSIONS: Together, the findings from the previous and current study suggest that an influence of nicotine on semantic processing may only emerge when effortful controlled processing is invoked. Furthermore, the findings suggest that nicotinic modulation of links within semantic memory may only be mediated by mnemonic processes.

Holmes AD; Chenery HJ; Copland DA

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Demonic semantics: using monotypes and residuals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relations and relational operators can be used to define the semantics of programming languages. The operations ∨ and ∘ serve to give angelic semantics by defining a program to go right when there is a possibility to go right. On the other hand, the demonic operations ⊔ and □ do the opposite: if there is a possibility to go wrong, a program whose semantics is given by these operators will go wrong; it is the demonic semantics. This type of semantics is known at least since Dijkstra's introduction of the language of guarded commands. Recently, there has been a growing interest in demonic relational semantics of sequential programs. Usually, a construct is given an ad hoc semantic definition based on an intuitive understanding of its behavior. In this note, we show how the notion of relational flow diagram (essentially a matrix whose entries are relations on the set of states of the program), introduced by Schmidt, can be used to give a single demonic definition for a wide range of programming constructs. This research had originally been carried out by J. Desharnais and F. Tchier (1996) in the same framework of the binary homogeneous relations. We show that all the results can be generalized by using the monotypes and the residuals introduced by Desharnais et al. (2000).

F. Tchier

2004-01-01

242

A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are playing a crucial role in enhancing traditional web search, as it is working to create machine readable data. but it will not replace traditional search engine. In this paper we made a brief survey on various promising features of some of the best semantic search engines developed so far and we have discussed the various approaches to semantic search. We have summarized the techniques, advantages of some important semantic web search engines that are developed so far.The most prominent part is that how the semantic search engines differ from the traditional searches and their results are shown by giving a sample query as input

G.Sudeepthi; G. Anuradha; M.Surendra Prasad Babu

2012-01-01

243

Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation  

CERN Multimedia

Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word "Semantic" refers to "meaning" - a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and result oriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding information on the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision of linking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream, hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines to yield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework the na\\"ive approach of searching information on the syntactic web is clich\\'e. This paper proposes an optimised semantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with a proposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to access and time sav...

Gupta, Siddharth

2010-01-01

244

SEAL- A Framework for Developing SEmantic PortALs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The core idea of the Semantic Web is to make informationaccessible to human and software agents on a semanticbasis. Hence, Web sites may feed directly from theSemantic Web exploiting the traderlying structures forhuman and machine access. We have developed a domainindependentapproach for developing semantic portals, viz.SEAL (SEmantic portAL), that exploits semantics forproviding and accessing information at a portal as well asconstructing and maintaining the portal. In this paper wefocus on semantics-based means that make semantic Websites accessible from the outside, i.e. semantics-basedbrowsing, semantic querying, querying with semanticsimilarity, and machine access to semantic information. Inparticular, we focus on methods for acquiring andstructuring community information as well as methods forsharing information.

Nenad Stojanovic; Alexander Maedche; Steffen Staab* Rudi

245

Semantic Conflicts Reconciliation as a Viable Solution for Semantic Heterogeneity Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving semantic interoperability is a current challenge in the field of data integration in order to bridge semantic conflicts occurring when the participating sources and receivers use different or implicit data assumptions. Providing a framework that automatically detects and resolves semantic conflicts is considered as a daunting task for many reasons, it should preserve the local autonomy of the integrated sources, as well as provides a standard query language for accessing the integrated data on a global basis. Many existing traditional and ontology-based approaches have tried to achieve semantic interoperability, but they have certain drawbacks that make them inappropriate for integrating data from a large number of participating sources. We propose semantic conflicts reconciliation (SCR) framework, it is ontology-based system in which all data semantics explicitly described in the knowledge representation phase and automatically taken into account through the interpretation mediation service phase, so conflicts detected and resolved automatically at the query time

Walaa S. Ismail; Mona M. Nasr; Torky I. Sultan; Ayman E. Khedr

2013-01-01

246

Information Interaction as a Mechanism of Semantic Gap Elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies semantic gap as an objective phenomenon, shows that semantic gap occurs both in parallel computing and in other areas. Semantic description of the content is revealed as a set of different descriptions. Causes of semantic gap are described. The content of information exchange is explained in the article. Information interaction in the semantic field is interpreted as a mechanism to lessen the gap

Victor Y. Tsvetkov

2013-01-01

247

A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web  

CERN Multimedia

The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

Yu, Liyang

2011-01-01

248

Semantic Data Integration: Overall Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The information has always been a valuable patrimony for the information systems that every company tries to capitalize as much as possible. With the web, the amount of information is increased and several problems arise for instance for the safety of the exchanged data but also to the semantic heterogeneity: the same information is very often represented in different ways in different information systems. In this paper we present an architecture of interchange of data both within the same information system and among different information systems founded on the ontologies in order to overcome the problem list of the heterogeneity. Ontologies, today, they seem to be the best tool useful to resolve the problem of heterogeneity, but that has not now been exploited fully.

Roberto Paiano; Anna Lisa Guido

2009-01-01

249

Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures  

CERN Multimedia

We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

2012-01-01

250

Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the ?-calculus with explicit substitution.

André Hirschowitz; Marco Maggesi

2012-01-01

251

The semantics of syntactic structures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past 15 years, both linguists and psycholinguists have shown a growing interest in the idea that syntactic structures can carry meanings that are independent of the meanings of specific words. This article considers how this idea relates to traditional notions of compositionality in generative grammar, and examines two modern theories that, although based on different starting assumptions, both readily allow syntactic structures to bear independent meaning. We review work from psycholinguistics suggesting that observation alone is often insufficient to support the efficient learning of word meanings, and that some of the 'slack' left by observation can be picked up by the semantics of the syntactic structures in which words appear. We argue that this convergence between linguistic theory and psycholinguistic experimentation should be no surprise, because language must be learnable.

Kako E; Wagner L

2001-03-01

252

Semantic Aspect Retrieval for Encyclopedia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english With the development of Web 2.0, more and more people contribute their knowledge to the Internet. Many general and domain-specific online encyclopedia resources become available, and they are valuable for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, such as summarization and question-answering. We propose a novel encyclopedia-specific method to retrieve passages which are semantically related to a short query (usually comprises of only one word/phrase) from a give (more) n article in the encyclopedia. The method captures the expression word features and categorical word features in the surrounding snippets of the aspect words by setting up massive hybrid language models. These local models outperform the global models such as LSA and ESA in our task.

Han, Chao; Liu, Yicheng; Hao, Yu; Zhu, Xiaoyan

2011-06-01

253

Semantic processing and response inhibition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined functional MRI (fMRI) BOLD signal changes in response to object categorization during response selection and inhibition. Young adults (N=16) completed a Go/NoGo task with varying object categorization requirements while fMRI data were recorded. Response inhibition elicited increased signal change in various brain regions, including medial frontal areas, compared with response selection. BOLD signal in an area within the right angular gyrus was increased when higher-order categorization was mandated. In addition, signal change during response inhibition varied with categorization requirements in the left inferior temporal gyrus (lIT). lIT-mediated response inhibition when inhibiting the response only required lower-order categorization, but lIT mediated both response selection and inhibition when selecting and inhibiting the response required higher-order categorization. The findings characterized mechanisms mediating response inhibition associated with semantic object categorization in the 'what' visual object memory system.

Chiang HS; Motes MA; Mudar RA; Rao NK; Mansinghani S; Brier MR; Maguire MJ; Kraut MA; Hart J Jr

2013-09-01

254

The structure of semantic person memory: evidence from semantic priming in person recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews research on the structure of semantic person memory as examined with semantic priming. In this experimental paradigm, a familiarity decision on a target face or written name is usually faster when it is preceded by a related as compared to an unrelated prime. This effect has been shown to be relatively short lived and susceptible to interfering items. Moreover, semantic priming can cross stimulus domains, such that a written name can prime a target face and vice versa. However, it remains controversial whether representations of people are stored in associative networks based on co-occurrence, or in more abstract semantic categories. In line with prominent cognitive models of face recognition, which explain semantic priming by shared semantic information between prime and target, recent research demonstrated that priming could be obtained from purely categorically related, non-associated prime/target pairs. Although strategic processes, such as expectancy and retrospective matching likely contribute, there is also evidence for a non-strategic contribution to priming, presumably related to spreading activation. Finally, a semantic priming effect has been demonstrated in the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component, which may reflect facilitated access to semantic information. It is concluded that categorical relatedness is one organizing principle of semantic person memory. PMID:21988391

Wiese, Holger

2011-06-15

255

The structure of semantic person memory: evidence from semantic priming in person recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reviews research on the structure of semantic person memory as examined with semantic priming. In this experimental paradigm, a familiarity decision on a target face or written name is usually faster when it is preceded by a related as compared to an unrelated prime. This effect has been shown to be relatively short lived and susceptible to interfering items. Moreover, semantic priming can cross stimulus domains, such that a written name can prime a target face and vice versa. However, it remains controversial whether representations of people are stored in associative networks based on co-occurrence, or in more abstract semantic categories. In line with prominent cognitive models of face recognition, which explain semantic priming by shared semantic information between prime and target, recent research demonstrated that priming could be obtained from purely categorically related, non-associated prime/target pairs. Although strategic processes, such as expectancy and retrospective matching likely contribute, there is also evidence for a non-strategic contribution to priming, presumably related to spreading activation. Finally, a semantic priming effect has been demonstrated in the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component, which may reflect facilitated access to semantic information. It is concluded that categorical relatedness is one organizing principle of semantic person memory.

Wiese H

2011-11-01

256

The Syntactic and Semantic Processing of Mass and Count Nouns: An ERP Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study addressed the question of whether count and mass nouns are differentially processed in the brain. In two different ERP (Event-Related Potentials) tasks we explored the semantic and syntactic levels of such distinction. Mass and count nouns typically differ in concreteness, hence the effect of this important variable was factorially examined in each task. Thus the stimuli presented were: count concrete, count abstract, mass concrete or mass abstract. The first experiment (concrete/abstract semantic judgment task) involved the interaction between the N400 concreteness effect and the Mass/Count condition, revealing a substantial effect between mass and count nouns at the semantic level. The second experiment (sentence syntactic violation task) showed a Mass/Count distinction on left anterior negativity (LAN) and on P600 components, confirming the difference at the syntactic level. This study suggests that the brain differentiates between count and mass nouns not only at the syntactic level but also at the semantic level. Implications for our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the Mass/Count distinction are discussed.

Chiarelli, Valentina; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Mondini, Sara; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Semenza, Carlo

2011-01-01

257

Using Semantic Web Technology in Requirements Specifications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web technology could be used in capturing, modeling, developing, checking, and validating of requirements specifications. Requirements specification is a complex and time-consuming process. The goal is to describe exactl...

Kroha, Petr; Labra Gayo, José Emilio

258

A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

2007-05-02

259

SEMANTIC GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR TAGBASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag basedrecommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases.Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevantrecommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show acomprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The studybesides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentageof the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much asit does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with suchnumber of expansions, the recommendations change considerably

Frederico Durao; Peter Dolog

2011-01-01

260

Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Semantic Field Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.

Parvaneh Khosravizadeh; Samira Mollaei

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The emergence of Semantic Systems Biology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past decade the biological sciences have been widely embracing Systems Biology and its various data integration approaches to discover new knowledge. Molecular Systems Biology aims to develop hypotheses based on integrated, or modelled data. These hypotheses can be subsequently used to design new experiments for testing, leading to an improved understanding of the biology; a more accurate model of the biological system and therefore an improved ability to develop hypotheses. During the same period the biosciences have also eagerly taken up the emerging Semantic Web as evidenced by the dedicated exploitation of Semantic Web technologies for data integration and sharing in the Life Sciences. We describe how these two approaches merged in Semantic Systems Biology: a data integration and analysis approach complementary to model-based Systems Biology. Semantic Systems Biology augments the integration and sharing of knowledge, and opens new avenues for computational support in quality checking and automated reasoning, and to develop new, testable hypotheses.

Antezana E; Mironov V; Kuiper M

2013-03-01

262

SEMANTIC MACRO-CATEGORY OF ADVERBIALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of mental and language ontology of the egocentric semantic macro-category of adverbiality in English on the basis of the field approach to the language means expressing adverbial meaning.

Bidagayeva Cycygma Dimchikovna

2011-01-01

263

Referential Actions: From Logical Semantics to Implementation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Referential actions (rac's) are specialized triggers used to automaticallymaintain referential integrity. While their local effects can begrasped easily, it is far from obvious what the global semantics of a setRA of interacting rac's should be. To capture the intended meaning ofRA, we first present an abstract non-constructive semantics. By formalizingRA as a logic program PRA , a constructive semantics is obtained.The equivalence of the logic programming semantics and the abstractsemantics is proven using a game-theoretic characterization, which providesadditional insight into the meaning of rac's. As shown in previouswork, for general rac's, it may be infeasible to compute all maximal admissiblesolutions. Therefore, we focus on a tractable subset, i.e., rac'swithout modifications. We show that in this case a unique maximal admissiblesolution exists, and derive a ptime algorithm for computing thissolution. In case a set U of user requests is not admissible, a maximaladmissible subset of U is suggested.1

Bertram Ludascher; Wolfgang May

264

Extending and Implementing the Stable Model Semantics  

CERN Multimedia

An algorithm for computing the stable model semantics of logic programs is developed. It is shown that one can extend the semantics and the algorithm to handle new and more expressive types of rules. Emphasis is placed on the use of efficient implementation techniques. In particular, an implementation of lookahead that safely avoids testing every literal for failure and that makes the use of lookahead feasible is presented. In addition, a good heuristic is derived from the principle that the search space should be minimized. Due to the lack of competitive algorithms and implementations for the computation of stable models, the system is compared with three satisfiability solvers. This shows that the heuristic can be improved by breaking ties, but leaves open the question of how to break them. It also demonstrates that the more expressive rules of the stable model semantics make the semantics clearly preferable over propositional logic when a problem has a more compact logic program representation. Conjunctive...

Simons, P

2000-01-01

265

Timed Mobility Semantics Based on Rewriting Strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider TiMo (Timed Mobility) which is a process algebra for prototyping software engineering applications supporting mobility and timing constraints. We provide an alternative semantics of TiMo using rewriting logic; in particular, we develop a rewri...

G. Ciobanu J. Steggles M. Koutny

2012-01-01

266

In the beginning was game semantics  

CERN Multimedia

This paper presents an overview of computability logic -- the game-semantically constructed logic of interactive computational tasks and resources. A comprehensive online source on the subject can be found at http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html

Japaridze, G

2005-01-01

267

Building Requirements Semantics for Networked Software Interoperability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Naturally, like the web, integrated software systems in Internet will have to be distributed and heterogeneous. To im-prove the interoperability of services for SAAS, it is crucial to build requirements semantics that will cross the entire lifecycle of services especially on requirements stage. In this paper, a requirements semantics interoperability extend-ing approach called Connecting Ontologies (CO) that will act as semantics information carrier designing to facilitate the requirements identification and services composition is proposed. Semantic measurement of Chinese scenario is explored. By adopting the approach, a series of tools support for transport domain are developed and applied based on CO and DPO (Domain Problem Ontology) to enforce requirements engineering of networked software efficiently.

Bin Wen; Keqing He; Jian Wang

2010-01-01

268

Enabling Semantic Interoperability for Earth System Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Data interoperability across heterogeneous systems can be hampered by differences in terminology, particularly when multiple scientific communities are involved. To reconcile differences in semantics, a common semantic framework was created as a collection of ontologies. Such a shared understanding of concepts enables ontology-aware software tools to understand the meaning of terms in documents and web pages. The ontologies were created as part of the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) prototype. The ontologies provide a representation of Earth system science knowledge and associated data, organized in a scalable structure, bulding on the keywords developed by the NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). An integrated search tool consults the ontologies to enable searches without an exact term match. The ontologies can be used within other applications (such as Earth Science Markup Language descriptors) and future semantic web services in Earth system science.

Raskin, R.

2004-12-01

269

Reduction of price dispersion through Semantic  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emergence of semantic web opens up boundlesspossibilities by enabling software agents tointelligently reason about its content. Over 300 millionsearches are conducted everyday on the Internet bypeople trying to find what they need. A majority ofthese searches are in the domain of consumer ecommerce,where a web user is looking for somethingto buy . This represents a huge cost in terms of peoplehours and an enormous drain of resources. Agentenabled semantic search will have a dramatic impacton the precision of these searches. It will reduce andpossibly eliminate information asymmetry where abetter informed buyer gets the best value. Byimpacting this key determinant of market pricessemantic web will foster the evolution of differentbusiness and economic models. We submit that thereis a need for developing these futuristic models basedon our current understanding of e-commerce modelsand nascent semantic web technologies. We believethese business models will encourage mainstream webdevelopers and businesses to join the "semantic webrevolution."1.

270

A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting logic written using techniques that support the modular development of the specification in the precise sense that every module extension is conservative. We show that the MRS of CML can be used to interpret CML programs using the rewrite engine of the Maude system, a high-performance implementation of rewriting logic, and to verify CML programs using Maude's built-in LTL model checker. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic concepts of structural operational semantics and algebraic specifications.

Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira

2004-01-01

271

A Semantic Hierarchy for Erasure Policies  

CERN Document Server

We consider the problem of logical data erasure, contrasting with physical erasure in the same way that end-to-end information flow control contrasts with access control. We present a semantic hierarchy for erasure policies, using a possibilistic knowledge-based semantics to define policy satisfaction such that there is an intuitively clear upper bound on what information an erasure policy permits to be retained. Our hierarchy allows a rich class of erasure policies to be expressed, taking account of the power of the attacker, how much information may be retained, and under what conditions it may be retained. While our main aim is to specify erasure policies, the semantic framework allows quite general information-flow policies to be formulated for a variety of semantic notions of secrecy.

Del Tedesco, Filippo; Sands, David

2011-01-01

272

Semantic Grounding Strategies for Tagbased Recommender Systems  

CERN Multimedia

Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag based recommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases. Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevant recommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show a comprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The study besides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentage of the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much as it does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with such number of expansions, the recommendations change considerably.

Durao, Frederico

2011-01-01

273

Distributional Measures as Proxies for Semantic Relatedness  

CERN Multimedia

The automatic ranking of word pairs as per their semantic relatedness and ability to mimic human notions of semantic relatedness has widespread applications. Measures that rely on raw data (distributional measures) and those that use knowledge-rich ontologies both exist. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare ontological measures with human judgment, the distributional measures have primarily been evaluated by indirect means. This paper is a detailed study of some of the major distributional measures; it lists their respective merits and limitations. New measures that overcome these drawbacks, that are more in line with the human notions of semantic relatedness, are suggested. The paper concludes with an exhaustive comparison of the distributional and ontology-based measures. Along the way, significant research problems are identified. Work on these problems may lead to a better understanding of how semantic relatedness is to be measured.

Mohammad, Saif M

2012-01-01

274

Modular Denotational Semantics for Compiler Construction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We show the benefits of applying modular monadic semantics to compiler construction. Modularmonadicsemantics allows us to define a languagewith a rich set of features from reusablebuildingblocks, and use program transformation and equational reasoning to improve code. Comparedto denotational semantics, reasoning in monadic style offers the added benefits of highly modularizedproofs and more widely applicable results. To demonstrate, we present an axiomatizationof environments, and use it to prove the correctness of a well-known compilation technique. Themonadic approach also facilitates generating code in various target languages with different setsof built-in features.Keywords: denotational semantics, monads, compiler generation.This work was supported by the Advanced Research Project Agency and the Office of Naval Research under Arpa Order8888, Contract N00014-92-C-0153.Draft Version1 IntroductionWe propose a modular semantics which allows language designers to:ff...

Sheng Liang; Paul Hudak

275

Learning Semantic String Transformations from Examples  

CERN Multimedia

We address the problem of performing semantic transformations on strings, which may represent a variety of data types (or their combination) such as a column in a relational table, time, date, currency, etc. Unlike syntactic transformations, which are based on regular expressions and which interpret a string as a sequence of characters, semantic transformations additionally require exploiting the semantics of the data type represented by the string, which may be encoded as a database of relational tables. Manually performing such transformations on a large collection of strings is error prone and cumbersome, while programmatic solutions are beyond the skill-set of end-users. We present a programming by example technology that allows end-users to automate such repetitive tasks. We describe an expressive transformation language for semantic manipulation that combines table lookup operations and syntactic manipulations. We then present a synthesis algorithm that can learn all transformations in the language that...

Singh, Rishabh

2012-01-01

276

Fuzzy logic and semantic Web languages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Managing fuzzyness is starting to play an important role in SemanticWeb representation languages. Our aim is to overview concepts and challenges on combining and implementing such languages with fuzzy logic.

Straccia U.

277

Indirect semantic priming in schizophrenic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenic patients and normal controls performed a lexical decision task involving the recognition of words which were preceded (primed) by either associated, indirectly associated, or non-associated words. In contrast to normal control subjects who showed no indirect semantic priming effect at an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0 ms, a trend towards such an indirect semantic priming effect was found in schizophrenic patients. With a longer ISI of 500 ms, an indirect semantic priming effect was obtained in both groups. In the framework of network models of semantic memory, the results are interpreted as further evidence for an increase in activation or decrease in inhibition in the spreading of associational activation in schizophrenic patients. PMID:8297807

Spitzer, M; Braun, U; Maier, S; Hermle, L; Maher, B A

1993-12-01

278

Indirect semantic priming in schizophrenic patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schizophrenic patients and normal controls performed a lexical decision task involving the recognition of words which were preceded (primed) by either associated, indirectly associated, or non-associated words. In contrast to normal control subjects who showed no indirect semantic priming effect at an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0 ms, a trend towards such an indirect semantic priming effect was found in schizophrenic patients. With a longer ISI of 500 ms, an indirect semantic priming effect was obtained in both groups. In the framework of network models of semantic memory, the results are interpreted as further evidence for an increase in activation or decrease in inhibition in the spreading of associational activation in schizophrenic patients.

Spitzer M; Braun U; Maier S; Hermle L; Maher BA

1993-12-01

279

Preserved semantic priming effect in alexia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BH, a left-handed patient with alexia and nonfluent aphasia, was presented with a lexical-decision task in which words and pronounceable pseudowords were preceded by semantically related or unrelated picture primes (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, BH was given an explicit reading task using the word lists from Experiment 1. Performance on Experiment 2 disclosed severe reading deficits in both oral reading and semantic matching of the words to pictures. However, in Experiment 1, BH demonstrated a significant semantic priming effect, responding more accurately and more quickly to words preceded by related primes than by unrelated primes. The present results suggest that even in a patient with severe alexia, implicit access to semantic information can be preserved in the absence of explicit identification. The possibility of categorical gradient in implicit activation (living vs. nonliving) in BH was also discussed, which, however, needs to be clarified in the further investigation.

Mimura M; Goodglass H; Milberg W

1996-09-01

280

Preserved semantic priming effect in alexia.  

Science.gov (United States)

BH, a left-handed patient with alexia and nonfluent aphasia, was presented with a lexical-decision task in which words and pronounceable pseudowords were preceded by semantically related or unrelated picture primes (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, BH was given an explicit reading task using the word lists from Experiment 1. Performance on Experiment 2 disclosed severe reading deficits in both oral reading and semantic matching of the words to pictures. However, in Experiment 1, BH demonstrated a significant semantic priming effect, responding more accurately and more quickly to words preceded by related primes than by unrelated primes. The present results suggest that even in a patient with severe alexia, implicit access to semantic information can be preserved in the absence of explicit identification. The possibility of categorical gradient in implicit activation (living vs. nonliving) in BH was also discussed, which, however, needs to be clarified in the further investigation. PMID:8866057

Mimura, M; Goodglass, H; Milberg, W

1996-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Mapping Semantic Networks to Undirected Networks  

CERN Multimedia

There exists an injective, information-preserving function that maps a semantic network (i.e a directed labeled network) to a directed network (i.e. a directed unlabeled network). The edge label in the semantic network is represented as a topological feature of the directed network. Also, there exists an injective function that maps a directed network to an undirected network (i.e. an undirected unlabeled network). The edge directionality in the directed network is represented as a topological feature of the undirected network. Through function composition, there exists an injective function that maps a semantic network to an undirected network. Thus, aside from space constraints, the semantic network construct does not have any modeling functionality that is not possible with either a directed or undirected network representation. Two proofs of this idea will be presented. The first is a proof of the aforementioned function composition concept. The second is a simpler proof involving an undirected binary enc...

Rodriguez, Marko A

2008-01-01

282

Hybrid Rules with Well-Founded Semantics  

CERN Document Server

A general framework is proposed for integration of rules and external first order theories. It is based on the well-founded semantics of normal logic programs and inspired by ideas of Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) and constructive negation for logic programs. Hybrid rules are normal clauses extended with constraints in the bodies; constraints are certain formulae in the language of the external theory. A hybrid program is a pair of a set of hybrid rules and an external theory. Instances of the framework are obtained by specifying the class of external theories, and the class of constraints. An example instance is integration of (non-disjunctive) Datalog with ontologies formalized as description logics. The paper defines a declarative semantics of hybrid programs and a goal-driven formal operational semantics. The latter can be seen as a generalization of SLS-resolution. It provides a basis for hybrid implementations combining Prolog with constraint solvers. Soundness of the operational semantics is prove...

Drabent, W

2009-01-01

283

Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. This Perspective discusses the development and use of ontologies that are designed to add semantic information to computational models and simulations.

Courtot, Mélanie; Juty, Nick; Knüpfer, Christian; Waltemath, Dagmar; Zhukova, Anna; Dräger, Andreas; Dumontier, Michel

284

Operational Semantics of Term Rewriting with Priorities  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study the semantics of term rewriting systems with rule priorities(PRS), as introduced in [1]. Three open problems posed in that paper aresolved, by giving counter examples. Moreover, a class of executable PRSs isidentified. A translation of PRSs into transition system specifications (TSS)is given. This translation introduces negative premises. We prove that thetranslation preserves the operational semantics.Contents1 Introduction 22 Term rewriting with rule priorities 32.1 Definition and semantics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2 Fixed points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.3 An executable class of PRSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82.4 Counter examples to open questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Transition system specifications 143.1 Universal negative premises in TSSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.2 Translation of PRSs into TSSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Operational semant...

Jaco Van De Pol

285

An Evolutionary Approach to the Semantic Web  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ereas muchof the research on the semantic web has focused on enablingSQL-style queries and powerful agents, we believe that taggingwill impact browsing and searching before they supportmore "semantically intense" applications.Finally, we believe in Local tags. That is, local communitieswill adopt tagging schemes long before these spreadacross multiple organizations. We are testing our taggingscheme (and our working hypotheses) by attempting to graduallyevolve a miniature semantic web in the University ofWashington Computer Science Department, complete with asimple set of tags, instant gratification "apps.", and authoringtools. Because of our emphasis on local tagging, wehave deferred committing to a mechanism for "semantic interoperability" such as XML namespaces in RDF or the useontologytag in SHOE. However, we anticipate leveragingthe ontology-matching mechanisms outlined in [Doan et al.,2001] .Our tagging scheme was designed to embody the above hypotheses.We int

Oren Etzioni; Steve Gribble; Alon Halevy; Henry Levy

286

Agents making sense of the Semantic Web  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effective use of the vast quantity of available information and serviceson the Internet will require multi-agent systems to be tightly integrated with existingweb infrastructure. This however will be impossible unless the information onthe web is presented in a semantic language, such as the DARPA Agent MarkupLanguage (DAML), which is one aim of the "Semantic Web". As part of ourexploration of Semantic Web technology, and DAML in particular, we have constructedITTALKS, a web-based system for automatic and intelligent notificationof information technology talks. In this paper, we describe the ITTALKS system,and discuss the numerous ways in which the use of Semantic Web conceptsand DAML extend its ability to provide an intelligent online service to both thehuman community and, more interestingly, the agents assisting them.

Lalana Kagal; Filip Perich; Harry Chen; Sovrin Tolia; Youyong Zou; Tim Finin; Anupam Joshi; Yun Peng; R. Scott Cost; Charles Nicholas

287

Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. This paper gives an overview of how the semantic web is used for mining the World Wide Web.

K.Ganapathi Babu; A.Komali; V.Mythry; A.S.K.Ratnam

2012-01-01

288

Semantic web services for web databases  

CERN Multimedia

Semantic Web Services for Web Databases introduces an end-to-end framework for querying Web databases using novel Web service querying techniques. This includes a detailed framework for the query infrastructure for Web databases and services. Case studies are covered in the last section of this book. Semantic Web Services For Web Databases is designed for practitioners and researchers focused on service-oriented computing and Web databases.

Ouzzani, Mourad

2011-01-01

289

Semantic dementia: Aspects of the early diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Semantic dementia is a lobar atrophy syndrome, related to a degeneration of anterior temporal regions, and characterized by a very predominant impairment of semantic memory. Whereas the diagnosis is relatively easy to establish in the typical form and if the patient is seen early, the emergence of possible additional cognitive or psycho-behavioural disorders can lead to a misdiagnosis in favour of a frontotemporal dementia syndrome or even probable Alzheimer's disease.

Belliard S; Merck C; Jonin PY; Vérin M

2013-09-01

290

Semantic Retrieval Approach for Web Documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because of explosive growth of resources in the internet, the information retrieval technology has become particularly important. However the current retrieval methods are essentially based on the full text matching of keywords approach lacking of semantic information and can’t understand the user's query intent very well. These methods return a large number of irrelevant information, and are unable to meet the user's request. Systems have been established so far failed to overcome fully the limitations of search based on keywords. Such systems are built from variations of classic models that represent information by keywords. Using Semantic Web is a way to increase the precision of information retrieval systems. In this paper, we propose the semantic information retrieval approach to extract the information from the web documents in certain domain (jaundice diseases) by collecting the domain relevant documents using focused crawler based on domain ontology, and using similar semantic content that is matched with a given user’s query. Semantic retrieval approach aims to discover semantically similar terms in documents and query terms using WordNet.

Hany M. Harb; Khaled M. Fouad; Nagdy M. Nagdy

2011-01-01

291

Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB) available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

PENG, X.; HUANG, Z.

2012-01-01

292

Query based Personalization in Semantic Web Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In this Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the first part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the second part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank), a Page Rank-style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query

Mahendra Thakur; Yogendra Kumar Jain; Geetika Silakari

2011-01-01

293

Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content providers can access Reflect programmatically using SOAP, REST (HTTP post), and JavaScript. Usage of Reflect has grown rapidly within the life sciences, and while currently only genes, protein and small molecule names are tagged, we plan to soon expand the scope to include a much broader range of terms (e.g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, ‘semantics is in the eye of the end-user’, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic web technologies.

O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko

2010-01-01

294

Adaptive Semantic Middleware for Mobile Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context-awareness is considered a key driving principle for the design and provisioning of adaptable pervasive services. Rightfully describing and interpreting context, however, is a challenging issue. Semantic technologies are emerging as effective means to describe and reason about context information and to allow unknown entities to have a common understanding of context. However, the exploitation of semantic technologies for the design/deployment of context-aware applications in pervasive environments replete with heterogeneous devices requires to address several issues. In particular, a crucial aspect is how to support semantic based service provisioning to mobile devices with limited capabilities. Novel solutions are required to transparently and dynamically adapt semantic-based service provisioning to the properties of different access devices. The paper proposes a middleware-level solution approach that exploits the visibility of two kinds of metadata (profiles and policies) to support the configurability of the semantic support functionalities depending on user/device properties, and that offers a wide set of mechanisms for making viable semantic based service provisioning even to resource-constrained portable devices.

Antonio Corradi; Rebecca Montanari; Alessandra Toninelli

2007-01-01

295

Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene. PMID:17405446

Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

2007-04-01

296

Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene.

Hu W; Xie D; Fu Z; Zeng W; Maybank S

2007-04-01

297

Proceedings Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics 2011  

CERN Multimedia

This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2011, the Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics, held on the 5th of September 2011 in Aachen, Germany as an affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2011, the 22nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) provides a framework for giving operational semantics to programming and specification languages. A growing number of programming languages from commercial and academic spheres have been given usable semantic descriptions by means of structural operational semantics. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, structural operational semantics has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs, and in proving compiler correctness. Moreover, it has found application in emerging areas of computing such as probabilistic systems and systems biology. Structural operational semantics has be...

Reniers, M A; 10.4204/EPTCS.62

2011-01-01

298

Is more always better? Effects of semantic richness on lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from large-scale studies (Pexman, Hargreaves, Siakaluk, Bodner, & Pope, 2008) suggests that semantic richness, a multidimensional construct reflecting the extent of variability in the information associated with a word's meaning, facilitates visual word recognition. Specifically, recognition is better for words that (1) have more semantic neighbors, (2) possess referents with more features, and (3) are associated with more contexts. The present study extends Pexman et al. (2008) by examining how two additional measures of semantic richness, number of senses and number of associates (Pexman, Hargreaves, Edwards, Henry, & Goodyear, 2007), influence lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification performance, after controlling for an array of lexical and semantic variables. We found that number of features and contexts consistently facilitated word recognition but that the effects of semantic neighborhood density and number of associates were less robust. Words with more senses also elicited faster lexical decisions but less accurate semantic classifications. These findings point to how the effects of different semantic dimensions are selectively and adaptively modulated by task-specific demands. PMID:21494916

Yap, Melvin J; Tan, Sarah E; Pexman, Penny M; Hargreaves, Ian S

2011-08-01

299

Is more always better? Effects of semantic richness on lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evidence from large-scale studies (Pexman, Hargreaves, Siakaluk, Bodner, & Pope, 2008) suggests that semantic richness, a multidimensional construct reflecting the extent of variability in the information associated with a word's meaning, facilitates visual word recognition. Specifically, recognition is better for words that (1) have more semantic neighbors, (2) possess referents with more features, and (3) are associated with more contexts. The present study extends Pexman et al. (2008) by examining how two additional measures of semantic richness, number of senses and number of associates (Pexman, Hargreaves, Edwards, Henry, & Goodyear, 2007), influence lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification performance, after controlling for an array of lexical and semantic variables. We found that number of features and contexts consistently facilitated word recognition but that the effects of semantic neighborhood density and number of associates were less robust. Words with more senses also elicited faster lexical decisions but less accurate semantic classifications. These findings point to how the effects of different semantic dimensions are selectively and adaptively modulated by task-specific demands.

Yap MJ; Tan SE; Pexman PM; Hargreaves IS

2011-08-01

300

Semantic Network Disorder in Schizophrenia: Semantic Priming with Simultaneous Presentation of two Primes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the automatic activation of seman-tic priming in schizophrenic patients. Method: 36 schizophrenic patients and 36 normal sub-jects participated in two experiments. In experiment one, the effect of semantic relation on iden- tification of degraded targets was examined between a series of single prime words and single target words presented in a typical semantic priming paradigm. To restrict the priming to au-tomatic processes, in experiment two, series of two primes were presented simultaneously instead of one. Both primes were related to the target, and the effect of semantic relation between two primes on identification of degraded targets was examined. Finding: In experi-ment one, both groups demonstrated semantic priming effect for related words there was no significant difference between the two groups. In experiment two, semantic relation between two primes resulted in a significant priming effect in normal subjects, but not in schizophrenic patients. Results: This study showed that schizophrenic subjects have difficulties in automa-tically activating related words in their semantic networks. Restricting semantic priming to automatic processes can suggest a way to resolve the inconsistencies in studies with schizo-phrenic subjects. 

H. R. Naghavi; V. Sharifi; R. Kormi-Nouri

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The word processing deficit in semantic dementia: all categories are equal, but some categories are more equal than others.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been claimed that semantic dementia (SD), the temporal variant of fronto-temporal dementia, is characterized by an across-the-board deficit affecting all types of conceptual knowledge. We here confirm this generalized deficit but also report differential degrees of impairment in processing specific semantic word categories in a case series of SD patients (N = 11). Within the domain of words with strong visually grounded meaning, the patients' lexical decision accuracy was more impaired for color-related than for form-related words. Likewise, within the domain of action verbs, the patients' performance was worse for words referring to face movements and speech acts than for words semantically linked to actions performed with the hand and arm. Psycholinguistic properties were matched between the stimulus groups entering these contrasts; an explanation for the differential degrees of impairment must therefore involve semantic features of the words in the different conditions. Furthermore, this specific pattern of deficits cannot be captured by classic category distinctions such as nouns versus verbs or living versus nonliving things. Evidence from previous neuroimaging research indicates that color- and face/speech-related words, respectively, draw most heavily on anterior-temporal and inferior-frontal areas, the structures most affected in SD. Our account combines (a) the notion of an anterior-temporal amodal semantic "hub" to explain the profound across-the-board deficit in SD word processing, with (b) a semantic topography model of category-specific circuits whose cortical distributions reflect semantic features of the words and concepts represented.

Pulvermüller F; Cooper-Pye E; Dine C; Hauk O; Nestor PJ; Patterson K

2010-09-01

302

The word processing deficit in semantic dementia: all categories are equal, but some categories are more equal than others.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been claimed that semantic dementia (SD), the temporal variant of fronto-temporal dementia, is characterized by an across-the-board deficit affecting all types of conceptual knowledge. We here confirm this generalized deficit but also report differential degrees of impairment in processing specific semantic word categories in a case series of SD patients (N = 11). Within the domain of words with strong visually grounded meaning, the patients' lexical decision accuracy was more impaired for color-related than for form-related words. Likewise, within the domain of action verbs, the patients' performance was worse for words referring to face movements and speech acts than for words semantically linked to actions performed with the hand and arm. Psycholinguistic properties were matched between the stimulus groups entering these contrasts; an explanation for the differential degrees of impairment must therefore involve semantic features of the words in the different conditions. Furthermore, this specific pattern of deficits cannot be captured by classic category distinctions such as nouns versus verbs or living versus nonliving things. Evidence from previous neuroimaging research indicates that color- and face/speech-related words, respectively, draw most heavily on anterior-temporal and inferior-frontal areas, the structures most affected in SD. Our account combines (a) the notion of an anterior-temporal amodal semantic "hub" to explain the profound across-the-board deficit in SD word processing, with (b) a semantic topography model of category-specific circuits whose cortical distributions reflect semantic features of the words and concepts represented. PMID:19722916

Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Cooper-Pye, Elisa; Dine, Clare; Hauk, Olaf; Nestor, Peter J; Patterson, Karalyn

2010-09-01

303

A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in the research on semantic web and knowledge processing and presents some recent research initiatives.

M.VENU GOPALACHARI; DR. P.SAMMULAL

2013-01-01

304

How Does Ontology Contribute in Semantic Web Development?  

CERN Multimedia

This paper investigates and briefly describes the major currently existing problems with World Wide Web .i.e., Information filtration and Security became the main reasons of semantic web's invention. The semantic web claims of providing the semantic based solutions towards current web problems. Semantic web have introduced and relies on a main building block "Ontology" to provide the information in machine processable semantic models and produce semantically modelled knowledge representation systems. This paper also describes the role, construction process and the contributions of ontology in providing some in time proposed and implemented solutions. Furthermore paper concludes with the currently existing limitations in Ontology and the areas which need improvements.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

305

[Semantic scales for noise evaluation. Third stage: subjective characterization of sound stimuli  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is the third step of a research for which Osgood's Differential Semantic Technique was resorted to in order to get suitable scales on a subjective evaluation of sound stimuli. Thus, a three-stage work was fulfilled. The first one dealt with the construction of seven-point bipolar scales starting from experimentally selected adjectives. The second one succeeded in finding the subjacent dimensions of the said scales by means of Factorial Analysis Method. The present stage aims at characterizing 40 sound stimuli through the discovered dimensions most representative scales. A special Semantic Differential Program was used to getting the following Index: Scalar Scores, Polarity, Familiarity and Interconcept Distances. The interpretation of the Index showed the best characterized stimuli altogether with their affective meanings and their similarities and differences as well.

Biassoni de Serra EC; Suarez de Bonet MD; Verzini de Romera AM

1987-09-01

306

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD) patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados) (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984), and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

Ana Comesaña; Marcela González

2009-01-01

307

Arabic Semantic Web Applications – A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arabic Language is the mother tongue for 23 countries and more than 350 million persons. It is the language of the Holy Quran; therefore, many non-Arabic Islamic countries, like Pakistan, teach Arabic as a second language. Nevertheless, it is observable that the Arabic content on the Web is less than what should be. The evolution of the Semantic Web (SW) added a new dimension to this problem. This paper is an attempt to figure out the problem, its causes, and to open avenues to think about the solutions. The survey presented in this paper concerned with the SW applications regarding the Arabic Language in the domains of Ontology construction and utilization, Arabic WordNet (AWN) exploiting and enrichment, Arabic Named Entities Extraction, Holy Quran and Islamic Knowledge semantic representation, and Arabic Semantic Search Engines. In fact, the study revealed serious deficiencies in dealing semantically with the Arabic Language. That is mainly owing to the rarity of tools that can support the Arabic script. Furthermore, the Arabic resources, if available, are not free. Moreover, there are many technical problems in the semantic dealing with the Arabic context. Therefore, most of the developed applications are not sufficiently proficient. However, due to the significance of the Arabic Language, it is inevitable to overcome these deficiencies in order to put the Arabic Language in the category of the machine-semantically-interpretable languages, rather than just the textually processable ones. This way, we can exploit the power of the Semantic Web features in extracting the essence of the knowledge residing in the Arabic web documents and going beyond dealing with its rigid texts. 

Aya M. Al-Zoghby; Ahmed Sharaf Eldin Ahmed; Taher T. Hamza

2013-01-01

308

Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity  

CERN Multimedia

We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

Jarmasz, Mario

2012-01-01

309

Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds.) ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed.) ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds.) ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980. ‘Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds.) ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed.) ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

Martin Stokhof

2010-01-01

310

Semantic Aggregator of Public Professional Events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data on the web has been created by a large number of people and is hosted in a large number of independent resources across the globe. Therefore, there is a need to develop data aggregators to help the process of knowledge-based integration. The data without central coordination resulted in heterogeneity. The integration of data on the Internet continues to be a challenge for searching and discovery efforts. Semantic aggregators are agents for data integration using semantic web techniques. Semantic web technologies provide the capability to more easily aggregate data and thus can be utilized to improve the efficiency of information discovery. This study describes an implementation of a semantic web infrastructure that collects and integrates data in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format and utilizes the Resource Description Framework (RDF) Data model as the repository. One of the main challenges addressed in this paper is the heterogeneity of existing XML schemata and semantics of websites. The proposed approach is designed to be implemented and tested on publicly available professional events.

Lilac Al-Safadi; Nour Alkhatib; Rawan Babaier; Lama Assum

2012-01-01

311

Discrete Characterization of Domain Using Semantic Clustering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lots of approaches have been developed to understand the software source code and majority of them are focused on program structural information which results in the loss of domain semantic crucial information contained in the text or symbols of source code. To understand software as a whole, we need to enrich these approaches with conceptual insights gained from the domain semantics. This paper proposes the mapping of domain to the code using the information retrieval techniques to use linguistic information, such as identifier names and comments in source code. Concept of Semantic Clustering has been introduced in this paper and an algorithm has been provided to group source artifacts based on how the synonymy and polysemy is related. Based on semantic similarity automatic labeling of the program code is done after detecting the clusters, and is visually explore in 3-Dimension for discrete characterization. This approach works at the source code textual level which makes it language independent. The approach correlates the semantics with structural information applies at different levels of Abstraction (e.g. packages, classes, methods).

Sanjay Madan; Shalini Batra

2010-01-01

312

SEMANTIC BASED MULTIPLE WEB SEARCH ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of information available to end users through the Web, search engines come to play ever a more critical role. Nevertheless, because of their general-purpose approach, it is always less uncommon that obtained result sets provide a burden ofuseless pages. The next-generation Web architecture, represented by the Semantic Web, provides the layered architecture possibly allowing overcoming this limitation. Several search engines have been proposed, which allow increasing information retrieval accuracy by exploiting a key content of Semantic Web resources, that is, relations. To make the Semantic Web work, well-structured data andrules are necessary for agents to roam the Web [2]. XML and RDF are two important technologies: we can create our own structures by XML without indicating what they mean; RDF uses sets of triples which express basic concepts [2]. DAML is the extension of XML and RDF The aim of this project is to develop a search engine based on ontologymatching within the Semantic Web. It uses the data in Semantic Web form such as DAML or RDF. When the user input a query, the program accepts the query and transfers it to a machine learning agent. Then the agent measures the similarity between different ontology’s, and feedback the matched item to the user.

MS.S.LATHA SHANMUGAVADIVU,; DR.M.RAJARAM

2010-01-01

313

FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR), tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

My Abdellah Kassimi; Omar El beqqali

2012-01-01

314

Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW, and with values of the type NOW + D, where D is a non-variable time duration. To accommodate these semantics, three new timestamp values are introduced. Finally, implementation is explored. We show how to represent the variable NOW with columns of standard SQL data types and give a mapping from SQL on NOW-relative  data to standard SQL on these columns. The paper thereby completes the semantics, the querying, and the modification of now-relative databases.   Udgivelsesdato: DEC

Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian SØndergaard

2004-01-01

315

[Electrophysiological bases of semantic processing of objects].  

Science.gov (United States)

How pictures and words are stored and processed in the human brain constitute a long-standing question in cognitive psychology. Behavioral studies have yielded a large amount of data addressing this issue. Generally speaking, these data show that there are some interactions between the semantic processing of pictures and words. However, behavioral methods can provide only limited insight into certain findings. Fortunately, Event-Related Potential (ERP) provides on-line cues about the temporal nature of cognitive processes and contributes to the exploration of their neural substrates. ERPs have been used in order to better understand semantic processing of words and pictures. The main objective of this article is to offer an overview of the electrophysiologic bases of semantic processing of words and pictures. Studies presented in this article showed that the processing of words is associated with an N 400 component, whereas pictures elicited both N 300 and N 400 components. Topographical analysis of the N 400 distribution over the scalp is compatible with the idea that both image-mediated concrete words and pictures access an amodal semantic system. However, given the distinctive N 300 patterns, observed only during picture processing, it appears that picture and word processing rely upon distinct neuronal networks, even if they end up activating more or less similar semantic representations. PMID:17291430

Kahlaoui, Karima; Baccino, Thierry; Joanette, Yves; Magnié, Marie-Noële

2007-02-01

316

Modulating semantic feedback in visual word recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the interactive activation framework proposed by McClelland and Rumelhart (1981), activation spreads both forward and backward between some levels of representation during visual word recognition. An important boundary condition, however, is that the spread of activation from lower to higher levels can be prevented (e.g., explicit letter processing during prime processing eliminates the well-documented semantic priming effect). Can the spread of activation from higher to lower levels also be prevented? This question was addressed with a choice task procedure in which subjects read a prime word and then responded to a target, performing either lexical decision or letter search depending on the color of the target. A semantic context effect was observed in lexical decision, providing evidence of semantic-level activation. In contrast, there was no semantic context effect in the letter search task, despite evidence of lexical involvement: Words were searched faster than nonwords. Further evidence of lexical involvement in the letter search task appeared in Experiment 2 in the form of greater identity priming for words than for nonwords. The results of these experiments are consistent with the conclusion that feedback from the semantic level to the lexical level can be blocked. Hence, between-level activation blocks can be instantiated in both bottom-up and top-down directions. PMID:11340855

Smith, M C; Besner, D

2001-03-01

317

Modulating semantic feedback in visual word recognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

According to the interactive activation framework proposed by McClelland and Rumelhart (1981), activation spreads both forward and backward between some levels of representation during visual word recognition. An important boundary condition, however, is that the spread of activation from lower to higher levels can be prevented (e.g., explicit letter processing during prime processing eliminates the well-documented semantic priming effect). Can the spread of activation from higher to lower levels also be prevented? This question was addressed with a choice task procedure in which subjects read a prime word and then responded to a target, performing either lexical decision or letter search depending on the color of the target. A semantic context effect was observed in lexical decision, providing evidence of semantic-level activation. In contrast, there was no semantic context effect in the letter search task, despite evidence of lexical involvement: Words were searched faster than nonwords. Further evidence of lexical involvement in the letter search task appeared in Experiment 2 in the form of greater identity priming for words than for nonwords. The results of these experiments are consistent with the conclusion that feedback from the semantic level to the lexical level can be blocked. Hence, between-level activation blocks can be instantiated in both bottom-up and top-down directions.

Smith MC; Besner D

2001-03-01

318

Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The success of the Semantic Web crucially depends on the easy creation, integration, and use of semantic data. For this purpose,we consider an integration scenario that defies core assumptions of current metadata construction methods. We describe aframework of metadata creation where Web pages are generated from a database and the database owner is cooperativelyparticipating in the Semantic Web. This leads us to the deep annotation of the database---directly by annotation of the logicaldatabase schema or indirectly by annotation of the Web presentation generated from the database contents. From this annotation,one may execute data mapping and/or migration steps, and thus prepare the data for use in the Semantic Web. We considerdeep annotation as particularly valid because: (i) dynamic Web pages generated from databases outnumber static Web pages,(ii) deep annotation may be a very intuitive way to create semantic data from a database, and (iii) data from databases shouldremain where it can be handled most efficiently---in its databases. Interested users can then query this data directly or choose tomaterialize the data as RDF files.

Raphael Volz; Siegfried Handschuh; Steffen Staab; Ljiljana Stojanovic; Nenad Stojanovic

319

Automatic Construction of Semantic Dictionary for Question Categorization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An automatic method for building a semantic dictionary from existing questions in a pattern-based question answering system is proposed for question categorization. This dictionary consists of two main parts: Semantic Domain Terms (SDT), which is a domain specific term list, and Semantic Labeled Terms (SLT), which contain common terms tagged with semantic labels. The semantic dictionary is built using the proposed method on a set of 2509 questions with semantic patterns in our system. 3390 questions without semantic patterns are used as ground truth to test its performance. Experimental results show that the precision of question classification is improved by 7.5% in average after using the constructed semantic dictionary compared with the baseline method.

Tianyong Hao; Xingliang Ni; Xiaojun Quan; Wenyin Liu

2009-01-01

320

Ontology Based Semantics Checking for UML Activity Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UML activity model is mainly used to model the behaviors of software system and the quality of activity model will influence the quality of software system. But because the UML activity model lacks strictly formal semantics, it is difficult to make formal semantics analysis and checking for activity model. An ontology based method of semantics checking for activity model is proposed. The semantics of activity model is divided into static semantics and dynamic semantics. The static semantics is transformed into OWL DL by an algorithm, and the dynamic semantics is described by DL-Safe rules. Then the consistency of UML activity model is analyzed and some model checking rules are defined, which enables model consistency checking by using an ontology reasoning tool.

Zhixue Wang; Hongyue He; Li Chen; Ying Zhang

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Programming language semantics in a typed lambda-calculus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we are concerned with the mathematical methods for defining the semantics of programming languages. To provide a mathematical semantics for a programming language means to associate with the constructs of the the languge certain mathematical entities.

Aiello L.; Aiello M.

322

An investigation of time course of category and semantic priming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Low semantically similar exemplars in a category demonstrate the category-priming effect through priming of the category (i.e., exemplar-category-exemplar), whereas high semantically similar exemplars in the same category demonstrate the semantic-priming effect (i.e., direct activation of one high semantically similar exemplar by another). The author asked whether the category- and semantic-priming effects are based on a common memory process. She examined this question by testing the time courses of category- and semantic-priming effects. She tested participants on either category- or semantic-priming paradigm at 2 different time intervals (6 min and 42 min) by using a lexical decision task using exemplars from categories. Results showed that the time course of category priming was different from that of semantic priming. The author concludes that these 2 priming effects are based on 2 separate memory processes.

Ray S

2008-04-01

323

A Survey of Paraconsistent Semantics for Logic Programs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this chapter we motivate the use of paraconsistency, andsurvey the most salient paraconsistent semantics for (extended) logic programs,which are briefly defined and explained. Most of the semantics areaccompanied with their multi-valued model theory, giving them a newperspective. The survey also presents new results regarding the embeddingof part of these semantics into normal logic programs under WellFoundedSemantics [20], Partial Stable Model Semantics (or stationarysemantics) [48], and Stable Model Semantics [21]. Furthermore, a conciserecapitulation of other related paraconsistent formalisms is made. Thereader is assumed to have a good knowledge of the semantics of normallogic programs. We believe a comprehensive coverage of the topic as itstands at present is attained here.1 IntroductionOur contribution to this volume consists on giving a logic programmer's view ofhandling inconsistency. The semantics we overview will touch several aspects ofimplem...

Carlos Viegas Dam'asio; Lu'is Moniz Pereira; Centro De Inteligencia Artficial (centria

324

Semantic Models for a Logic of Partial Functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Logic of Partial Functions (LPF) is used to reason about propositions that include terms that can fail to denote values. This paper provides semantics for LPF. A Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) provides an intuitive introduction; this is follow...

C. B. Jones M. J. Lovert

2010-01-01

325

Retrieval from semantic memory as a function of age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty-four subjects, 12 of whom were in the age range 18-30 years and 12 of whom were between 55-65 years, performed two semantic memory tasks. One task involved the recall of an instance from a designated category starting with a specified letter, and the second task required subjects to indicate whether a given work was or was not a member of a designated category (the recognition task). There was a differential effect of age on recall and recognition, the older subjects responding more slowly on the recognition task, but not on the recall task. The response times of the older subjects were less affected by the dominance of the to-be-retrieved information than were the younger subjects. These results suggested that subjects in the older age group may have retrieved information faster than the young subjects, but that they required longer to decide upon response.

Eysenck MW

1975-03-01

326

Stochastic Process Semantics for Dynamical Grammar Syntax: An Overview  

CERN Multimedia

We define a class of probabilistic models in terms of an operator algebra of stochastic processes, and a representation for this class in terms of stochastic parameterized grammars. A syntactic specification of a grammar is mapped to semantics given in terms of a ring of operators, so that grammatical composition corresponds to operator addition or multiplication. The operators are generators for the time-evolution of stochastic processes. Within this modeling framework one can express data clustering models, logic programs, ordinary and stochastic differential equations, graph grammars, and stochastic chemical reaction kinetics. This mathematical formulation connects these apparently distant fields to one another and to mathematical methods from quantum field theory and operator algebra.

Mjolsness, E

2005-01-01

327

When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0). This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0) provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web). This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5) resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5) has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0).

Salvatore F. Pileggi; Carlos Fernandez-Llatas; Vicente Traver

2012-01-01

328

Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

Dinu AIRINEI; Dora-Anca BERTA

2012-01-01

329

A constraint on eliminating semantic priming by repeating a prime.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Repeated semantic primes have been shown to generate an additive semantic priming effect when those primes are different words, but repetition priming of the prime seems to eliminate semantic priming of lexical decisions for reasons that are not clear. These studies replicated this effect but also showed that repetition priming of the prime does not eliminate semantic priming with a longer lag between the repeated primes. The implications of these results for understanding the basic effect are discussed.

Pitzer KD; Dagenbach D

2001-01-01

330

A constraint on eliminating semantic priming by repeating a prime.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repeated semantic primes have been shown to generate an additive semantic priming effect when those primes are different words, but repetition priming of the prime seems to eliminate semantic priming of lexical decisions for reasons that are not clear. These studies replicated this effect but also showed that repetition priming of the prime does not eliminate semantic priming with a longer lag between the repeated primes. The implications of these results for understanding the basic effect are discussed. PMID:11258229

Pitzer, K D; Dagenbach, D

2001-01-01

331

A Semantic Layer for Embedded Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensor Networks progressively assumed the critical role of bridges between the real world and information systems, through always more consolidated and efficient sensor technologies that enable advanced heterogeneous sensor grids. Sensor data is commonly used by advanced systems and intelligent applications in order to archive complex goals. Processes that build high-level knowledge from sensor data are commonly considered as the key core concept. This paper proposes a semantic layer that would optimally support the knowledge building in sensor systems as well as it enables semantic interaction model at different levels (module, subsystem, system). The semantic layer proposed in the paper is currently used by several architectures and applications in the context of different domains.

Salvatore F. Pileggi; Carlos Fernandez-Llatas; Vicente Traver

2011-01-01

332

Towards Semantic Clustering – A Brief Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image clustering is an important technology which helps users to get hold of thelarge amount of online visual information, especially after the rapid growth of theWeb. This paper focuses on image clustering methods and their application inimage collection or online image repository. Current progress of image clusteringrelated to image retrieval and image annotation are summarized and some openproblems are discussed. Related works are summarized based on the problemsaddressed, which are image segmentation, compact representation of image set,search space reduction, and semantic gap. Issues are also identified in currentprogress and semantic clustering is conjectured to be the potential trend. Ourframework of semantic clustering as well as the main abstraction levels involvedis briefly discussed.

Phei-Chin Lim, Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer, Dayang NurFatimah Awg. Iskandar

2011-01-01

333

Robust Semantic Framework for web search engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available . However, in order to rank results, most of the existing solutions need to work on the whole annotated knowledge base. In the existing system a relation-based page rank algorithm to be used in conjunction with Semantic Web search engines that simply relies on information that could be extracted from user queries and on annotated resources. This system retrieves all matching results that are based on minimum spanning nodes and fails to represent the owl and rdf structure in graphical representation.Proposed system overcomes all the drawbacks by introducing a new framework to represent the web semantic results based on the query. This system uses OWL , logic programming in order to get effective semantic search results. This proposed system represents all the OWL structure relationships in graphical node representation.

V.Swamy Naidu #1 , S.Narayana #2

2012-01-01

334

A Semantic Approach for Document Clustering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional document mining systems mainly use the presence or absence of keywords to mine texts. However, simple word counting and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. In this paper, the application of a semantic understanding-based approach to mine documents is presented. The approach is based on semantic notions to represent text, and to measure similarity between text documents. The representation scheme reflects existing relations between concepts and facilitates accurate similarity measurements that result in better mining performance. A document mining process, namely semantic document clustering, is investigated and tackled in various ways. The proposed representation scheme along with the proposed similarity measure were implemented as vital components of a mining system. The approach has enabled more effective document clustering than what conventional techniques would provide. The experimental work is reported, and its results are presented and analyzed.

Khaled Shaban

2009-01-01

335

Symbolic and Asynchronous Semantics via Normalized Coalgebras  

CERN Document Server

The operational semantics of interactive systems is usually described by labeled transition systems. Abstract semantics (that is defined in terms of bisimilarity) is characterized by the final morphism in some category of coalgebras. Since the behaviour of interactive systems is for many reasons infinite, symbolic semantics were introduced as a mean to define smaller, possibly finite, transition systems, by employing symbolic actions and avoiding some sources of infiniteness. Unfortunately, symbolic bisimilarity has a different shape with respect to ordinary bisimilarity, and thus the standard coalgebraic characterization does not work. In this paper, we introduce its coalgebraic models. We will use as motivating examples two asynchronous formalisms: open Petri nets and asynchronous pi-calculus. Indeed, as we have shown in a previous paper, asynchronous bisimilarity can be seen as an instance of symbolic bisimilarity.

Bonchi, Filippo

2011-01-01

336

Semantic priming: subliminal perception or context?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Briefly presented, masked priming stimuli that cannot be identified by themselves can affect the processing of subsequent targets. The effect, which is sometimes viewed as a demonstration of unconscious processing, has been linked to the subliminal perception literature. Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that the identification of primes in the context of semantically related targets is superior to the identification of primes presented alone, and that the identification of primes in the context of semantically unrelated targets is inferior to the identification of primes presented alone. Experiment 3 indicated parallel findings in a recognition task. Consequently, an explanation of semantic priming in terms of the interactive nature of stimuli that are near to one another in time seems preferable to one based upon concepts of unconscious processing and subliminal perception.

Bernstein IH; Bissonnette V; Vyas A; Barclay P

1989-02-01

337

Semantic priming: subliminal perception or context?  

Science.gov (United States)

Briefly presented, masked priming stimuli that cannot be identified by themselves can affect the processing of subsequent targets. The effect, which is sometimes viewed as a demonstration of unconscious processing, has been linked to the subliminal perception literature. Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that the identification of primes in the context of semantically related targets is superior to the identification of primes presented alone, and that the identification of primes in the context of semantically unrelated targets is inferior to the identification of primes presented alone. Experiment 3 indicated parallel findings in a recognition task. Consequently, an explanation of semantic priming in terms of the interactive nature of stimuli that are near to one another in time seems preferable to one based upon concepts of unconscious processing and subliminal perception. PMID:2928077

Bernstein, I H; Bissonnette, V; Vyas, A; Barclay, P

1989-02-01

338

HYPERTEXT ENTITIES’ SEMANTIC WEB-ORIENTED REENGINEERING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper’s aim is to define the concept of Hypertext Semantic Web-Oriented Reengineering (HSR) as a process of distributed applications development which takes into consideration the semantic aspect in information retrieval and communication. It is virtually possible to apply the reengineering on web applications concerned being about the efficiency of the ideas of data structures and implementation than to mainly being troubled with the language or syntactic point of view. This research also brings some examples of distributed applications types, some small segments of them being mainly explained as well, in order to make our theory strongly connected with the practical work from software companies. It is very important that semantic approaches to be implemented while developing software applications, mostly when reengineering is integrated in the development process, as a step for the evolution to the next generation of web.

Cosmin TOMOZEI

2008-01-01

339

Proceedings Sixth Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics  

CERN Multimedia

This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2009, the Sixth Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics held on the 31st of August 2009 in Bologna, Italy as a affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2009, the 20th International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. The workshop is forum for researchers, students and practitioners interested in new developments and directions for future investigations in the area of SOS. One of the specific goals of the workshop is to provide a meeting point for the concurrency and programming language communities. Another goal is the dissemination of the theory and practice of SOS amongst postgraduate students and young researchers worldwide.

Klin, Bartek; 10.4204/EPTCS.18

2010-01-01

340

Discovering Recurrent Image Semantics from Class Discrimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supervised statistical learning has become a critical means to design and learn visual concepts (e.g., faces, foliage, buildings, etc.) in content-based indexing systems. The drawback of this approach is the need of manual labeling of regions. While several automatic image annotation methods proposed recently are very promising, they usually rely on the availability and analysis of associated text descriptions. In this paper, we propose a hybrid learning framework to discover local semantic regions and generate their samples for training of local detectors with minimal human intervention. A multiscale segmentation-free framework is proposed to embed the soft presence of discovered semantic regions and local class patterns in an image independently for indexing and matching. Based on 2400 heterogeneous consumer images with 16 semantic queries, both similarity matching based on individual index and integrated similarity matching have outperformed a feature fusion approach by 26% and 37% in average precisions, respectively.

Lim Joo-Hwee; Jin Jesse S

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

[Why radiologists should be concerned with semantics].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiological image and data archives contain huge amounts of data which are barely utilized by current technologies. In the future semantic technologies currently under development will enable analysis of the contents not only on the level of individual patients but also along entire data collections thereby resulting in new applications that will benefit routine clinical practice, teaching activities and research. As a prerequisite the development of software for semantic analysis of image and report contents is necessary, i.e. an "understanding" of the contents by the software. Based on specific ontologies, standardized protocols and semantic image annotation new systems will be developed that make the content of these data archives accessible and support diagnosis, quality assurance, innovative research applications and last not least, the merging of data of different medical disciplines, such as radiology, pathology and clinical chemistry.

Gerstmair A; Kotter E

2013-08-01

342

Connectionist Models of Reading: Incorporating Semantics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There now exist direct route connectionist models ofreading aloud (i.e. text to phoneme conversion) that learnto perform on their training data and unseen words withaccuracy comparable to that of humans. They alsoexhibit a number of developmental, reaction time andbrain damage effects that are observed experimentally.However, various deficiencies (such as their failure toperform accurate lexical decision and to show thepseudohomophone effect) indicate the need toincorporate some form of lexical/semantic system intothese models. In this paper we present a preliminaryinvestigation of this problem. A general framework isoutlined that models network activation flow betweenorthography, phonology and semantics. Explicit smallscale connectionist simulations show how such anapproach can account for many aspects of reading (andrelated tasks) that are not possible without the influenceof the semantic system. Further possible refinements ofthis approach are dis...

John A. Bullinaria

343

Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF) and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) to semantically find plagiarism.

Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

2013-01-01

344

Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search  

CERN Multimedia

Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search is based on "joint meaning" understood as a joint construal of the creators of the contents and the user of the contents using the faced taxonomy with the Semantic Web. A proof-of concept prototype shows how the proposed methodological approach can also be applied to existing presentation components, built with different languages and/or component technologies.

Mas, Massimiliano Dal

2012-01-01

345

A new account of rationality and semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how a new outlook on human cognitive abilities, and in accordance with this a different view of rationality, can influence semantics and one of the most prominent debates in this field, namely, conflict between Fregeans and non Fregean anti-indiviidualists. This new account of rationality will help us difuse some of the main motivators for Fregean view of semantics and it will help us in justifying non-Fregean anti-individualism but also in eliminating some of the apparent contradictions in Fregean anti-individualism of, e.g. Campbell and Evans. In this attempt of bringing together some of the latest insights into human cognition and semantics I will be dealing mainly with Jessica Brown's outlook on motivation for Fregean sense and Ruth Millikan's embedded view on rationality.

Milojevi? Miljana

2011-01-01

346

Denotational semantics of a parafunctional programming language  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A parafunctional programming language is a functional language that has been extended with special annotations that provide an extra degree of control over parallel evaluation. Of most interest are annotations that allow one to express the dynamic mapping of a program onto a known multiprocessor topology. Since it is quite desirable to provide a precise semantics for any programming language, in this paper a denotational semantics is given for a simple parafunctional programming language with mapping annotations. A precise meaning is given not only to the normal functional behavior of the program (i.e., the answer), but also to the operational notion of where (i.e., on what processor) expressions are evaluated. The latter semantics is accomplished through an abstract entity called an execution tree.

Hudak, P.

1986-04-01

347

Suppressed semantic information accelerates analytic problem solving.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the limits of semantic processing without awareness, during continuous flash suppression (CFS). We used compound remote associate word problems, in which three seemingly unrelated words (e.g., pine, crab, sauce) form a common compound with a single solution word (e.g., apple). During the first 3 s of each trial, the three problem words or three irrelevant words (control condition) were suppressed from awareness, using CFS. The words then became visible, and participants attempted to solve the word problem. Once the participants solved the problem, they indicated whether they had solved it by insight or analytically. Overall, the compound remote associate word problems were solved significantly faster after the problem words, as compared with irrelevant words, were presented during the suppression period. However this facilitation occurred only when people solved with analysis, not with insight. These results demonstrate that semantic processing, but not necessarily semantic integration, may occur without awareness. PMID:23250762

Zabelina, Darya L; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru; Beeman, Mark

2013-06-01

348

Suppressed semantic information accelerates analytic problem solving.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study investigated the limits of semantic processing without awareness, during continuous flash suppression (CFS). We used compound remote associate word problems, in which three seemingly unrelated words (e.g., pine, crab, sauce) form a common compound with a single solution word (e.g., apple). During the first 3 s of each trial, the three problem words or three irrelevant words (control condition) were suppressed from awareness, using CFS. The words then became visible, and participants attempted to solve the word problem. Once the participants solved the problem, they indicated whether they had solved it by insight or analytically. Overall, the compound remote associate word problems were solved significantly faster after the problem words, as compared with irrelevant words, were presented during the suppression period. However this facilitation occurred only when people solved with analysis, not with insight. These results demonstrate that semantic processing, but not necessarily semantic integration, may occur without awareness.

Zabelina DL; Guzman-Martinez E; Ortega L; Grabowecky M; Suzuki S; Beeman M

2013-06-01

349

Relational Semantics for Databases and Predicate Calculus  

CERN Multimedia

The relational data model requires a theory of relations in which tuples are not only many-sorted, but can also have indexes that are not necessarily numerical. In this paper we develop such a theory and define operations on relations that are adequate for database use. The operations are similar to those of Codd's relational algebra, but differ in being based on a mathematically adequate theory of relations. The semantics of predicate calculus, being oriented toward the concept of satisfiability, is not suitable for relational databases. We develop an alternative semantics that assigns relations as meaning to formulas with free variables. This semantics makes the classical predicate calculus suitable as a query language for relational databases.

Kelly, Philip

2012-01-01

350

A Semantics for a Logic of Authentication  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

)Mart'in AbadiDigital Equipment CorporationSystems Research Center130 Lytton AvenuePalo Alto, CA 94301ma@src.dec.comMark R. TuttleDigital Equipment CorporationCambridge Research LabOne Kendall Square, Bldg. 700Cambridge, MA 02139tuttle@crl.dec.comAbstract: Burrows, Abadi, and Needham have proposeda logic for the analysis of authentication protocols.It is a logic of belief, with special constructs forexpressing some of the central concepts used in authentication.The logic has revealed many subtletiesand serious errors in published protocols. Unfortunately,it has also created some confusion.In this paper, we provide a new semantics forthe logic, our attempt to clarify its meaning. Inthe search for a sound semantics, we have identifiedmany sources of the past confusion. Identifying thesesources has helped us improve the logic's syntax andinference rules, and extend its applicability. One ofthe greatest differences between our semantics andthe original semanti...

351

The Semantics of Behavioral VHDL'93 Descriptions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a rigorous but transparent semanticdefinition of VHDL'93 covering the complete signalbehavior and time model including the various waitstatements and signal assignment statements. Wepresent a VHDL interpreter in the form of rules ofa concurrent evolving algebra which faithfully reflectsand supports the view given in the VHDL'93 standardlanguage reference manual.1 IntroductionApproaching the definition of a formal semanticsof the IEEE Std-1076 hardware description languageVHDL'87 as well as of the new VHDL'931[VHDL93]standard is of high interest for the synthesis and theformal verification of VHDL models.Borrione and Paillet [BoPa87] have done first investigationsdefining the semantics of a VHDL'87 subsetin terms of a functional model. Further investigationscan be found in [Sal92, SaBo93]. The definitionof a subset of the VHDL'87 semantics in termsof Booyer-Moore Logic is presented by Read and Edwardsin [ReEd94]. Wilsey [Wilsey90] defines the semant...

Egon Borger; Uwe Glasser; Wolfgang Muller

352

The Semantic Web: Yet Another Hip?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Currently, computers are changing from single, isolateddevices into entry points to a worldwide network of informationexchange and business transactions called the World Wide Web(WWW). For this reason, support in data, information, andknowledge exchange has become a key issue in current computertechnology. The success of the WWW has made it increasinglydifficult to find, access, present, and maintain the informationrequired by a wide variety of users. In response to this problem,many new research initiatives and commercial enterprises havebeen set up to enrich available information with machineprocessable semantics. This semantic web will provide intelligentaccess to heterogeneous, distributed information, enablingsoftware products (agents) to mediate between user needs and theinformation sources available. This paper summarizes ongoingresearch in the area of the semantic web, focusing especially onontology technology.

Ying Ding; Dieter Fensel; Michel Klein; Borys Omelayenko

353

Electrophysiological Chronometry of Semantic Context Effects in Language Production  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated semantic context effects in language production with event-related brain potentials, extracted from the ongoing EEG recorded during overt speech production. We combined the picture-word interference paradigm and the semantic blocking paradigm to investigate the temporal dynamics and functional loci of semantic

Aristei, Sabrina; Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

2011-01-01

354

Semantic Space for the Verification of Economic Mathematical Models ????????????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of semantic space to control the dimension of economic and physical variables in the verification of economic mathematical models is proposed. The basis of the semantic space is the vector representation of dimension values. For construction of semantic space the classification of units of measurement and recording of business objects and goods in Ukraine was considered.???????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ???????.

Petrik Valeriya L.

2013-01-01

355

SEMANTIC SPACE OF COMPUTER GAMES: THE ATTEMPT OF RECONSTRUCTION ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???: ???? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents an empirical psycho semantic survey with the aim to reveal implicit model categories of computer games in everyday consciousness. Semantic space contained two main psychological «dimensions» of computer games and may to explain human disposition to computer play activity. New term “semantic space of computer games” is determined

Luzakov A. A.; Omelchenko N. V.

2012-01-01

356

Ontology-Driven Query Reformulation in Semantic Search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic search is a research area in which the goal is to understand the users intended meaning of the query. This requires disambiguation of the user query and interpreting the semantics of the query. Semantic search would thus improve the users search experience through more precise result sets....

Solskinnsbakk, Geir

357

Semantics and Security Issues in JavaScript  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a plethora of research articles describing the deep semantics of JavaScript. Nevertheless, such articles are often difficult to grasp for readers not familiar with formal semantics. In this report, we propose a digest of the semantics of JavaScript centered around security concerns. This do...

Ducasse, Stéphane; Petton, Nicolas; Polito, Guillermo; Cassou, Damien

358

User Search Personalization in Semantic Web Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behaviour (usage data) in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In the first part of our Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the second part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank), a Page Rank style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query.

T.Venkata Ramana , Dr.K.Venugopala Rao

2012-01-01

359

Supervised Semantic Classification for Nuclear Proliferation Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing feature extraction and classification approaches are not suitable for monitoring proliferation activity using high-resolution multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. In this paper we present a supervised semantic labeling framework based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation method. This framework is used to analyze over 120 images collected under different spatial and temporal settings over the globe representing three major semantic categories: airports, nuclear, and coal power plants. Initial experimental results show a reasonable discrimination of these three categories even though coal and nuclear images share highly common and overlapping objects. This research also identified several research challenges associated with nuclear proliferation monitoring using high resolution remote sensing images.

Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL

2010-01-01

360

Semantic Web and Model-Driven Engineering  

CERN Multimedia

The next enterprise computing era will rely on the synergy between both technologies: semantic web and model-driven software development (MDSD). The semantic web organizes system knowledge in conceptual domains according to its meaning. It addresses various enterprise computing needs by identifying, abstracting and rationalizing commonalities, and checking for inconsistencies across system specifications. On the other side, model-driven software development is closing the gap among business requirements, designs and executables by using domain-specific languages with custom-built syntax and se

Parreiras, Fernando S

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Empirical distributional semantics: methods and biomedical applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past 15 years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed.

Cohen T; Widdows D

2009-04-01

362

Empirical distributional semantics: methods and biomedical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 15 years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

2009-02-14

363

Interpreting Inference Engine for Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic web is a web of data, where data should be related to one another and also Knowledge will be organized in conceptual spaces according to its meaning. To understand and use the data and knowledge encoded in semantic web documents requires inference engine. There are number of inference engines used for consistency checking and classification like Pellet, Fact, Fact++, Hermit, Racer Pro, KaON2, and Base Visor. Some of them are reviewed and tested for few prebuilt ontologies. This paper presents the analysis of different inference engines with set of ontologies. It requires assessment and evaluation before selecting an appropriate inference engine for a given application.

MS. PRIYANKA PATEL , MS. PRIYANKA TRIKHA

2013-01-01

364

Context Semantics, Linear Logic and Computational Complexity  

CERN Document Server

We show that context semantics can be fruitfully used to estimate the computational cost of proof normalization in linear logic. In particular, context semantics lets us define the weight of a proof-net in such a way that the time needed to normalize a given proof is deeply related to its weight: the time needed to normalize a proof-net is bounded by a polynomial on its weight, while there are strategies such that the weight is a lower bound to normalization time.

Lago, U D

2005-01-01

365

Preposition Semantic Classification via TREEBANK and FRAMENET  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports on experiments in classifyingthe semantic role annotations assignedto prepositional phrases in boththe PENN TREEBANK (version II) andFRAMENET (version 0.75). This task canbe viewed as word-sense disambiguation,treating the semantic roles of prepositionalphrases as word senses for the associatedpreposition. Three sets of experimentsare done: one evaluates crossfoldvalidation over the TREEBANK roleannotations; another does the same forthe FRAMENET role annotations; the lastevaluates the applicability of lexical associationsacross datasets. Each set of experimentscompares the use of traditional lexicalassociations (i.e., collocations) versusclass-based lexical associations usingWordNet synsets. The latter generalizebetter to handle unknown datasets.

Janyce Wiebe

366

Behavior Analysis of Semantic Data Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many traditional models of databasepresent now a days in the form of Hierarchical model, NetworkModel, Relational model. Since they offer many advantages interms of data integrity, data storage and retrieval but there is abig disadvantage as compared to latest introduced databasemodels i.e semantic models such as Sembase, SAM, RM/T. Ourpaper presents many disadvantages of Conventional orTraditional Database Models as compared to Semantic modelsand try to find the efficient solution of these disadvantages. Thispaper also presents performance evaluation factors of differentsemantic models.

Chirag Sharma; Sandeep Kaur

2012-01-01

367

Symbolic Representation of Algorithmic Game Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of second-order recursion free Idealized Algol with infinite data types. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones we generalize the standard notion of regular-language and automata representations to that of corresponding symbolic representations. In this way terms with infinite data types, such as integers, can be expressed as finite symbolic-automata although the standard automata interpretation is infinite. Moreover, significant reductions of the state space of game semantics models are obtained. This enables efficient verification of terms, which is illustrated with several examples.

Aleksandar S. Dimovski

2012-01-01

368

Treatment of Semantic Heterogeneity in Information Retrieval  

CERN Multimedia

The first step to handle semantic heterogeneity should be the attempt to enrich the semantic information about documents, i.e. to fill up the gaps in the documents meta-data automatically. Section 2 describes a set of cascading deductive and heuristic extraction rules, which were developed in the project CARMEN for the domain of Social Sciences. The mapping between different terminologies can be done by using intellectual, statistical and/or neural network transfer modules. Intellectual transfers use cross-concordances between different classification schemes or thesauri. Section 3 describes the creation, storage and handling of such transfers.

Hellweg, Heiko; Mandl, Thomas; Marx, Jutta; Müller, Matthias N O; Mutschke, Peter; Strötgen, Robert

2011-01-01

369

APPROACHES IN THE SEMANTIC FIELD OF QUANTITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There have been different approaches of interpreting the semantic field of quantity. Whether it is small quantity, large quantity or approximators, they all contribute to a better understanding of the above-mentioned field. The present study aims to analyze different quantifying structures and what they communicate in various contexts, in a contrastive approach both in Romanian and English. The two languages have been chosen due to the richness of quantifying constructions and their interpretation integrated into a grammatical and semantic theory. The topic of this paper in meant to determine what a speaker intends to express when using a quantifying entity.

Laura IONIC?

2010-01-01

370

Potential Advantages Of Semantic Web For  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Past decade saw much hype in the area of information technology. The emerging of semantic Web makes usask if it is another hype. This paper focuses on its potential application in Internet commerce and intends toanswer the question to some degree. The contributions are: first, we find and examine twelve potentialadvantages of applying semantic Web for Internet commerce; second, we conduct a case study of eprocurementin order to show its advantages for each process of e-procurement; lastly, we identify criticalresearch issues that may transfer the potential advantages into tangible benefits.

Yuxiao Zhao; Kristian S

371

Modelling Browsing Semantics in Hypertexts Using UML  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Navigation is one of the basic characteristics of a hypertext. This feature enablesbrowsing through different paths within the hypertext document. On the other handa problem of being lost in hyperspace can arise. One solution to this problem is improvinga hypertext structure. This can be achieved by creating a model of hypertext dynamicbehaviour. This paper presents our approach to modelling navigational structure ofhypertext using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). Our goal is to define a unifiedframework for modelling hypertext browsing semantics. We specify semantics for diagramscapable of interaction and navigation modelling. An example of a university course specificationis given to illustrate the use of the proposed extensions to UML techniques.

Peter Dolog; Mria Bielikov

372

Derived Stimulus Relations, Semantic Priming, and Event-Related Potentials: Testing a Behavioral Theory of Semantic Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Derived equivalence relations, it has been argued, provide a behavioral model of semantic or symbolic meaning in natural language, and thus equivalence relations should possess properties that are typically associated with semantic relations. The present study sought to test this basic postulate using semantic priming. Across three experiments,…

Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Staunton, Carmel; Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Dymond, Simon

2005-01-01

373

Creating Semantically Integrated Communities on the World Wide Web  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we address the question: How can we create a network of semantically integratedcommunities on the World Wide Web? We first clarify some confusion about what "semantics"means and introduce a semantic continuum ranging from the kind of semantics that exist on theWeb today to a rich semantic infrastructure on the Semantic Web of the future. We clarify what ismeant by "semantic integration" introducing and defining a "gold standard" whereby two agentsthat have never met before can successfully exchange information. We acknowledge that this goldstandard will only be reachable in limited circumstances, and that a variety of approaches will beneeded to achieve successful agent interaction in practical situations on the semantic Web.Towards this end, we introduce several architectures for achieving semantic integration. Each aredefined and compared on the basis of how the following questions are answered. Who and whenare semantic mappings created between agent ontologies? Is the architecture point to pointbetween each agents, or mediated through another ontology? What is the nature of agreementsamong the agents? We conclude by making some predictions and recommendations on how thesemantic Web will evolve in the coming years.1 A Semantic ContinuumIf the Semantic Web becomes a reality, it will emerge from the creation of a network of semanticallyintegrated communities on the World Wide Web. Before we consider semantic integration, we firstconsider the nature of semantics, as understood by a variety of different people and communities. Thereseems to be broad agreement that the core idea underlying the "Semantic Web" is machine-usable content.

Honolulu Hi; Michael Uschold; Michael Gruninger

374

Discovering Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Document and Context Aware Semantic Association Ranking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of information in the web is too large,so search engine come to play a more critical role to findrelation between input keywords. Semantic Similarity Measureis widely used in Information Retrieval (IR) and also it isimportant component in various tasks on the web such asrelation extraction, community mining, document clustering,and automatic metadata extraction. An empirical method toestimate semantic similarity using page counts and text snippetsretrieved from a web search engine for two words. Specifically,define various word co-occurrence measures using page countsand integrate those with lexical patterns extracted from textsnippets. Pattern clustering is used to identify the numeroussemantic relations that exist between two given words. Theoptimal combination of page counts-based co-occurrencemeasures and lexical pattern clusters is learned using supportvector machines. The proposed method context AwareSemantic Association Ranking discovering complex andmeaningful relationships, which we call Semantic Associations.

P.Ilakiya

2013-01-01

375

High performance semantic factoring of giga-scale semantic graph databases.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to bring high performance computational resources to bear on their analysis, interpretation, and visualization, especially with respect to their innate semantic structure. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multithreaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional clusters, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture, and present the results of our deploying that for the analysis of the Billion Triple dataset with respect to its semantic factors, including basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths.

al-Saffar, Sinan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Adolf, Bob (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Haglin, David (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mackey, Greg Edward; Goodman, Eric L.; Joslyn, Cliff A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Feo, John (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mizell, David (Cray, Inc.)

2010-10-01

376

SEMANTIC ASSOCIATION-BASED SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION METHOD ON THE SEMANTIC WEB PORTAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the information on the web dramatically increases, the existing web reveals more and more limitationsin information search because web pages are designed only for human consumption by mixing contentwith presentation. In order to improve this situation, the Semantic Web based on ontology comes on thestage by W3C, and it will bring a significant advancement in web search. To do this, the Semantic Webmust provide novel search and visualization methods which can help users instantly and intuitivelyunderstand why and how the results are retrieved. In this paper, we propose a semantic associationbasedsearch methodology that consists of how to find relevant information for a given user’s query in theontology, that is, a semantic network of resources and properties, and how to provide propervisualization and navigation methods on the results. From this work, users can search the semanticallyassociated resources with their query and also navigate such associations between resources.

Myungjin Lee; Wooju Kim; June Seok Hong; Sangun Park

2010-01-01

377

A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available information which is belong to original semantic web, reduces the complexity and indirectly analysis the national facial features. Lastly, the effectiveness of our experiment is demonstrated by some real-word data sets.  

LI Zedong; DUAN Xiaodong; ZHANG Qingling

2013-01-01

378

SEMANTIC WIKIS AND THE COLLABORATIVE CONSTRUCTION OF ONTOLOGIES: CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ontologies are complex artifacts. They should seek consensus on the use of a set of modeledconcepts. Some authors propose that these devices would be beneficial if they were builtcollaboratively. This article aims to address the use of a semantic wiki as an alternative to thecollaborative construction of ontologies, and describes its ontological structure. Wikis are knownas tools for collaborative construction of content. The semantic wiki is a research effort tointegrate the concepts of wikis with the semantic web. The case study presented shows animplementation in Semantic MediaWiki: the best known and most used semantic wiki featuresby the academic community and the organizational environment.

Fernando Hadad Zaidan; Marcello Peixoto Bax

2011-01-01

379

Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing amount of health information and frequent outbreaks of diseases, the retrieval of health information is given more concern. Machine understanding of spatial information can improve the interpretation of health data semantics. Most of the current research focused on the non-spatial semantics of health data, using ontologies and rules. Utilizing the spatial component of health data can assist in the understanding of health phenomena. This research proposes a semantic health information query architecture that allows the incorporation of both non-spatial semantics and geospatial semantics in health information integration and retrieval.

Gao, S.; Anton, François

2012-01-01

380

VPOET: Using a Distributed Collaborative Platform for Semantic Web Applications  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes a distributed collaborative wiki-based platform that has been designed to facilitate the development of Semantic Web applications. The applications designed using this platform are able to build semantic data through the cooperation of different developers and to exploit that semantic data. The paper shows a practical case study on the application VPOET, and how an application based on Google Gadgets has been designed to test VPOET and let human users exploit the semantic data created. This practical example can be used to show how different Semantic Web technologies can be integrated into a particular Web application, and how the knowledge can be cooperatively improved.

Rico, Mariano; Corcho, Oscar

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Pstable Semantics for Logic Programs with Possibilistic Ordered Disjunction  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we define the semantics for capturing possibilistic ordered disjunction programs based on pstable semantics. The pstable semantics, based on paraconsistent logic, allows to treat inconsistency programs. Moreover being closer to possibilistic inference it allows to extend the necessity-values of the clauses to be considered, causing a higher level of comparison at the moment of selecting preferred pstable models of a possibilistic ordered disjunction programs. We compare the possibilistic pstable semantics for ordered disjunction programs with the recently defined possibilistic answer set semantics for the same class of logic programs.

Confalonieri, Roberto; Nieves, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Salceda, Javier

382

The role of non-semantic factors in semantic satiation effect in schizophrenia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background and Objectives: Semantic satiation is defined as the subjective experience of the loss of access to the meanings of words or images caused by prolonged and quick repetitions of the material. Previous researches indicated that the semantic satiation of words and images occurs faster in schizophrenics than in healthy subjects. Individuals suffering from schizophrenia reveal the tendency to lose of access to the meaning of words after fewer words repetition than h (more) ealthy controls. The aim of the research was to establish whether the semantic satiation of images in schizophrenia is the effect of the loss of meanings of images or is caused by non - semantic factors i.e. fatiguing experimental procedure. Methods: It was assumed that in conditions where the participant's level of fatigue was parallel to the fatigue observed in the research on semantic satiation and the meaning of satiated images was not required for semantic decisions, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls would not reveal the semantic satiation effect defined as an increase in reaction time. Two groups of participants: patients suffering from schizophrenia (10 women and 10 men, average age 30) and healthy controls (9 female and 9 male, average age 30.7) were shown 80 trails. Each one of them consisted of a satiated image which appeared repeatedly on the computer screen, and a non-satiated image accompanied by a written word, which were shown simultaneously after the final presentation of the satiated image. The participants' task was to decide whether the written word named the object presented on the non-satiated picture correctly. The participants did not make any decisions on the basis of satiated images. Results: The results obtained confirmed the hypothesis. In conditions where participants were shown the images flashing on the computer screen but were not required to make a semantic decision related to those images, their reaction time to subsequently presented stimuli did not lengthen. Conclusions: The results confirmed the hypothesis that the semantic satiation effect in schizophrenia is a semantic phenomenon and is not related to non-semantic factors such as the subjects' fatigue.

Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Ż uchowicz, Judyta

2013-06-01

383

Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there is no agreement for one of these visions nor is there a clear picture for the relation between different layers inside this architecture and the associated technologies. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Identify the weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures and (ii) Reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses. Approach: This research uses the Qualitative Analysis Approach of Taylor and Renner, presents the four versions of the Semantic Web architecture, describing the function(s) and status of each layer and associated technologies, evaluates them using Gerber evaluation method and determines other design principles needed to modify and adapt this architecture as a step toward an agreement for one Semantic Web architecture. Results: The design of a new model for the Semantic Web architecture depends on the idea of previous versions. Conclusion: As a step toward a unified architecture for the Semantic Web, our study of the Semantic Web architecture highlighted some weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures, modify, adapt and reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses.

Haytham T. Al-Feel; Magdy Koutb; Hoda Suoror

2008-01-01

384

Age-related vulnerability in the neural systems supporting semantic processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our ability to form abstract representations of objects in semantic memory is crucial to language and thought. The utility of this information relies both on the representations of sensory-motor feature knowledge stored in long-term memory and the executive processes required to retrieve, manipulate, and evaluate this semantic knowledge in a task-relevant manner. These complementary components of semantic memory can be differentially impacted by aging. We investigated semantic processing in normal aging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young and older adults were asked to judge whether two printed object names match on a particular feature (for example, whether a tomato and strawberry have the same color). The task thus required both retrieval of relevant visual feature knowledge of object concepts and evaluating this information. Objects were drawn from either natural kinds or manufactured objects, and were queried on either color or shape in a factorial design. Behaviorally, all subjects performed well, but older adults could be divided into those whose performance matched that of young adults (better performers) and those whose performance was worse (poorer performers). All subjects activated several cortical regions while performing this task, including bilateral inferior and lateral temporal cortex and left frontal and prefrontal cortex. Better performing older adults showed increased overall activity in bilateral premotor cortex and left lateral occipital cortex compared to young adults, and increased activity in these brain regions relative to poorer performing older adults who also showed gray matter atrophy in premotor cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of domain-general executive processing brain regions to semantic memory, and illustrate differences in how these regions are recruited in healthy older adults.

Peelle JE; Chandrasekaran K; Powers J; Smith EE; Grossman M

2013-01-01

385

Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in Alzheimer's disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used a semantic verification task and resting 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of mild to moderate AD patients to investigate this issue. The four task conditions required semantic knowledge of (1) visual, (2) functional properties of living objects, and (3) visual or (4) functional properties of nonliving objects. Visual property verification of living objects was significantly correlated with left posterior fusiform gyrus metabolism (Brodmann's area [BA] 37/19). Effects of visual and functional property verification for non-living objects largely overlapped in the left anterior temporal (BA 38/20) and bilateral premotor areas (BA 6), with the visual condition extending more into left lateral precentral areas. There were no associations with functional property verification for living concepts. Our results provide strong support for anatomically separable representations of living and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas.

Zahn, Roland; Garrard, Peter

2006-01-01

386

Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in alzheimer's disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used a semantic verification task and resting 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of mild to moderate AD patients to investigate this issue. The four task conditions required semantic knowledge of (1) visual, (2) functional properties of living objects, and (3) visual or (4) functional properties of nonliving objects. Visual property verification of living objects was significantly correlated with left posterior fusiform gyrus metabolism (Brodmann's area [BA] 37/19). Effects of visual and functional property verification for nonliving objects largely overlapped in the left anterior temporal (BA 38/20) and bilateral premotor areas (BA 6), with the visual condition extending more into left lateral precentral areas. There were no associations with functional property verification for living concepts. Our results provide strong support for anatomically separable representations of living and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas.

Zahn, R.; Garrard, P.

2006-01-01

387

The influence of emotional associations on the neural correlates of semantic priming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emotions influence our everyday life in several ways. With the present study, we wanted to examine the impact of emotional information on neural correlates of semantic priming, a well-established technique to investigate semantic processing. Stimuli were presented with a short SOA of 200 ms as subjects performed a lexical decision task during fMRI measurement. Seven experimental conditions were compared: positive/negative/neutral related, positive/negative/neutral unrelated, nonwords (all words were nouns). Behavioral data revealed a valence specific semantic priming effect (i.e., unrelated > related) only for neutral and positive related word pairs. On a neural level, the comparison of emotional over neutral relations showed activation in left anterior medial frontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, and posterior cingulate. Interactions for the different relations were located in left anterior part of the medial frontal cortex, cingulate regions, and right hippocampus (positive > neutral + negative) and left posterior part of medial frontal cortex (negative > neutral + positive). The results showed that emotional information have an influence on semantic association processes. While positive and neutral information seem to share a semantic network, negative relations might induce compensatory mechanisms that inhibit the spread of activation between related concepts. The neural correlates highlighted a distributed neural network, primarily involving attention, memory and emotion related processing areas in medial fronto-parietal cortices. The differentiation between anterior (positive) and posterior part (negative) of the medial frontal cortex was linked to the type of affective manipulation with more cognitive demands being involved in the automatic processing of negative information.

Sass K; Habel U; Sachs O; Huber W; Gauggel S; Kircher T

2012-03-01

388

The influence of emotional associations on the neural correlates of semantic priming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotions influence our everyday life in several ways. With the present study, we wanted to examine the impact of emotional information on neural correlates of semantic priming, a well-established technique to investigate semantic processing. Stimuli were presented with a short SOA of 200 ms as subjects performed a lexical decision task during fMRI measurement. Seven experimental conditions were compared: positive/negative/neutral related, positive/negative/neutral unrelated, nonwords (all words were nouns). Behavioral data revealed a valence specific semantic priming effect (i.e., unrelated > related) only for neutral and positive related word pairs. On a neural level, the comparison of emotional over neutral relations showed activation in left anterior medial frontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, and posterior cingulate. Interactions for the different relations were located in left anterior part of the medial frontal cortex, cingulate regions, and right hippocampus (positive > neutral + negative) and left posterior part of medial frontal cortex (negative > neutral + positive). The results showed that emotional information have an influence on semantic association processes. While positive and neutral information seem to share a semantic network, negative relations might induce compensatory mechanisms that inhibit the spread of activation between related concepts. The neural correlates highlighted a distributed neural network, primarily involving attention, memory and emotion related processing areas in medial fronto-parietal cortices. The differentiation between anterior (positive) and posterior part (negative) of the medial frontal cortex was linked to the type of affective manipulation with more cognitive demands being involved in the automatic processing of negative information. PMID:21520342

Sass, Katharina; Habel, Ute; Sachs, Olga; Huber, Walter; Gauggel, Siegfried; Kircher, Tilo

2011-04-21

389

Augmenting weak semantic cognitive maps with an "abstractness" dimension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emergent consensus on dimensional models of sentiment, appraisal, emotions, and values is on the semantics of the principal dimensions, typically interpreted as valence, arousal, and dominance. The notion of weak semantic maps was introduced recently as distribution of representations in abstract spaces that are not derived from human judgments, psychometrics, or any other a priori information about their semantics. Instead, they are defined entirely by binary semantic relations among representations, such as synonymy and antonymy. An interesting question concerns the ability of the antonymy-based semantic maps to capture all "universal" semantic dimensions. The present work shows that those narrow weak semantic maps are not complete in this sense and can be augmented with other semantic relations. Specifically, including hyponym-hypernym relations yields a new semantic dimension of the map labeled here "abstractness" (or ontological generality) that is not reducible to any dimensions represented by antonym pairs or to traditional affective space dimensions. It is expected that including other semantic relations (e.g., meronymy/holonymy) will also result in the addition of new semantic dimensions to the map. These findings have broad implications for automated quantitative evaluation of the meaning of text and may shed light on the nature of human subjective experience.

Samsonovich AV; Ascoli GA

2013-01-01

390

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning.The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changingits contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of thecornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is calledSemantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality,scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages.Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systemsmust be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges inthis domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervisedlearning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learninghave been utilized. In this paper we present an inclusive layered classification of Semantic Annotationchallenges and discuss the most important issues in this field. Also, we review and analyze machinelearning applications for solving semantic annotation problems. For this goal, the article tries to closelystudy and categorize related researches for better understanding and to reach a framework that can mapmachine learning techniques into the Semantic Annotation challenges and requirements.

Hamed Hassanzadeh; MohammadReza Keyvanpour

2011-01-01

391

Selforganisation in a Storage for Semantic Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scalable distributed semantic storage infrastructures are hard to realize. We propose the usage of principles of selforganization for the storage and retrieval of RDF triples. We use a biology-inspired algorithm for clustering of triples based on a purely syntactical similarity measure.

Robert Tolksdorf; Anne Augustin

2009-01-01

392

Semantic Architecture for Web application Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth of web applications has facilitated the humanity almost in all aspects of life especially e-health, e-business and e-communication but this application are exposed for web attacks, unauthorized access, evil intentions and treacherous engagements. Various strategies have been formulated over a period of time in the form of intrusion detection system, encryption devices, and firewalls but still proved to be ineffective. In this paper, we have proposed a system having semantic architecture that is capable of performing detection semantically in the context of HTTP protocol, the data, and the target application. The knowledgebase of the system is the ontological representation of communication protocol, attacks data and the application profile that can be refined and expanded over time. Unlike traditional signature base approach, the semantic architecture analysis the HTTP request with the help of semantic rules and inferred knowledge after reasoning of knowledgebase through Inference engine. Non signature based approach of the system enhance the capability of the system to detect the unknown attacks with low false positive rate. The system is evaluated by comparing with existing open source solutions and showing significant improvement in term of detection ability with low alarm rate

Abdul Razzaq; Ali Hur; H Farooq Ahmad; Muddassar Masood

2012-01-01

393

Towards Attribute Grammars for Metamodel Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of key importance for metamodelling are appropriate modelling formalisms. Most metamodelling languages permit the development of metamodels that specify tree-structured models enriched with semantics like constraints, references and operations, which extend the models to graphs. However, often the s...

Bürger, Christoff; Karol, Sven

394

Expressing Implicit Semantic Relations without Supervision  

CERN Multimedia

We present an unsupervised learning algorithm that mines large text corpora for patterns that express implicit semantic relations. For a given input word pair X:Y with some unspecified semantic relations, the corresponding output list of patterns is ranked according to how well each pattern Pi expresses the relations between X and Y. For example, given X=ostrich and Y=bird, the two highest ranking output patterns are "X is the largest Y" and "Y such as the X". The output patterns are intended to be useful for finding further pairs with the same relations, to support the construction of lexicons, ontologies, and semantic networks. The patterns are sorted by pertinence, where the pertinence of a pattern Pi for a word pair X:Y is the expected relational similarity between the given pair and typical pairs for Pi. The algorithm is empirically evaluated on two tasks, solving multiple-choice SAT word analogy questions and classifying semantic relations in noun-modifier pairs. On both tasks, the algorithm achieves s...

Turney, P D

2006-01-01

395

Semantic text mining support for lignocellulose research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Biofuels produced from biomass are considered to be promising sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. The conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars for biofuels production requires the use of enzyme cocktails that can efficiently and economically hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. As many fungi naturally break down lignocellulose, the identification and characterization of the enzymes involved is a key challenge in the research and development of biomass-derived products and fuels. One approach to meeting this challenge is to mine the rapidly-expanding repertoire of microbial genomes for enzymes with the appropriate catalytic properties. RESULTS: Semantic technologies, including natural language processing, ontologies, semantic Web services and Web-based collaboration tools, promise to support users in handling complex data, thereby facilitating knowledge-intensive tasks. An ongoing challenge is to select the appropriate technologies and combine them in a coherent system that brings measurable improvements to the users. We present our ongoing development of a semantic infrastructure in support of genomics-based lignocellulose research. Part of this effort is the automated curation of knowledge from information on fungal enzymes that is available in the literature and genome resources. CONCLUSIONS: Working closely with fungal biology researchers who manually curate the existing literature, we developed ontological natural language processing pipelines integrated in a Web-based interface to assist them in two main tasks: mining the literature for relevant knowledge, and at the same time providing rich and semantically linked information.

Meurs MJ; Murphy C; Morgenstern I; Butler G; Powlowski J; Tsang A; Witte R

2012-01-01

396

Semantic Social Network Analysis: A Concrete Case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this chapter we present our approach to analyzing such semantic social networks and capturing collective intelligence from collaborative interactions to challenge requirements of Enterprise 2.0. Our tools and models have been tested on an anonymized dataset from Ipernity.com, one of the biggest F...

Ereteo, Guillaume; Limpens, Freddy; Gandon, Fabien; Corby, Olivier; Buffa, Michel; Leitzelman, Mylène; Sander, Peter

397

The morphology and semantics of expressive affixes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation focuses on two aspects of expressive affixes: their morphological/typological properties and their semantics. With regard to the former, it shows that the expressive morphology of many languages (including Bantu, West Atlantic, Walman, Sanskrit, English, Romance, Slavic, and oth...

Fortin, Antonio; Maiden, Martin; Asudeh, Arshia

398

Combining semantic wikis and controlled natural language  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrate AceWiki that is a semantic wiki using the controlled natural language Attempto Controlled English (ACE). The goal is to enable easy creation and modification of ontologies through the web. Texts in ACE can automatically be translated into first-order logic and other languages, for exa...

Kuhn, T

399

Ontology Alignment Bridging the Semantic Gap  

CERN Multimedia

A large number of information systems use many different individual schemas to represent data. This book introduces novel methods and approaches for semantic integration. Designed for practitioners and researchers in industry, it is also suitable for advanced-level students in computer science and electrical engineering.

Ehrig, Marc

2007-01-01

400

Improving Image Classification Using Semantic Attributes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Bag-of-Words (BoW) model - commonly used for image classification - has two strong limitations: on one hand, visual words lack semantic meanings, on the other hand, they are often polysemous. This paper proposes to address these two limitations by introducing an intermediate representation based...

Su, Yu; Jurie, Frédéric

 
 
 
 
401

Visual word disambiguation by semantic contexts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a novel schema to address the polysemy of visual words in the widely used bag-of-words model. As a visual word may have multiple meanings, we show it is possible to use semantic contexts to disambiguate these meanings and therefore improve the performance of bag-of words model. O...

Su, Yu; Jurie, Frédéric

402

Semantic text mining support for lignocellulose research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuels produced from biomass are considered to be promising sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. The conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars for biofuels production requires the use of enzyme cocktails that can efficiently and economically hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. As many fungi naturally break down lignocellulose, the identification and characterization of the enzymes involved is a key challenge in the research and development of biomass-derived products and fuels. One approach to meeting this challenge is to mine the rapidly-expanding repertoire of microbial genomes for enzymes with the appropriate catalytic properties. Results Semantic technologies, including natural language processing, ontologies, semantic Web services and Web-based collaboration tools, promise to support users in handling complex data, thereby facilitating knowledge-intensive tasks. An ongoing challenge is to select the appropriate technologies and combine them in a coherent system that brings measurable improvements to the users. We present our ongoing development of a semantic infrastructure in support of genomics-based lignocellulose research. Part of this effort is the automated curation of knowledge from information on fungal enzymes that is available in the literature and genome resources. Conclusions Working closely with fungal biology researchers who manually curate the existing literature, we developed ontological natural language processing pipelines integrated in a Web-based interface to assist them in two main tasks: mining the literature for relevant knowledge, and at the same time providing rich and semantically linked information.

Meurs Marie-Jean; Murphy Caitlin; Morgenstern Ingo; Butler Greg; Powlowski Justin; Tsang Adrian; Witte René

2012-01-01

403

Semantic Parsing based on Verbal Subcategorization  

CERN Multimedia

The aim of this work is to explore new methodologies on Semantic Parsing for unrestricted texts. Our approach follows the current trends in Information Extraction (IE) and is based on the application of a verbal subcategorization lexicon (LEXPIR) by means of complex pattern recognition techniques. LEXPIR is framed on the theoretical model of the verbal subcategorization developed in the Pirapides project.

Atserias, J; Civit, M; Rigau, G; Atserias, Jordi; Castellon, Irene; Civit, Montse; Rigau, German

2000-01-01

404

Towards a Semantic Web for Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today's semantic Web deals with meaning in a very restricted sense and offers static solutions. This is adequate for many scientific, technical purposes and for business transactions requiring machine-to-machine communication, but does not answer the needs of culture. Science, technology and busines...

Veltman, Kim H.; Maastricht McLuhan Institute

405

A semantic language for querying anonymous websources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A great deal of work has been carried out in recent years to facilitate access to data and information available on the Web. Proposals converge in two additional areas which consist in providing the sources with semantic annotations and in designing languages and tools that are capable of using thes...

Pinet, F.; Schneider, M.

406

Quantum computational logics and Fock space semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The theory of logical gates in quantum computation has suggested new forms of quantum logic, called quantum computational logics. The basic semantic idea is the following: the meaning of a sentence is identified with a quantum information quantity, represented by a density operator of a Hilbert spac...

DALLA CHIARA, MARIA LUISA; GIUNTINI, ROBERTO; LEPORINI, ROBERTO

407

On social semantics in information retrieval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we analyze the performance of social semantics in textual information retrieval. By means of collaboratively constructed knowledge derived from web-based social networks, inducing both common-sense and domain-specific knowledge as constructed by a multitude of users, we will establish...

Waltinger, Ulli

408

A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born...

G.Sudeepthi; G. Anuradha; M.Surendra Prasad Babu

409

Human-Computer Interaction for Semantic Disambiguation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a semi-automatic semantic disambiguator integrated in a knowledge-based machine translation system. It is used to bridge the analysis and generation stages in machine translation. The user interface of the disambiguator is built on mouse-based multiple-selection menus.

Ralf D. Brown; Sergei Nirenburg

410

Lexical-semantic priming effects during infancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When and how do infants develop a semantic system of words that are related to each other? We investigated word-word associations in early lexical development using an adaptation of the inter-modal preferential looking task where word pairs (as opposed to single target words) were used to direct infants' attention towards a target picture. Two words (prime and target) were presented in quick succession after which infants were presented with a picture pair (target and distracter). Prime-target word pairs were either semantically and associatively related or unrelated; the targets were either named or unnamed. Experiment 1 demonstrated a lexical-semantic priming effect for 21-month olds but not for 18-month olds: unrelated prime words interfered with linguistic target identification for 21-month olds. Follow-up experiments confirmed the interfering effects of unrelated prime words and identified the existence of repetition priming effects as young as 18 months of age. The results of these experiments indicate that infants have begun to develop semantic-associative links between lexical items as early as 21 months of age.

Arias-Trejo N; Plunkett K

2009-12-01

411

Lexical-semantic priming effects during infancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

When and how do infants develop a semantic system of words that are related to each other? We investigated word-word associations in early lexical development using an adaptation of the inter-modal preferential looking task where word pairs (as opposed to single target words) were used to direct infants' attention towards a target picture. Two words (prime and target) were presented in quick succession after which infants were presented with a picture pair (target and distracter). Prime-target word pairs were either semantically and associatively related or unrelated; the targets were either named or unnamed. Experiment 1 demonstrated a lexical-semantic priming effect for 21-month olds but not for 18-month olds: unrelated prime words interfered with linguistic target identification for 21-month olds. Follow-up experiments confirmed the interfering effects of unrelated prime words and identified the existence of repetition priming effects as young as 18 months of age. The results of these experiments indicate that infants have begun to develop semantic-associative links between lexical items as early as 21 months of age. PMID:19933137

Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

2009-12-27

412

Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components are crucial to be formalized by the semantic web ontologies for adaptive web. We use examples from an eLearning domain to illustrate the principles which are broadly applicable to any information domain on the web.

Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

413

Phasic affective modulation of semantic priming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual facial primes (Experiment 3) in an (in)direct semantic priming paradigm, as well as brief facial feedback in a summative priming paradigm (Experiment 4), yielded increased priming effects under brief positive compared to negative affect. Furthermore, this modulation took place on the level of semantic spreading rather than on strategic mechanisms (Experiment 5). Alternative explanations such as distraction, motivation, arousal, and cognitive tuning could be ruled out. This phasic affective modulation constitutes a mechanism overlooked thus far that may contaminate priming effects in all priming paradigms that involve affective stimuli. Furthermore, this mechanism provides a novel explanation for the observation that priming effects are usually larger for positive than for negative stimuli. Finally, it has important implications for linguistic research, by suggesting that association norms may be biased for affective words.

Topolinski S; Deutsch R

2013-03-01

414

Mobile Computing, Web Services and the Semantic  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper focuses on the intersection of mobile computing, theSemantic Web and Web services, and examines how these technologies serveas a foundation for an architectural framework that provides new opportunitiesfor mobile commerce and services within organizations. Mobile technologiesintroduce several advantages that cannot be attained through conventionalwired connectivity. These include localization and personalization, whichallows the delivery of customized information to users based on locale, identityor a user role. Two technology initiatives that hold promise in helping realizethe potential of mobile computing are the Semantic Web and Web services. TheSemantic Web is an initiative supported by the W3C intended to supportsemantic meaning and context for Web resources. Key technologies includeRDF and DAML for data categorization and inference. Web services representsan approach for applications to communicate with each other automaticallyover the Web using standard Internet protocols. Collectively, these technologiesopen up new possibilities for leveraging the capabilities of mobile computingwhere the Semantic Web supports contextual meaning and Web servicestechnologies allow registration and discovery of services based on mobilecontext.

Frank P. Coyle

415

Computing Inconsistency Measure based on Paraconsistent Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Measuring inconsistency in knowledge bases has been recog- nized as an important problem in several research areas. Many methods have been proposed to solve this problem and a main class of them is based on some kind of paraconsistent semantics. However, existing methods suffer from two limitations:...

Ma, Yue; Qi, Guilin; Hitzler, Pascal

416

A paraconsistent semantics for generalized logic programs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a paraconsistent declarative semantics of possibly inconsistent generalized logic programs which allows for arbitrary formulas in the body and in the head of a rule (i.e. does not depend on the presence of any specific connective, such as negation(-as-failure), nor on any specific syntax ...

Herre, Heinrich; Hummel, Axel

417

Semantically Ergative Languages in Typological Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of semantically ergative languages begins with a description of the essential results of research on ergativity to date, and an outline of the assumptions and conceptual apparatus on which the analysis is based. Subsequently, data from 20 Daghestanian languages, primarily Archi, are examined for evidence of the syntactic features of…

Kibrik, Alexandr E.

418

Semantics and N400: insights for schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thought disorder is a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia, which often leads to deficits in social functioning. Some aspects of this cognitive dysfunction are the result of abnormal characteristics in the semantic processes of patients. These abnormalities exist not only at the discourse production le...

Kumar, Namita; Debruille, J. Bruno

419

Building Requirements Semantics for Networked Software Interoperability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Naturally, like the web, integrated software systems in Internet will have to be distributed and heterogeneous. To im-prove the interoperability of services for SAAS, it is crucial to build requirements semantics that will cross the entire lifecycle of services especially on requirements stage. In t...

Bin Wen; Keqing He; Jian Wang

420

Metadata for semantic and social applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metadata is a key aspect of our evolving infrastructure for information management, social computing, and scientific collaboration. DC-2008 will focus on metadata challenges, solutions, and innovation in initiatives and activities underlying semantic and social applications. Metadata is part of the ...

Greenberg, Jane; Klas, Wolfgang

 
 
 
 
421

Semantic Web Services as Agent Behaviors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a technique for providing agent software with dynamically configured capabilities. These capabilities, described with DAML-S, can represent atomic or orchestrated Web Services. The DAML-S specification will be transformed into an executable program written in a composition language named Piccola. When executed, the composite service will be available as a semantically described behavior within a FIPA compliant agent.

Paul A. Buhler

422

Workflow semantics of peer and service behaviour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we introduce SMoL, a simplified BPEL-like language for specifying peer and service behaviour in P2P systems. We define a transformational semantics of SMoL in terms of YAWL workflows, which enables the simulation (e.g., testing possible execution scenarios) and analysis (e.g., verifyin...

POPESCU, RAZVAN

423

Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

1996-12-31

424

Fuzzy Semantic Retrieval for Traffic Information Based on Fuzzy Ontology and RDF on the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 7.8 ? 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Information retrieval is the essential task for Traffic Information Service System in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS).  There a lot of fuzzy traffic information derived from human factor. To achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper proposes an approach using Resource Description Framework (RDF) and fuzzy ontology. First, we apply RDF data model to represent traffic information on the Semantic Web. Then we present fuzzy linguistic variable ontology models and its formal representation with RDF. Introducing new data type referred as fuzzy linguistic variables to RDF data model, the semantic query expansions in SeRQL query language are constructed by order relation, equivalence relation, inclusion relation and complement relation between fuzzy concepts defined in linguistic variable ontologies. Examples show that the extended query can return all results which satisfy research requirement at semantic level without upgrading current main search algorithm, and this research facilitates the semantic retrieval of traffic information through fuzzy concepts for ITS on the Semantic Web.

Jun Zhai; Yan Chen; Yi Yu; Yiduo Liang; Jiatao Jiang

2009-01-01

425

Semantic querying of relational data for clinical intelligence: a semantic web services-based approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Clinical Intelligence, as a research and engineering discipline, is dedicated to the development of tools for data analysis for the purposes of clinical research, surveillance, and effective health care management. Self-service ad hoc querying of clinical data is one desirable type of functionality. Since most of the data are currently stored in relational or similar form, ad hoc querying is problematic as it requires specialised technical skills and the knowledge of particular data schemas. RESULTS: A possible solution is semantic querying where the user formulates queries in terms of domain ontologies that are much easier to navigate and comprehend than data schemas. In this article, we are exploring the possibility of using SADI Semantic Web services for semantic querying of clinical data. We have developed a prototype of a semantic querying infrastructure for the surveillance of, and research on, hospital-acquired infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SADI can support ad-hoc, self-service, semantic queries of relational data in a Clinical Intelligence context. The use of SADI compares favourably with approaches based on declarative semantic mappings from data schemas to ontologies, such as query rewriting and RDFizing by materialisation, because it can easily cope with situations when (i) some computation is required to turn relational data into RDF or OWL, e.g., to implement temporal reasoning, or (ii) integration with external data sources is necessary.

Riazanov A; Klein A; Shaban-Nejad A; Rose GW; Forster AJ; Buckeridge DL; Baker CJ

2013-01-01

426

Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new techniques for discovering relationshipsacross different database, business applications and Webservices. Since this is an interdisciplinary concept in bothengineering and management; we first review web mining,semantic web, semantic web mining and finally propose anapplication of semantic web mining in human resourcemanagement.

Radhika Malik; Udayan Ghose

2011-01-01

427

Towards Well-Behaved Semantics Suitable for Aggregation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Real Applications of Databases ask for the support of Aggregation. This, however, needs stronger semantics than usual. In particular, such semantics should extend the wellfounded semantics WFS. We study such extensions and determine which semantics are possible given certain abstract properties like partial evaluation, cumulativity, partial monotony and supraclassicality. While WFS+ (introduced independently by Dix and Schlipf for other purposes) has recently been shown by Osorio and Jayaraman to be well suited for aggregation, it has higher complexity than WFS: it is on the first level of the polynomial hierarchy. We present in this paper polynomial-time computable semantics which are also well suited. Our definitions use a confluent and terminating calculus introduced by Brass and Dix and further refined by Brass, Freitag and Zukowski. This allows us to generalize our results to disjunctive logic programs. Finally, such semantics can also be used to improve the stable semantic...

J Urgen Dix; Mauricio Osorio; Jurgen Dix

428

Measuring Praise and Criticism: Inference of Semantic Orientation from Association  

CERN Multimedia

The evaluative character of a word is called its semantic orientation. Positive semantic orientation indicates praise (e.g., "honest", "intrepid") and negative semantic orientation indicates criticism (e.g., "disturbing", "superfluous"). Semantic orientation varies in both direction (positive or negative) and degree (mild to strong). An automated system for measuring semantic orientation would have application in text classification, text filtering, tracking opinions in online discussions, analysis of survey responses, and automated chat systems (chatbots). This paper introduces a method for inferring the semantic orientation of a word from its statistical association with a set of positive and negative paradigm words. Two instances of this approach are evaluated, based on two different statistical measures of word association: pointwise mutual information (PMI) and latent semantic analysis (LSA). The method is experimentally tested with 3,596 words (including adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs) that have ...

Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Littman, Michael L.

2003-01-01

429

Automatic and attentional mechanisms of semantic priming in Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies using a word-naming task have suggested that in demented patients, semantic priming results only from automatic spreading activation and not from attention-dependent processes. If this is true, then on a lexical-decision task where attention-dependent processes are a major source of the semantic-priming effect, demented patients should show little or no priming. To test this prediction, three groups of 16 subjects (young and normal-old individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease) were given a Word-Naming and a Lexical-Decision task. In both tasks, the amount of semantic priming (the difference in response time to a word preceded by a semantically unassociated vs. a semantically associated word) was determined. Demented patients showed significantly greater semantic priming than either normal group on both tasks. This result argues against the hypothesis that the semantic priming found in demented patients is due solely to automatic processes.

Nebes RD; Brady CB; Huff FJ

1989-03-01

430

A three-valued semantics for logic programmers  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes a simpler way for programmers to reason about the correctness of their code. The study of semantics of logic programs has shown strong links between the model theoretic semantics (truth and falsity of atoms in the programmer's interpretation of a program), procedural semantics (for example, SLD resolution) and fixpoint semantics (which is useful for program analysis and alternative execution mechanisms). Most of this work assumes that intended interpretations are two-valued: a ground atom is true (and should succeed according to the procedural semantics) or false (and should not succeed). In reality, intended interpretations are less precise. Programmers consider that some atoms "should not occur" or are "ill-typed" or "inadmissible". Programmers don't know and don't care whether such atoms succeed. In this paper we propose a three-valued semantics for (essentially) pure Prolog programs with (ground) negation as failure which reflects this. The semantics of Fitting is similar but only ass...

Naish, L

2005-01-01

431

Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by existential closure. Quantifiers can then be interpreted in situ. The resulting framework combines the strengths of event semantics and type-shifting accounts of quantifiers and thus does not force the semanticist to posit either a default underlying word order or a syntactic LF-style level. It is therefore well suited for applications to languages where word order is free and quantifier scope is determined by surface order. As an additional benefit, the system leads to a straightforward account of negation, which has also been claimed to be problematic for event-based frameworks.ReferencesBarker, Chris. 2002. ‘Continuations and the nature of quantification’. Natural Language Semantics 10: 211–242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022183511876Barker, Chris & Shan, Chung-chieh. 2008. ‘Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding’. Semantics and Pragmatics 1: 1–46.Beaver, David & Condoravdi, Cleo. 2007. ‘On the logic of verbal modification’. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds.) ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, 3–9. Amsterdam, Netherlands: University of Amsterdam.Beghelli, Filippo & Stowell, Tim. 1997. ‘Distributivity and negation: The syntax of each and every’. In Anna Szabolcsi (ed.) ‘Ways of scope taking’, 71–107. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Brasoveanu, Adrian. 2010. ‘Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds.) ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6042, 203–212. Berlin, Germany: Springer.Carlson, Gregory N. 1977. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.Carlson, Gregory N. 1984. ‘Thematic roles and their role in semantic interpretation’. Linguistics 22: 259–279.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ling.1984.22.3.259Champollion, Lucas. 2010. Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Champollion, Lucas, Tauberer, Josh & Romero, Maribel. 2007. ‘The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical software for natural language semantics’. In Tracy Holloway King & Emily Bender (eds.) ‘Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks(GEAF) 2007 Workshop’, Stanford, CA: CSLI Online Publications.Condoravdi, Cleo. 2002. ‘Punctual until as a scalar NPI’. In Sharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson (eds.) ‘The nature of the word’, 631–654. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Csirmaz, Aniko. 2006. ‘Aspect, Negation and Quantifiers’. In Liliane Haegeman, Joan Maling, James McCloskey & Katalin E. Kiss (eds.) ‘Event Structure And The Left Periphery’, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol. 68, 225–253. SpringerNetherlands.Davidson, Donald. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In Nicholas Rescher (ed.) ‘The logic of decision and action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.de Swart, Henriëtte. 1996. ‘Meaning and use of not . . . until’. Journal of Semantics 13: 221–263.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/13.3.221de Swart, Henriëtte & Molendijk, Arie. 1999. ‘Negation and the temporal structure of narrative discourse’. Journal of Semantics 16: 1–42.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/16.1.1Dowty, David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel.Eckardt, Regine. 2010. ‘A Logic for Easy Linking Semantics’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds.) ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Sc

Lucas Champollion

2010-01-01

432

Cognitive semantic networks: emotional verbs throw a tantrum but don't bite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neuroimaging studies have over the past decades established that language is grounded in sensorimotor areas of the brain. The same neuronal circuits seem involved whether we literally pick up a ball or in a phrase refer to grasping an idea. However recent findings have demonstrated that not only leg, hand and face related but also emotional action verbs activate premotor systems in the brain. Hypothesizing that the force and spatial parameters which define action based language might also be reflected in the latent semantics of words, we select motor and emotion related verbs and apply latent semantic analysis, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering and network graph analysis to quantify their interaction and identify parameters of force and spatial differentiation which we propose cognitively relate emotions to sensorimotor action schemas.

Petersen, Michael Kai; Hansen, Lars Kai

2012-01-01

433

No semantic illusions in the "Semantic P600" phenomenon: ERP evidence from Mandarin Chinese.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent observations of unexpected ERP responses to grammatically well-formed role-reversed sentences (the "Semantic P600" phenomenon) have been taken to bear directly on questions about the architecture of the language processing system. This paper evaluates two central pieces of evidence for accounts that propose a syntax-independent semantic composition mechanism, namely the presence of P600 effects and the absence of N400 effects in role-reversed sentences. Experiment 1 examined the relative contribution of the presence of an animacy violation and the semantic relations between words ('combinability') to the ERP responses to role-reversed sentences. Experiment 2 examined the ERP responses to role-reversed sentences that are fully animacy-congruous. Results from the two experiments showed that animacy-violated sentences with no plausible non-surface interpretation elicited the same P600 effect as both types of role-reversed sentences; additionally, semantically anomalous target words elicited no N400 effects when they were strongly semantically related to the preceding words, regardless of the presence of animacy violations. Taken together, these findings suggest that the presence of P600s to role-reversed sentences can be attributed to the implausibility of the sentence meaning, and the absence of N400 effects is due to a combination of weak contextual constraints and strong lexical association. The presence of a plausible non-surface interpretation and animacy violations made no unique contribution to the ERP response profiles. Hence, existing ERP findings are compatible with the long-held assumption that online semantic composition is dependent on surface syntax and do not constitute evidence for a syntax-independent semantic composition mechanism.

Chow WY; Phillips C

2013-04-01

434

Performance Evaluation of Index Schemes for Semantic Cache  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In last decade of computing, a growing popularity for semantic cache schemes has been observed. Numerous techniques have been proposed for improved performance of semantic cache. Semantic cache is aimed towards reducing the network traffic load with the ability to address some queries without contacting the server. Semantic cache overcomes the limitations of previous page-caching and tuple-cache techniques. A prime concern of semantic cache includes query processing (query response-time) and cache management. The efficiency of semantic cache can be improved by using semantic indexing sachems. Semantic indexing sachems are segment based and hierarchical semantic indexing scheme. Both these sachems can improve the efficiency of query processing and cache management. In this paper, we have performed the evaluation of index schemes for Semantic Cache through the experimental study. Evaluations of these schemes are available in literature but experimental study is not available. Through this experiment, we have highlighted which technique is most suited in what kind of scenario.

Sheneela Naz; Muhammad Naeem; Amir Qayyum

2013-01-01

435

NVL - a knowledge representation language based on semantic networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Taxonomic hierarchical networks or semantic networks have been widely used in representing knowledge in AI applications. Semantic networks have been the preferred form of representation in AI, rather than predicate logic because of the need to represent complex structured knowledge. However, the formal semantics of these networks has not been dealt with adequately in the literature. In this thesis, semantic networks are described by means of a formal relational logic called NVL. The characteristic features of NVL are limitor lists and binary predicates. Limitor lists are similar to restricted quantifiers but are more expressive. Several special binary relations are used to express the key ideas of semantic networks. NVL is based on the principles of semantic networks and taxonomic reasoning. The unification and inference mechanisms of NVL have considerable inherent parallelism which makes the language suitable for parallel implementation. The current opinion in AI is that semantic networks represent a subset of first order logic. Rather than modify predicate logic by adding features of semantic networks, the approach has been to devise a new form of logic by considering the basic principles and epistemological primitives of semantic networks such as properties, class concepts, relations, and inheritance. The syntax and semantics of NVL are first presented. Rules in the knowledge based are represented by V relation which also plays an important role in deriving inferences. The (mathematical) correctness of NVL is proved and concepts of unification of lists and inference in NVL are introduced. Parallel algorithms for unification and inference are developed.

Hudli, A.V.

1989-01-01

436