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1

Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

2

Evaluation of Writing with Semantic Differential Scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

The semantic differential scale developed by Charles Osgood, George Suci, and Percy Tannenbaum can be modified to create a method of evaluating student writing that is clear, efficient, flexible, and specific. Based upon the premise that most terms have several dimensions of meaning, the theory creates scales by drawing "lines" through the…

Smith, Eugene

3

Measuring Dimensions of Teaching Effectiveness with the Semantic Differential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of four studies in which the semantic differential was used to evaluate teaching effectiveness of professors at the university level are presented. Conclusions based on comparisons between factors isolated in the four studies, as well as between these four studies and other data, are as follows: (1) some factors such as teaching dynamism,…

Gulo, E. Vaughn

4

Preserving differential privacy under finite-precision semantics.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The approximation introduced by finite-precision representation of continuous data can induce arbitrarily large information leaks even when the computation using exact semantics is secure. Such leakage can thus undermine design efforts aimed at protecting sensitive information. We focus here on differential privacy, an approach to privacy that emerged from the area of statistical databases and is now widely applied also in other domains. In this approach, privacy is protected by the addition of noise to a true (private value. To date, this approach to privacy has been proved correct only in the ideal case in which computations are made using an idealized, infinite-precision semantics. In this paper, we analyze the situation at the implementation level, where the semantics is necessarily finite-precision, i.e. the representation of real numbers and the operations on them, are rounded according to some level of precision. We show that in general there are violations of the differential privacy property, and we study the conditions under which we can still guarantee a limited (but, arguably, totally acceptable variant of the property, under only a minor degradation of the privacy level. Finally, we illustrate our results on two cases of noise-generating distributions: the standard Laplacian mechanism commonly used in differential privacy, and a bivariate version of the Laplacian recently introduced in the setting of privacy-aware geolocation.

Ivan Gazeau

2013-06-01

5

Developing a semantic web model for medical differential diagnosis recommendation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we describe a novel model for differential diagnosis designed to make recommendations by utilizing semantic web technologies. The model is a response to a number of requirements, ranging from incorporating essential clinical diagnostic semantics to the integration of data mining for the process of identifying candidate diseases that best explain a set of clinical features. We introduce two major components, which we find essential to the construction of an integral differential diagnosis recommendation model: the evidence-based recommender component and the proximity-based recommender component. Both approaches are driven by disease diagnosis ontologies designed specifically to enable the process of generating diagnostic recommendations. These ontologies are the disease symptom ontology and the patient ontology. The evidence-based diagnosis process develops dynamic rules based on standardized clinical pathways. The proximity-based component employs data mining to provide clinicians with diagnosis predictions, as well as generates new diagnosis rules from provided training datasets. This article describes the integration between these two components along with the developed diagnosis ontologies to form a novel medical differential diagnosis recommendation model. This article also provides test cases from the implementation of the overall model, which shows quite promising diagnostic recommendation results. PMID:25178271

Mohammed, Osama; Benlamri, Rachid

2014-10-01

6

Differentiation of perceptual and semantic subsequent memory effects using an orthographic paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to differentiate perceptual and semantic encoding processes using subsequent memory effects (SMEs) elicited by the recognition of orthographs of single Chinese characters. Participants studied a series of Chinese characters perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining the object making sounds), and then made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Recognition performance in terms of d-prime measure in the semantic condition was higher, though not significant, than that of the perceptual condition. The between perceptual-semantic condition differences in SMEs at P550 and late positive component latencies (700-1000ms) were not significant in the frontal area. An additional analysis identified larger SME in the semantic condition during 600-1000ms in the frontal pole regions. These results indicate that coordination and incorporation of orthographic information into mental representation is essential to both task conditions. The differentiation was also revealed in earlier SMEs (perceptual>semantic) at N3 (240-360ms) latency, which is a novel finding. The left-distributed N3 was interpreted as more efficient processing of meaning with semantically learned characters. Frontal pole SMEs indicated strategic processing by executive functions, which would further enhance memory. PMID:23063888

Kuo, Michael C C; Liu, Karen P Y; Ting, Kin Hung; Chan, Chetwyn C H

2012-11-27

7

Assessing the validity of the semantic differential portion of the Apperceptive Personality Test.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the validity of the semantic differential portion of the Apperceptive Personality Test with 225 undergraduates who completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale, actual-self and ideal-self semantic differential scales (e.g., Actual-self and ideal-self), and either the Apperceptive Personality Test or a modified version. A projected-self score was calculated using the semantic differential ratings of the hero(ine) character on the test, e.g., Projected self. A strong negative correlation indicated that, as the difference between the Ideal-self and Actual-self dereased, the difference between the Actual-self and Projected-self increased. Discriminant analyses indicated that highly guarded participants, e.g., high Social Desirability scores, showed more congruency between Ideal-self and Actual-self and less congruency between Actual-self ratings and Projected-self on the APT than did less guarded participants. When the difference scores incorporated only those semantic differential items that loaded on an Ealuative factor, the same result of discriminant analysis was found when participants who comleted the modified version were included. These findings support the validity of the test's semantic differential items and suggest that guardedness tends to promote more similarity between Actual-self and Ideal-self and less similarity between Actual-self and Projected-self. PMID:11597081

Palmiter, D J; Silber, D E

2001-06-01

8

????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? Semantic Web ?? ???????? ???????? ????????. ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? Educational Semantic Web. ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????...

??????, ?. ?.; ??????, ?. ?.; Koren, O. M.

2011-01-01

9

The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

Adams, Katherine

2002-01-01

10

On the `Semantics' of Differential Privacy: A Bayesian Formulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Differential privacy is a definition of "privacy'" for algorithms that analyze and publish information about statistical databases. It is often claimed that differential privacy provides guarantees against adversaries with arbitrary side information. In this paper, we provide a precise formulation of these guarantees in terms of the inferences drawn by a Bayesian adversary. We show that this formulation is satisfied by both "vanilla" differential privacy as well as a relaxat...

Kasiviswanathan, Shiva Prasad; Smith, Adam

2008-01-01

11

Analysis of gender differences in the perception of properties: An application for differential semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the application of differential semantics to identify the semantic space (structure used by men and women to describe their perception of properties on sale. 112 men and 43 women evaluated 112 images of flats on sale at the time of the study in the city of Valencia (Spain using 60 adjectives. The set of attributes or variables which capture the user’s perception of a property in his own words (semantic axes was identified using factor analysis of principal components. The semantic space of a property was described by 15 independent axes which explained 64% of the variability for males and 17 axes which explained 72.3% of the variance for females. The connection between the subject’s emotional response, expressed through the set of axes (15 for males and 17 for females and the global evaluation in terms of the purchase decision was established. The results demonstrated significant differences in the variables used by both genders to express their perception of a property on sale and the weight of these variables on the purchase decision.

Alvaro Page

2009-07-01

12

Electrophysiological differentiation of phonological and semantic integration in word and sentence contexts  

Science.gov (United States)

During auditory language comprehension, listeners need to rapidly extract meaning from the continuous speech-stream. It is a matter of debate when and how contextual information constrains the activation of lexical representations in meaningful contexts. Electrophysiological studies of spoken language comprehension have identified an event-related potential (ERP) that was sensitive to phonological properties of speech, which was termed the phonological mismatch negativity (PMN). With the PMN, early lexical processing could potentially be distinguished from processes of semantic integration in spoken language comprehension. However, the sensitivity of the PMN to phonological processing per se has been questioned, and it has additionally been suggested that the “PMN” is not separable from the N400, an ERP that is sensitive to semantic aspects of the input. Here, we investigated whether or not a separable PMN exists and if it reflects purely phonological aspects of the speech input. In the present experiment, ERPs were recorded from healthy young adults (N =24) while they listened to sentences and word lists, in which we manipulated semantic and phonological expectation and congruency of the final word. ERPs sensitive to phonological processing were elicited only when phonological expectancy was violated in lists of words, but not during normal sentential processing. This suggests a differential role of phonological processing in more or less meaningful contexts and indicates a very early influence of the overall context on lexical processing in sentences. PMID:16952338

Diaz, Michele T.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2006-01-01

13

Departmentality :   The functional differentiation of systems & the decapitation of the body semantics - or: how to ground Luhmann's theory of functional differentiation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Niklas Luhmann's system theory outlines a methodology that focuses empirical problems in depth. This is possible by means of an abductive use of an overwhelmingly accessibility to theoretical observations. However, this theory is itself a result of historical developments. It origins in a path of self-descriptive communications studied by Luhmann as semantic transformations. The paper goes back to Immanuel Kant's theory of systems and traces its origins on the basis of an evolution of a subdifferentiated legal system. Especially the semantic differentiation of forms is followed and takes a focus on semantic forms in chancellor H.-F. d'Aguesseau's and Fredrick the Great's self-description of power. The overall aim is to study the legacy and the strength of functional differentiation in state formation. How did the separated powers of functional differentiation emerge and how did it describe itself as difference to a reason of state?

Harste, Gorm

2008-01-01

14

Noetics in pastoral counselling: The making of a semantic differential analysis in pastoral care and counselling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Praxis in pastoral care and counselling entails more than merely practice and practicalities (communication skills. Praxis refers to the intentionality within human action and behaviour. Praxis exhibits the realm of intentionality and meaning as displayed within and by human attitudes. It is hypothesised that due to the noetic dimension in human actions, the making of a pastoral diagnosis (a qualitative assessment of the impact of Christian spirituality and the meaning on the system of existential, relational networking should deal with the realm of significant and purposeful intentionality. The latter is already implied in the phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl’s eidetic observation or inspection (phenomenological consciousness. In order to incorporate noetics in pastoral care and counselling, a pastoral semantic differential analysis (PSDA within the making of a pastoral diagnosis was proposed. The PSDA was linked to the need for a qualitative approach regarding the impact of Godimages on religious association and existential life experiences.

Daniël J. Louw

2011-03-01

15

Complexity and hemispheric abilities: evidence for a differential impact on semantics and phonology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this study was to determine whether the phonological and semantic processing of words are similarly influenced by an increase in processing complexity. Thirty-six French-speaking young adults performed both semantic and phonological word judgment tasks, using a divided visual field procedure. The phonological complexity of words was controlled by varying their transparency, while semantic complexity was manipulated through prototypicality. As expected, processing complexity modulated semantic and phonological processing differently. The results revealed that an increase in processing complexity lessened the left-hemisphere advantage in semantics, but reinforced it in phonology. It is therefore suggested that right-hemisphere collaboration in complex language processing is profitable only when the particular kind of processing is not strongly lateralized to the left-hemisphere. The results are discussed from the perspective of interhemispheric collaboration. PMID:19070358

Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

2009-02-01

16

Differential impairment of semantic and episodic memory in Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases: a controlled prospective study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A controlled prospective study compared the performance of 14 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and 14 patients with Huntington's Disease (HD), who were matched for overall level of dementia, on a battery of semantic and episodic memory tests. The DAT patients were significantly more impaired on measures of delayed verbal and figural episodic memory, and in addition showed a more rapid rate of decline on tests which depend upon the integrity of semantic knowledge (naming, number ...

Hodges, J. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Butters, N.

1990-01-01

17

Assessment of the Relatedness of Equivalent Stimuli through a Semantic Differential  

Science.gov (United States)

If stimulus equivalence is a model of meaning, abstract stimuli should acquire the meaning of meaningful stimuli equivalent to them. In Experiment 1, college students matched faces expressing emotions to arbitrary pictures, forming three classes of equivalent stimuli, each comprising an emotional expression and three arbitrary pictures. Semantic

Bortoloti, Renato; de Rose, Julio C.

2009-01-01

18

Semantic based concept differential retrieval & equivalence detection in clinical terms version 3 (Read Codes).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern clinical terminologies are required to provide a large corpus of concepts to cover the complexity of medicine. It is well recognised that sufficient scalability is likely to be achieved only with those schemes that can build post-coordinated constructs compositionally. Clinical Terms Version 3 (Read Codes) uses a system of templates to both express the semantic definition (atoms) of concepts and to allow qualification of core concepts with additional detail. This common mechanism for e...

Brown, P. J.; Price, C.

1999-01-01

19

Differential effects of viewing positions on standard versus semantic Stroop interference.  

Science.gov (United States)

From their finding that the substantial magnitude of the Stroop interference that occurs when a participant's initial fixation is directed at the optimal viewing position is eliminated when the initial fixation is directed at the end of a word, Perret and Ducrot (2010) concluded that initial fixation at the latter position likely prevents reading. In the present study, we further examined this interpretation. To this end, the two conflict dimensions (semantic vs. response) that were confounded in the original work were separated within a semantically based Stroop paradigm (Neely & Kahan, 2001) that was administered with vocal (instead of manual) responses. In line with past findings showing greater interference in the vocal task, the reported results indicated that standard Stroop interference was reduced, but not eliminated, thus making the initial interpretation in terms of reading suppression unlikely. This conclusion is further strengthened by the presence of isolated semantic interference, the magnitude of which remained significant and was unaffected by viewing position. In sum, these results show that initial fixation of the end of a word simply reduces (nonsemantic) response competition. PMID:24002970

Ferrand, Ludovic; Augustinova, Maria

2014-04-01

20

[Two semantic brain systems for rapid and slow differentiation of the abstract and concrete words].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the previous studies, semantic processing was repeatedly found to be reflected in the late (300-800 ms) components of event-related potentials (ERP). However, a human may catch the meaning of the words much earlier. In this work we investigated brain mechanisms of semantic analysis of abstract and concrete written words in four experimental conditions: (1) simple reading (a subjects had to read words to him/herself); (2) simple classification (a subjects had to classify presented words into abstract and concrete categories); (3) cued and (4) uncued selective classification conditions (a subject had to classify only the words typed in a particular color). In the simple reading condition, early (40-100 ms) differences between the ERPs to concrete and abstract words were found mostly in the right frontal areas. During simple classification, the early differences between the ERPs were observed in more dorsal areas. Differences in the late ERP components (450-700 ms) in the left frontal area were characteristic of all cases of explicitly classified words. The findings suggest the existence of two semantic systems: a rapid implicit system which involves the right frontal cortex and can be suppressed by task demands, and a slow explicit system of word classification involving, predominantly, the left frontal area. PMID:18064895

Il'iuchenok, I R; Sysoeva, O V; Ivanitski?, A M

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Two semantic systems in the brain for rapid and slow differentiation of abstract and concrete words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most studies of semantic processing address changes in the late (300-800 msec) components of evoked potentials. However, recent years have seen the appearance of data showing that humans can perceive the sense of stimuli presented to them in significantly shorter periods of time. We report here studies of the mechanism of semantic analysis of written abstract and concrete words in four series of experiments: 1) reading of words on a monitor screen; 2) simple classification of all presented words into the categories "abstract" and "concrete;" 3) complex, i.e., selective classification of words written only in a specified color with a prompt as to which color would be used for the word; 4) complex classification of words of only a specified color without a prior prompt. Early (40-100 msec) differences in evoked brain potentials were seen on comparison of responses to abstract and concrete words, predominantly in the frontal areas in the case of simple reading of words and in the more dorsal areas in the case of tasks with simple classification. All cases of explicit classification of words were characterized by differences in late (450-700 msec) components in the left frontal zone. The results indicate the existence of two semantic systems: a rapid, implicit system associated with activation of the right frontal area, and a slow, explicit system of word classification which is predominantly associated with activity in the left frontal area. The relationship between the two systems is to a certain extent reciprocal: the rapid system can by inhibited by introduction of a word classification task. PMID:18975097

Il'yuchenok, I R; Sysoeva, O V; Ivanitskii, A M

2008-11-01

22

Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

23

Semantic Advertising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such...

Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John

2013-01-01

24

Análise da Validade e Precisão de Instrumento de Diferencial Semântico / Analysis of Validity and Precision of a Semantic Differential Instrument  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investigou evidências de validade e precisão de um instrumento de diferencial semântico que tem sido utilizado para medir a transferência de significados entre estímulos equivalentes. Um total de 196 estudantes universitários avaliou fotografias de faces expressando emoções e também figu [...] ras abstratas, utilizando um instrumento composto por 13 escalas bipolares ancoradas por adjetivos opostos. A análise fatorial dos dados coletados forneceu indicações da validade do instrumento e os coeficientes alfa obtidos indicam que os dois fatores extraídos nesta análise possuem níveis de precisão aceitáveis, embora um dos fatores deva ser revisto. Discute-se que o modelo de equivalência de estímulos, entendido como um modelo experimental de relações simbólicas, pode se beneficiar de instrumentos capazes de fornecer medidas válidas de transferência de significado. Abstract in english This study assessed evidence of validity and precision of a semantic differential test that has been used to measure the transfer of meaning among equivalent stimuli. Participants were 196 college students who evaluated pictures of faces expressing emotions and also abstract pictures using an instru [...] ment comprised by 13 bipolar scales anchored by opposite adjectives. The factor analysis of the data evidenced the validity of the instrument. Values of alpha coefficients indicated that the factors extracted by this analysis have acceptable levels of precision, although one of the factors might be revised. It is discussed that the stimulus equivalence paradigm, an experimental model for symbolic relations, can benefit from instruments that provide valid measures of meaning transfer.

João Henrique de, Almeida; Renato, Bortoloti; Paulo Roberto dos Santos, Ferreira; Patricia Waltz, Schelini; Julio César Coelho de, Rose.

25

Semantic Web Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication) within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013). As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant ...

Anna Lamandini

2011-01-01

26

Semantic Normativity without Semantic Norm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Against both strongly normativist views of language (Putnam, Burge) and strongly anti-normativist views (Chomsky, Bilgrami), I defend a moderate view of semantic normativity, on which normativity does not require the existence of ultimate semantic authorities and is consistent with the possibility of semantic deviance.

Marconi, Diego

1997-01-01

27

EL SEMANTICO DIFERENCIAL COMO PROPUESTA METODOLOGICA PARA CARACTERIZAR EL LIDERAZGO EN UNA ORGANIZACIÓN / THE DIFFERENTIAL SEMANTICS AS METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL TO CHARACTERIZE THE LEADERSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El liderazgo es un fenómeno esencial en la administración de cualquier tipo de organización, se refiere a un patrón de conducta según como lo perciben los demás, y se desarrolla a partir de experiencias, educación, capacitación y condiciones naturales. La primera parte de este artículo se dedica a r [...] ealizar una definición del liderazgo para luego clasificarlo en tres grupos: Liderazgo Transaccional, Liderazgo Transformacional y las teorías emergentes. A continuación se explican los pasos que componen la metodología propuesta para caracterizar el liderazgo en una organización la cual esta basada en la técnica de Semántica Diferencial de Osgood en la cual se construye una escala bipolar tipo diferencial semántico. Finalmente se muestran los resultados alcanzados de la aplicación de la metodología en las ONG en Antioquia, para lo cual se realiza una definición acerca de las ONG y las características percibidas de los líderes en esta clase de organizaciones en Antioquia. Abstract in english Leadership is a basic aspect f management for any type of organization, it refers to a behavioral pattern according to the perception of the other, and it is developed from experiences, education, capacity building and natural conditions. The first part of this paper focuses on defining leadership, [...] classifying it in three groups: transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and emergent theories. Later, there is a description of the steps that constitute a methodology proposed to characterize leadership in organizations. This methodology is grounded in the Osgood Differentiation Semantics, in which a bipolar scale of semantical differentiation type is constructed. Finally, results from the application of this methodology in NGO (Non-Governmental Organizations) in Antioquia are shown. A definition of NGOs is carried out, as well as a description of the perceived characteristics of NGO leaders in Antioquia.

GIOVANNY, PEREZ ORTEGA; MARTÍN DARIO, ARANGO SERNA; JHON WILLIAM, BRANCH BEDOYA.

2008-07-01

28

Differentiating Semantic Categories during the Acquisition of Novel Words: Correspondence Analysis Applied to Event-related Potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing evidence suggests that semantic knowledge is represented in distributed neural networks that include modality-specific structures. Here, we examined the processes underlying the acquisition of words from different semantic categories to determine whether the emergence of visual- and action-based categories could be tracked back to their acquisition. For this, we applied correspondence analysis (CA) to ERPs recorded at various moments during acquisition. CA is a multivariate statistical technique typically used to reveal distance relationships between words of a corpus. Applied to ERPs, it allows isolating factors that best explain variations in the data across time and electrodes. Participants were asked to learn new action and visual words by associating novel pseudowords with the execution of hand movements or the observation of visual images. Words were probed before and after training on two consecutive days. To capture processes that unfold during lexical access, CA was applied on the 100-400 msec post-word onset interval. CA isolated two factors that organized the data as a function of test sessions and word categories. Conventional ERP analyses further revealed a category-specific increase in the negativity of the ERPs to action and visual words at the frontal and occipital electrodes, respectively. The distinct neural processes underlying action and visual words can thus be tracked back to the acquisition of word-referent relationships and may have its origin in association learning. Given current evidence for the flexibility of language-induced sensory-motor activity, we argue that these associative links may serve functions beyond word understanding, that is, the elaboration of situation models. PMID:24893746

Fargier, Raphaël; Ploux, Sabine; Cheylus, Anne; Reboul, Anne; Paulignan, Yves; Nazir, Tatjana A

2014-11-01

29

Cueing effects on semantic and perceptual categorization: ERPs reveal differential effects of validity as a function of processing stage  

Science.gov (United States)

Valid cueing has been shown to accelerate target identification and improve decision accuracy, however the precise nature and extent to which biasing influences the successive stages of target processing remain unclear. The present event-related potential (ERP) study used a “hybrid” task that combined features of standard cued-attention and task-switching paradigms in order to explore the effects of expectation on both identification and categorization of centrally-presented stimuli. Subjects made semantic judgments (living/nonliving) on word targets (“bunny”), and perceptual judgments (right/left) on arrow targets (“??<”). Target expectancy was manipulated using cues that were valid (60% of trials), invalid (10%), or neutral (30%). Invalidly-cued targets required task-set switching before categorization could commence, and resulted in RT costs relative to validly- or neutrally-cued targets. Additionally, benefits from valid-cueing were observed for word targets. Invalid cueing of both arrow and word targets modulated early posterior visual potentials (P1/N1) and elicited a subsequent anterior P3a (270 ms). The temporal relationship of these effects suggests that the P3a indexed domain-general task-set switching processes recruited in response to the detection of unexpected perceptual information. Subsequent to the P3a and immediately preceding the behavioral response, validly-cued targets elicited enhanced stimulus-specific waveforms (arrows: parietal positivity [P290], words: inferior temporal negativity [late ITN: 400–600 ms]). The degree of neural enhancement relative to the invalid and neutral conditions mirrored the magnitude of corresponding RT benefits, suggesting that these waveforms indexed categorization and/or decision processes. Together, these results suggest that valid cueing increases the neural efficiency of initial stimulus identification, facilitating transmission of information to subsequent categorization stages, where increased neural activity leads to behavioral benefits. PMID:17382975

Lai, Grace; Mangels, Jennifer A.

2007-01-01

30

A Programme for Semantics; Semantics and Its Critics; Semantics Shamantics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a statement-response-reply format, a proposition concerning the study of semantics is made and debated in three papers by two authors. In the first paper, it is proposed that semantics is not the study of the concept of meaning, but rather a neurolinguistic issue, despite the fact that semantics is linked to context. It is argued that semantic

Goldstein, Laurence; Harris, Roy

1990-01-01

31

Generative Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generative semantics is (or perhaps was a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of the program are a matter of some controversy and have been extensively debated. Generative semanticists took Chomsky's concept of deep structure and ran with it, assuming (contrary to later work by Chomsky and Ray Jackendoff that deep structures were the sole input to semantic interpretation. This assumption, combined with a tendency to consider a wider rang of empirical evidence than Chomskyan linguists, lead generative semanticists to develop considerably more abstract and complex theories of deep structure than those advocated by Chomsky and his students. Throughout the late 1960s and 1970s, there were heated debates between generative semanticists and more orthodox Chomskyans. The generative semanticists lost the debate, in so far as their research program ground to a halt by the 1980s. However, this was in part because the interests of key generative semanticists such as George Lakoff had gradually shifted away from the narrow study of syntax and semantics. A number of ideas from later work in generative semantics have been incorporated into cognitive linguistics (and indeed into main stream Chomskyan linguistics, often without citation

Karim Bagha

2011-08-01

32

Semantic nominalism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present paper is twofold. One task is to argue that our use of the numerical vocabulary in theory and applications determines the reference of the numerical terms more precisely than up to isomorphism. In particular our use of the numerical vocabulary in modal and counterfactual contexts of application excludes contingent existents as candidate referents for the numerical terms. The second task is to explore the impact of this conclusion on what I call semantic nominalism, whic...

Uzquiano, G.

2005-01-01

33

Making secure Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

this paper first describes ways of semantic web security implementation through layers. These layers are presented as a backbone for semantic web architecture and are represented in XML security, RDF security and in an idea of semantic web security standardization.

Adis Medi?; Adis Golubovi?

2010-01-01

34

Semantic Annotation: The Mainstay of Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given that semantic Web realization is based on the critical mass of metadata accessibility and the representation of data with formal knowledge, it needs to generate metadata that is specific, easy to understand and well-defined. However, semantic annotation of the web documents is the successful way to make the Semantic Web vision a reality. This paper introduces the Semantic Web and its vision (stack layers) with regard to some concept definitions that helps the understan...

Slimani, Thabet

2013-01-01

35

Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

Anna Lamandini

2011-06-01

36

Programming the semantic web  

CERN Document Server

With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

2009-01-01

37

Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will ...

Splendiani Andrea; Burger Albert; Paschke Adrian; Romano Paolo; Marshall M

2011-01-01

38

Semantics via Machine Translation  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

Culhane, P. T.

1977-01-01

39

The Social Semantic Web  

CERN Document Server

Presenting a short overview of both the Social Web and the Semantic Web, this title describes some popular social media and social networking applications, lists their strengths and limitations, and explains some applications of Semantic Web technology to address their shortcomings by enhancing them with semantics

Breslin, John G

2009-01-01

40

Pragmatics for formal semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal semantics from another.

Danvy, Olivier

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Semantically Interoperable XML Data  

Science.gov (United States)

XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups.

Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

2013-01-01

42

Differentiation  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity about lunar magmatic differentiation, in which learners simulate the process of geological differentiation. The activity ends with an extension question that asks about the makeup of the highlands of the Moon. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teacher's guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

43

Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences? We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

Splendiani Andrea

2011-03-01

44

Semantic Networks and Social Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

Downes, Stephen

2005-01-01

45

Visualizing and Structuring Semantic Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper is proposed a method for representing semantic data and knowledge. The method is based two foundational concepts: semantic link network and adjacency model. The method allows graph presentations of semantic data and it preserves the semantic relationships between the concepts of the domain. Furthermore with the methodit is possible construct relational model of the semantically rich data.

Teemu Mäenpää

2013-04-01

46

Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web  

CERN Document Server

The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

Ashish, Naveen

2011-01-01

47

Semantic web for dummies  

CERN Document Server

Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

Pollock, Jeffrey T

2009-01-01

48

Applied Semantic Web Technologies  

CERN Document Server

The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

Sugumaran, Vijayan

2011-01-01

49

The Semantic Learning Organization  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

2005-01-01

50

A Semantic Graph Query Language  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

Kaplan, I L

2006-10-16

51

UML 2 Semantics and Applications  

CERN Document Server

A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

Lano, Kevin

2009-01-01

52

Organizational Semantic Web based Portals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tries to treat organizational semantic web based portals. The first part of the paper focuses on concepts regarding semantic web based portals. After discussing some concepts we treat the basic functionalities that a semantic web based portal must have and we finish by presenting these functionalities by actual examples. We present semantic web based portals after studying the necessary implementations from literature and practice. We develop some examples that use semantic web ...

Necula, Sabina-cristiana

2011-01-01

53

Semantic Web Service Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research community of Web, presently is working to generate its next generation i.e. Semantic Web. They are moving towards automation of the retrieval and processing of web contents. The systems based on the semantic web require performing various processes like discovery, selection, composition, orchestration, monitoring etc. on services provided by it for satisfying client needs. In this paper, we will be concentrating on semantic web service composition techniques. The work deals with exploring different type of composition techniques, categorization of them, and comparing them based on some of their properties like process, reasoners & languages involved, interface etc.

Kumar Sandeep

2008-01-01

54

Reactive Kripke semantics  

CERN Document Server

This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

Gabbay, Dov M

2013-01-01

55

Benchmarking semantic web technology  

CERN Document Server

This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

García-Castro, R

2009-01-01

56

Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge  

CERN Document Server

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

SemWebEval 2014

2014-01-01

57

Semantics of Ontology Alignment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ontology alignment is a foundational problem area for semantic interoperability. We discuss the complexity faced by automated alignment solutions and describe an ontology-based approach for describing and evaluating alignments.

B. C. Ashpole, T. C. Hughes

2004-01-01

58

Future Internet | Special Issue : Semantic Geographic Information System (Semantic GIS)  

...Future Internet | Special Issue : Semantic Geographic Information System (Semantic GIS) Submit to Future Internet Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ... 1 (2009) Special Issue \\

59

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

60

Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

2007-08-07

 
 
 
 
61

Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author finds Katz and Postal's 1964 generative semantic theories concerning the organization of grammar incorrect and proposes an interpretive approach to semantics in which syntactic structures are given interpretations by an autonomous semantic component. The research reported leads the author to describe a generative grammar consisting of…

Jackendoff, Ray S.

62

An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

2014-01-01

63

A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory  

CERN Document Server

The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

2008-01-01

64

The semantic similarity ensemble  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

Andrea Ballatore

2013-12-01

65

Dimensions of affective semantic meaning--behavioral and evoked potential correlates in Chinese subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The affective meaning of words can be quantified statistically by the 'semantic differential technique'. We studied a total of 55 Chinese adults in two experiments: first, 210 nouns were rated by 32 subjects. Factor analysis on these data yielded three independent semantic dimensions. Semantically unique words were used in electrophysiological experiments in another group of 23 healthy right-handed adults. Words of similar physical appearance belonging to different semantic classes were presented visually in random order. The electroencephalogram [corrected] was recorded in 32 channels. Evoked activity was computed for each semantic class. Significant differences in electrical brain activation between semantic word classes were seen as early as 80 ms after stimulus onset confirming related findings in German subjects. These results illustrate similar early neural activation in subject groups of different language and culture. PMID:12676340

Skrandies, W; Chiu, M J

2003-04-24

66

From Data to Semantic Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

Luciano Floridi

2003-06-01

67

On the Unification of Process Semantics: Logical Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We continue with the task of obtaining a unifying view of process semantics by considering in this case the logical characterization of the semantics. We start by considering the classic linear time-branching time spectrum developed by R.J. van Glabbeek. He provided a logical characterization of most of the semantics in his spectrum but, without following a unique pattern. In this paper, we present a uniform logical characterization of all the semantics in the enlarged spectrum. The common structure of the formulas that constitute all the corresponding logics gives us a much clearer picture of the spectrum, clarifying the relations between the different semantics, and allows us to develop generic proofs of some general properties of the semantics.

David Romero-Hernández

2011-08-01

68

Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics  

CERN Document Server

Many applications depend on the effective acquisition of semantic metadata, and this state-of-the-art volume provides extensive coverage of the field of semantics acquisition games (SAGs). SAGs are a part of the crowdsourcing approach family and the authors analyze their role as tools for acquisition of resource metadata and domain models. Three case studies of SAG-based semantics acquisition methods are shown, along with other existing SAGs: 1. the Little Search Game - a search query formulation game using negative search, serving for acquisition of lightweight semantics. 2. the PexAce - a ca

Šimko, Jakub

2014-01-01

69

Whither Experimental Semantics?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to propose a methodology for the theory of reference in which experiments feature prominently. These experiments should primarily test linguistic usage rather than the folk’s referential intuitions. The proposed methodology urges the use of: (A philosophers’ referential intuitions, both informally and, occasionally, scientifically gathered; (B the corpus, both informally and scientifically gathered; (C elicited production; and, occasionally, (D folk’s referential intuitions. The most novel part of this is (C and that is where most of the experimental work should be. The secondary goal of the paper is to defend my earlier paper “Experimental Semantics” from the criticisms of Machery, Mallon, Nichols, and Stich in “If Folk Intuitions Vary, Then What?” They charge that I have seriously misunderstood their goal in “Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style” and that many of my arguments are “largely irrelevant”. I argue that these charges are baseless.

Michael Devitt

2012-01-01

70

Live Social Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web 2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated in real-time with face-to-face contact networks derived from wearable sensors. Integration of all these heterogeneous data layers made it possible to offer various services to conference attendees to enhance their social experience such as visualisation of contact data, and a site to explore and connect with other participants. This paper describes the architecture of the application, the services we provided, and the results we achieved in this deployment.

Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; van den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain

71

Universal Semantics in Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which applications are also briefly looked into.

Zhenying Wang

2009-08-01

72

Insensitive Enough Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

Richard Vallée

2006-06-01

73

Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

Rajab Abd al-Hamed

2007-01-01

74

Semantic Representatives of the Concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

Elena N. Tsay

2013-01-01

75

A Schema for Generating Update Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we present a general schema for dening new update semantics. This schema takes as input any basic logic programming semantics, such as the stable semantics, the p-stable semantics or the MMr semantics, and gives as output a new update semantics. The schema proposed is based on a concept called minimal generalized S models, where S is any of the logic programming semantics. Each update semantics is associated to an update operator. We also present some properties of these update operators

Jos´e Luis Carballido Carranza

2012-03-01

76

Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

Skorokhodko, E. F.

1970-01-01

77

The semantic planetary data system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

2005-01-01

78

Universal semantic communication  

CERN Document Server

Is meaningful communication possible between two intelligent parties who share no common language or background? In this work, a theoretical framework is proposed in which it is possible to address when and to what extent such semantic communication is possible: such problems can be rigorously addressed by explicitly focusing on the goals of the communication. Under this framework, it is possible to show that for many goals, communication without any common language or background is possible using universal protocols. This work should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate-level knowled

Juba, Brendan

2011-01-01

79

Declarative Semantics for Active Rules  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we analyze declarative deterministic and non-deterministic semantics for active rules. In particular we consider several (partial) stable model semantics, previously defined for deductive rules, such as well-founded, max deterministic, unique total stable model, total stable model, and maximal stable model semantics. The semantics of an active program AP is given by first rewriting it into a deductive program P, then computing a model M defining the declarative semantics of P and, finally, applying `consistent' updates contained in M to the source database. The framework we propose permits a natural integration of deductive and active rules and can also be applied to queries with function symbols or to queries over infinite databases.

Flesca, S; Flesca, Sergio; Greco, Sergio

2001-01-01

80

"Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A comparison of sentence- and discourse-level semantic processing: an ERP study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen subjects listened to sentences ending with semantically congruent or incongruent words. Each congruent sentence was embedded at the end of a short story so that the final word was semantically acceptable at the sentence level but incongruent in terms of discourse context. The same stories were also presented with congruent endings. Auditory ERPs elicited by the final words in these sentences and stories were compared. Both sentence- and discourse-level semantic integration were associated with N400 and Late Positive Component (LPC) effects in addition to a new component, P550. Local and global semantic processing, although evoking the same components, were characterized by differential effects on ERP amplitudes according to the amount of text integrated and its congruence. These results indicate similar cognitive processes of context build up, underlying sentence- and discourse-semantic processing. PMID:12468394

Salmon, Nirit; Pratt, Hillel

2002-12-01

82

On asymmetry in game-theoretic semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the key aspects of game-theoretic semantics and demonstrates its advantages in presenting incomplete information and imperfect memory. The author identifies the limitations of J. Hintikka’s game-theoretic semantics as to the problem of asymmetry in semantic games. The article provides an overview of concurrent game-theoretic semantics.

Ilchenko A.

2014-07-01

83

Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic

Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

2010-01-01

84

Semantic understanding of Image content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large amounts of spatial data are becoming available today due to the rapid development of remote sensing techniques. Several retrieval systems are proposed to retrieve necessary, interested and effective information such as key- word based image retrieval and content based image retrieval. However, the results of these approaches are generally unsatisfactory, unpredictable and do not match human perception due to the well gap between visual features and semantic concepts. In this paper, we propose a new approach allowing semantic satellite image retrieval, describing the semantic image content and managing uncertain information. It is based on ontology model which represents spatial knowledge in order to provide semantic understanding of image content. Our retrieval system is based on two modules: ontological model merging and semantic strategic image retrieval. The first module allows developing ontological models which represent spatial knowledge of the satellite image, and managing uncertain information. The second module allows retrieving satellite images basing on their ontological model. In order to improve the quality of retrieval system and to facilitate the retrieval process, we propose two retrieval strategies which are the opportunist strategy and the hypothetic strategy. Our approach attempts to improve the quality of image retrieval, to reduce the semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts and to provide an automatic solution for efficient satellite image retrieval.

D D Dhobale

2011-05-01

85

Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

2012-12-01

86

Automatic semantic facilitation in anterior temporal cortex revealed through multimodal neuroimaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

A core property of human semantic processing is the rapid, facilitatory influence of prior input on extracting the meaning of what comes next, even under conditions of minimal awareness. Previous work has shown a number of neurophysiological indices of this facilitation, but the mapping between time course and localization-critical for separating automatic semantic facilitation from other mechanisms-has thus far been unclear. In the current study, we used a multimodal imaging approach to isolate early, bottom-up effects of context on semantic memory, acquiring a combination of electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements in the same individuals with a masked semantic priming paradigm. Across techniques, the results provide a strikingly convergent picture of early automatic semantic facilitation. Event-related potentials demonstrated early sensitivity to semantic association between 300 and 500 ms; MEG localized the differential neural response within this time window to the left anterior temporal cortex, and fMRI localized the effect more precisely to the left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region previously implicated in semantic associative processing. However, fMRI diverged from early EEG/MEG measures in revealing semantic enhancement effects within frontal and parietal regions, perhaps reflecting downstream attempts to consciously access the semantic features of the masked prime. Together, these results provide strong evidence that automatic associative semantic facilitation is realized as reduced activity within the left anterior superior temporal cortex between 300 and 500 ms after a word is presented, and emphasize the importance of multimodal neuroimaging approaches in distinguishing the contributions of multiple regions to semantic processing. PMID:24155321

Lau, Ellen F; Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R

2013-10-23

87

Workspaces in the Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

2005-01-01

88

The Semantics of Graph Programs  

CERN Document Server

GP (for Graph Programs) is a rule-based, nondeterministic programming language for solving graph problems at a high level of abstraction, freeing programmers from handling low-level data structures. The core of GP consists of four constructs: single-step application of a set of conditional graph-transformation rules, sequential composition, branching and iteration. We present a formal semantics for GP in the style of structural operational semantics. A special feature of our semantics is the use of finitely failing programs to define GP's powerful branching and iteration commands.

Plump, Detlef; 10.4204/EPTCS.21.3

2010-01-01

89

The Semantics of Graph Programs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available GP (for Graph Programs is a rule-based, nondeterministic programming language for solving graph problems at a high level of abstraction, freeing programmers from handling low-level data structures. The core of GP consists of four constructs: single-step application of a set of conditional graph-transformation rules, sequential composition, branching and iteration. We present a formal semantics for GP in the style of structural operational semantics. A special feature of our semantics is the use of finitely failing programs to define GP's powerful branching and iteration commands.

Detlef Plump

2010-03-01

90

Formal Component-Based Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

Ken Madlener

2011-08-01

91

Subtyping has a Simple Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consider a first order typed language, with semantics $S$ for expressions and types. Adding subtyping means that a partial order $<$; on types is defined and that the typing rules are extended to the effect that expression $e$ has type $t$ whenever $e$ has type $s$ and $ssemantics $S$ in a simple set theoretic way, obtaining a semantics $S'$ that satisfies, in addition to some obvious requirements, also the property that: $S'~s$ is included in $S'~t$, whenever $s...

Balsters, Herman; Fokkinga, Maarten M.

1991-01-01

92

High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

2011-06-02

93

Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

Rose, Kristoffer HØgsbro

1992-01-01

94

An Abundance of Riches: Cross-Task Comparisons of Semantic Richness Effects In Visual Word Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is considerable evidence (e.g., Pexman, Hargreaves, Siakaluk, Bodner, & Pope, 2008 that semantically rich words, which are associated with relatively more semantic information, are recognized faster across different lexical processing tasks. The present study extends this earlier work by providing the most comprehensive evaluation to date of semantic richness effects on visual word recognition performance. Specifically, using regression analyses to control for the influence of correlated lexical variables, we considered the impact of contextual dispersion, number of features, number of senses, semantic neighborhood density, imageability, and body-object interaction across five visual word recognition tasks: standard lexical decision, go/no-go lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, semantic classification, and progressive demasking. Semantic richness effects could be reliably detected in all tasks of lexical processing, indicating that semantic representations, particularly their imaginal and featural aspects, play a fundamental role in visual word recognition. However, there was also evidence that the strength of certain richness effects could be flexibly and adaptively modulated by task demands, consistent with an intriguing interplay between task-specific mechanisms and differentiated semantic processing.

MelvinJ.Yap

2012-04-01

95

Primary progressive aphasia: A comparative study of progressive nonfluent aphasia and semantic dementia  

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Full Text Available Primary progressive aphasia (PPA, a degenerative disorder, is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer?s disease. Its subtypes, semantic dementia (SD, and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA, are often difficult to differentiate from each other. Our objective was to highlight the differences in the language profiles of patients with SD and PNFA. To bring out these differences, we report two patients with PPA, one with SD and the other with PNFA. They were administered the Western aphasia battery (WAB and a semantic battery, which assesses semantic memory. The profiles of language impairment on the WAB indicated that the patient with PNFA had syntactic errors in expressive speech but relatively preserved semantics and comprehension, whereas the patient with SD had preserved syntax but made semantic errors in expressive speech, and had impaired comprehension. There were differences in their performance on the semantic battery too. The patient with SD made relatively less errors on confrontation naming, although on the pointing task he failed to point to those line drawings, which he was unable to name on confrontation. In contrast, the finding of the PNFA patient was the reverse of this. Supplementing conventional neuropsychological tests with formal tests for assessment of language functions is useful in the early diagnosis of PPA. The performance of PPA patients on a detailed assessment of language that includes use of formal tests such as the semantic battery helps to differentiate PNFA from SD.

George Annamma

2005-01-01

96

Building a biomedical semantic network in Wikipedia with Semantic Wiki Links.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wikipedia is increasingly used as a platform for collaborative data curation, but its current technical implementation has significant limitations that hinder its use in biocuration applications. Specifically, while editors can easily link between two articles in Wikipedia to indicate a relationship, there is no way to indicate the nature of that relationship in a way that is computationally accessible to the system or to external developers. For example, in addition to noting a relationship between a gene and a disease, it would be useful to differentiate the cases where genetic mutation or altered expression causes the disease. Here, we introduce a straightforward method that allows Wikipedia editors to embed computable semantic relations directly in the context of current Wikipedia articles. In addition, we demonstrate two novel applications enabled by the presence of these new relationships. The first is a dynamically generated information box that can be rendered on all semantically enhanced Wikipedia articles. The second is a prototype gene annotation system that draws its content from the gene-centric articles on Wikipedia and exposes the new semantic relationships to enable previously impossible, user-defined queries. DATABASE URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki. PMID:22434829

Good, Benjamin M; Clarke, Erik L; Loguercio, Salvatore; Su, Andrew I

2012-01-01

97

Neural Dynamics Associated with Semantic and Episodic Memory for Faces: Evidence from Multiple Frequency Bands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prior semantic knowledge facilitates episodic recognition memory for faces. To examine the neural manifestation of the interplay between semantic and episodic memory, we investigated neuroelectric dynamics during the creation (study) and the retrieval (test) of episodic memories for famous and nonfamous faces. Episodic memory effects were evident in several EEG frequency bands: theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (9–13 Hz), and gamma (40–100 Hz). Activity in these bands was differentially modulated b...

Zion-golumbic, Elana; Kutas, Marta; Bentin, Shlomo

2010-01-01

98

Operational semantics for signal handling  

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Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

Maxim Strygin

2012-08-01

99

Semantic Web for Program Administration  

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Full Text Available Typically, administrative systems involving information in an academic environment are disjoint, spread across various departments and support independent queries. The objectives in this work include investigation on integrating these independent systems to provide support to intelligent queries run on the integrated platform. A framework is proposed that enriches data in the legacy systems to provide a value-added semantic layer where annotation, query and reasoning can be carried out to support management requirements. The development of this framework with a case study of a typical engineering program is discussed to show how semantic web technologies can be used by stack holders of the program for better academic program administration. The comparative work is described to show applications where semantic web have been explored. The issues related to implementation of the semantic web to academic program administration are also highlighted and discussed.

Qurban A Memon

2010-12-01

100

NASA and The Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

Ashish, Naveen

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies hav...

Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falca?o, Andre? O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

2009-01-01

102

Semantic Description of Web Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tasks of semantic web service (discovery, selection, composition, and execution) are supposed to enable seamless interoperation between systems, whereby human intervention is kept at a minimum. In the field of Web service description research, the exploitation of descriptions of services through semantics is a better support for the life-cycle of Web services. The large number of developed ontologies, languages of representations, and integrated frameworks supporting the...

Thabet Slimani

2013-01-01

103

Language networks in semantic dementia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognitive deficits in semantic dementia have been attributed to anterior temporal lobe grey matter damage; however, key aspects of the syndrome could be due to altered anatomical connectivity between language pathways involving the temporal lobe. The aim of this study was to investigate the left language-related cerebral pathways in semantic dementia using diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography and to combine the findings with cortical anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging...

Agosta, Federica; Henry, Roland G.; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Bruce L.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Brambati, Simona M.; Filippi, Massimo; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Wilson, Stephen M.; Gorno-tempini, Maria Luisa

2010-01-01

104

A Semantic Approach for Recommendations generation: some Cultural Heritage applications  

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Full Text Available EnThe growing availability of data in the information systems has raised the challenging problem of distinguishing between the resources that belong to the same information context. Starting from the hypothesis that the information system is based on Semantic Web technologies, is it possible to use these technologies to make an information system more adaptive to user requirements in order to enable personalization and differentiation mechanisms in the information delivery process?This paper proposes an approach to building recommendations by using Semantic Web technologies, in order to give the users a different access to the information. The outcome is a semantic recommender engine, capable of retrieving and ranking semantically annotated resources, by using a set of domain ontologies and a semantic matching algorithm. We are showing some applications of this model in the Cultural Heritage domain in which the presented approach seems to be particularly effective, due to the richness of semantic structures and models existing for such domain.ItLa crescente quantità di dati disponibili da parte dei sistemi informativi ha sollevato il complesso problema della distinzione tra risorse appartenenti allo stesso contesto informativo. Partendo dall'ipotesi che il sistema informativo si basi sulle tecnologie proprie del Web Semantico, è possibile utilizzare tali tecnologie per rendere il sistema adattivo ai requisiti dell'utente, abilitando, in questo modo, meccanismi di personalizzazione e differenziazione?Questo articolo propone un approccio per la generazione di recommendation,  utilizzando le tecnologie del Web Semantico, al fine di fornire, ai singoli utenti, accessi differenziati alle informazioni. Il risultato è un motore di generazione di recommendation semantiche, in grado di recuperare e classificare risorse annotate semanticamente, avvalendosi di un set di ontologie di dominio e di un algoritmo di matching semantico. Saranno infine descritte alcune applicazioni di tale modello nel dominio del Cultural Heritage. In tale dominio, infatti, grazie all'enorme mole di ontologie, modelli e strutture semantiche esistenti, l'approccio presentato sembra essere particolarmente efficace.

Maurizio De Tommasi

2011-12-01

105

Theoretical Formulas of Semantic Measure: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, several semantic similarity and relatedness measures have been developed and applied in many domains including linguistics, biomedical informatics, GeoInformatics, and Semantic Web. This paper discusses different semantic measures which compute similarity and relatedness scores between concepts based on a knowledge representation model offered by ontologies and semantic networks. The benchmarks and approaches used for the evaluation of semantic similarity methods are also described. The aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive view of these measures which helps researchers to choose the best semantic similarity or relatedness metric for their needs.

Kalthoum Rezgui

2013-11-01

106

Ontology Learning for Semantic Web using Lexical-Semantic Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, web has evolved from global information space where data has linked well. Linking Open Data project has enabled a large number of semantic datasets to be published on the web. Due to the open and distributed nature of the web both schema and instances of published datasets may have heterogeneity problems. In order to overcome these problems we use semantic technologies such as Ontology, RDF, Xml and OWL. This paper proposes how to learn an ontology and solve these heterogeneous problem. We also use taxonomic and partonomic relations to learn the ontology. This project also uses lexical semantic analysis to identify relationship. Lexical method retrieves the words which are having multiple meaning.

Senduru Srinivasulu

2014-03-01

107

SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap") is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currentl...

Town Christopher D; Avraham Shulamit; May Greg D; Schiltz Gary S; Dg, Gessler Damian; Grant David; Nelson Rex T

2009-01-01

108

The processing of semantic meaning in Chinese words and evoked brain topography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The connotative meaning of words can be quantified statistically by the "semantic differential technique" resulting in statistically defined, independent dimensions where every word is uniquely located on the three dimensional evaluation. In an earlier study on German subjects we demonstrated that there are electrophysiological correlates of these meaning dimensions. Here a group of 55 Chinese adults was investigated in two experiments: first, 210 nouns were rated by 32 subjects, and factor analysis on the questionnaire data yielded three independent semantic dimensions. Semantically unique words stemming from these results were then used as stimuli in electrophysiological experiments in another group of 23 healthy right-handed adults. Words of similar physical appearance belonging to different semantic classes were presented visually in random order. The EEG was recorded from 29 channels, and evoked brain activity was computed for each semantic class. Significant differences in electrical brain activation between these semantic word classes were observed as early as 80 ms after stimulus onset, confirming earlier reports on similar findings in German subjects. Further similarities were revealed by a direct comparison of the topographical distribution of potential components elicited by words, and by the results of spatial PCA performed on both sets of data. These results illustrate similar early neural activation based on semantic class, in subject groups of different language and culture. PMID:15379223

Skrandies, Wolfgang; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Lin, Yuru

2004-01-01

109

Semantic Particularity Measure for Functional Characterization of Gene Sets Using Gene Ontology  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Genetic and genomic data analyses are outputting large sets of genes. Functional comparison of these gene sets is a key part of the analysis, as it identifies their shared functions, and the functions that distinguish each set. The Gene Ontology (GO) initiative provides a unified reference for analyzing the genes molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. Numerous semantic similarity measures have been developed to systematically quantify the weight of the GO terms shared by two genes. We studied how gene set comparisons can be improved by considering gene set particularity in addition to gene set similarity. Results We propose a new approach to compute gene set particularities based on the information conveyed by GO terms. A GO term informativeness can be computed using either its information content based on the term frequency in a corpus, or a function of the term's distance to the root. We defined the semantic particularity of a set of GO terms Sg1 compared to another set of GO terms Sg2. We combined our particularity measure with a similarity measure to compare gene sets. We demonstrated that the combination of semantic similarity and semantic particularity measures was able to identify genes with particular functions from among similar genes. This differentiation was not recognized using only a semantic similarity measure. Conclusion Semantic particularity should be used in conjunction with semantic similarity to perform functional analysis of GO-annotated gene sets. The principle is generalizable to other ontologies. PMID:24489737

Bettembourg, Charles; Diot, Christian; Dameron, Olivier

2014-01-01

110

Identifying Bengali Multiword Expressions using Semantic Clustering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the key issues in both natural language understanding and generation is the appropriate processing of Multiword Expressions (MWEs). MWEs pose a huge problem to the precise language processing due to their idiosyncratic nature and diversity in lexical, syntactical and semantic properties. The semantics of a MWE cannot be expressed after combining the semantics of its constituents. Therefore, the formalism of semantic clustering is often viewed as an instrument for extr...

Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Das, Dipankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sivaji

2014-01-01

111

Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word "Semantic" refers to "meaning" - a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and result oriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding information on the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision of linking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new i...

Siddharth Gupta; Narina Thakur

2010-01-01

112

A Semantic web page linguistic annotation model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although with the Semantic Web initiative much research on web page semantic annotation has already been done by AI researchers, linguistic text annotation, including the semantic one, was originally developed in Corpus Linguistics and its results have been somehow neglected by AI. The purpose of the research presented in this proposal is to prove that integration of results in both fields is not only possible, but also highly useful in order to make Semantic Web pages more mac...

Aguado Cea, G.; A?lvarez Mon Rego, I.; Pareja-lora, A.; Plaza Arteche, R.

2002-01-01

113

Studying of Semantic Similarity Methods in Ontology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Humans are able to easily judge if a pair of concepts are related in some way. Understanding of how humans are able to perform this task is not easy. Semantic similarity denotes computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not necessarily lexically similar. Semantic similarity between concepts plays an important role in Semantic Web, knowledge sharing, Web mining, semantic sense understanding and text summarization. This also is an impor...

Vahideh Reshadat; Mohammad-Reza Feizi-Derakhshi

2012-01-01

114

ENGLISH TO SANSKRIT MACHINE TRANSLATION SEMANTIC MAPPER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we propose to develop a converter which converts English Statement to Sanskrit statement Using Rule based approach of Machine Translation .The proposed method has following features: The Proposed modules are as follows:MODULE 1: LEXICAL PARSERMODULE 2: SEMANTIC MAPPERMODULE 3: ITRANSLATORMODULE 4: COMPOSERHere we would concentrate only on the Second module that is Semantic Mapper. To map the English semantic word with Sanskrit semantic word

VAISHALI M. BARKADE,

2010-10-01

115

Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs. Participants made an on-line semantic relatedness judgment in response to sequentially presented pictures. We found that when pictures are presented ...

Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2010-01-01

116

Semantic Services for Wikipedia  

Science.gov (United States)

Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

117

Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die tekskorpusmetode kan nie gebruik word vir minderheidstale waarin tekste ontbreek nie. Om in die behoefte te voorsien, het die skrywer 'n lys van 1 600 semantiese domeine opgestel wat hy suksesvol gebruik het om woorde te versamel. In 'n werksessie-omgewing kan 'n groep sprekers tot soveel as 17 000 woorde in tien dae versamel. Hierdie metode lei tot 'n geklassifiseerde woordelys wat doeltreffend uitgebrei kan word tot 'n volledige woordeboek. Die metode werk omdat die mentale leksikon 'n groot web is wat rondom sleutelbegrippe gestruktureer is. 'n Semantiese domein kan gedefinieer word as 'n belangrike kon-sep saam met die woorde wat direk daarmee verband hou vanweë leksikale verwantskappe. 'n Persoon kan die mentale web gebruik om vinnig van woord tot woord binne 'n domein te spring. Die skrywer is besig om vir elke domein 'n profiel te ontwikkel om te help met die versameling van woorde en met die beskrywing van hul semantiek. 'n Ondersoek van semantiek binne die konteks van 'n domein lewer baie insigte. Die metode laat die totstandbrenging van sowel alfabeties as semanties gerangskikte woordeboeke toe. Die lys domeine is bedoel om univer-seel in omvang en toepassing te wees. Moontlik as gevolg van universalia van menslike ervaring en universalia van taalkundige vermoë, is daar treffende ooreenkomste tussen verskillende lyste semantiese domeine wat ontwikkel is vir tale oor die hele wêreld. Die gebruik van 'n gestandaardi-seerde lys domeine om veelsoortige woordeboeke te klassifiseer, skep moontlikhede vir kruislin-guistiese navorsing oor semantiese en leksikale universalia. Sleutelwoorde: SEMANTIESE DOMEINE, SEMANTIESE VELDE, SEMANTIESE KATE-GORIEË, LEKSIKALE VERWANTSKAPPE, SEMANTIESE PRIMITIEWES, DOMEINPROFIELE, MENTALE LEKSIKON, SEMANTIESE UNIVERSALIA, MINDERHEIDSTALE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE

Ronald Moe

2011-10-01

118

Operational Semantics for Lazy Evaluation  

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Full Text Available An operational semantics for lazy evaluation of a calculus without higher order functions was defined. Although it optimizes many aspects of implementation, e.g. there is a sharing in the recursive computation, there is no ? conversion, the heap is automatically reclaimed, and an attempt to evaluate an argument is done at most once. It is still suitable for reasoning about program behavior and proofs of program correctness; this is primarily due to the definition via inferences and axioms which allows for proofs by induction on the height of the proof tree. We also proved the correctness of this operational semantics by showing that it is equivalent with respect to the values calculated to the operational semantics of LAZY-PCF+SHAR due to S. Purushothaman Iyer and Jill Seaman.

Mahmoud A. AbouGhaly

2007-01-01

119

A Short Introduction to Semantics  

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Full Text Available Semantics is the study of meaning in language. Although it can be conceived as concerned with meaning in general, it is often confined to those aspects which are relatively stable and context-free, in contrast to pragmatics, which is concerned with meaning variation with context. Semantics is sometimes described as concerned with the relation of linguistic forms to states of the world; more sensibly, it may be seen as concerned with the relation of linguistic forms to non-linguistic concepts and mental representations, as well as with relationship, of meaning between linguistic forms, such as synonymy, antonymy and hyponymy. Semantic theories have influenced approaches to describing word meaning, and are thus particularly relevant to Lexicography and vocabulary teaching.

Karim Nazari Bagha

2011-11-01

120

Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries  

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Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

Rajab Abd al-Hamed

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Experiences from semantic web service tutorials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have given around 20 tutorials on Semantic Web Services in international events during the last two years. This position paper presents our experiences and depicts central aspects relevant for education, dissemination and exploitation of Semantic Web and Semantic Web service technologies in academia and industry.

Stollberg, Michael; Moran, Matthew; Cabral, Liliana; Norton, Barry; Domingue, John

2006-01-01

122

Studying of Semantic Similarity Methods in Ontology  

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Full Text Available Humans are able to easily judge if a pair of concepts are related in some way. Understanding of how humans are able to perform this task is not easy. Semantic similarity denotes computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not necessarily lexically similar. Semantic similarity between concepts plays an important role in Semantic Web, knowledge sharing, Web mining, semantic sense understanding and text summarization. This also is an important problem in Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval Researches. These techniques are becoming important components of most of the Information Retrieval (IR, Information Extraction (IE and other intelligent knowledge based systems. Therefore it has received considerable attention in the literature. Ontology has a good hierarchical structure of concepts. In the ontology, semantic information can be realized through the semantic relationship of concepts. Ontology-based semantic similarity techniques can estimate the semantic similarity between two hierarchically expressed concepts in a given ontology or taxonomy. Semantic similarity is usually computed by mapping concepts to ontology and by examining their relationships in it. The most popular semantic similarity methods are implemented and evaluated using WordNet and MeSH. Several algorithmic approaches for computing semantic similarity have been proposed. This paper discusses the various approaches used for identifying semantically similar concepts in ontology.

Vahideh Reshadat

2012-06-01

123

Analysis on the Semantics of Word Trip  

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Full Text Available The goal of this paper lies in analyzing word semantics by taking the concrete word “trip” for example from a microscopic perspective. During which the methods such as example, classification, generalization and illustration have been effectively employed to support and prove the theory of semantics in linguistics.
Key words: Analysis; Semantics; Word; Trip

Min LEI

2011-12-01

124

Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures  

Science.gov (United States)

A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2010-01-01

125

Business Intelligence using Semantic Web  

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Full Text Available Computers becomes an essential thing in our day-to-day life. Currently, computers can change from single, isolated devices into entry points to exchange the information called World Wide Web(WWW. Humans are capable of using the web to carry our the task. However, a computer cannot accomplish the same task without the human direction, because web pages are designed to be read by the people, not by the machines. Usually, humans interact with the web to gather information or to improve their business intelligence. The information is accessed by giving a related keyword to search. This keyword is used by the server to provide the relevant information about the given keyword. The server provides only limited information for the given keyword. But there exists a lot of information regarding the keyword but it is not provided to the user due to the lack of word in the given keyword. So the keyword searching becomes intangible to fulfill the requirements of the user in some situation. This kind of searching is made with the presence of humans. To overcome this problem and to reduce the human effort, we propose a new method in this paper. This new method is termed as “SEMANTIC WEB”. The Semantic Web is an extension of the WWW. This is used to carry out the task directly by the computers instead of humans. The computer generates the Machine-Processable Information. The Semantic Web provides the automated schemes for gaining more relevant information by analyzing the kind of user behavior who currently use the web. With the help of Semantic Web, the user can access the web and gather more information with less effort. Semantic web is used to provide information by the web itself. This paper is used to explain the use and applications of the Semantic Web in a precise way.

S. Yasodha

2010-10-01

126

Multimedia Semantics Metadata, Analysis and Interaction  

CERN Document Server

In this book, the authors present the latest research results in the multimedia and semantic web communities, bridging the "Semantic Gap" This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science,

Troncy, Raphael; Schenk, Simon

2011-01-01

127

Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.  

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Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. PMID:23994354

Prinz, Wolfgang

2014-03-01

128

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic An...

Hamed Hassanzadeh; MohammadReza Keyvanpour,

2011-01-01

129

The Semantic Web in Education  

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The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

Ohler, Jason

2008-01-01

130

Cognitive Economy in Semantic Memory  

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This paper suggests that although there is reasonable evidence to support that portion of the Collins-Quillian theory of semantic memory which hypothesizes that words are ordered hierarchically in memory, there is little evidence in support of their hypothesis of cognitive economy of storage in memory. (Author)

Conrad, Carol

1972-01-01

131

Colourful Semantics: A Clinical Investigation  

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Children with language difficulties often omit verbs and grammatical elements and fail to complete sentences. Bryan (1997) described "colourful semantics", a therapy she used to treat a 5-year-old boy. The therapy uses colour coding to highlight the predicate argument structure of sentences. This study further tested the therapy's effectiveness by…

Bolderson, Sarah; Dosanjh, Christine; Milligan, Claudine; Pring, Tim; Chiat, Shula

2011-01-01

132

Indexical variation affects semantic spread.  

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The role of indexical variation in spoken word recognition is constrained to acoustically rich lexical representations. Theoretically, lexical activation depends on indexical variation, but subsequent processes like associative semantic spread depend on activation strength, not indexical variation. Social psychological theories view indexical variation as integral to online processes such as persona construal. Therefore, information gleaned from indexical variation might pervade spoken word recognition more broadly. We investigate the effects of indexical variation on semantic activation in word-association and semantic-priming paradigms. Across three studies, we show that top associate responses depend on the voice of the probe word ("space" in man's voice: time; woman's voice: star; child's voice: planet). Voice also affects response frequency distributions: the man's voice receives a wider variety of weaker responses, while the woman's and child's voices receive fewer, stronger, responses. We also find that semantic priming varies as a function of voice-specific word association strength: priming is stronger to strong voice-specific associates (woman: space-star) than to weak associates (woman: space-time). We argue that indexical variation affects spoken word recognition beyond an episodic lexicon and provide an account capturing effects of learned associations between acoustic patterns and linguistic and social features in spoken language processing. PMID:25236120

King, Ed; Sumner, Meghan

2014-04-01

133

Learning Dependency-Based Compositional Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Suppose we want to build a system that answers a natural language question by representing its semantics as a logical form and computing the answer given a structured database of facts. The core part of such a system is the semantic parser that maps questions to logical forms. Semantic parsers are typically trained from examples of questions annotated with their target logical forms, but this type of annotation is expensive. Our goal is to learn a semantic parser from question-answer pairs instead, where the logical form is modeled as a latent variable. Motivated by this challenging learning problem, we develop a new semantic formalism, dependency-based compositional semantics (DCS), which has favorable linguistic, statistical, and computational properties. We define a log-linear distribution over DCS logical forms and estimate the parameters using a simple procedure that alternates between beam search and numerical optimization. On two standard semantic parsing benchmarks, our system outperforms all existing...

Liang, Percy; Klein, Dan

2011-01-01

134

Semantic Information Units as L. Florodi’s Ideas Development  

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Full Text Available This article describes the semantic information units. They are additional to the ideas of L. Floridi, concerning the creation of semantic theory of information. The work features semantic information units, shows semantic information units structure and their distinguishing features, describes the properties of semantic information units, defined by their relative position, justifies that the proposals develop the ideas of L. Floridi.

Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

2012-07-01

135

An overview of semantic compression  

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We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and approaches are considered, ranging from low-level semantic compression for text and database compaction, to high-level semantic analysis of images or video in which objects of interest have been detected, segmented, and represented compactly to facilitate indexing. In particular, we overview previous work in semantic pattern recognition, and how this has been applied to object-based compression. Discussion centers on lossless versus lossy transformations, quality of service in lossy compression, and computational efficiency.

Schmalz, Mark S.

2010-08-01

136

Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web  

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Full Text Available Web Services are mounting as an inventive mechanism for rendering services to subjective devices over the WWW. As a consequence of the rapid growth of Web Services applications and the plenty of Service Providers, the consumer is facing with the inevitability of selecting the “right” Service Provider. In such a scenario the Quality of Service (QoS serves as a target to differentiate Service Providers. To select the best Web Services / Service Providers, Ranking and Optimization of Web Service Compositions are challenging areas of research with significant implications for the realization of the “Web of Services” revelation. The “Semantic Web Services” use formal semantic descriptions of Web Service functionality and interface to enable automated reasoning over Web Service Compositions. This study from its experimental results revealed that the existing Semantic Web Services faces a few challenging issues such as poor prediction of best Web Services and optimized Service Providers, which leads to QoS degradation of Semantic Web. To address and overcome these identified issues, this research work is calculating the semantic similarities, utilization of various Web Services and Service Providers. After measuring these parameters, all the Web Services are ranked based on their Utilization. Finally, our proposed technique, selected best Web Services based on their ranking and placed in Web Services Composition. From the experimental results, it is established that our proposed mechanism improves the performance of Semantic Web in terms of Execution Time, Processor Utilization and Memory Management.

N.K. Sakthivel

2012-04-01

137

Semantic annotation of medical images  

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Diagnosis and treatment planning for patients can be significantly improved by comparing with clinical images of other patients with similar anatomical and pathological characteristics. This requires the images to be annotated using common vocabulary from clinical ontologies. Current approaches to such annotation are typically manual, consuming extensive clinician time, and cannot be scaled to large amounts of imaging data in hospitals. On the other hand, automated image analysis while being very scalable do not leverage standardized semantics and thus cannot be used across specific applications. In our work, we describe an automated and context-sensitive workflow based on an image parsing system complemented by an ontology-based context-sensitive annotation tool. An unique characteristic of our framework is that it brings together the diverse paradigms of machine learning based image analysis and ontology based modeling for accurate and scalable semantic image annotation.

Seifert, Sascha; Kelm, Michael; Moeller, Manuel; Mukherjee, Saikat; Cavallaro, Alexander; Huber, Martin; Comaniciu, Dorin

2010-03-01

138

The Formal Semantics of PVS  

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A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

1999-01-01

139

Semantic WEB Services Using Clustering Approach  

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Full Text Available Semantic Web Services, like conventional web services, are the server end of a client–server system for machine-to-machine interaction via the World Wide Web. Semantic services are a component of the semantic web because they use markup which makes data machine-readable in a detailed and sophisticated way (as compared with human-readable HTML which is usually not easily "understood" by computer programs. Semantic similarity measures are specific types of Semantic measures: mathematical tools used to estimate the strength of the semantic relationship between units of language, concepts or instances, through a numerical description obtained according to the comparison of information formally or implicitly supporting their meaning or describing their nature.

Jayeeta Majumder,

2014-03-01

140

Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation  

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Full Text Available Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word“Semantic” refers to “meaning” – a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and resultoriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding informationon the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision oflinking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream,hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines toyield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework thenaïve approach of searching information on the syntactic web is cliché. This paper proposes an optimisedsemantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with aproposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to accessand time saving.

Siddharth Gupta

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services  

CERN Document Server

For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

Wang, Xia

2013-01-01

142

Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. X...

Juha Puustjarvi

2010-01-01

143

SENT: semantic features in text  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present SENT (semantic features in text), a functional interpretation tool based on literature analysis. SENT uses Non-negative Matrix Factorization to identify topics in the scientific articles related to a collection of genes or their products, and use them to group and summarize these genes. In addition, the application allows users to rank and explore the articles that best relate to the topics found, helping put the analysis results into context. This approach is useful as an explorat...

Vazquez, Miguel; Carmona-saez, Pedro; Nogales-cadenas, Ruben; Chagoyen, Monica; Tirado, Francisco; Carazo, Jose Maria; Pascual-montano, Alberto

2009-01-01

144

Building a pragmatic Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the great benefits that Semantic Web (SW) technology offers is facilitating large scale integration and sharing of distributed data sources. Transferring this technology from the lab environment and into the real world requires careful planning to make sure the technology continues to offer a cost effective and practical service. This paper describes our approach for promoting SW technology to industrial and government organisations. We describe two SW applications, one involving sever...

Alani, Harith; Hall, Wendy; O Hara, Kieron; Shadbolt, Nigel; Chandler, Peter; Szomszor, Martin

2008-01-01

145

Semantic sentiment analysis of twitter  

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Sentiment analysis over Twitter offer organisations a fast and effective way to monitor the publics’ feelings towards their brand, business, directors, etc. A wide range of features and methods for training sentiment classi?ers for Twitter datasets have been researched in recent years with varying results. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach of adding semantics as additional features into the training set for sentiment analysis. For each extracted entity (e.g. iPhone) from tweets...

Saif, Hassan; He, Yulan; Alani, Harith

2012-01-01

146

Functional heterogeneity within the default network during semantic processing and speech production.  

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Full Text Available This fMRI study investigated the functional heterogeneity of the core nodes of the default mode network (DMN during language processing. The core nodes of the DMN were defined as task-induced deactivations over multiple tasks in 94 healthy subjects. We used a factorial design that manipulated different tasks (semantic matching or speech production and stimuli (familiar words and objects or unfamiliar stimuli, alternating with periods of fixation/rest. Our findings revealed several consistent effects in the DMN, namely less deactivations in the left inferior parietal lobule during semantic than perceptual matching in parallel with greater deactivations during semantic matching in anterior subdivisions of the posterior cingulate cortex and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This suggests that, when the brain is engaged in effortful semantic tasks, a part of the DMN in the left angular gyrus was less deactivated as five other nodes of the DMN were more deactivated. These five DMN areas, where deactivation was greater for semantic than perceptual matching, were further differentiated because deactivation was greater in (i posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex for speech production relative to semantic matching, (ii posterior precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex for perceptual processing relative to speech production and (iii right inferior parietal cortex for pictures of objects relative to written words during both naming and semantic decisions. Our results thus highlight that task difficulty alone cannot fully explain the functional variability in task-induced deactivations. Together these results emphasize that core nodes within the DMN are functionally heterogeneous and differentially sensitive to the type of language processing.

MohamedLSeghier

2012-08-01

147

Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business  

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Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

Juha Puustjarvi

2010-09-01

148

A variable-free dynamic semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I propose a variable-free treatment of dynamic semantics. By "dynamic semantics" I mean analyses of donkey sentences ("Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it") and other binding and anaphora phenomena in natural language where meanings of constituents are updates to information states, for instance as proposed by Groenendijk and Stokhof. By "variable-free" I mean denotational semantics in which functional combinators replace variable indices and assignment functions, for in...

Shan, Chung-chieh

2002-01-01

149

Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building systems based on Semantic-Web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic-Web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing (IT) endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific inf...

Ashish, Naveen; Industrial Experiences

2005-01-01

150

Information Extraction by Mining the Semantic Web?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose research on how semantic web technologies can be used to mine theweb, for information extraction. We also examine how new unsupervised processes can aid in extractingprecise and useful information from semantic data, thus reducing the problem of information overload .TheSemantic Web adds structure to the meaningful content of Web pages; hence information is given a welldefinedmeaning; which is both human readable as well as machine-processable. This enables thedevelop...

Preethi, R.; Anuradha, C.

2013-01-01

151

Symbolic and Asynchronous Semantics via Normalized Coalgebras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The operational semantics of interactive systems is usually described by labeled transition systems. Abstract semantics (that is defined in terms of bisimilarity) is characterized by the final morphism in some category of coalgebras. Since the behaviour of interactive systems is for many reasons infinite, symbolic semantics were introduced as a mean to define smaller, possibly finite, transition systems, by employing symbolic actions and avoiding some sources of infiniteness...

Bonchi, Filippo; Montanari, Ugo

2011-01-01

152

Syntax and semantics of the dative case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the author presents the survey of syntactic-semantic, and, in relevant instances, also pragmatic-semantic characteristics of the dative case in the contemporary standard Serbian language. On the one hand, the existing, extensive descriptions of syntactic-semantic behavior of the dative case in large grammar books (cf. Dani?i? 1858; Stevanovi? 1979) taking into account the time when they were written - by their methodological approach and manner of presentation belong to the ...

Antoni? Ivana N.

2004-01-01

153

Two ERP studies on Dutch temporal semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two ERP studies on Dutch temporal semantics Giosue Baggio Abstract: Although meaning has been a constant interest in psycholinguistics, the concepts and methods of formal semantics have been rarely used to make sense of empirical data. In this thesis we try to fill this gap presenting the results of two ERP studies on Dutch temporal semantics. In the first, we investigate the effects elicited by tense violations in temporal adverb constructions. The observed P600/SPS ...

Baggio, Giosue?

2004-01-01

154

Minimal founded semantics for disjunctive logic programs and deductive databases  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we propose a variant of stable model semantics for disjunctive logic programming and deductive databases. The semantics, called minimal founded, generalizes stable model semantics for normal (i.e. non disjunctive) programs but differs from disjunctive stable model semantics (the extension of stable model semantics for disjunctive programs). Compared with disjunctive stable model semantics, minimal founded semantics seems to be more intuitive, it gives meaning to programs which are meaningless under stable model semantics and is no harder to compute. More specifically, minimal founded semantics differs from stable model semantics only for disjunctive programs having constraint rules or rules working as constraints. We study the expressive power of the semantics and show that for general disjunctive datalog programs it has the same power as disjunctive stable model semantics.

Furfaro, F; Greco, S; Furfaro, Filippo; Greco, Gianluigi; Greco, Sergio

2004-01-01

155

The Method of Automatic Acquisition of Semantic Relations  

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Full Text Available This paper describes a semantic relation database, and uses the semantic relation database automatic acquisition of syntactic patterns and new relationships, and syntactic patterns to obtain a method of semantic relations.

Niguang Tian

2013-06-01

156

Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

2007-01-01

157

Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

Ganapathi Babu, K.; Komali, A.; Mythry, V.; Ratnam, A. S. K.

2012-01-01

158

Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs  

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Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical meanings of the female proverbs connote worse qualities than those connoted by the male proverbs.

Azam Estaji

2012-01-01

159

Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems  

CERN Document Server

Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

2013-01-01

160

Towards a Reactive Semantic Execution Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Managing complex and distributed software systems built on top of the service-oriented paradigm has never been more challenging. While Semantic Web Service technologies offer a promising set of languages and tools as a foundation to resolve the heterogeneity and scalability issues, they are still failing to provide an autonomic execution environment. In this paper we present an approach based on Semantic Web Services to enable the monitoring and self-management of a Semantic Execution Environment (SEE), a brokerage system for Semantic Web Services. Our approach is founded on the event-triggered reactivity paradigm in order to facilitate environment control, thus contributing to its autonomicity, robustness and flexibility.

Komazec, Srdjan; Facca, Federico Michele

 
 
 
 
161

A Necessary Condition for Semantic Interoperability in the Large  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With new standards like RDF or OWL paving the way for the much anticipated semantic web, a new breed of large scale semantic systems is about to appear. Even if research on semantic reconciliation methods is abundant, it is not clear how interoperable very large scale semantic systems can be. This paper represents a first effort towards analytically analyzing semantic interoperability in the large: By adapting a recent graph-theoretic framework, we examine the dynamics of large scale semantic...

Cudre?-mauroux, Philippe; Aberer, Karl

2004-01-01

162

Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Pages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic similarity measures play an important role in the extraction of semantic relations. Semantic similarity measures are widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Information Retrieval (IR). The work proposed here uses web based metrics to compute the semantic similarity between words or terms and also compares with the state-of-the-art. For a computer to decide the semantic similarity, it should understand the semantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it can...

Sujatha, T.; Ramesh Naidu G; P.Suresh B

2012-01-01

163

Uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto: evaluación mediante diferencial semántico / Use of the mirror in the second stage of labor: evaluation by means of semantic differential  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: examinar la actitud de la mujer y su pareja, sobre el uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado en el Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón. A partir de un estudio piloto realizado sobre una muestra de 92 sujetos, se elaboró un [...] a escala de 14 ítems basada en la técnica del diferencial semántico. Una muestra de 159 sujetos completó la escala así como el cuestionario estado-rasgo (STAI). Resultados: el porcentaje de aceptación fue del 90%. Las puntuaciones medias superan el valor neutro en todos los ítems. El 88,5% (IC 95%:78,8 a 98,1) de la mujeres que experimentaron la vivencia consideraron que el uso del espejo estimula pujar frente al 73,6% (IC 95%:62,7 a 84,4) que lo manifestaron como expectativa. Conclusiones: El uso del espejo durante el periodo expulsivo es valorado favorablemente por la mayoría de las mujeres y sus parejas. Abstract in english Aims: To know the attitude of the woman and her partner the use of the mirror in the second stage of labor. Methods: This descriptive cross - sectional study was carried at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, Spain). The data were collected using an 14 Items scale based on the semanti [...] c differential technique developed from a pilot study with 92 subjects. A sample de 159 subjects they completed the scale, as well as the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: The percentage of acceptance was of 90%. The mean score in the scale overcame the neutral value in all items. The 88,5% (CI 95%:78,8 a 98,1) of women who experienced the experience thought that the use of the mirror stimulates to push versus 73,6% (CI 95%:62,7 a 84,4) before the delivery. Conclusions: The use of the mirror during the second stage of labor is valued favorably by the majority of the women and her pairs.

Emilio José, Becerra-Maya; Gloria, Lapuente-Jambrina; Verónica María, Alonso-Ortega.

2011-06-01

164

Semantics in the motor system: motor-cortical beta oscillations reflect semantic knowledge of end-postures for object use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present EEG study we investigated whether semantic knowledge for object use is represented in motor-related brain areas. Subjects were required to perform actions with everyday objects and to maintain either a meaningful or a meaningless end posture with the object. Analysis of the EEG data focused on the beta-frequency band, as previous studies have indicated that the maintenance of a posture is reflected in stronger beta-oscillations. Time frequency analysis indicated that the execution of actions resulting in a meaningless compared to a meaningful end posture was accompanied by a stronger beta-desynchronization towards the end of the movement and a stronger subsequent beta-rebound after posture-onset. The effect in the beta-frequency band was localized to premotor, parietal and medial frontal areas and could not be attributed to differences in timing or movement complexity between meaningful and meaningless actions. Together these findings directly show that the motor system is differentially activated during the execution and maintenance of semantically correct or incorrect end postures. This suggests that semantic object knowledge is indeed represented in motor-related brain areas, organized around specific end postures associated with the use of objects.

HeinT Van Schie

2010-02-01

165

Integrating dynamic resources in corporate semantic web: an approach to enterprise application integration using semantic web services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing semantic web server architecture used by the ACACIA team to implement corporate memories. We rely on CORESE, a semantic web search engine, to provide web applications based on the semantic web services it can identify. Thus, CORESE is used as a semantic UDDI registry and allows us to automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules and an extensi...

Lo, Moussa; Gandon, Fabien

2006-01-01

166

Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phon...

Adams, Sarah C.; Kiefer, Markus

2012-01-01

167

HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ON SEMANTIC WEB :(SEMANTIC HIM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information technology have changed information media by networking and internet .using technology inhealth as same as another part improve efficieincy and effectivness. currently the medical document isReality-based medicine, so that is the most important ,richest and the most realistic source of medical andhealth information.Health information management systems that require systems to the storage, retrieval,storage and elimination of health records (by law, and adjust to the rules of professional. these processare difficult and time consumig for human. In the meantime semantic HIM seem best solution.KEYWORDS

Nasim Khozoie

2012-02-01

168

The Semantic Web in Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

2014-01-01

169

Social Networking on the Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

2005-01-01

170

The Semantic Web and Educational Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

2008-01-01

171

Compositional Semantics Grounded in Commonsense Metaphysics  

CERN Document Server

We argue for a compositional semantics grounded in a strongly typed ontology that reflects our commonsense view of the world and the way we talk about it in ordinary language. Assuming the existence of such a structure, we show that the semantics of various natural language phenomena may become nearly trivial.

Saba, Walid S

2007-01-01

172

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

Science.gov (United States)

Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

173

Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

Le Ny, Jean-Francois

1975-01-01

174

An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language of trust policies. The operational semantics is given in terms of a composition of I/O automata. We prove that this semantics is faithful to its corresponding denotational semantics, in the sense that any run of the I/O automaton ``converges to'' the denotational semantics of the policies. Furthermore, as I/O automata are a natural model of asynchronous distributed computation, the semantics coincides with an asynchronous algorithm for distributedly computing the trust-state, suitable in the application environment.

Krukow, Karl

2006-01-01

175

Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds  

Science.gov (United States)

A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

2010-01-01

176

Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

2008-01-01

177

On Special Semantic Meaning of Securities English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues that securities English has its own semantic meaning especially nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs have their unique semantic meaning that can’t be owned by their common words and that it is imperative this linguistic features be grasped in order that this kind of English should be faithfully and correctly understood and translated and proficiently applied.

Guineng Mei

2011-08-01

178

Typed Operational Semantics for Dependent Record Types  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Typed operational semantics is a method developed by H. Goguen to prove meta-theoretic properties of type systems. This paper studies the metatheory of a type system with dependent record types, using the approach of typed operational semantics. In particular, the metatheoretical properties we have proved include strong normalisation, Church-Rosser and subject reduction.

Yangyue Feng

2011-03-01

179

Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise  

Science.gov (United States)

An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

2012-01-01

180

Is There a Critical Period for Semantics?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews recent research on the second language acquisition of meaning with a view of establishing whether there is a critical period for the acquisition of compositional semantics. It is claimed that the functional lexicon presents the most formidable challenge, while syntax and phrasal semantics pose less difficulty to learners.…

Slabakova, Roumyana

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Semantic search integration to climate data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present how research projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using Semantic Search capabilities to help scientists perform their research. We will discuss how the Mercury metadata search system, with the help of the semantic search capability, is being used to find, retrieve, and link climate change data. DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2014.6867639

Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Shrestha, Biva [ORNL

2014-01-01

182

Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program verification and nets.

Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

1982-01-01

183

Contextual Inference in Computational Semantics  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, an application of automated theorem proving techniques to computational semantics is considered. In order to compute the presuppositions of a natural language discourse, several inference tasks arise. Instead of treating these inferences independently of each other, we show how integrating techniques from formal approaches to context into deduction can help to compute presuppositions more efficiently. Contexts are represented as Discourse Representation Structures and the way they are nested is made explicit. In addition, a tableau calculus is present which keeps track of contextual information, and thereby allows to avoid carrying out redundant inference steps as it happens in approaches that neglect explicit nesting of contexts.

Monz, C

2000-01-01

184

Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation  

Science.gov (United States)

A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic web technologies, including ontologies and a semantic mediator. The semantically-enhanced SPEGG allowed a client to submit a single query (e.g. ';hills') and to retrieve data from two separate gazetteers with different vocabularies (e.g. where one refers to ';summits' another refers to ';hills'). Supporting the SPEGG was a SPARQL server that held the ontologies and processed queries on them. Earth Science surveys and forecast always have a place on Earth. Being able to share the information about a place and solve inconsistencies about that place from different sources will enable geoscientists to better do their research. In the advent of mobile geo computing and location based services (LBS), brokering gazetteers will provide geoscientists with access to gazetteer services rich with information and functionality beyond that offered by current generic gazetteers.

Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

2013-12-01

185

Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

Cheng Wen-Huang

2006-01-01

186

Semantically enhanced Uyghur Information Retrieval Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional Uyghur search engine lacks semantic information, aiming to solve this problem, a semantically enhanced Uyghur information retrieval model was proposed based on the characteristics of Uyghur language. Firstly word stemming was carried out and web pages were represented by the form of 3-triples to construct the Uyghur knowledge base, then the matching between ontologies and web pages was established by computing concept similarity and relation similarity. Semantic inverted index was built to save the association between semantic entities and web pages, and user query analysis was implemented by expanding the queries and analyzing the relations between the queries, finally by combining the benefits of both keyword-based and semantic-based methods, ranking algorithm was implemented. By comparing with the Google search engine and the Lucene based method, the experiments validate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the model preliminarily.

Bo Ma

2012-06-01

187

Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics (LTS. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS. The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems that is based on the idea of minimal reaction contexts as labels, due to Leifer and Milner. In comparison to previous work on inductive definitions of similarly derived LTSs, the main feature of the proposed axiomatization is a composition rule that captures the communication of sub-systems so that it can feature as a counterpart to the communication rule of CCS.

T. Heindel

2012-01-01

188

Semantic priming of familiar songs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities. PMID:22227862

Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

2012-05-01

189

Latent semantics as cognitive components  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures, which we suggest might function as cognitive components for perceiving the underlying structure in lyrics.

Petersen, Michael Kai; MØrup, Morten

2010-01-01

190

Learning Analogies and Semantic Relations  

CERN Document Server

We present an algorithm for learning from unlabeled text, based on the Vector Space Model (VSM) of information retrieval, that can solve verbal analogy questions of the kind found in the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A verbal analogy has the form A:B::C:D, meaning "A is to B as C is to D"; for example, mason:stone::carpenter:wood. SAT analogy questions provide a word pair, A:B, and the problem is to select the most analogous word pair, C:D, from a set of five choices. The VSM algorithm correctly answers 47% of a collection of 374 college-level analogy questions (random guessing would yield 20% correct). We motivate this research by relating it to work in cognitive science and linguistics, and by applying it to a difficult problem in natural language processing, determining semantic relations in noun-modifier pairs. The problem is to classify a noun-modifier pair, such as "laser printer", according to the semantic relation between the noun (printer) and the modifier (laser). We use a supervised nearest-neigh...

Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Littman, Michael L.

2003-01-01

191

Addressing Semantic Geographic Information Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The progressive consolidation of information technologies on a large scale has been facilitating and progressively increasing the production, collection, and diffusion of geographic data, as well as facilitating the integration of a large amount of external information into geographic information systems (GIS. Traditional GIS is transforming into a consolidated information infrastructure. This consolidated infrastructure is affecting more and more aspects of internet computing and services. Most popular systems (such as social networks, GPS, and decision support systems involve complex GIS and significant amounts of information. As a web service, GIS is affected by exactly the same problems that affect the web as a whole. Therefore, next generation GIS solutions have to address further methodological and data engineering challenges in order to accommodate new applications’ extended requirements (in terms of scale, interoperability, and complexity. The conceptual and semantic modeling of GIS, as well as the integration of semantics into current GIS, provide highly expressive environments that are capable of meeting the needs and requirements of a wide range of applications.

Salvatore F. Pileggi

2013-11-01

192

Postoperative speech processing in temporal lobe epilepsy: functional relationship between object naming, semantics and phonology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deficits in confrontation naming ability can occur after epilepsy surgery in the left temporal lobe. This study addresses the functional relationship between postoperative object naming and semantic and phonological speech processing in patients with epilepsy. Fifty-eight consecutive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy from our epilepsy surgery program (24 patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy, 34 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy) were investigated using the Boston Naming Test and comprehensive semantic and phonological speech testing. Language dominance was evaluated in all patients with the preoperative intracarotid sodium amytal test. Naming decline was observed exclusively in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy. Regression analysis with semantic processing and phonological input/output processing as independent variables, and naming change in the Boston Naming Test (preoperative-postoperative score) as a dependent variable, revealed a significant association between postoperative naming decline and impaired semantic functions. Accordingly, patients exhibited deficits in the category-related differentiation of objects. It is hypothesized that naming deficits arise from the functional specialization of the left temporal lobe for semantic interpretation of visual input. PMID:19836309

Schwarz, Michael; Pauli, Elisabeth

2009-12-01

193

Distinct neural substrates for semantic knowledge and naming in the temporoparietal network.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with anterior temporal lobe (ATL) lesions show semantic and lexical retrieval deficits, and the differential role of this area in the 2 processes is debated. Functional neuroimaging in healthy individuals has not clarified the matter because semantic and lexical processes usually occur simultaneously and automatically. Furthermore, the ATL is a region challenging for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) due to susceptibility artifacts, especially at high fields. In this study, we established an optimized ATL-sensitive fMRI acquisition protocol at 4 T and applied an event-related paradigm to study the identification (i.e., association of semantic biographical information) of celebrities, with and without the ability to retrieve their proper names. While semantic processing reliably activated the ATL, only more posterior areas in the left temporal and temporal-parietal junction were significantly modulated by covert lexical retrieval. These results suggest that within a temporoparietal network, the ATL is relatively more important for semantic processing, and posterior language regions are relatively more important for lexical retrieval. PMID:22047967

Gesierich, Benno; Jovicich, Jorge; Riello, Marianna; Adriani, Michela; Monti, Alessia; Brentari, Valentina; Robinson, Simon D; Wilson, Stephen M; Fairhall, Scott L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

2012-10-01

194

Semantic Categorization: A Comparison between Deaf and Hearing Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic

Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

2010-01-01

195

Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

2011-01-01

196

The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

Yates, Mark

2012-01-01

197

Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook  

Science.gov (United States)

The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

Varanka, Dalia E.

2012-01-01

198

Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation  

CERN Document Server

Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word "Semantic" refers to "meaning" - a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and result oriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding information on the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision of linking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream, hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines to yield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework the na\\"ive approach of searching information on the syntactic web is clich\\'e. This paper proposes an optimised semantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with a proposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to access and time sav...

Gupta, Siddharth

2010-01-01

199

A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are playing a crucial role in enhancing traditional web search, as it is working to create machine readable data. but it will not replace traditional search engine. In this paper we made a brief survey on various promising features of some of the best semantic search engines developed so far and we have discussed the various approaches to semantic search. We have summarized the techniques, advantages of some important semantic web search engines that are developed so far.The most prominent part is that how the semantic search engines differ from the traditional searches and their results are shown by giving a sample query as input

G.Sudeepthi

2012-03-01

200

Demonic semantics: using monotypes and residuals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relations and relational operators can be used to define the semantics of programming languages. The operations ∨ and ∘ serve to give angelic semantics by defining a program to go right when there is a possibility to go right. On the other hand, the demonic operations ⊔ and □ do the opposite: if there is a possibility to go wrong, a program whose semantics is given by these operators will go wrong; it is the demonic semantics. This type of semantics is known at least since Dijkstra's introduction of the language of guarded commands. Recently, there has been a growing interest in demonic relational semantics of sequential programs. Usually, a construct is given an ad hoc semantic definition based on an intuitive understanding of its behavior. In this note, we show how the notion of relational flow diagram (essentially a matrix whose entries are relations on the set of states of the program, introduced by Schmidt, can be used to give a single demonic definition for a wide range of programming constructs. This research had originally been carried out by J. Desharnais and F. Tchier (1996 in the same framework of the binary homogeneous relations. We show that all the results can be generalized by using the monotypes and the residuals introduced by Desharnais et al. (2000.

F. Tchier

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Uncovering the architecture of action semantics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite research suggesting that stored sensorimotor information about tool use is a component of the semantic representations of tools, little is known about the action features or organizing principles that underlie this knowledge. We used methods similar to those applied in other semantic domains to examine the "architecture" of action semantic knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants sorted photographs of tools into groups according to the similarity of their associated "use" actions and rated tools on dimensions related to action. The results suggest that the magnitude of arm movement, configuration of the hand, and manner of motion during tool use play a role in determining how tools cluster in action "semantic space." In Experiment 2, we validated the architecture uncovered in Experiment 1 using an implicit semantic task for which tool use knowledge was not ostensibly relevant (blocked cyclic word-picture matching). Using stimuli from Experiment 1, we found that participants performed more poorly during blocks of trials containing tools used with similar versus unrelated actions, and the amount of semantic interference depended on the magnitude of action similarity among tools. Thus, the degree of featural overlap between tool use actions plays a role in determining the overall semantic similarity of tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25045905

Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

2014-10-01

202

SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. To improve the internet service quality and increase the user click rate on a specific website, it is necessary for a web developer to know what the user really want to do, predict which pages the user is potentially interested in. In this paper, various techniques for Semantic Web mining like web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining are discussed. Our main focus is on web usage mining and its application in web personalization. Study shows that the accuracy of recommendation system has improved significantly with the use of semantic web mining in web personalization. Keywords: Navigation Pattern, Pattern Analysis, Semantic Web, Web Personalization, Web Usage Mining.

Anil Sharma

2011-07-01

203

SemanticOrganizer: A Customizable Semantic Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams  

Science.gov (United States)

SemanticOrganizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, semantically structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. SemanticOrganizer is one of the earliest and largest semantic web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes SemanticOrganizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful semantic web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.

Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

2004-01-01

204

Semantic Web search based on ontological conjunctive queries.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data, and will possibly consist of (some form of) the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Semantic Web search, called Serene, which allows for a semantic processing of Web search queries, and for evaluating complex Web search queries that involve reasoning over the Web. More specifically, we first add ontological structure and semantics to Web ...

Fazzinga, B.; Gianforme, G.; Gottlob, G.; Lukasiewicz, T.

2011-01-01

205

The usability of semantic search tools: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of semantic search is to improve on traditional search methods by exploiting the semantic metadata. In this paper, we argue that supporting iterative and exploratory search modes is important to the usability of all search systems. We also identify the types of semantic queries the users need to make, the issues concerning the search environment and the problems that are intrinsic to semantic search in particular. We then review the four modes of user interaction in existing semantic...

Uren, Victoria; Lei, Yuangui; Lopez, Vanessa; Liu, Haiming; Motta, Enrico; Giordanino, Marina

2007-01-01

206

Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Documents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic similarity measures play an important role inthe extraction of semantic relations. Semantic similarity measuresare widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) andInformation Retrieval (IR). The work proposed here uses webbasedmetrics to compute the semantic similarity between words orterms and also compares with the state-of-the-art. For a computerto decide the semantic similarity, it should understand thesemantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it cannot unde...

Takale, Sheetal A.; Nandgaonkar, Sushma S.

2010-01-01

207

Information Interaction as a Mechanism of Semantic Gap Elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies semantic gap as an objective phenomenon, shows that semantic gap occurs both in parallel computing and in other areas. Semantic description of the content is revealed as a set of different descriptions. Causes of semantic gap are described. The content of information exchange is explained in the article. Information interaction in the semantic field is interpreted as a mechanism to lessen the gap

Victor Y. Tsvetkov

2013-01-01

208

Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

Ashish, Naveen

2004-01-01

209

Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics  

CERN Document Server

Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

Grimm, S

2009-01-01

210

A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web  

CERN Document Server

The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

Yu, Liyang

2011-01-01

211

Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,; Prof. Durgesh Pant; Prof. Kunwar Singh Vaisla

2011-01-01

212

Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,

2011-07-01

213

The six challenges of the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web has attracted a diverse, but significant, community of researchers, institutes and companies, all sharing the belief that one day the Semantic Web will have as big an impact on life as currently the WWW/Internet has. We share that vision, based on the ever-increasing need to reduce information overload, and to increase task delegation to software agents. However, there is still a long way to go before the Semantic Web dream comes true. In this paper, we identify some of the m...

Benjamins, R.; Contreras, Jesu?s; Corcho, O?scar; Go?mez-pe?rez, A.

2002-01-01

214

Semantic Metrics for Analysis of Software  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently conceived suite of object-oriented software metrics focus is on semantic aspects of software, in contradistinction to traditional software metrics, which focus on syntactic aspects of software. Semantic metrics represent a more human-oriented view of software than do syntactic metrics. The semantic metrics of a given computer program are calculated by use of the output of a knowledge-based analysis of the program, and are substantially more representative of software quality and more readily comprehensible from a human perspective than are the syntactic metrics.

Etzkorn, Letha H.; Cox, Glenn W.; Farrington, Phil; Utley, Dawn R.; Ghalston, Sampson; Stein, Cara

2005-01-01

215

Semantic Conflicts Reconciliation as a Viable Solution for Semantic Heterogeneity Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Achieving semantic interoperability is a current challenge in the field of data integration in order to bridge semantic conflicts occurring when the participating sources and receivers use different or implicit data assumptions. Providing a framework that automatically detects and resolves semantic conflicts is considered as a daunting task for many reasons, it should preserve the local autonomy of the integrated sources, as well as provides a standard query language for accessing the integra...

Ismail, Walaa S.; Nasr, Mona M.; Sultan, Torky I.; Khedr, Ayman E.

2013-01-01

216

The syntactic and semantic processing of mass and count nouns: an ERP study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study addressed the question of whether count and mass nouns are differentially processed in the brain. In two different ERP (Event-Related Potentials) tasks we explored the semantic and syntactic levels of such distinction. Mass and count nouns typically differ in concreteness, hence the effect of this important variable was factorially examined in each task. Thus the stimuli presented were: count concrete, count abstract, mass concrete or mass abstract. The first experiment (concrete/abstract semantic judgment task) involved the interaction between the N400 concreteness effect and the Mass/Count condition, revealing a substantial effect between mass and count nouns at the semantic level. The second experiment (sentence syntactic violation task) showed a Mass/Count distinction on left anterior negativity (LAN) and on P600 components, confirming the difference at the syntactic level. This study suggests that the brain differentiates between count and mass nouns not only at the syntactic level but also at the semantic level. Implications for our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the Mass/Count distinction are discussed. PMID:21998715

Chiarelli, Valentina; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Mondini, Sara; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Semenza, Carlo

2011-01-01

217

Semantic Aspect Retrieval for Encyclopedia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english With the development of Web 2.0, more and more people contribute their knowledge to the Internet. Many general and domain-specific online encyclopedia resources become available, and they are valuable for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, such as summarization and question-answeri [...] ng. We propose a novel encyclopedia-specific method to retrieve passages which are semantically related to a short query (usually comprises of only one word/phrase) from a given article in the encyclopedia. The method captures the expression word features and categorical word features in the surrounding snippets of the aspect words by setting up massive hybrid language models. These local models outperform the global models such as LSA and ESA in our task.

Chao, Han; Yicheng, Liu; Yu, Hao; Xiaoyan, Zhu.

2011-06-01

218

Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics  

CERN Document Server

Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

Sapir, Mark V

2014-01-01

219

Semantic Data Integration: Overall Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The information has always been a valuable patrimony for the information systems that every company tries to capitalize as much as possible. With the web, the amount of information is increased and several problems arise for instance for the safety of the exchanged data but also to the semantic heterogeneity: the same information is very often represented in different ways in different information systems. In this paper we present an architecture of interchange of data both within the same information system and among different information systems founded on the ontologies in order to overcome the problem list of the heterogeneity. Ontologies, today, they seem to be the best tool useful to resolve the problem of heterogeneity, but that has not now been exploited fully.

Roberto Paiano

2009-12-01

220

Semantic Aspect Retrieval for Encyclopedia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english With the development of Web 2.0, more and more people contribute their knowledge to the Internet. Many general and domain-specific online encyclopedia resources become available, and they are valuable for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, such as summarization and question-answeri [...] ng. We propose a novel encyclopedia-specific method to retrieve passages which are semantically related to a short query (usually comprises of only one word/phrase) from a given article in the encyclopedia. The method captures the expression word features and categorical word features in the surrounding snippets of the aspect words by setting up massive hybrid language models. These local models outperform the global models such as LSA and ESA in our task.

Chao, Han; Yicheng, Liu; Yu, Hao; Xiaoyan, Zhu.

 
 
 
 
221

Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced to provide accurate results.

P Pabitha

2011-05-01

222

Lexical-semantic processing in the semantic priming paradigm in aphasic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is evidence that the explicit lexical-semantic processing deficits which characterize aphasia may be observed in the absence of implicit semantic impairment. The aim of this article was to critically review the international literature on lexical-semantic processing in aphasia, as tested through the semantic priming paradigm. Specifically, this review focused on aphasia and lexical-semantic processing, the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the semantic paradigms used, and recent evidence from neuroimaging studies on lexical-semantic processing. Furthermore, evidence on dissociations between implicit and explicit lexical-semantic processing reported in the literature will be discussed and interpreted by referring to functional neuroimaging evidence from healthy populations. There is evidence that semantic priming effects can be found both in fluent and in non-fluent aphasias, and that these effects are related to an extensive network which includes the temporal lobe, the pre-frontal cortex, the left frontal gyrus, the left temporal gyrus and the cingulated cortex. PMID:22990731

Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Holderbaum, Candice Steffen; Parente, Maria Alice Mattos Pimenta; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Ansaldo, Ana Inès

2012-09-01

223

Attention trees and semantic paths  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial results will be shown.

Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

2007-02-01

224

A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

2007-05-02

225

SEMANTIC GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR TAGBASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag basedrecommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases.Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevantrecommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show acomprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The studybesides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentageof the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much asit does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with suchnumber of expansions, the recommendations change considerably

Frederico Durao

2011-11-01

226

Hybrid Rules with Well-Founded Semantics  

CERN Document Server

A general framework is proposed for integration of rules and external first order theories. It is based on the well-founded semantics of normal logic programs and inspired by ideas of Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) and constructive negation for logic programs. Hybrid rules are normal clauses extended with constraints in the bodies; constraints are certain formulae in the language of the external theory. A hybrid program is a pair of a set of hybrid rules and an external theory. Instances of the framework are obtained by specifying the class of external theories, and the class of constraints. An example instance is integration of (non-disjunctive) Datalog with ontologies formalized as description logics. The paper defines a declarative semantics of hybrid programs and a goal-driven formal operational semantics. The latter can be seen as a generalization of SLS-resolution. It provides a basis for hybrid implementations combining Prolog with constraint solvers. Soundness of the operational semantics is prove...

Drabent, W

2009-01-01

227

Decoding, Semantic Processing, and Reading Comprehension Skill  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of decoding tests and picture-word interference tasks was administered to third and fifth graders to explore the relationship between single-word decoding, single-word semantic processing, and text comprehension skill. (BRT)

Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Rosinski, Richard R.

1976-01-01

228

SEMANTIC TERM BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL USING ONTOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information Searching and retrieval is a challenging task in the traditional keyword based textual information retrieval system. In the growing information age, adding huge data every day the searching problem also augmented. Keyword based retrieval system returns bulk of junk document irrelevant to query. To address the limitations, this paper proposed query terms along with semantic terms for information retrieval using multiple ontology reference. User query sometimes reflects multiple domain of interest that persist us to collect semantically related ontologies. If no related ontology exists then WordNet ontology used to retrieve semantic terms related to query term. In this approach, classes on the ontology derived as semantic related text keywords, these keywords considered for rank the documents.

J. Mannar Mannan

2014-01-01

229

The Generation Study About Netspeak Semantic Vagueness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study a linguistic phenomenon, you need to know its generation mechanism first. The formation of language and discourse is a really complicated process. It is not only a process to code speech in a multi-angle and multi-level way, but also a result of speakers’ special psychological effect. So it plays an important effect to study the generation of netspeak semantic vagueness. There are both similarities and differences between the generative mechanism of netspeak semantic vagueness and the entitative language. The distinctive and vital factor in generative mechanism of netspeak semantic vagueness is netspeak’s variability which is endowed in the course of its evolving and configurating, not only because it is generated through language mutation, but the metamorphosis pervades each level of netspeak, including lexical, grammar, semantic and so on.

Jinyu DONG

2014-04-01

230

Building Requirements Semantics for Networked Software Interoperability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Naturally, like the web, integrated software systems in Internet will have to be distributed and heterogeneous. To im-prove the interoperability of services for SAAS, it is crucial to build requirements semantics that will cross the entire lifecycle of services especially on requirements stage. In this paper, a requirements semantics interoperability extend-ing approach called Connecting Ontologies (CO that will act as semantics information carrier designing to facilitate the requirements identification and services composition is proposed. Semantic measurement of Chinese scenario is explored. By adopting the approach, a series of tools support for transport domain are developed and applied based on CO and DPO (Domain Problem Ontology to enforce requirements engineering of networked software efficiently.

Bin Wen

2010-03-01

231

Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. This paper gives an overview of how the semantic web is used for mining the World Wide Web.

K.Ganapathi Babu

2012-07-01

232

Specifying the Semantics of Machine Instructions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computer architecture manuals describe the instruction set of the machine and the semantics of those instructions by a combination of natural language and ISP (Instruction Set Processor) descriptions. The syntax of the instructions in assembly is well define in the form of tables in the manual. However, the semantics is not so well specified and descriptions vary widely from one manual to another. When developing a retargetable binary translator, as much as possible needs to be specified in o...

Cifuentes, C.; Sendall, Shane

1998-01-01

233

Semantic web services for web databases  

CERN Document Server

Semantic Web Services for Web Databases introduces an end-to-end framework for querying Web databases using novel Web service querying techniques. This includes a detailed framework for the query infrastructure for Web databases and services. Case studies are covered in the last section of this book. Semantic Web Services For Web Databases is designed for practitioners and researchers focused on service-oriented computing and Web databases.

Ouzzani, Mourad

2011-01-01

234

Semantic Malware Detection by Deploying Graph Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today malware is a serious threat to our society. Several researchers are studying detection and mitigation of malware threats. On the other hand malware authors try to use obfuscation techniques for evading detection. Unfortunately usual approach (e.g., antivirus software) use signature based method which can easily be evaded. For addressing these shortcomings dynamic methods have been introduced. The aim of dynamic methods is to detect the semantic of malware family. Obfuscation of semantic...

Fatemeh Karbalaie; Ashkan Sami; Mansour Ahmadi

2012-01-01

235

Semantic Subtyping for Objects and Classes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose an integration of structural subtyping with boolean connectives and semantic subtyping to define a Java-like programming language that exploits the benefits of both techniques. Semantic subtyping is an approach to defining subtyping relation based on set-theoretic models, rather than syntactic rules. On the one hand, this approach involves some non trivial mathematical machinery in the background. On the other hand, final users of the language need not know this machinery and the r...

Dardha, Ornela; Gorla, Daniele; Varacca, Daniele

2013-01-01

236

Using UMLS semantics for classification purposes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains semantic information about terms from various sources; each concept can be understood and located by its relationships to other concepts. We describe a method in which the semantic relationships between UMLS concepts are exploited for the purpose of classification. This method combines three existing components: 1) Mapping terms to UMLS concepts; 2) Restricting UMLS concepts to MeSH; and 3) Mapping MeSH terms to disease categories. When appl...

Bodenreider, O.

2000-01-01

237

Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web  

CERN Document Server

New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

Willer, Mirna

2013-01-01

238

Puzzle out the semantic web search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose a Cooperative Question Answering System that takes as input natural language queries and is able to return a cooperative answer based on semantic web resources, more specifically DBpedia represented in OWL/RDF as knowledge base and WordNet to build similar questions. Our system resorts to ontologies not only for reasoning but also to find answers and is independent of prior knowledge of the semantic resources by the user. The natural language question is translated...

Melo, Dora; Rodrigues, Irene; Nogueira, Vitor

2012-01-01

239

A semantic analysis of quantification in English  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Throughout early English grammars and the following linguistic literature of the 20th century, the class of quantifiers has faced an identity crisis, brought about most strongly by purely or strongly syntax-based analyses and the lack of a comprehensive account of the semantic behavior of quantification. This analysis examines quantificational behavior from a wholly semantic view and distinguishes the necessary and sufficient parameters for describing quantification and delineating its subcla...

Vandiver, Whitney R.

2011-01-01

240

Semantic smoothing for Twitter sentiment analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twitter has brought much attention recently as a hot research topic in the domain of sentiment analysis. Training sentiment classifier from tweets data often faces the data sparsity problem partly due to the large variety of short forms introduced to tweets because of the 140-character limit. In this work we propose using semantic smoothing to alleviate the data sparseness problem. Our approach extracts semantically hidden concepts from the training documents and then incorporates these conce...

Saif, Hassan; He, Yulan; Alani, Harith

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Semantic Solutions to Program Analysis Problems  

CERN Document Server

Problems in program analysis can be solved by developing novel program semantics and deriving abstractions conventionally. For over thirty years, higher-order program analysis has been sold as a hard problem. Its solutions have required ingenuity and complex models of approximation. We claim that this difficulty is due to premature focus on abstraction and propose a new approach that emphasizes semantics. Its simplicity enables new analyses that are beyond the current state of the art.

Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam

2011-01-01

242

Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content providers can access Reflect programmatically using SOAP, REST (HTTP post), and JavaScript. Usage of Reflect has grown rapidly within the life sciences, and while currently only genes, protein and small molecule names are tagged, we plan to soon expand the scope to include a much broader range of terms (e.g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, ‘semantics is in the eye of the end-user’, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic web technologies.

O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko

2010-01-01

243

Semantic priming in major depressive state.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied semantic priming in 20 major depressive subjects. The methodology used was a visual lexical decision task. Semantic priming is the facilitation of target word recognition (shortening of response time) by the prior presentation of a semantically related context (a prime word). It relies on semantic processing of words and context, facilitating early cognitive stages of response. Varying the temporal interval between prime and target words onset allows us to distinguish between two priming mechanisms, relying on more automatic (test 1) or more controlled (i.e. attention dependent) (test 2) information processing. We observe a significant retardation for words and pseudo-words in depressives (in relation to controls) in both tests. In spite of a general retardation and increase of response times in depressives, semantic priming is evident in both groups and both tests, and does not differ significantly between depressive and control groups in either automatic or controlled conditions. Theses results confirm that semantic processing is not impaired in depression, and are discussed with regard to the hypothesis of an effortful processing impairment in depression, and to depressive retardation. PMID:9579700

Georgieff, N; Dominey, P F; Michel, F; Marie-cardine, M; Dalery, J

1998-03-20

244

Query Expansion based on Associated Semantic Space  

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Full Text Available Expansion of query keywords based on semantic relations is an effective approach to improve the performance of information retrieval. Traditional methods of query expansion did not adequately make use of semantic relations between query keywords. In this paper, a novel approach for query expansion is presented. The main idea of the approach is to construct a ‘Tree of Associational Semantics Model’ and select candidate keywords from the tree. In the first step, a group of initial semantic trees for original keywords are constructed based on WordNet thesaurus. Secondly, noise nodes on the trees are removed by calculating the similarities between words. The pruned trees are subsequently assembled into a big integrated tree, i.e. Tree of Associational Semantics Model, by expanding the trees upward until finding a common root. Finally, the nodes on the integrated tree are filtered and supplemented based on Mutual Information. All words selected from the tree are assigned semantic weights which are used in computing similarity between the query and documents in internet. In addition, the distributional situation of query keywords in documents is also considered in document retrieval. Experimental results demonstrate about 14.6% precision and 13.7% prec@20 improvement over the traditional tfidf-based method.

Guangjun Huang

2011-02-01

245

Adaptive Semantic Middleware for Mobile Environments  

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Full Text Available Context-awareness is considered a key driving principle for the design and provisioning of adaptable pervasive services. Rightfully describing and interpreting context, however, is a challenging issue. Semantic technologies are emerging as effective means to describe and reason about context information and to allow unknown entities to have a common understanding of context. However, the exploitation of semantic technologies for the design/deployment of context-aware applications in pervasive environments replete with heterogeneous devices requires to address several issues. In particular, a crucial aspect is how to support semantic based service provisioning to mobile devices with limited capabilities. Novel solutions are required to transparently and dynamically adapt semantic-based service provisioning to the properties of different access devices. The paper proposes a middleware-level solution approach that exploits the visibility of two kinds of metadata (profiles and policies to support the configurability of the semantic support functionalities depending on user/device properties, and that offers a wide set of mechanisms for making viable semantic based service provisioning even to resource-constrained portable devices.

Antonio Corradi

2007-02-01

246

Proceedings Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics 2011  

CERN Document Server

This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2011, the Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics, held on the 5th of September 2011 in Aachen, Germany as an affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2011, the 22nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) provides a framework for giving operational semantics to programming and specification languages. A growing number of programming languages from commercial and academic spheres have been given usable semantic descriptions by means of structural operational semantics. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, structural operational semantics has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs, and in proving compiler correctness. Moreover, it has found application in emerging areas of computing such as probabilistic systems and systems biology. Structural operational semantics has be...

Reniers, M A; 10.4204/EPTCS.62

2011-01-01

247

Functional differential geometry  

CERN Document Server

Physics is naturally expressed in mathematical language. Students new to the subject must simultaneously learn an idiomatic mathematical language and the content that is expressed in that language. It is as if they were asked to read Les Misérables while struggling with French grammar. This book offers an innovative way to learn the differential geometry needed as a foundation for a deep understanding of general relativity or quantum field theory as taught at the college level.The approach taken by the authors (and used in their classes at MIT for many years) differs from the conventional one in several ways, including an emphasis on the development of the covariant derivative and an avoidance of the use of traditional index notation for tensors in favor of a semantically richer language of vector fields and differential forms. But the biggest single difference is the authors' integration of computer programming into their explanations. By programming a computer to interpret a formula, the student soon learn...

Sussman, Gerald Jay

2013-01-01

248

Serial processing in melody identification and the organization of musical semantic memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike the visual stimuli used in most object identification experiments, melodies are organized temporally rather than spatially. Therefore, they may be particularly sensitive to manipulations of the order in which information is revealed. Two experiments examined whether the initial elements of a melody are differentially important for identification. Initial exposures to impoverished versions of a melody significantly decreased subsequent identification, especially when the early exposures did not include the initial notes of the melody. Analyses of the initial notes indicated that they are differentially important for melody identification because they help the listener detect the overall structure of the melody. Confusion errors tended to be songs that either were drawn from the same genre or shared similar phrasing. These data indicate that conceptual processing influences melody identification, that phrase-level information is used to organize melodies in semantic memory, and that phrase-level information is required to effectively search semantic memory. PMID:15813199

Schulkind, Matthew D

2004-11-01

249

A meta-analysis of fMRI studies on Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of neuroimaging evidence has shown that Chinese character processing recruits differential activation from alphabetic languages due to its unique linguistic features. As more investigations on Chinese character processing have recently become available, we applied a meta-analytic approach to summarize previous findings and examined the neural networks for orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing of Chinese characters independently. The activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was used to analyze eight studies in the orthographic task category, eleven in the phonological and fifteen in the semantic task categories. Converging activation among three language-processing components was found in the left middle frontal gyrus, the left superior parietal lobule and the left mid-fusiform gyrus, suggesting a common sub-network underlying the character recognition process regardless of the task nature. With increasing task demands, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right superior temporal gyrus were specialized for phonological processing, while the left middle temporal gyrus was involved in semantic processing. Functional dissociation was identified in the left inferior frontal gyrus, with the posterior dorsal part for phonological processing and the anterior ventral part for semantic processing. Moreover, bilateral involvement of the ventral occipito-temporal regions was found for both phonological and semantic processing. The results provide better understanding of the neural networks underlying Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing, and consolidate the findings of additional recruitment of the left middle frontal gyrus and the right fusiform gyrus for Chinese character processing as compared with the universal language network that has been based on alphabetic languages. PMID:22759996

Wu, Chiao-Yi; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel

2012-10-15

250

An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

2006-01-01

251

On the Existence of Semantic Working Memory: Evidence for Direct Semantic Maintenance  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online semantic maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with semantic working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…

Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.

2011-01-01

252

Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2011-01-01

253

Semantic Web Framework for Development of Very Large Ontologies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english This paper deals with the development of the Semantic Web framework for very large ontologies. The Semantic Web is often associated with specific XML-based standards for semantics, such as RDF and OWL. Application of lexical ontologies such as WordNet and others for different tasks on the Semantic W [...] eb requires their representation in RDF and/or OWL formats with possibility of the different ontology mappings, semantic workflows, services and other semantic technologies.

Sergey, Yablonsky.

254

A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING  

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Full Text Available The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in the research on semantic web and knowledge processing and presents some recent research initiatives.

M.VENU GOPALACHARI

2013-04-01

255

Study of Semantic Web Based Library Knowledge Management System  

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Full Text Available This study firstly proposes a structure of semantic grid by combining the advantage of semantic web with the research of the grid technology and discusses the key technologies and services of knowledge management un-der semantic grid environment. Then not only discusses semantic notes and knowledge discovery on the basis of ontology but also the model transformation tacit knowledge based on ontology. Then based on the above, it describes the ideas about the knowledge management model under the semantic grid environment. Lastly it analyzes this modal from application layer and semantic space layer and knowledge grid services layer and the distributed resources.

Zhang Qing-song

2013-01-01

256

Semantic Web Framework for Development of Very Large Ontologies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english This paper deals with the development of the Semantic Web framework for very large ontologies. The Semantic Web is often associated with specific XML-based standards for semantics, such as RDF and OWL. Application of lexical ontologies such as WordNet and others for different tasks on the Semantic W [...] eb requires their representation in RDF and/or OWL formats with possibility of the different ontology mappings, semantic workflows, services and other semantic technologies.

Sergey, Yablonsky.

2009-06-01

257

SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap" is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains. The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies, providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies, and discovery servers (semantic search engines interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info" uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet". Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

Town Christopher D

2009-09-01

258

From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia  

CERN Document Server

Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions to content enrichment. Work starts from harvesting multimedia annotations in class-room recordings, and proceeds to deriving a dense educational semantic net between eLearning Objects decorated with extended LOM relations. Special focus is drawn on the processing of recorded speech and on an Ontological Evaluation Layer that autonomously derives meaningful inter-object relations. Further on, a semantic representation of hyperlinks is developed and elaborated to the concept of semantic link contexts, an approach to manage a coherent rhetori...

Schmidt, Thomas C; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

2009-01-01

259

Arabic Semantic Web Applications – A Survey  

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Full Text Available Arabic Language is the mother tongue for 23 countries and more than 350 million persons. It is the language of the Holy Quran; therefore, many non-Arabic Islamic countries, like Pakistan, teach Arabic as a second language. Nevertheless, it is observable that the Arabic content on the Web is less than what should be. The evolution of the Semantic Web (SW added a new dimension to this problem. This paper is an attempt to figure out the problem, its causes, and to open avenues to think about the solutions. The survey presented in this paper concerned with the SW applications regarding the Arabic Language in the domains of Ontology construction and utilization, Arabic WordNet (AWN exploiting and enrichment, Arabic Named Entities Extraction, Holy Quran and Islamic Knowledge semantic representation, and Arabic Semantic Search Engines. In fact, the study revealed serious deficiencies in dealing semantically with the Arabic Language. That is mainly owing to the rarity of tools that can support the Arabic script. Furthermore, the Arabic resources, if available, are not free. Moreover, there are many technical problems in the semantic dealing with the Arabic context. Therefore, most of the developed applications are not sufficiently proficient. However, due to the significance of the Arabic Language, it is inevitable to overcome these deficiencies in order to put the Arabic Language in the category of the machine-semantically-interpretable languages, rather than just the textually processable ones. This way, we can exploit the power of the Semantic Web features in extracting the essence of the knowledge residing in the Arabic web documents and going beyond dealing with its rigid texts. 

Aya M. Al-Zoghby

2013-02-01

260

Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity  

CERN Document Server

We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

Jarmasz, Mario

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Formal semantics for propositional attitudes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psycholog [...] ical modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka), human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

Daniel, Vanderveken.

262

Harnessing manpower for creating semantics  

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Full Text Available The eective information processing (e.g. search, organi-zation of the heterogeneous information spaces requiresmetadata layer above the resources. However, the acqui-sition of resource metadata and domain models are chal-lenging tasks. Here, the crowdsourcing has emerged asan alternative to expert-based and automated semanticsacquisition approaches. One of its branches are the gameswith a purpose (GWAPs which encapsulate the seman-tics acquisition tasks into the game processes. We analyzeexisting GWAPs and propose their classication. Fur-thermore we devised our own GWAP-based approaches.For acquisition of lightweight term relationship network,we devised a search query formulation game, usable alsofor specic domain models. For acquisition of (personalimage tags, we devised a card game, where players mem-orize positions of concealed cards and identify identicalpairs. For validation of music metadata, we devised amulti-choice question-based game, where players identifytag sets that are characteristic to music tracks they hear.We also looked at the GWAPs from their design per-spectives. We present a design oriented classication sys-tem for GWAPs, adress several design issues recurring inGWAPs and present new design patterns to solve them.

Jakub Simko

2013-10-01

263

Mapping the semantic homunculus: a functional and behavioural analysis of overt semantic generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous neuroanatomical research has shown that semantic processing of action-related language activates the premotor, motor, and sensory cortices somatotopically (e.g., Tettamanti et al., J Cognitive Neurosci. 2005;17(2): 273-281, using a listening task, and Hauk et al., Neuron. 2004;41:301-307 and Pulvermuller et al., Eur J Neurosci 2005;21:793-797; J Cognitive Neurosci 2005;17(6):884-892 using a silent reading task). We examined this somatotopic semantics hypothesis using an overt semantic generation task (i.e., participants generated aloud their own personal description of how they would interact with target object words), rather than semantic comprehension as examined in previous research, so as to provide a stronger test of the hypothesis under conditions that tap one's own semantic knowledge about interacting with objects. Experiment 1 used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine somatotopically organized activation in the premotor cortex for an overt semantic generation task, using targets that naturally involve either arm interactions or leg interactions. Consistent with previous research, our results showed that semantic processing related to object interaction involves the motor, premotor and sensory cortices in a somatotopic fashion. Previous behavioural research has shown a response advantage in lexical decision for words with multiple meanings or features, which diminishes with tasks that decrease semantic involvement (e.g., Borowsky and Masson, J Exp Psychol: Learn Memory Cognit 1996; 22(1):63-85; Pexman et al., Psychon Bull Rev 2002;9(3): 542-549). Experiment 2 evaluated whether semantic generation response times (total duration of response) display a complexity advantage (i.e., faster response times for more complex objects), and whether complexity ratings were related to the volume of brain activation during the task. Results from this behavioural experiment revealed a significant negative relationship between the total duration of response (i.e., the total amount of time taken to respond to the stimuli) and object complexity for leg objects (a semantic complexity advantage), but not for arms. This suggests that the smaller repertoire of possible interactions with leg objects requires a greater reliance on semantic knowledge in order to respond in the semantic generation task. This interpretation was further supported by a greater volume of brain activation in the premotor cortex for arm objects versus leg objects. The response times from Experiment 1 were also compared to the semantic complexity ratings gathered in Experiment 2 to determine if response times in the fMRI environment were affected by how complex an object is. PMID:18338245

Esopenko, Carrie; Borowsky, Ron; Cummine, Jacqueline; Sarty, Gordon

2008-09-01

264

Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics  

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Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980. ‘Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds. ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

Martin Stokhof

2010-12-01

265

SEMANTIC BASED MULTIPLE WEB SEARCH ENGINE  

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Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of information available to end users through the Web, search engines come to play ever a more critical role. Nevertheless, because of their general-purpose approach, it is always less uncommon that obtained result sets provide a burden ofuseless pages. The next-generation Web architecture, represented by the Semantic Web, provides the layered architecture possibly allowing overcoming this limitation. Several search engines have been proposed, which allow increasing information retrieval accuracy by exploiting a key content of Semantic Web resources, that is, relations. To make the Semantic Web work, well-structured data andrules are necessary for agents to roam the Web [2]. XML and RDF are two important technologies: we can create our own structures by XML without indicating what they mean; RDF uses sets of triples which express basic concepts [2]. DAML is the extension of XML and RDF The aim of this project is to develop a search engine based on ontologymatching within the Semantic Web. It uses the data in Semantic Web form such as DAML or RDF. When the user input a query, the program accepts the query and transfers it to a machine learning agent. Then the agent measures the similarity between different ontology’s, and feedback the matched item to the user.

MS.S.LATHA SHANMUGAVADIVU,

2010-08-01

266

Semantic Aggregator of Public Professional Events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data on the web has been created by a large number of people and is hosted in a large number of independent resources across the globe. Therefore, there is a need to develop data aggregators to help the process of knowledge-based integration. The data without central coordination resulted in heterogeneity. The integration of data on the Internet continues to be a challenge for searching and discovery efforts. Semantic aggregators are agents for data integration using semantic web techniques. Semantic web technologies provide the capability to more easily aggregate data and thus can be utilized to improve the efficiency of information discovery. This study describes an implementation of a semantic web infrastructure that collects and integrates data in Extensible Markup Language (XML format and utilizes the Resource Description Framework (RDF Data model as the repository. One of the main challenges addressed in this paper is the heterogeneity of existing XML schemata and semantics of websites. The proposed approach is designed to be implemented and tested on publicly available professional events.

Lama Assum

2012-01-01

267

Discriminating Semantic Visual Words for Scene Classification  

Science.gov (United States)

Bag-of-Visual-Words representation has recently become popular for scene classification. However, learning the visual words in an unsupervised manner suffers from the problem when faced these patches with similar appearances corresponding to distinct semantic concepts. This paper proposes a novel supervised learning framework, which aims at taking full advantage of label information to address the problem. Specifically, the Gaussian Mixture Modeling (GMM) is firstly applied to obtain “semantic interpretation” of patches using scene labels. Each scene induces a probability density on the low-level visual features space, and patches are represented as vectors of posterior scene semantic concepts probabilities. And then the Information Bottleneck (IB) algorithm is introduce to cluster the patches into “visual words” via a supervised manner, from the perspective of semantic interpretations. Such operation can maximize the semantic information of the visual words. Once obtained the visual words, the appearing frequency of the corresponding visual words in a given image forms a histogram, which can be subsequently used in the scene categorization task via the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Experiments on a challenging dataset show that the proposed visual words better perform scene classification task than most existing methods.

Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Feng, Songhe

268

Deriving Logical Consequences Using Ontological Formal Semantics  

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Full Text Available Semantic Web technology enables us to specify metadata about things in the world and help us to relate this metadata using ontology databases and language. The core of the Semantic Web is Ontology, which is used to explicitly represent our conceptualizations. This paper is an efforts to improve the relevancy of results in a search system for a particular domain by exploiting the domain knowledge captured in an OWL ontology using the protégé tool. We make ontological database from static relational database using protégé. The key ingredients that make up an ontology are a vocabulary of basic terms, semantic interconnections, simple rules of inference and some logic for a particular topic. We extract semantic meaning from query entered by the user using tool and then we map this meaning into ontological database. To achieve semantic search, a search engine is needed which can interpret the meaning of a user's query and the relations among the concepts that a document contains with respect to a particular domain. Protégé is an extensible and customizable tool for constructing ontologies and for developing applications that use these ontologies. After that we display this data on user screen. The output of this project is to provide appropriate result to user for enter his queries.

Nikhil S. Langde

2014-03-01

269

Semantic Malware Detection by Deploying Graph Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today malware is a serious threat to our society. Several researchers are studying detection and mitigation of malware threats. On the other hand malware authors try to use obfuscation techniques for evading detection. Unfortunately usual approach (e.g., antivirus software use signature based method which can easily be evaded. For addressing these shortcomings dynamic methods have been introduced. The aim of dynamic methods is to detect the semantic of malware family. Obfuscation of semantic based method is too difficult and results of these methods are promising. However deploying semantic based methods for real time detection have several complications. Current semantic methods are too time-consuming and usually need a robust virtual machine to obtain the behavior. In this paper we present an automatic detection method based on graph mining techniques with near optimal detection rate. That is 96.6% accuracy and only 3.4% false positive. In our method, first the malware is analyzed in a virtual machine environment to observe its semantic. A graph representation of malware behavior is constructed. The representation is based on relationships between system calls and allows rearrangement of system calls. Graph is used for representing the behavior of application because graph, especially labeled graph, can be used to model lots of complicated relation between data. At the next step we mine information graph and extract the most discriminative graphs that separate malware from benign. Finally, a classification method is used and the mentioned accuracy was obtained.

Fatemeh Karbalaie

2012-01-01

270

Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS. The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems. The first result is its equivalence with the so-called Borrowed Context technique. Unfortunately, the axiomatization is not compositional in the expected manner as no rule captures "internal" communication of sub-systems. The main result states that such a rule is derivable if the given graph transformation system enjoys a certain property, which we call "complementarity of actions". Archetypal examples of such systems are interaction nets. We also discuss problems that arise if "complementarity of actions" is violated.

Andrei Dorman

2011-07-01

271

Automatic Construction of Semantic Dictionary for Question Categorization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An automatic method for building a semantic dictionary from existing questions in a pattern-based question answering system is proposed for question categorization. This dictionary consists of two main parts: Semantic Domain Terms (SDT, which is a domain specific term list, and Semantic Labeled Terms (SLT, which contain common terms tagged with semantic labels. The semantic dictionary is built using the proposed method on a set of 2509 questions with semantic patterns in our system. 3390 questions without semantic patterns are used as ground truth to test its performance. Experimental results show that the precision of question classification is improved by 7.5% in average after using the constructed semantic dictionary compared with the baseline method.

Wenyin Liu

2009-12-01

272

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

CERN Document Server

The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality, scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages. Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systems must be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges in this domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervised learning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learn...

Hassanzadeh, Hamed; 10.5121/ijwest.2011.2203

2011-01-01

273

Ontology Based Semantics Checking for UML Activity Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available UML activity model is mainly used to model the behaviors of software system and the quality of activity model will influence the quality of software system. But because the UML activity model lacks strictly formal semantics, it is difficult to make formal semantics analysis and checking for activity model. An ontology based method of semantics checking for activity model is proposed. The semantics of activity model is divided into static semantics and dynamic semantics. The static semantics is transformed into OWL DL by an algorithm, and the dynamic semantics is described by DL-Safe rules. Then the consistency of UML activity model is analyzed and some model checking rules are defined, which enables model consistency checking by using an ontology reasoning tool.

Li Chen

2012-01-01

274

When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

Salvatore F. Pileggi

2012-09-01

275

Building a semantic search engine with games and crowdsourcing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic search engines aim at improving conventional search with semantic information, or meta-data, on the data searched for and/or on the searchers. So far, approaches to semantic search exploit characteristics of the searchers like age, education, or spoken language for selecting and/or ranking search results. Such data allow to build up a semantic search engine as an extension of a conventional search engine. The crawlers of well established search engines like Google, Yahoo! or Bing ...

Wieser, Christoph

2014-01-01

276

Description and Evaluation of Semantic Similarity Measures Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, semantic similarity measure has a great interest in Semantic Web and Natural Language Processing (NLP). Several similarity measures have been developed, being given the existence of a structured knowledge representation offered by ontologies and corpus which enable semantic interpretation of terms. Semantic similarity measures compute the similarity between concepts/terms included in knowledge sources in order to perform estimations. This paper discusses the...

Slimani, Thabet

2013-01-01

277

Semantic Web Search based on Ontology Modeling using Protege Reasoner  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web works on the existing Web which presents the meaning of information as well-defined vocabularies understood by the people. Semantic Search, at the same time, works on improving the accuracy if a search by understanding the intent of the search and providing contextually relevant results. This paper describes a semantic approach toward web search through a PHP application. The goal was to parse through a user's browsing history and return semantically relevan...

Shekhar, Monica; K, Saravanaguru Ra

2013-01-01

278

Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new ...

Radhika Malik; Udayan Ghose

2011-01-01

279

BUSINESS USER FRIENDLY RULE EDITING ON THE SEMANTIC WEB  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web is an evolution of the current Web where information is given semantic meaning. This will enable development of automatic software agents which will carry out various tasks for the users. The implementation of Semantic Web is based on a set of technologies and standards, which form layers. The most important part of the Semantic Web are the two concepts of knowledge representation in the form of ontologies and rules over these ontologies. Although there are already se...

S?ega, Matjaz?

2008-01-01

280

Exploring Words with Semantic Correlations from Chinese Wikipedia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we work on semantic correlation between Chinese words based on Wikipedia documents. A corpus with about 50,000 structured documents is generated from Wikipedia pages. Then considering of hyper-links, text overlaps and word frequency, about 300,000 word pairs with semantic correlations are explored from these documents. We roughly measure the degree of semantic correlations and find groups with tight semantic correlations by self clustering.

Li, Yun; Huang, Kaiyan; Tsuchiya, Seiji; Ren, Fuji; Zhong, Yixin

 
 
 
 
281

Semantics and Security Issues in JavaScript  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a plethora of research articles describing the deep semantics of JavaScript. Nevertheless, such articles are often difficult to grasp for readers not familiar with formal semantics. In this report, we propose a digest of the semantics of JavaScript centered around security concerns. This document proposes an overview of the JavaScript language and the misleading semantic points in its design. The first part of the document describes the main characteristics of the l...

Ducasse, Ste?phane; Petton, Nicolas; Polito, Guillermo; Cassou, Damien

2012-01-01

282

Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ansari, Aftab 2012. Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools: Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 67. Semantic Web is one important and relevant research area in computer science. A growing research attention to this field can be explained by the opportunities the Semantic Web could provide by representing and reasoning about semantic information. The objective of this thesis is to study the technologies f...

Ansari, Aftab

2012-01-01

283

Algorithm to Match Ontologies on the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been recognized that semantic data and knowledge extraction will significantly improve the capability of natural language interfaces to the semantic search engine. Semantic Web technology offers a vast scale of sharing and integration of distributed data sources by combining information easily. This will enable the user to find the information easily and efficiently. In this paper, we will explore some issues of developing algorithms for the Semantic Web. The first one to build the sem...

Alaa Qassim Al-Namiy

2013-01-01

284

A Secured and Semantically Addressed E-Mail Service  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper illustrates the use of semantic addresses to send emails in a corporate environment. Semantic Email Addressing (SEA) allows emails to be sent to a semantically speci?ed recipient or group of recipients, which may be dynamically changingovertime. In order to describe the concept of SEA and its advantages, it is compared with the concept of mailing lists. Two solutions to send semantically addressed emails are presented, on one hand a client sided solution has been elaborated wher...

OSOFISAN; Adenike O; Amadi, J. C.; ETENG; Idongesit.E

2012-01-01

285

The denotational semantics of an object oriented programming language  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, several descriptions of object oriented programming languages with denotational semantics have been given. Cook presented a denotational semantics of class inheritance. This semantics abstracts from the internal state of objects, which is one of their salient characteristics. In this paper we show that Cooks denotational semantics of class inheritance is applicable to object oriented programming languages, where objects have a state. For this purpose we define a direct denotation...

Hense, Andreas V.

1990-01-01

286

Attaining and Applying Consistency from Semantic Evolved from Conceptualization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on a dualism of human and matter, this paper proposes to derive fundamental semantics from conceptualization which bridges observation and existence. We identified that theoretical knowledge is characterized exclusively by consistency instead of any other concept in contrast to any other expressible/observable semantic expressions. Then evolution mechanism of knowledge from fundamental semantic is revealed. Discussions on applications are extended on a broad scope in the manner of starting from exploring semantic of problem descriptions.

Yucong Duan

2013-09-01

287

Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

Ahmed, Saeema

2006-01-01

288

Towards Semantic Clustering – A Brief Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image clustering is an important technology which helps users to get hold of thelarge amount of online visual information, especially after the rapid growth of theWeb. This paper focuses on image clustering methods and their application inimage collection or online image repository. Current progress of image clusteringrelated to image retrieval and image annotation are summarized and some openproblems are discussed. Related works are summarized based on the problemsaddressed, which are image segmentation, compact representation of image set,search space reduction, and semantic gap. Issues are also identified in currentprogress and semantic clustering is conjectured to be the potential trend. Ourframework of semantic clustering as well as the main abstraction levels involvedis briefly discussed.

Phei-Chin Lim, Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer, Dayang NurFatimah Awg. Iskandar

2011-02-01

289

Semantic Textual Entailment Recognition using UNL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english A two-way textual entailment (TE) recognition system that uses semantic features has been described in this paper. We have used the Universal Networking Language (UNL) to identify the semantic features. UNL has all the components of a natural language. The development of a UNL based textual entailme [...] nt system that compares the UNL relations in both the text and the hypothesis has been reported. The semantic TE system has been developed using the RTE-3 test annotated set as a development set (includes 800 text-hypothesis pairs). Evaluation scores obtained on the RTE-4 test set (includes 1000 text-hypothesis pairs) show 55.89% precision and 65.40% recall for YES decisions and 66.50% precision and 55.20% recall for NO decisions and overall 60.3% precision and 60.3% recall.

Partha, Pakray; Soujanya, Poria; Sivaji, Bandyopadhyay; Alexander, Gelbukh.

290

Semantic Textual Entailment Recognition using UNL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english A two-way textual entailment (TE) recognition system that uses semantic features has been described in this paper. We have used the Universal Networking Language (UNL) to identify the semantic features. UNL has all the components of a natural language. The development of a UNL based textual entailme [...] nt system that compares the UNL relations in both the text and the hypothesis has been reported. The semantic TE system has been developed using the RTE-3 test annotated set as a development set (includes 800 text-hypothesis pairs). Evaluation scores obtained on the RTE-4 test set (includes 1000 text-hypothesis pairs) show 55.89% precision and 65.40% recall for YES decisions and 66.50% precision and 55.20% recall for NO decisions and overall 60.3% precision and 60.3% recall.

Partha, Pakray; Soujanya, Poria; Sivaji, Bandyopadhyay; Alexander, Gelbukh.

2011-06-01

291

A Semantic Approach for Document Clustering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional document mining systems mainly use the presence or absence of keywords to mine texts. However, simple word counting and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. In this paper, the application of a semantic understanding-based approach to mine documents is presented. The approach is based on semantic notions to represent text, and to measure similarity between text documents. The representation scheme reflects existing relations between concepts and facilitates accurate similarity measurements that result in better mining performance. A document mining process, namely semantic document clustering, is investigated and tackled in various ways. The proposed representation scheme along with the proposed similarity measure were implemented as vital components of a mining system. The approach has enabled more effective document clustering than what conventional techniques would provide. The experimental work is reported, and its results are presented and analyzed.

Khaled Shaban

2009-07-01

292

Semantics of a pure quantum programming language  

CERN Document Server

Quantum algorithm is the key to dig the potential power of quantum computing and make quantum computation more efficient than classical analogue. However, present methods of designing quantum algorithms are too tricky and lack of systematic development. The aim of quantum programming languages is to deal with this problem and try to provide a high-level and unifying description and treatment of quantum algorithms. In this paper, we prove that the two viewpoints of quantum programs -- super-operators on density matrices and healthy transformers on quantum predicates -- are equivalent. This result gives a complete characterization of physically realizable quantum programs in terms of healthy quantum predicate transformers. We further propose a simple programming language which is a pure quantum fragment describing the quantum part of a future quantum computer in Knill's architecture. The operational semantics, weakest (liberal) precondition semantics, and the connections between these three semantics are examin...

Feng, Y; Ji, Z; Ying, M; Feng, Yuan; Duan, Runyao; Ji, Zhengfeng; Ying, Mingsheng

2005-01-01

293

Relational Semantics for Databases and Predicate Calculus  

CERN Document Server

The relational data model requires a theory of relations in which tuples are not only many-sorted, but can also have indexes that are not necessarily numerical. In this paper we develop such a theory and define operations on relations that are adequate for database use. The operations are similar to those of Codd's relational algebra, but differ in being based on a mathematically adequate theory of relations. The semantics of predicate calculus, being oriented toward the concept of satisfiability, is not suitable for relational databases. We develop an alternative semantics that assigns relations as meaning to formulas with free variables. This semantics makes the classical predicate calculus suitable as a query language for relational databases.

Kelly, Philip

2012-01-01

294

Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search  

CERN Document Server

Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search is based on "joint meaning" understood as a joint construal of the creators of the contents and the user of the contents using the faced taxonomy with the Semantic Web. A proof-of concept prototype shows how the proposed methodological approach can also be applied to existing presentation components, built with different languages and/or component technologies.

Mas, Massimiliano Dal

2012-01-01

295

Symbolic and Asynchronous Semantics via Normalized Coalgebras  

CERN Document Server

The operational semantics of interactive systems is usually described by labeled transition systems. Abstract semantics (that is defined in terms of bisimilarity) is characterized by the final morphism in some category of coalgebras. Since the behaviour of interactive systems is for many reasons infinite, symbolic semantics were introduced as a mean to define smaller, possibly finite, transition systems, by employing symbolic actions and avoiding some sources of infiniteness. Unfortunately, symbolic bisimilarity has a different shape with respect to ordinary bisimilarity, and thus the standard coalgebraic characterization does not work. In this paper, we introduce its coalgebraic models. We will use as motivating examples two asynchronous formalisms: open Petri nets and asynchronous pi-calculus. Indeed, as we have shown in a previous paper, asynchronous bisimilarity can be seen as an instance of symbolic bisimilarity.

Bonchi, Filippo

2011-01-01

296

A new account of rationality and semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how a new outlook on human cognitive abilities, and in accordance with this a different view of rationality, can influence semantics and one of the most prominent debates in this field, namely, conflict between Fregeans and non Fregean anti-indiviidualists. This new account of rationality will help us difuse some of the main motivators for Fregean view of semantics and it will help us in justifying non-Fregean anti-individualism but also in eliminating some of the apparent contradictions in Fregean anti-individualism of, e.g. Campbell and Evans. In this attempt of bringing together some of the latest insights into human cognition and semantics I will be dealing mainly with Jessica Brown's outlook on motivation for Fregean sense and Ruth Millikan's embedded view on rationality.

Milojevi? Miljana

2011-01-01

297

Variant-Frequency Semantics for Green Futures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes an operational semantics for futures, with the primary target on energy efficiency. The work in progress is built around an insight that different threads can coordinate by running at different "paces," so that the time for synchronization and the resulting wasteful energy consumption can be reduced. We exploit several inherent characteristics of futures to determine how the paces of involving threads can be coordinated. The semantics is inspired by recent advances in computer architectures, where the frequencies of CPU cores can be adjusted dynamically. The work is a first-step toward a direction where variant frequencies are directly modeled as an essential semantic feature in concurrent programming languages.

Yu David Liu

2013-02-01

298

Integrating Multiple Knowledge Sources for Robust Semantic Parsing  

CERN Document Server

This work explores a new robust approach for Semantic Parsing of unrestricted texts. Our approach considers Semantic Parsing as a Consistent Labelling Problem (CLP), allowing the integration of several knowledge types (syntactic and semantic) obtained from different sources (linguistic and statistic). The current implementation obtains 95% accuracy in model identification and 72% in case-role filling.

Atserias, J; Rigau, G; Atserias, Jordi; Padro, Lluis; Rigau, German

2001-01-01

299

Multiuse of Oceanographic Data on the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Collaborative Ocean is an initiative to build a semantic web infrastructure to enable marine scientists to collaboratively publish their resources on the semantic web to assist multi use of the ocean data. We borrow concepts and technologies in the semantic web and adopt the Agile Knowledge Engineering (AKE) methodology to enable collaborative knowledge engineering in ocean resource management.

Tao, Feng; Campbell, Jon; Griffiths, Gwyn

2008-01-01

300

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Automatic Semantic Processing in a Picture-Word Interference Task  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents two experiments which measured latencies in a picture-word interference task to assess semantic processing. Results suggest that picture-word interference is partly semantically based and that children and adults experience an equivalent amount of semantic interference. (Author/SDH)

Rosinski, Richard R.; And Others

1975-01-01

302

CASL - The CoFI Algebraic Specification Language - Semantics.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999.

Haxthausen, Anne

1999-01-01

303

A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that ? is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.

Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

2014-10-01

304

Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there i...

Al-feel, Haytham T.; Magdy Koutb; Hoda Suoror

2008-01-01

305

A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that ? is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.

Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

2013-07-01

306

User Search Personalization in Semantic Web Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behaviour (usage data in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In the first part of our Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the second part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank, a Page Rank style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query.

T.Venkata Ramana , Dr.K.Venugopala Rao

2012-05-01

307

Order Metrics for Semantic Knowledge Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge systems technologies, as derived from AI methods and used in the modern Semantic Web movement, are dominated by graphical knowledge structures such as ontologies and semantic graph databases. A critical but typically overlooked aspect of all of these structures is their admission to analyses in terms of formal hierarchical relations. The partial order representations of whatever hierarchy is present within a knowledge structure afford opportunities to exploit these hierarchical constraints to facilitate a variety of tasks, including ontology analysis and alignment, visual layout, and anomaly detection. We introduce the basic concepts of order metrics and address the impact of a hierarchical (order-theoretical) analysis on knowledge systems tasks.

Joslyn, Cliff; Hogan, Emilie

308

Semantic technologies and e-business  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this chapter, we study what semantic technologies can bring to the e-business domain and how they can be applied to it. After an overview of the goals to be achieved by e-business applications we detail a large panel of existing e-business standards, with a specific focus on B2B (Business to Business) and their current modus operandi. Furthermore we also present some of the most relevant e-business ontologies. We then argue that the use of semantic technologies will simplify the automatic ...

Bedini, Ivan; Gardarin, Georges; Nguyen, Benjamin

2011-01-01

309

Semantic Visualization and Navigation in Textual Corpus  

CERN Document Server

This paper gives a survey of related work on the information visualization domain and study the real integration of the cartography paradigms in actual information search systems. Based on this study, we propose a semantic visualization and navigation approach which offer to users three search modes: precise search, connotative search and thematic search. The objective is to propose to the users of an information search system, new interaction paradigms which support the semantic aspect of the considered information space and guide users in their searches by assisting them to locate their interest center and to improve serendipity.

Kboubi, Férihane; BenAhmed, Mohamed

2012-01-01

310

Supervised Semantic Classification for Nuclear Proliferation Monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing feature extraction and classification approaches are not suitable for monitoring proliferation activity using high-resolution multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. In this paper we present a supervised semantic labeling framework based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation method. This framework is used to analyze over 120 images collected under different spatial and temporal settings over the globe representing three major semantic categories: airports, nuclear, and coal power plants. Initial experimental results show a reasonable discrimination of these three categories even though coal and nuclear images share highly common and overlapping objects. This research also identified several research challenges associated with nuclear proliferation monitoring using high resolution remote sensing images.

311

Semantic Integration of Knowledge Management Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ontologies are essential for a semantic integration of knowledge components which can be seen as superior pieces of intellectual capital. Knowledge structures connect individual or group knowledge elements from organizational knowledge bases that have been developed independently. This can aid search and navigation for the entire organizational knowledge base. As many knowledge processes cross boundaries of organizational units or of whole organizations, standardization of techniques for representing knowledge structures (Semantic Web technologies, play an important role in enabling organizations to share documented knowledge.

Constantin Florin Sîrbu

2008-12-01

312

Timed Automata Semantics for Analyzing Creol  

CERN Document Server

We give a real-time semantics for the concurrent, object-oriented modeling language Creol, by mapping Creol processes to a network of timed automata. We can use our semantics to verify real time properties of Creol objects, in particular to see whether processes can be scheduled correctly and meet their end-to-end deadlines. Real-time Creol can be useful for analyzing, for instance, abstract models of multi-core embedded systems. We show how analysis can be done in Uppaal.

Jaghoori, Mohammad Mahdi; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.8

2010-01-01

313

Semantic mashups intelligent reuse of web resources  

CERN Document Server

Mashups are mostly lightweight Web applications that offer new functionalities by combining, aggregating and transforming resources and services available on the Web. Popular examples include a map in their main offer, for instance for real estate, hotel recommendations, or navigation tools.  Mashups may contain and mix client-side and server-side activity. Obviously, understanding the incoming resources (services, statistical figures, text, videos, etc.) is a precondition for optimally combining them, so that there is always some undercover semantics being used.  By using semantic annotations

Endres-Niggemeyer, Brigitte

2013-01-01

314

Knowledge Representation in the Social Semantic Web  

CERN Document Server

The main purpose of this book is to sum up the vital and highly topical research issue of knowledge representation on the Web and to discuss novel solutions by combining benefits of folksonomies and Web 2.0 approaches with ontologies and semantic technologies. The book contains an overview of knowledge representation approaches in past, present and future, introduction to ontologies, Web indexing and in first case the novel approaches of developing ontologies. combines aspects of knowledge representation for both the Semantic Web (ontologies) and the Web 2.0 (folksonomies). Currently there is

Weller, Katrin

2010-01-01

315

Six challenges for the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web has attracted a diverse, but significant, community of researchers, institutes and companies, all sharing the belief that one day it will have as big an impact on life as currently the WWW/Internet has We share that vision, based on the ever-increaseing need to reduce information overload, and to increase task delegation to software agents However, there is still a long way to go before the Semantic Web dream comes true. We identify some of the major challenges the community ...

Benjamins, R.; Contreras, Jesu?s; Corcho, O?scar; Go?mez-pe?rez, A.

2002-01-01

316

Semantic Web and Model-Driven Engineering  

CERN Document Server

The next enterprise computing era will rely on the synergy between both technologies: semantic web and model-driven software development (MDSD). The semantic web organizes system knowledge in conceptual domains according to its meaning. It addresses various enterprise computing needs by identifying, abstracting and rationalizing commonalities, and checking for inconsistencies across system specifications. On the other side, model-driven software development is closing the gap among business requirements, designs and executables by using domain-specific languages with custom-built syntax and se

Parreiras, Fernando S

2012-01-01

317

Model Mapping Approach Based on Ontology Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mapping relations between different models are the foundation for model transformation in model-driven software development. On the basis of ontology semantics, model mappings between different levels are classified by using structural semantics of modeling languages. The general definition process for mapping relations is explored, and the principles of structure mapping are proposed subsequently. The approach is further illustrated by the mapping relations from class model of object oriented modeling language to the C programming codes. The application research shows that the approach provides a theoretical guidance for the realization of model mapping, and thus can make an effective support to model-driven software development

Jinkui Hou

2013-09-01

318

Cortical regions underlying successful encoding of semantically congruent and incongruent associations between common auditory and visual objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies implicate regions in the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices of the brain in audio-visual (AV) integration of familiar objects. It remains unclear, however, which brain regions contribute to the creation of object-related AV memories, and whether activation of these regions is affected by crossmodal congruency. Here we used event-related functional MRI in a subsequent memory paradigm to investigate the neural substrates of successful encoding of semantically congruent and incongruent AV memories. Creation of both types of memories activated a region in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In addition, successful encoding of semantically related and unrelated AV pairs was correlated with increased activity in regions within the right lateral occipital cortex and bilateral lateral temporal cortex, respectively. These results may highlight a common role of IFG in retrieval of semantic information during encoding and suggest that the occipital and temporal cortices differentially process perceptual versus conceptual associations of AV memories. PMID:22024505

Naghavi, Hamid Reza; Eriksson, Johan; Larsson, Anne; Nyberg, Lars

2011-11-14

319

Differentiation Rules: Implicit Differentiation  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource introduces that some curves cannot easily be represented as explicit functions of a single variable. In this case, one can use the method of implicit differentiation to determine the derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions.

Freeze, Michael

2003-01-22

320

Derived Stimulus Relations, Semantic Priming, and Event-Related Potentials: Testing a Behavioral Theory of Semantic Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Derived equivalence relations, it has been argued, provide a behavioral model of semantic or symbolic meaning in natural language, and thus equivalence relations should possess properties that are typically associated with semantic relations. The present study sought to test this basic postulate using semantic priming. Across three experiments,…

Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Staunton, Carmel; Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Dymond, Simon

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The large-scale structure of semantic networks statistical analyses and a model for semantic growth  

CERN Document Server

We present statistical analyses of the large-scale structure of three types of semantic networks: word associations, WordNet, and Roget's thesaurus. We show that they have a small-world structure, characterized by sparse connectivity, short average path-lengths between words, and strong local clustering. In addition, the distributions of the number of connections follow power laws that indicate a scale-free pattern of connectivity, with most nodes having relatively few connections joined together through a small number of hubs with many connections. These regularities have also been found in certain other complex natural networks, such as the world wide web, but they are not consistent with many conventional models of semantic organization, based on inheritance hierarchies, arbitrarily structured networks, or high-dimensional vector spaces. We propose that these structures reflect the mechanisms by which semantic networks grow. We describe a simple model for semantic growth, in which each new word or concept ...

Steyvers, M; Tenenbaum, Mark Steyvers & Joshua B.

2001-01-01

322

SEMANTIC ASSOCIATION-BASED SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION METHOD ON THE SEMANTIC WEB PORTAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the information on the web dramatically increases, the existing web reveals more and more limitationsin information search because web pages are designed only for human consumption by mixing contentwith presentation. In order to improve this situation, the Semantic Web based on ontology comes on thestage by W3C, and it will bring a significant advancement in web search. To do this, the Semantic Webmust provide novel search and visualization methods which can help users instantly and intuitivelyunderstand why and how the results are retrieved. In this paper, we propose a semantic associationbasedsearch methodology that consists of how to find relevant information for a given user’s query in theontology, that is, a semantic network of resources and properties, and how to provide propervisualization and navigation methods on the results. From this work, users can search the semanticallyassociated resources with their query and also navigate such associations between resources.

Myungjin Lee

2010-01-01

323

High performance semantic factoring of giga-scale semantic graph databases.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to bring high performance computational resources to bear on their analysis, interpretation, and visualization, especially with respect to their innate semantic structure. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multithreaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional clusters, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture, and present the results of our deploying that for the analysis of the Billion Triple dataset with respect to its semantic factors, including basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths.

al-Saffar, Sinan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Adolf, Bob (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Haglin, David (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mackey, Greg Edward; Goodman, Eric L.; Joslyn, Cliff A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Feo, John (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mizell, David (Cray, Inc.)

2010-10-01

324

A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available information which is belong to original semantic web, reduces the complexity and indirectly analysis the national facial features. Lastly, the effectiveness of our experiment is demonstrated by some real-word data sets.  

LI Zedong

2013-09-01

325

Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing amount of health information and frequent outbreaks of diseases, the retrieval of health information is given more concern. Machine understanding of spatial information can improve the interpretation of health data semantics. Most of the current research focused on the non-spatial semantics of health data, using ontologies and rules. Utilizing the spatial component of health data can assist in the understanding of health phenomena. This research proposes a semantic health information query architecture that allows the incorporation of both non-spatial semantics and geospatial semantics in health information integration and retrieval.

Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

2012-01-01

326

The role of non-semantic factors in semantic satiation effect in schizophrenia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background and Objectives: Semantic satiation is defined as the subjective experience of the loss of access to the meanings of words or images caused by prolonged and quick repetitions of the material. Previous researches indicated that the semantic satiation of words and images occurs faster in sch [...] izophrenics than in healthy subjects. Individuals suffering from schizophrenia reveal the tendency to lose of access to the meaning of words after fewer words repetition than healthy controls. The aim of the research was to establish whether the semantic satiation of images in schizophrenia is the effect of the loss of meanings of images or is caused by non - semantic factors i.e. fatiguing experimental procedure. Methods: It was assumed that in conditions where the participant's level of fatigue was parallel to the fatigue observed in the research on semantic satiation and the meaning of satiated images was not required for semantic decisions, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls would not reveal the semantic satiation effect defined as an increase in reaction time. Two groups of participants: patients suffering from schizophrenia (10 women and 10 men, average age 30) and healthy controls (9 female and 9 male, average age 30.7) were shown 80 trails. Each one of them consisted of a satiated image which appeared repeatedly on the computer screen, and a non-satiated image accompanied by a written word, which were shown simultaneously after the final presentation of the satiated image. The participants' task was to decide whether the written word named the object presented on the non-satiated picture correctly. The participants did not make any decisions on the basis of satiated images. Results: The results obtained confirmed the hypothesis. In conditions where participants were shown the images flashing on the computer screen but were not required to make a semantic decision related to those images, their reaction time to subsequently presented stimuli did not lengthen. Conclusions: The results confirmed the hypothesis that the semantic satiation effect in schizophrenia is a semantic phenomenon and is not related to non-semantic factors such as the subjects' fatigue.

Katarzyna, Prochwicz; Judyta, & #379; uchowicz.

2013-06-01

327

Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there is no agreement for one of these visions nor is there a clear picture for the relation between different layers inside this architecture and the associated technologies. The objectives of this study were to: (i Identify the weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures and (ii Reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses. Approach: This research uses the Qualitative Analysis Approach of Taylor and Renner, presents the four versions of the Semantic Web architecture, describing the function(s and status of each layer and associated technologies, evaluates them using Gerber evaluation method and determines other design principles needed to modify and adapt this architecture as a step toward an agreement for one Semantic Web architecture. Results: The design of a new model for the Semantic Web architecture depends on the idea of previous versions. Conclusion: As a step toward a unified architecture for the Semantic Web, our study of the Semantic Web architecture highlighted some weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures, modify, adapt and reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses.

Haytham T. Al-Feel

2008-01-01

328

Tightly coupled fuzzy description logic programs under the answer set semantics for the SemanticWeb  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a novel approach to fuzzy description logic programs (or simply fuzzy dl-programs) under the answer set semantics, which is a tight integration of fuzzy disjunctive logic programs under the answer set semantics with fuzzy description logics. From a different perspective, it is a generalization of tightly coupled disjunctive dl-programs by fuzzy vagueness in both the description logic and the logic program component. We show that the new formalism faithfully extends both fuzzy disju...

Lukasiewicz, Thomas; Straccia, Umberto

2010-01-01

329

Comparison Latent Semantic and WordNet Approach for Semantic Similarity Calculation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information exchange among many sources in Internet is more autonomous, dynamic and free. The situation drive difference view of concepts among sources. For example, word 'bank' has meaning as economic institution for economy domain, but for ecology domain it will be defined as slope of river or lake. In this aper, we will evaluate latent semantic and WordNet approach to calculate semantic similarity. The evaluation will be run for some concepts from different domain with re...

Wicaksana, I. Wayan Simri; Wahyudi, Bambang

2011-01-01

330

Towards Semantic Knowledge Mapping: An Extension of Compendium with Semantic Knowledge Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compendium is a knowledge mapping application equipped with graphical representations of ideas andarguments. Extension of the processes in Compendium with Semantic Web technologies can be beneficialfor the intelligent searching of concepts or ideas, and supporting decision making process. This paperpresents the extended Compendium which exploits the Semantic Web for knowledge representation anduser interaction. The result evaluated by the experts and users showed that the extension eases andstreamlines the decision making process.

Krishna Sapkota

2012-10-01

331

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning.The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changingits contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of thecornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is calledSemantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality,scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages.Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systemsmust be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges inthis domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervisedlearning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learninghave been utilized. In this paper we present an inclusive layered classification of Semantic Annotationchallenges and discuss the most important issues in this field. Also, we review and analyze machinelearning applications for solving semantic annotation problems. For this goal, the article tries to closelystudy and categorize related researches for better understanding and to reach a framework that can mapmachine learning techniques into the Semantic Annotation challenges and requirements.

Hamed Hassanzadeh

2011-04-01

332

Semantic knowledge representation for information retrieval  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.

Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias

2014-01-01

333

Cases, Simulacra, and Semantic Web Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

"Ensemble" is an interdisciplinary research and development project exploring the potential role of emerging Semantic Web technologies in case-based learning across learning environments in higher education. Empirical findings have challenged the claim that cases "bring reality into the classroom" and that this, in turn, might provide the basis…

Carmichael, P.; Tscholl, M.

2013-01-01

334

Leveraging the Semantic Web for Adaptive Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In the area of technology-enhanced learning reusability and interoperability issues essentially influence the productivity and efficiency of learning and authoring solutions. There are two basic approaches how to overcome these problems--one attempts to do it via standards and the other by means of the Semantic Web. In practice, these approaches…

Kravcik, Milos; Gasevic, Dragan

2007-01-01

335

Students as Designers of Semantic Web Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper draws upon the experience of an interdisciplinary research group in engaging undergraduate university students in the design and development of semantic web technologies. A flexible approach to participatory design challenged conventional distinctions between "designer" and "user" and allowed students to play a role in developing…

Tracy, Fran; Jordan, Katy

2012-01-01

336

Semantic Verbal Fluency in Two Contrasting Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF…

Pekkala, Seija; Goral, Mira; Hyun, JungMoon; Obler, Loraine K.; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Albert, Martin L.

2009-01-01

337

Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components are crucial to be formalized by the semantic web ontologies for adaptive web. We use examples from an eLearning domain to illustrate the principles which are broadly applicable to any information domain on the web.

Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

338

Processing Idiomatic Expressions: Effects of Semantic Compositionality  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments tested the main claims of the idiom decomposition hypothesis: People have clear intuitions on the semantic compositionality of idiomatic expressions, which determines the syntactic behavior of these expressions and how they are recognized. Experiment 1 showed that intuitions are clear only for a very restricted number of…

Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou

2008-01-01

339

A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The teachers taught by…

Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

340

Ontology Alignment Bridging the Semantic Gap  

CERN Document Server

A large number of information systems use many different individual schemas to represent data. This book introduces novel methods and approaches for semantic integration. Designed for practitioners and researchers in industry, it is also suitable for advanced-level students in computer science and electrical engineering.

Ehrig, Marc

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Social image tagging with diverse semantics.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have witnessed the popularity of image-sharing websites for sharing personal experiences through photos on the Web. These websites allow users describing the content of their uploaded images with a set of tags. Those user-annotated tags are often noisy and biased. Social image tagging aims at removing noisy tags and suggests new relevant tags. However, most existing tag enrichment approaches predominantly focus on tag relevance and overlook tag diversity problem. How to make the top-ranked tags covering a wide range of semantic is still an opening, yet challenging, issue. In this paper, we propose an approach to retag social images with diverse semantics. Both the relevance of a tag to image as well as its semantic compensations to the already determined tags are fused to determine the final tag list for a given image. Different from existing image tagging approaches, the top-ranked tags are not only highly relevant to the image but also have significant semantic compensations with each other. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25415950

Qian, Xueming; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Tang, Yuan Yan; Mei, Tao

2014-12-01

342

Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

1996-12-31

343

Probabilistic Ontology Learner in Semantic Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present the Semantic Turkey Ontology Learner (ST-OL), an incremental ontology learning system, that follows two main ideas: (1) putting final users in the learning loop; (2) using a probabilistic ontology learning model that exploits transitive relations for inducing better extraction models.

Fallucchi, Francesca; Scarpato, Noemi; Stellato, Armando; Zanzotto, Fabio Massimo

344

Semantic agent technologies for tactical sensor networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in wireless communication and microelectronics have enabled the development of low-cost sensor devices leading to interest in large-scale sensor networks for military applications. Sensor networks consist of large numbers of networked sensors that can be dynamically deployed and used for tactical situational awareness. One critical challenge is how to dynamically integrate these sensor networks with information fusion processes to support real-time sensing, exploitation and decision-making in a rich tactical environment. In this paper, we describe our work on an extensible prototype to address the challenge. The prototype and its constituent technologies provide a proof-of-concept that demonstrates several fundamental new approaches for implementing next generation battlefield information systems. Many cutting-edge technologies are used to implement this system, including semantic web, web services, peer-to-peer network and content-based routing. This prototype system is able to dynamically integrate various distributed sensors and multi-level information fusion services into new applications and run them across a distributed network to support different mission goals. Agent technology plays a role in two fundamental ways: resources are described, located and tasked using semantic descriptions based on ontologies and semantic services; tracking, fusion and decision-making logic is implemented using agent objects and semantic descriptions as well.

Jiang, Guofei; Chung, Wayne W.; Cybenko, George

2003-09-01

345

Semantic Architecture for Web application Security  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth of web applications has facilitated the humanity almost in all aspects of life especially e-health, e-business and e-communication but this application are exposed for web attacks, unauthorized access, evil intentions and treacherous engagements. Various strategies have been formulated over a period of time in the form of intrusion detection system, encryption devices, and firewalls but still proved to be ineffective. In this paper, we have proposed a system having semantic architecture that is capable of performing detection semantically in the context of HTTP protocol, the data, and the target application. The knowledgebase of the system is the ontological representation of communication protocol, attacks data and the application profile that can be refined and expanded over time. Unlike traditional signature base approach, the semantic architecture analysis the HTTP request with the help of semantic rules and inferred knowledge after reasoning of knowledgebase through Inference engine. Non signature based approach of the system enhance the capability of the system to detect the unknown attacks with low false positive rate. The system is evaluated by comparing with existing open source solutions and showing significant improvement in term of detection ability with low alarm rate

Abdul Razzaq

2012-03-01

346

Picture-Word Interference Is Semantically Based  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the performance of second-, fourth-, sixth-grade, and college-level subjects on picture-word interference tasks indicated that distractor words belonging to the same semantic category as pictures produced more interference than either unrelated words or nonsense trigrams. (Author/JMB)

Rosinski, Richard R.

1977-01-01

347

Semantic Shot Classification in Sports Video  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a unified framework for semantic shot classification in sports videos. Unlike previous approaches, which focus on clustering by aggregating shots with similar low-level features, the proposed scheme makes use of domain knowledge of a specific sport to perform a top-down video shot classification, including identification of video shot classes for each sport, and supervised learning and classification of the given sports video with low-level and middle-level features extracted from the sports video. It is observed that for each sport we can predefine a small number of semantic shot classes, about 5~10, which covers 90~95% of sports broadcasting video. With the supervised learning method, we can map the low-level features to middle-level semantic video shot attributes such as dominant object motion (a player), camera motion patterns, and court shape, etc. On the basis of the appropriate fusion of those middle-level shot classes, we classify video shots into the predefined video shot classes, each of which has a clear semantic meaning. The proposed method has been tested over 4 types of sports videos: tennis, basketball, volleyball and soccer. Good classification accuracy of 85~95% has been achieved. With correctly classified sports video shots, further structural and temporal analysis, such as event detection, video skimming, table of content, etc, will be greatly facilitated.

Duan, Ling-Yu; Xu, Min; Tian, Qi

2003-01-01

348

Bridging the semantic gap in sports  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major challenges facing current media management systems and the related applications is the so-called "semantic gap" between the rich meaning that a user desires and the shallowness of the content descriptions that are automatically extracted from the media. In this paper, we address the problem of bridging this gap in the sports domain. We propose a general framework for indexing and summarizing sports broadcast programs. The framework is based on a high-level model of sports broadcast video using the concept of an event, defined according to domain-specific knowledge for different types of sports. Within this general framework, we develop automatic event detection algorithms that are based on automatic analysis of the visual and aural signals in the media. We have successfully applied the event detection algorithms to different types of sports including American football, baseball, Japanese sumo wrestling, and soccer. Event modeling and detection contribute to the reduction of the semantic gap by providing rudimentary semantic information obtained through media analysis. We further propose a novel approach, which makes use of independently generated rich textual metadata, to fill the gap completely through synchronization of the information-laden textual data with the basic event segments. An MPEG-7 compliant prototype browsing system has been implemented to demonstrate semantic retrieval and summarization of sports video.

Li, Baoxin; Errico, James; Pan, Hao; Sezan, M. Ibrahim

2003-01-01

349

Problems in Context-Aware Semantic Computing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acknowledging the user context, e.g., position and activity, provides a natural way to adapt applications according to the user needs. How to actually capture and exploit context, however, is not self-evident and it is tempting to assign the related responsibilities to individual context-consuming applications. Unfortunately, this confuses the user, complicates application development and hinders context-aware semantic computing as a research discipline. In this article, we outline context-aware semantic computing research topics and the state-of-the-art mobile application development frameworks of special interest to us, acknowledging best practices for accessing and modeling sensor context. From the integrated point of view, context-aware semantic computing is demonstrated in terms of a software component called context engine. In order to better understand how theory is tied with practice, we also introduce a simple context engine prototype. Finally, we use the research background and the empirical setting to discuss the significant problems and relevant research directions in context-aware semantic processing.

Ossi Antero Nykänen

2014-06-01

350

Tapping Toddlers' Evolving Semantic Representation via Gesture  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This study presents evidence that gesture is a means to understanding the semantic representations of toddlers. Method: The data were part of a study of toddlers' word learning conducted by N. C. Capone and K. K. McGregor (2005). The object function probe from that study was administered after 1 exposure and after 3 exposures to objects.…

Capone, Nina C.

2007-01-01

351

Adaptive Semantic Middleware for Mobile Environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context-awareness is considered a key driving principle for the design and provisioning of adaptable pervasive services. Rightfully describing and interpreting context, however, is a challenging issue. Semantic technologies are emerging as effective means to describe and reason about context information and to allow unknown ...

Alessandra Toninelli; Rebecca Montanari; Antonio Corradi

2007-01-01

352

Auto-Generated Semantic Processing Services  

Science.gov (United States)

Auto-Generated Semantic Processing (AGSP) Services is a suite of software tools for automated generation of other computer programs, denoted cross-platform semantic adapters, that support interoperability of computer-based communication systems that utilize a variety of both new and legacy communication software running in a variety of operating- system/computer-hardware combinations. AGSP has numerous potential uses in military, space-exploration, and other government applications as well as in commercial telecommunications. The cross-platform semantic adapters take advantage of common features of computer- based communication systems to enforce semantics, messaging protocols, and standards of processing of streams of binary data to ensure integrity of data and consistency of meaning among interoperating systems. The auto-generation aspect of AGSP Services reduces development time and effort by emphasizing specification and minimizing implementation: In effect, the design, building, and debugging of software for effecting conversions among complex communication protocols, custom device mappings, and unique data-manipulation algorithms is replaced with metadata specifications that map to an abstract platform-independent communications model. AGSP Services is modular and has been shown to be easily integrable into new and legacy NASA flight and ground communication systems.

Davis, Rodney; Hupf, Greg

2009-01-01

353

Implicit Semantic Perception in Object Substitution Masking  

Science.gov (United States)

Decades of research on visual perception has uncovered many phenomena, such as binocular rivalry, backward masking, and the attentional blink, that reflect "failures of consciousness". Although stimuli do not reach awareness in these paradigms, there is evidence that they nevertheless undergo semantic processing. Object substitution masking (OSM),…

Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

2011-01-01

354

Fuzzy Semantic Retrieval for Traffic Information Based on Fuzzy Ontology and RDF on the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 7.8 ? 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Information retrieval is the essential task for Traffic Information Service System in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS.  There a lot of fuzzy traffic information derived from human factor. To achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper proposes an approach using Resource Description Framework (RDF and fuzzy ontology. First, we apply RDF data model to represent traffic information on the Semantic Web. Then we present fuzzy linguistic variable ontology models and its formal representation with RDF. Introducing new data type referred as fuzzy linguistic variables to RDF data model, the semantic query expansions in SeRQL query language are constructed by order relation, equivalence relation, inclusion relation and complement relation between fuzzy concepts defined in linguistic variable ontologies. Examples show that the extended query can return all results which satisfy research requirement at semantic level without upgrading current main search algorithm, and this research facilitates the semantic retrieval of traffic information through fuzzy concepts for ITS on the Semantic Web.

Jun Zhai

2009-09-01

355

SemantEco: a semantically powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data  

Science.gov (United States)

We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a semantic technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a semantically enabled environmental monitoring framework called SemantEco and used it to build a water quality portal named SemantAqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss SemantEco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of semantic technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.

Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.

2014-01-01

356

Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new techniques for discovering relationshipsacross different database, business applications and Webservices. Since this is an interdisciplinary concept in bothengineering and management; we first review web mining,semantic web, semantic web mining and finally propose anapplication of semantic web mining in human resourcemanagement.

Radhika Malik

2011-08-01

357

Syntactic and semantic metadata integration for science data use  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a novel metadata solution to allow applications to intelligently use science data in an automated fashion. The solution provides rich syntactic and semantic metadata, where the semantic metadata is linked with an ontology to define the semantic terms. This solution allows applications to exploit the syntactic metadata to read the data and the semantic metadata to infer the content and the meaning of the data. The solution presented in this paper leverages the Earth Science Markup Language for providing the syntactic metadata and adds a semantic metadata component along with links to the appropriate ontology. This new semantic component is orthogonal to the syntactic metadata, so it does not perturb the existing design. An example application was designed and built that integrates this syntactic and semantic metadata via an ontology to perform a data processing operation.

Movva, Sunil; Ramachandran, Rahul; Li, Xiang; Khaire, Sarita; Keiser, Ken; Conover, Helen; Graves, Sara

2005-11-01

358

Measuring Praise and Criticism: Inference of Semantic Orientation from Association  

CERN Document Server

The evaluative character of a word is called its semantic orientation. Positive semantic orientation indicates praise (e.g., "honest", "intrepid") and negative semantic orientation indicates criticism (e.g., "disturbing", "superfluous"). Semantic orientation varies in both direction (positive or negative) and degree (mild to strong). An automated system for measuring semantic orientation would have application in text classification, text filtering, tracking opinions in online discussions, analysis of survey responses, and automated chat systems (chatbots). This paper introduces a method for inferring the semantic orientation of a word from its statistical association with a set of positive and negative paradigm words. Two instances of this approach are evaluated, based on two different statistical measures of word association: pointwise mutual information (PMI) and latent semantic analysis (LSA). The method is experimentally tested with 3,596 words (including adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs) that have ...

Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Littman, Michael L.

2003-01-01

359

Lexical-semantic processing in the semantic priming paradigm in aphasic patients Processamento léxico-semântico no paradigma de priming semântico em pacientes afásicos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is evidence that the explicit lexical-semantic processing deficits which characterize aphasia may be observed in the absence of implicit semantic impairment. The aim of this article was to critically review the international literature on lexical-semantic processing in aphasia, as tested through the semantic priming paradigm. Specifically, this review focused on aphasia and lexical-semantic processing, the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the semantic paradigms used, and recen...

Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles; Candice Steffen Holderbaum; Maria Alice De Mattos Pimenta Parente; Letícia Lessa Mansur; Ana Inès Ansaldo

2012-01-01

360

Analysis of verbal fluency ability in Alzheimer's disease: the role of clustering, switching and semantic proximities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The underlying nature of verbal fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in this study. Participants were 48 individuals with AD and 48 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performance on letter and category tasks was analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, mean cluster size, and total switches. Compared with the control group, AD participants produced fewer words and switches on both fluency tasks and had a reduced category cluster size. The AD group was differentially impaired on category compared with letter fluency and produced more repetitive responses but fewer category exemplars than controls on the category task. A multidimensional scaling approach revealed that AD participants' semantic maps were similar to controls. Overall, the data suggest that executive abilities involving search and retrieval processes and a reduced availability of semantically related words contributed to the AD group's poorer performance despite similar temporal recall and organizational patterns. PMID:24687588

Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited  

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Full Text Available In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure multi-party computation setting, and prove they are equivalent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that illustrates the relationships of these privacy definitions and unifies them through one framework.

Jinfei Liu

2013-12-01

362

Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program properties, or to use the analysis information for code modifications. Semanticsbased program manipulation addresses methods for program modifications and program analyses that are formally defined and therefore can be verified with respect to the programming-language semantics. This dissertation comprises four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect to parts of their input that are already known: Computations that depend only on known input are carried out during partial evaluation, whereas computations that depend on unknown input give rise to residual code. For example, partially evaluating an interpreter with respect to a program written in the interpreted language yields code that carries out the computations described by that program; partial evaluation is used to remove interpretive overhead. In effect, the partial evaluator serves as a compiler from the interpreted language into the implementation language of the interpreter. Compilation by partial evaluation is known as the first Futamura projection. The second and third Futamura projection describe the use of partial evaluation for compiler generation and compiler-generator generation, respectively; both require the partial evaluator that is employed to be self applicable. The first article in this dissertation describes how the second Futamura projection can be achieved for type-directed partial evaluation (TDPE), a relatively recent approach to partial evaluation: We derive an ML implementation of the second Futamura projection for TDPE. Due to the differences between ‘traditional’, syntax-directed partial evaluation and TDPE, this derivation involves several conceptual and technical steps. These include a suitable formulation of the second Futamura projection and techniques for making TDPE amenable to self-application. In the second article, compilation by partial evaluation plays a central role for giving a unified approach to goal-directed evaluation, a programminglanguage paradigm that is built on the notions of backtracking and of gener- ating successive results. Formulating the semantics of a small goal-directed language as a monadic semantics—a generic approach to structuring denotational semantics—allows us to relate various possible semantics to each other both conceptually and formally. We thus are able to explain goal-directed evaluation using an intuitive list-based semantics, while using a continuation semantics for semantics-based compilation through partial evaluation. The resulting code is comparable to that produced by an optimized compiler described in the literature. The third article revisits one of the success stories of partial evaluation, the generation of efficient string matchers from intuitive but inefficient implementations. The basic idea is that specializing a naive string matcher with respect to a pattern string should result in a matcher that searches a text for this pattern with running time independent of the pattern and linear in the length of the text. In order to succeed with basic partial-evaluation techniques, the naive matcher has to be modified in a non-trivial way, carrying out so-called binding-time improvements. We present a step-by-step derivation of a binding-time improved matcher consisting of one problem-dependent step followed by standard binding-time improvements. We also consider several variants of matchers that specialize well, amongst them the first such matcher presented in the literature, and we demonstrate howvariants can be derived from each other systema

Grobauer, Bernt

2001-01-01

363

Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact  

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Full Text Available Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural language semantics in linguistics and in philosophy and logic. With Montague as a central but not solo player in the story, I reflect on crucial developments in the 1960's and 70's in linguistics and philosophy, and the growth of formal semantics and formal pragmatics from there. I discuss innovations, key players, and leading ideas that shaped the development of formal semantics and its relation to syntax, to pragmatics, and to the philosophy of language in its early years, and some central aspects of its early impact on those fields.ReferencesAbbott, B. 1999. ‘The formal approach to meaning: Formal semantics and its recent developments’. Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai119, no. 1: 2–20. https://www.msu.edu/~abbottb/formal.htm.Ajdukiewicz, K. 1960. Je¸zyk i Poznanie (Language and Knowledge. Warsaw.Bach, E. 1968. ‘Nouns and Noun Phrases’. In E. Bach & R.T. Harms (eds. ‘Universals in Linguistic Theory’, 90–122. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Bach, E. 1989. Informal Lectures on Formal Semantics. New York: State University of New York Press.Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954a. ‘Logical syntax and semantics’. Language 30: 230–237.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410265Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954b. ‘Indexical Expressions’. Mind 63: 359–379.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/LXIII.251.359Bar-Hillel, Y. 1963. ‘Remarks on Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language’. In P. A. Schilpp (ed. ‘The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap’, 519–543. LaSalle, Illinois / London: Open Court / Cambridge University Press.Barker, C. & Jacobson, P. (eds.. 2007. Direct Compositionality. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Bernstein, L. 1976. The unanswered question: six talks at Harvard: The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures 1973. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Bohnert, H. & Backer, P. 1967. ‘Automatic English-to-Logic Translation in a Simplified Model: A Study in the Logic of Grammar’. IBM Research Paper RC-1744. Yorktown Heights, NY: IBM.Burris, S. 2009. ‘The Algebra of Logic tradition’. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 Edition, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Stanford: Stanford University.http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2009/entries/algebra-logic-tradition/.Carnap, R. 1928. Der logische aufbau der welt. Berlin-Schlachtensee: Weltkreisverlag.Carnap, R. 1946. ‘Modalities and quantification’. The Journal of Symbolic Logic 11.2: 33–64.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2268610Carnap, R. 1947. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.Carnap, R. 1956. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. 2nd edition with supplements. Chicago: Phoenix Books, University of Chicago Press.Carnap, R. & Smeaton, A. 1937. The logical syntax of language: International library of psychology, philosophy and scientific method. London: Routledge & K. Paul Ltd.Chierchia, G. & McConnell-Ginet, S. 1990. Meaning and Grammar. An Introduction to Semantics. Cambridge: MIT Press.Chomsky, N. 1955. ‘Logical syntax and semantics: their linguistic relevance’. Language 31: 36–45.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410891Chomsky, N. 1957. Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.Chomsky, N. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Chomsky, N. 1971. ‘Deep structure, surface structure, and semantic interpretation’. In D. Steinberg & L. Jakobovits (eds. ‘Semantics: An Interdisciplinary Reader in Philosophy, Linguistics, and Psychology’, 183–216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Chomsky, N. 1975. ‘Questions of

Barbara H. Partee

2010-12-01

364

Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images  

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Full Text Available Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is first adopted to quantitatively describe texture semantics. Then texture features of textile images are extracted using Gabor decomposition. Finally, the mapping model between texture features and texture semantics in the semantic space is built using three different methods: linear regression, k-nearest neighbor (KNN and multi-layered perceptron (MLP. The performance of the proposed mapping model is evaluated with a dataset of 1352 textile images. The results confirm that the mapping model is effective and especially KNN and MLP reach the good performance. We further apply the mapping model to two applications: automatic textile image annotation with texture semantics and textile image search based on texture semantics. The subjective experimental results are consistent with human perception, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed mapping model. The proposed model and its applications can be applied to various automation systems in commercial textile industry.

Xiaohui Wang

2011-09-01

365

Semantic control and modality: an input processing deficit in aphasia leading to deregulated semantic cognition in a single modality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that semantic memory deficits can occur in at least three ways. Patients can (1) show amodal degradation of concepts within the semantic store itself, such as in semantic dementia (SD), (2) have difficulty in controlling activation within the semantic system and accessing appropriate knowledge in line with current goals or context, as in semantic aphasia (SA) and (3) experience a semantic deficit in only one modality following degraded input from sensory cortex. Patients with SA show deficits of semantic control and access across word and picture tasks, consistent with the view that their problems arise from impaired modality-general control processes. However, there are a few reports in the literature of patients with semantic access problems restricted to auditory-verbal materials, who show decreasing ability to retrieve concepts from words when they are presented repeatedly with closely related distractors. These patients challenge the notion that semantic control processes are modality-general and suggest instead a separation of 'access' to auditory-verbal and non-verbal semantic systems. We had the rare opportunity to study such a case in detail. Our aims were to examine the effect of manipulations of control demands in auditory-verbal semantic, non-verbal semantic and non-semantic tasks, allowing us to assess whether such cases always show semantic control/access impairments that follow a modality-specific pattern, or whether there are alternative explanations. Our findings revealed: (1) deficits on executive tasks, unrelated to semantic demands, which were more evident in the auditory modality than the visual modality; (2) deficits in executively-demanding semantic tasks which were accentuated in the auditory-verbal domain compared with the visual modality, but still present on non-verbal tasks, and (3) a coupling between comprehension and executive control requirements, in that mild impairment on single word comprehension was greatly increased on more demanding, associative judgements across modalities. This pattern of results suggests that mild executive-semantic impairment, paired with disrupted connectivity from auditory input, may give rise to semantic 'access' deficits affecting only the auditory modality. PMID:23851292

Thompson, Hannah E; Jefferies, Elizabeth

2013-08-01

366

The role of the left anterior temporal lobe in semantic composition vs. semantic memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) is robustly implicated in semantic processing by a growing body of literature. However, these results have emerged from two distinct bodies of work, addressing two different processing levels. On the one hand, the LATL has been characterized as a 'semantic hub? that binds features of concepts across a distributed network, based on results from semantic dementia and hemodynamic findings on the categorization of specific compared to basic exemplars. On the other, the LATL has been implicated in combinatorial operations in language, as shown by increased activity in this region associated with the processing of sentences and of basic phrases. The present work aimed to reconcile these two literatures by independently manipulating combination and concept specificity within a minimal MEG paradigm. Participants viewed simple nouns that denoted either low specificity (fish) or high specificity categories (trout) presented in either combinatorial (spotted fish/trout) or non-combinatorial contexts (xhsl fish/trout). By combining these paradigms from the two literatures, we directly compared the engagement of the LATL in semantic memory vs. semantic composition. Our results indicate that although noun specificity subtly modulates the LATL activity elicited by single nouns, it most robustly affects the size of the composition effect when these nouns are adjectivally modified, with low specificity nouns eliciting a much larger effect. We conclude that these findings are compatible with an account in which the specificity and composition effects arise from a shared mechanism of meaning specification. PMID:24631260

Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

2014-05-01

367

Biomedical Literature Exploration through Latent Semantics  

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Full Text Available The fast increasing amount of articles published in the biomedical field is creating difficulties in the way this wealth of information can be efficiently exploited by researchers. As a way of overcoming these limitations and potentiating a more efficient use of the literature, we propose an approach for structuring the results of a literature search based on the latent semantic information extracted from a corpus. Moreover, we show how the results of the Latent Semantic Analysis method can be adapted so as to evidence differences between results of different searches. We also propose different visualization techniques that can be applied to explore these results. Used in combination, these techniques could empower users with tools for literature guided knowledge exploration and discovery.

Sérgio MATOS

2013-08-01

368

A Compositional Semantics for Stochastic Reo Connectors  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present a compositional semantics for the channel-based coordination language Reo which enables the analysis of quality of service (QoS) properties of service compositions. For this purpose, we annotate Reo channels with stochastic delay rates and explicitly model data-arrival rates at the boundary of a connector, to capture its interaction with the services that comprise its environment. We propose Stochastic Reo automata as an extension of Reo automata, in order to compositionally derive a QoS-aware semantics for Reo. We further present a translation of Stochastic Reo automata to Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). This translation enables us to use third-party CTMC verification tools to do an end-to-end performance analysis of service compositions.

Moon, Young-Joo; Krause, Christian; Arbab, Farhad; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.7

2010-01-01

369

Semantic Content Filtering with Wikipedia and Ontologies  

CERN Document Server

The use of domain knowledge is generally found to improve query efficiency in content filtering applications. In particular, tangible benefits have been achieved when using knowledge-based approaches within more specialized fields, such as medical free texts or legal documents. However, the problem is that sources of domain knowledge are time-consuming to build and equally costly to maintain. As a potential remedy, recent studies on Wikipedia suggest that this large body of socially constructed knowledge can be effectively harnessed to provide not only facts but also accurate information about semantic concept-similarities. This paper describes a framework for document filtering, where Wikipedia's concept-relatedness information is combined with a domain ontology to produce semantic content classifiers. The approach is evaluated using Reuters RCV1 corpus and TREC-11 filtering task definitions. In a comparative study, the approach shows robust performance and appears to outperform content classifiers based on ...

Malo, Pekka; Ahlgren, Oskar; Wallenius, Jyrki; Korhonen, Pekka

2010-01-01

370

Regular Expression Matching and Operational Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Many programming languages and tools, ranging from grep to the Java String library, contain regular expression matchers. Rather than first translating a regular expression into a deterministic finite automaton, such implementations typically match the regular expression on the fly. Thus they can be seen as virtual machines interpreting the regular expression much as if it were a program with some non-deterministic constructs such as the Kleene star. We formalize this implementation technique for regular expression matching using operational semantics. Specifically, we derive a series of abstract machines, moving from the abstract definition of matching to increasingly realistic machines. First a continuation is added to the operational semantics to describe what remains to be matched after the current expression. Next, we represent the expression as a data structure using pointers, which enables redundant searches to be eliminated via testing for pointer equality. From there, we arrive both at Thompson's lock...

Rathnayake, Asiri; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.3

2011-01-01

371

Combination Strategies for Semantic Role Labeling  

CERN Document Server

This paper introduces and analyzes a battery of inference models for the problem of semantic role labeling: one based on constraint satisfaction, and several strategies that model the inference as a meta-learning problem using discriminative classifiers. These classifiers are developed with a rich set of novel features that encode proposition and sentence-level information. To our knowledge, this is the first work that: (a) performs a thorough analysis of learning-based inference models for semantic role labeling, and (b) compares several inference strategies in this context. We evaluate the proposed inference strategies in the framework of the CoNLL-2005 shared task using only automatically-generated syntactic information. The extensive experimental evaluation and analysis indicates that all the proposed inference strategies are successful -they all outperform the current best results reported in the CoNLL-2005 evaluation exercise- but each of the proposed approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. Sev...

Carreras, X; Marquez, L; Surdeanu, M; 10.1613/jair.2088

2011-01-01

372

Econo-ESA in semantic text similarity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explicit semantic analysis (ESA) utilizes an immense Wikipedia index matrix in its interpreter part. This part of the analysis multiplies a large matrix by a term vector to produce a high-dimensional concept vector. A similarity measurement between two texts is performed between two concept vectors with numerous dimensions. The cost is expensive in both interpretation and similarity measurement steps. This paper proposes an economic scheme of ESA, named econo-ESA. We investigate two aspects of this proposal: dimensional reduction and experiments with various data. We use eight recycling test collections in semantic text similarity. The experimental results show that both the dimensional reduction and test collection characteristics can influence the results. They also show that an appropriate concept reduction of econo-ESA can decrease the cost with minor differences in the results from the original ESA. PMID:24790807

Rahutomo, Faisal; Aritsugi, Masayoshi

2014-01-01

373

Semantic Advertising for Web 3.0  

Science.gov (United States)

Advertising on the World Wide Web is based around automatically matching web pages with appropriate advertisements, in the form of banner ads, interactive adverts, or text links. Traditionally this has been done by manual classification of pages, or more recently using information retrieval techniques to find the most important keywords from the page, and match these to keywords being used by adverts. In this paper, we propose a new model for online advertising, based around lightweight embedded semantics. This will improve the relevancy of adverts on the World Wide Web and help to kick-start the use of RDFa as a mechanism for adding lightweight semantic attributes to the Web. Furthermore, we propose a system architecture for the proposed new model, based on our scalable ontology reasoning infrastructure TrOWL.

Thomas, Edward; Pan, Jeff Z.; Taylor, Stuart; Ren, Yuan; Jekjantuk, Nophadol; Zhao, Yuting

374

A Compositional Semantics for Stochastic Reo Connectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present a compositional semantics for the channel-based coordination language Reo which enables the analysis of quality of service (QoS properties of service compositions. For this purpose, we annotate Reo channels with stochastic delay rates and explicitly model data-arrival rates at the boundary of a connector, to capture its interaction with the services that comprise its environment. We propose Stochastic Reo automata as an extension of Reo automata, in order to compositionally derive a QoS-aware semantics for Reo. We further present a translation of Stochastic Reo automata to Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs. This translation enables us to use third-party CTMC verification tools to do an end-to-end performance analysis of service compositions.

Young-Joo Moon

2010-07-01

375

Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between location significance and user authority is exploited for determining significance, as are aspects such as the number of visits to a location, the durations of the visits, and the distances users travel to reach locations. Studies using up to 100 million GPS records from a confined spatio-temporal region demonstrate that the proposal is effective and is capable of outperforming baseline methods and an extension of an existing proposal.

Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao

2010-01-01

376

OMOGENIA: A Semantically Driven Collaborative Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Ontology creation can be thought of as a social procedure. Indeed the concepts involved in general need to be elicited from communities of domain experts and end-users by teams of knowledge engineers. Many problems in ontology creation appear to resemble certain problems in software design, particularly with respect to the setup of collaborative systems. For instance, the resolution of conceptual conflicts between formalized ontologies is a major engineering problem as ontologies move into widespread use on the semantic web. Such conflict resolution often requires human collaboration and cannot be achieved by automated methods with the exception of simple cases. In this chapter we discuss research in the field of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that focuses on classification and which throws light on ontology building. Furthermore, we present a semantically driven collaborative environment called OMOGENIA as a natural way to display and examine the structure of an evolving ontology in a collaborative setting.

Liapis, Aggelos

377

GIS information organization based on the Semantic Geospatial Web  

Science.gov (United States)

People typically use geographic names instead of coordinates to find geographic information on the web through a search engine. But the current keyword-based web search engines are poorly adapted to help people find information that relates to a particular geographic name, because they don't incorporate the geospatial semantic during the search process. The Semantic Web is a new semantic-based information-retrieval environment. We propose the information organization framework of the GIS semantic data according to the architecture of the Semantic Web, that is, the ontology, the metadata and the data source. Then we deal with the organization of the semantic data based on the three-layered framework respectively. As a focus, we present a novel method to disambiguate geographical name based on the ontology of the place.

Li, Shuxia; Su, Xuming; Li, Ke

2008-10-01

378

Automatic and Intelligent Decision Making In Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concepts like "semantic computing" and "semantic search" refer to computational techniques that use knowledge representation and deep linkage into the referents of information tokens in language dictionaries, thesauri and ontology’s and in data resources (libraries, databases and web-based repositories. Perhaps the best-known sense is in the "semantic web", it is also reviews the technologies that make up the SW with the implications of these technologies Semantic Intelligence, Defined Semantic Intelligence exists at two levels; first it represents the immediate (local ability to process data and information-based semantic patterns and rules in order to gain insight or add value. Secondly it represents on a larger (global perspective the ability to harness shared knowledge in a more efficient, automated fashion. The second part comes later as more organizations make value enhanced information available in global communities.Concepts like

Shrutika Kulkarni

2012-06-01

379

THE ADVENT OF SEMANTIC WEB IN TOURISM INFORMATION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tourism industry depends on complex value creation chains involving a large number of participants that change frequently and rapidly. In addition, the products of tourism industry are complex and they will perish if they are not sold in time. For these reasons, the ideal tourism information systems require a lot of flexibility of underlying systems. Moreover, they comprise accurate access to any tourism service that provide, and they are usable by corporate and private customers alike. The management and interoperation of semantically diverse tourism information systems are facilitated by Semantic Web technology that provides methods and standards, which allow accurate access to information as well as flexibility to comply with needs of tourism information system users and administrators. This paper considers state-of-the art issues (ontologies, semantic modelling and querying, semantic portals and semantic-based e-markets concerning the exploitation of the semantic web technologies and applications in tourism information systems.

Dimitris N. Kanellopoulos

2006-10-01

380

Algorithm to Match Ontologies on the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been recognized that semantic data and knowledge extraction will significantly improve the capability of natural language interfaces to the semantic search engine. Semantic Web technology offers a vast scale of sharing and integration of distributed data sources by combining information easily. This will enable the user to find the information easily and efficiently. In this paper, we will explore some issues of developing algorithms for the Semantic Web. The first one to build the semantic contextual meaning by scanning the text, extract knowledge and automatically infer the meaning of the information from text that contains the search words in any sentence and correlate with hierarchical classes defined in the Ontology as a result of input resources. The second to discover the hierarchical relationships among terms (i.e. discover the semantic relations across hierarchical classifications. The proposed algorithm will be relying on a number of resources including Ontology and WordNet.

Alaa Qassim Al-Namiy

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

Understanding Semantic Web and Ontologies: Theory and Applications  

CERN Document Server

Semantic Web is actually an extension of the current one in that it represents information more meaningfully for humans and computers alike. It enables the description of contents and services in machine-readable form, and enables annotating, discovering, publishing, advertising and composing services to be automated. It was developed based on Ontology, which is considered as the backbone of the Semantic Web. In other words, the current Web is transformed from being machine-readable to machine-understandable. In fact, Ontology is a key technique with which to annotate semantics and provide a common, comprehensible foundation for resources on the Semantic Web. Moreover, Ontology can provide a common vocabulary, a grammar for publishing data, and can supply a semantic description of data which can be used to preserve the Ontologies and keep them ready for inference. This paper provides basic concepts of web services and the Semantic Web, defines the structure and the main applications of ontology, and provides ...

Taye, Mohammad Mustafa

2010-01-01

382

Semantics by levels: An example for an image language  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ambiguities in formal language constructs may decrease both the understanding and the coding efficiency of a program. Within an image language, two semantic levels have been detected, corresponding to the lower level (pixel-based) and to the higher level (image-based). Denotational semantics has been used to define both levels within PIXAL (an image language) in order to enable the reader to visualize a concrete application of the semantic levels and their implications in a programming environment. This paper presents the semantics of different levels of conceptualization in the abstract formal description of an image language. The disambiguation of the meaning of special purpose constructs that imply either the elementary (pixels) level or the high image (array) level is naturally obtained by means of such semantic clauses. Perhaps non Von architectures on which hierarchical computations may be performed could also benefit from the use of semantic clauses to explicit the different levels where such computations are executed

383

A Data-Oriented Approach to Semantic Interpretation  

CERN Document Server

In Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP), an annotated language corpus is used as a stochastic grammar. The most probable analysis of a new input sentence is constructed by combining sub-analyses from the corpus in the most probable way. This approach has been succesfully used for syntactic analysis, using corpora with syntactic annotations such as the Penn Treebank. If a corpus with semantically annotated sentences is used, the same approach can also generate the most probable semantic interpretation of an input sentence. The present paper explains this semantic interpretation method, and summarizes the results of a preliminary experiment. Semantic annotations were added to the syntactic annotations of most of the sentences of the ATIS corpus. A data-oriented semantic interpretation algorithm was succesfully tested on this semantically enriched corpus.

Bod, R; Scha, R; Bod, Rens; Bonnema, Remko; Scha, Remko

1996-01-01

384

LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-29

385

RDFScape: Semantic Web meets Systems Biology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The recent availability of high-throughput data in molecular biology has increased the need for a formal representation of this knowledge domain. New ontologies are being developed to formalize knowledge, e.g. about the functions of proteins. As the Semantic Web is being introduced into the Life Sciences, the basis for a distributed knowledge-base that can foster biological data analysis is laid. However, there still is a dichotomy, in tools and methodolog...

Splendiani Andrea

2008-01-01

386

Efficient Semantic Communication via Compatible Beliefs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In previous works, Juba and Sudan [1] and Goldreich, Juba and Sudan [2] considered the idea of “semantic communication”, wherein two players, a user and a server, attempt to communicate with each other without any prior common language (or communication protocol). They showed that if communication was goal-oriented and the user could sense progress towards the goal (or verify when it has been achieved), then meaningful communication is possible, in that the user's goal can be achieved whe...

Juba, Brendan Andrew; Sudan, Madhu

2011-01-01

387

Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources...

2007-01-01

388

Semantic Retrieval Approach for Web Documents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because of explosive growth of resources in the internet, the information retrieval technology has become particularly important. However the current retrieval methods are essentially based on the full text matching of keywords approach lacking of semantic information and can’t understand the user's query intent very well. These methods return a large number of irrelevant information, and are unable to meet the user's request. Systems have been established so far failed to overcome fully th...

Harb, Hany M.; Fouad, Khaled M.; Nagdy, Nagdy M.

2011-01-01

389

Decentralised Commitment for Optimistic Semantic Replication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study large-scale distributed cooperative systems that use optimistic replication. We represent a system as a graph of actions (operations) connected by edges that reify semantic constraints between actions. Constraint types include conflict, execution order, dependence, and atomicity. The local state is some schedule that conforms to the constraints; because of conflicts, client state is only tentative. For consistency, site schedules should converge; we designed a decentralised, asynchro...

Sutra, Pierre; Barreto, Joao; Shapiro, Marc

2007-01-01

390

Semantic Architecture for Web application Security  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth of web applications has facilitated the humanity almost in all aspects of life especially e-health, e-business and e-communication but this application are exposed for web attacks, unauthorized access, evil intentions and treacherous engagements. Various strategies have been formulated over a period of time in the form of intrusion detection system, encryption devices, and firewalls but still proved to be ineffective. In this paper, we have proposed a system having semantic architectur...

Abdul Razzaq; Ali Hur; Farooq Ahmad, H.; Muddassar Masood

2012-01-01

391

The Multilingual Semantic Web (Dagstuhl Seminar 12362)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document constitutes a brief report from the Dagstuhl Seminar on the "Multilingual Semantic Web" which took place at Schloss Dagstuhl between September 3rd and 7th, 2012. The document states the motivation for the workshop as well as the main thematic focus. It describes the organization and structure of the seminar and briefly reports on the main topics of discussion and the main outcomes of the workshop.

Buitelaar, Paul; Choi, Key-sun; Cimiano, Philipp; Hovy, Eduard H.

2013-01-01

392

Natural language semantics and compiler technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper recommends an approach to the implementation of semantic representation languages (SRLs) which exploits a parallelism between SRLs and programming languages (PLs). The design requirements of SRLs for natural language are similar to those of PLs in their goals. First, in both cases we seek modules in which both the surface representation (print form) and the underlying data structures are important. This requirement highlights the need for general tools allowing the printing and rea...

Nerbonne, John; Laubsch, Joachim; Diagne, Abdel Kader; Oepen, Stephan

1992-01-01

393

Formal Semantics of Time Sequence Diagrams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Time Sequence Diagrams (TSDs) are a graphical representation employed to clarify the communication between service users and a service provider in the ISO/OSI basic reference model. In this paper we define the syntax and semantics of a textual representation for TSDs. As well, we provide a method for translating TSDs into this language. Furthermore, some extensions of TSDs are introduced that allow some special facets of an arbitrary layer to be described.

Christian Facchi

2014-01-01

394

Developing Semantically Interoperable E-Commerce Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses semantic interoperability issues in agentbased E-commerce systems. The literature reports various techniques to enable agents to understand the meanings of the messages exchanged. We will argue how these different techniques can be combined in one agent communication protocol to obtain the best of each world. The resulting communication protocol enables agents to sufficiently understand each other to participate in successful collaboration.

Diggelen, J.; Dignum, F. P. M.

2007-01-01

395

Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

2013-10-06

396

Semantic Integration of Knowledge Management Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ontologies are essential for a semantic integration of knowledge components which can be seen as superior pieces of intellectual capital. Knowledge structures connect individual or group knowledge elements from organizational knowledge bases that have been developed independently. This can aid search and navigation for the entire organizational knowledge base. As many knowledge processes cross boundaries of organizational units or of whole organizations, standardization of techniques for repr...

Constantin Florin Sîrbu; Napoleon - Alexandru Sireteanu

2008-01-01

397

Overview of Thirty Semantic Formalisms for Reo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past decades, coordination languages have emerged for the specification and implementation of interaction protocols for communicating software components. This class of languages includes Reo, a platform for compositional construction of connectors. In recent years, many formalisms for describing the behavior of Reo connectors have emerged. In this paper, we give an overview of all these classes of semantic models. Furthermore, we investigate the expressiveness of two more prominent classes, constraint automata and coloring models, in detail.

F. Arbab

2012-01-01

398

A Compositional Semantics for Stochastic Reo Connectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present a compositional semantics for the channel-based coordination language Reo which enables the analysis of quality of service (QoS) properties of service compositions. For this purpose, we annotate Reo channels with stochastic delay rates and explicitly model data-arrival rates at the boundary of a connector, to capture its interaction with the services that comprise its environment. We propose Stochastic Reo automata as an extension of Reo automata, in...

Young-Joo Moon; Alexandra Silva; Christian Krause; Farhad Arbab

2010-01-01

399

The morphology and semantics of expressive affixes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation focuses on two aspects of expressive affixes: their morphological/typological properties and their semantics. With regard to the former, it shows that the expressive morphology of many languages (including Bantu, West Atlantic, Walman, Sanskrit, English, Romance, Slavic, and others), has the following properties: 1) it is systematically anomalous when compared to plain morphology, or the ordinary processes of word-formation and inflection. From this, it follows that many ...

Fortin, Antonio; Maiden, Martin; Asudeh, Arshia

2011-01-01

400

GOOSE: semantic search on internet connected sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

More and more sensors are getting Internet connected. Examples are cameras on cell phones, CCTV cameras for traffic control as well as dedicated security and defense sensor systems. Due to the steadily increasing data volume, human exploitation of all this sensor data is impossible for effective mission execution. Smart access to all sensor data acts as enabler for questions such as "Is there a person behind this building" or "Alert me when a vehicle approaches". The GOOSE concept has the ambition to provide the capability to search semantically for any relevant information within "all" (including imaging) sensor streams in the entire Internet of sensors. This is similar to the capability provided by presently available Internet search engines which enable the retrieval of information on "all" web pages on the Internet. In line with current Internet search engines any indexing services shall be utilized cross-domain. The two main challenge for GOOSE is the Semantic Gap and Scalability. The GOOSE architecture consists of five elements: (1) an online extraction of primitives on each sensor stream; (2) an indexing and search mechanism for these primitives; (3) a ontology based semantic matching module; (4) a top-down hypothesis verification mechanism and (5) a controlling man-machine interface. This paper reports on the initial GOOSE demonstrator, which consists of the MES multimedia analysis platform and the CORTEX action recognition module. It also provides an outlook into future GOOSE development.

Schutte, Klamer; Bomhof, Freek; Burghouts, Gertjan; van Diggelen, Jurriaan; Hiemstra, Peter; van't Hof, Jaap; Kraaij, Wessel; Pasman, Huib; Smith, Arthur; Versloot, Corne; de Wit, Joost

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
401

Some Thoughts on the Semantics of Biocharts  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper combines three topics to which Amir Pnueli contributed significantly: the semantics of languages for concurrency, the semantics of statecharts, and reactive and hybrid systems. It is also no accident that the main motivation of our paper comes from biological systems: in recent years Amir became interested in these too. In [KLH10] we introduced Biocharts, a fully executable, two-tier compound visual language for modeling complex biological systems. The high-level part of the language is a version of statecharts, which have been shown to be successful in software and systems engineering. These statecharts can then be combined with any appropriately well-defined language (preferably a diagrammatic one) for specifying the low-level dynamics of the biological pathways and networks. The purpose of [KLH10] was to present the main concepts through a biological example and to illustrate the feasibility and usefulness of the approach. Here we discuss some of the questions that arise when one attempts to provide a careful definition of the semantics of Biocharts. We also compare the main requirements needed in a language for modeling biology with the way statecharts are used in software and system engineering.

Harel, David; Kugler, Hillel

402

Management Tool for Semantic Annotations in WSDL  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic Web Services add features to automate web services discovery and composition. A new standard called SAWSDL emerged recently as a W3C recommendation to add semantic annotations within web service descriptions (WSDL). In order to manipulate such information in Java program we need an XML parser. Two open-source libraries already exist (SAWSDL4J and Woden4SAWSDL) but they don't meet all our specific needs such as support for WSDL 1.1 and 2.0. This paper presents a new tool, called EasyWSDL, which is able to handle semantic annotations as well as to manage the full WSDL description thanks to a plug-in mechanism. This tool allows us to read/edit/create a WSDL description and related annotations thanks to a uniform API, in both 1.1 and 2.0 versions. This document compares these three libraries and presents its integration into Dragon the OW2 open-source SOA governance tool.

Boissel-Dallier, Nicolas; Lorré, Jean-Pierre; Benaben, Frédérick

403

Frame Semantics Evolutionary Model for Emotion Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emotions play a significant role in identifying attitude, state, condition or mode of a particular circumstance. Textual data, in particular, involves emotional state and affective communication beside its informative contents. Emotion extraction from text has been potentially studied to stimulate and elicit articulation features. In this study, a machine learning emotion detection model is proposed for textual emotion recognition. A frame semantics approach is identified to extract knowledge from the text in an evolutionary process that improves the detection capabilities. Emotion detection process is controlled by a rule base; each of its entries is generated by pre-invoking event, action and resulting emotion state. Frame entities semantically collaborated to evaluate the frame emotion. Individual entities may arbitrary substituted by their synonyms or opposites if a candidate frame doesn’t match any of the knowledge set. The proposed model proves considerable capability of recognizing emotions by referencing their semantic relations. Results showed better detection accuracy for the proposed model compared with variety of emotion approaches including keyword spotting, knowledge-based ANN and supervised machine learning models. Experiments indicated encouraging results over both binary emotion and multiple labels classifiers.

Mohamed H. Haggag

2013-10-01

404

Component Models for Semantic Web Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

Intelligent applications and agents on the Semantic Web typically need to be specified with, or interact with specifications written in, many different kinds of formal languages. Such languages include ontology languages, data and metadata query languages, as well as transformation languages. As learnt from years of experience in development of complex software systems, languages need to support some form of component-based development. Components enable higher software quality, better understanding and reusability of already developed artifacts. Any component approach contains an underlying component model, a description detailing what valid components are and how components can interact. With the multitude of languages developed for the Semantic Web, what are their underlying component models? Do we need to develop one for each language, or is a more general and reusable approach achievable? We present a language-driven component model specification approach. This means that a component model can be (automatically) generated from a given base language (actually, its specification, e.g. its grammar). As a consequence, we can provide components for different languages and simplify the development of software artifacts used on the Semantic Web.

Henriksson, Jakob; Aßmann, Uwe

405

Semantic Web for Manufacturing Web Services  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As markets become unexpectedly turbulent with a shortened product life cycle and a power shift towards buyers, the need for methods to rapidly and cost-effectively develop products, production facilities and supporting software is becoming urgent. The use of a virtual enterprise plays a vital role in surviving turbulent markets. However, its success requires reliable and large-scale interoperation among trading partners via a semantic web of trading partners' services whose properties, capabilities, and interfaces are encoded in an unambiguous as well as computer-understandable form. This paper demonstrates a promising approach to integration and interoperation between a design house and a manufacturer by developing semantic web services for business and engineering transactions. To this end, detailed activity and information flow diagrams are developed, in which the two trading partners exchange messages and documents. The properties and capabilities of the manufacturer sites are defined using DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) ontology definition language. The prototype development of semantic webs shows that enterprises can widely interoperate in an unambiguous and autonomous manner; hence, virtual enterprise is realizable at a low cost.

Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Ivezic, Nenad [ORNL

2002-06-01

406

Semantic Web for data harmonization in Chinese medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Scientific studies to investigate Chinese medicine with Western medicine have been generating a large amount of data to be shared preferably under a global data standard. This article provides an overview of Semantic Web and identifies some representative Semantic Web applications in Chinese medicine. Semantic Web is proposed as a standard for representing Chinese medicine data and facilitating their integration with Western medicine data.

Chen Huajun

2010-01-01

407

Knowledge Is Power: A View from the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emerging Semantic Web focuses on bringing knowledge representationlike capabilities to Web applications in a Web-friendly way. The ability to put knowledge on the Web, share it, and reuse it through standard Web mechanisms provides new and interesting challenges to artificial intelligence. In this paper, I explore the similarities and differences between the Semantic Web and traditional AI knowledge representation systems, and see if I can validate the analogy "The Semantic Web is to KR a...

Hendler, James A.

2005-01-01

408

Automatic Structuring Of Semantic Web Services An Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ontologies have become the effective modeling for various applications and significantly in the semantic web. The difficulty of extracting information from the web, which was created mainly for visualising information, has driven the birth of the semantic web, which will contain much more resources than the web and will attach machine-readable semantic information to these resources. Ontological bootstrapping on a set of predefined sources, such as web services, must address...

Kamala, B.; Nandhini, J. M.

2013-01-01

409

VPOET: Using a Distributed Collaborative Platform for Semantic Web Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a distributed collaborative wiki-based platform that has been designed to facilitate the development of Semantic Web applications. The applications designed using this platform are able to build semantic data through the cooperation of different developers and to exploit that semantic data. The paper shows a practical case study on the application VPOET, and how an application based on Google Gadgets has been designed to test VPOET and let human users ex...

Rico, Mariano; Camacho, David; Corcho, O?scar

2008-01-01

410

Semantic Analysis of Tag Similarity Measures in Collaborative Tagging Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social bookmarking systems allow users to organise collections of resources on the Web in a collaborative fashion. The increasing popularity of these systems as well as first insights into their emergent semantics have made them relevant to disciplines like knowledge extraction and ontology learning. The problem of devising methods to measure the semantic relatedness between tags and characterizing it semantically is still largely open. Here we analyze three measures of tag ...

Cattuto, Ciro; Benz, Dominik; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd

2008-01-01

411

Metrics for GO based protein semantic similarity: a systematic evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Several semantic similarity measures have been applied to gene products annotated with Gene Ontology terms, providing a basis for their functional comparison. However, it is still unclear which is the best approach to semantic similarity in this context, since there is no conclusive evaluation of the various measures. Another issue, is whether electronic annotations should or not be used in semantic similarity calculations. Results We conduct...

Falcão André O; En, Ferreira Anto?nio; Bastos Hugo; Faria Daniel; Pesquita Catia; Couto Francisco M

2008-01-01

412

CNGL-CORE: Referential translation machines for measuring semantic similarity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We invent referential translation machines (RTMs), a computational model for identifying the translation acts between any two data sets with respect to a reference corpus selected in the same domain, which can be used for judging the semantic similarity between text. RTMs make quality and semantic similarity judgments possible by using retrieved relevant training data as interpretants for reaching shared semantics. An MTPP (machine translation performance predictor) model derives...

Bicici, Ergun; Genabith, Josef

2013-01-01

413

Auditing the Unified Medical Language System with Semantic Methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Objective: The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) includes a Metathesaurus (Meta), which is a compilation of medical terms drawn from over 30 controlled vocabularies, and a Semantic Net, which contains the semantic types used to categorize Meta concepts and the semantic relations to connect them. Meta has been constructed through lexical matching techniques and human review. The purpose of this study was to audit the Me...

Cimino, James J.

1998-01-01

414

Enhancing Biomedical Text Summarization Using Semantic Relation Extraction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Automatic text summarization for a biomedical concept can help researchers to get the key points of a certain topic from large amount of biomedical literature efficiently. In this paper, we present a method for generating text summary for a given biomedical concept, e.g., H1N1 disease, from multiple documents based on semantic relation extraction. Our approach includes three stages: 1) We extract semantic relations in each sentence using the semantic knowledge representation tool SemRep. 2) W...

Shang, Yue; Li, Yanpeng; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao

2011-01-01

415

LAIR: A Language for Automated Semantics-Aware Text Sanitization based on Frame Semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present \\lair{}: A domain-specific language that enables users to specify actions to be taken upon meeting specific semantic frames in a text, in particular to rephrase and redact the textual content. While \\lair{} presupposes superficial knowledge of frames and frame semantics, it requires only limited prior programming experience. It neither contain scripting or I/O primitives, nor does it contain general loop constructions and is not Turing-complete. We have implemented a \\lair{} compiler and integrated it in a pipeline for automated redaction of web pages. We detail our experience with automated redaction of web pages for subjectively undesirable content; initial experiments suggest that using a small language based on semantic recognition of undesirable terms can be highly useful as a supplement to traditional methods of text sanitization.

Hedegaard, Steffen; Houen, SØren

2009-01-01

416

CASL - The CoFI Algebraic Specification Language (version 0.97) - Semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is version 0.97 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. The work on the semantics suggests certain minor changes to the design of CASL.

Haxthausen, Anne

1997-01-01

417

The Execution Semantics of VDM Real-Time in a Co-Simulation Environment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modelling and analysing embedded reactive systems using simulation techniques is a part of the de- sign intent for the VDM-RT notation. However, reac- tive systems that need to control movements of, for ex- ample, mechanical devices controlled by physical laws, then rough approximations need to be made because of the discrete mathematical basis of VDM-RT. Thus, to create a high-fidelity representation of the mechanical device that we wish to control, it is often best to de- scribe it using differential equations. These are based on continuous-time mathematics and incorporating such notation directly in VDM-RT would require substan- tial adjustments of the underlying semantics. One can instead combine VDM-RT with another formalism, in- troducing collaborative modelling and enabling collab- orative simulation (co-simulation) with a well-defined semantics. In this paper we show how to adjust the ex- isting semantic model of VDM-RT to fit into such a co-simulation framework, with emphasis on the mini- mality of the changes.

Lausdahl, Kenneth; Coleman, Joey

2014-01-01

418

Setting semantics: conceptual set can determine the physical properties that capture attention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of a stimulus to capture visuospatial attention depends on the interplay between its bottom-up saliency and its relationship to an observer's top-down control set, such that stimuli capture attention if they match the predefined properties that distinguish a searched-for target from distractors (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 18, 1030-1044 1992). Despite decades of research on this phenomenon, however, the vast majority has focused exclusively on matches based on low-level physical properties. Yet if contingent capture is indeed a "top-down" influence on attention, then semantic content should be accessible and able to determine which physical features capture attention. Here we tested this prediction by examining whether a semantically defined target could create a control set for particular features. To do this, we had participants search to identify a target that was differentiated from distractors by its meaning (e.g., the word "red" among color words all written in black). Before the target array, a cue was presented, and it was varied whether the cue appeared in the physical color implied by the target word. Across three experiments, we found that cues that embodied the meaning of the word produced greater cuing than cues that did not. This suggests that top-down control sets activate content that is semantically associated with the target-defining property, and this content in turn has the ability to exogenously orient attention. PMID:24824982

Goodhew, Stephanie C; Kendall, William; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

2014-08-01

419

Foundations of fuzzy logic and semantic web languages  

CERN Document Server

Managing vagueness/fuzziness is starting to play an important role in Semantic Web research, with a large number of research efforts underway. Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Semantic Web Languages provides a rigorous and succinct account of the mathematical methods and tools used for representing and reasoning with fuzzy information within Semantic Web languages. The book focuses on the three main streams of Semantic Web languages: Triple languages RDF and RDFS Conceptual languages OWL and OWL 2, and their profiles OWL EL, OWL QL, and OWL RL Rule-based languages, such as SWRL and RIF Written b

Straccia, Umberto

2013-01-01

420

Application Discovery of Semantic Web Service Based on Qos Ontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking into account the huge information on Web, by analyzing the several main expressions of Web service, the semantic function ontology and the description of QoS ontology, this study takes the next steps to consider the discovery of Semantic Web service and its relevant problems: Firstly, it builds the QoS models of Web service, then puts forward a framework of Web discovery based on Semantic Web Service and QoS model, finally, establishes a semantic and QoS ontology with a instance.

Jianbing Lin

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Semantic Properties for Lightweight Specification in Knowledgeable Development Environments  

CERN Document Server

Semantic properties are domain-specific specification constructs used to augment an existing language with richer semantics. These properties are taken advantage of in system analysis, design, implementation, testing, and maintenance through the use of documentation and source-code transformation tools. Semantic properties are themselves specified at two levels: loosely with precise natural language, and formally within the problem domain. The refinement relationships between these specification levels, as well as between a semantic property's use and its realization in program code via tools, is specified with a new formal method for reuse called kind theory.

Kiniry, J R

2002-01-01

422

Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Pages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic similarity measures play an important role in the extraction of semantic relations. Semantic similarity measures are widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Information Retrieval (IR. The work proposed here uses web based metrics to compute the semantic similarity between words or terms and also compares with the state-of-the-art. For a computer to decide the semantic similarity, it should understand the semantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it cannot understand the semantics. So always an attempt is made to represent the semantics as syntax. There are various methods proposed to find the semantic similarity between words. Some of these methods have used the precompiled databases like WordNet, and Brown Corpus. Some are based on Web Search Engine. The approach presented here is altogether different from these methods. It makes use of snippets returned by the Wikipedia or any encyclopedia such as Britannica Encyclopedia. The snippets are preprocessed for stop word removal and stemming. For suffix removal an algorithm by M. F. Porter is referred. Luhn’s Idea is used for extraction of significant words from the preprocessed snippets. Similarity measures proposed here are based on the five different association measures in Information retrieval, namely simple matching, Dice, Jaccard, Overlap, Cosine coefficient. Performance of these methods is evaluated using Miller and Charle’s benchmark dataset. It gives higher correlation value of 0.80 than some of the existing methods.

T.Sujatha

2012-07-01

423

Information integration from heterogeneous data sources: a Semantic Web approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the decentralized and autonomous implementation of health information systems has made it possible to extend the reach of surveillance systems to a variety of contextually disparate domains, public health use of data from these systems is not primarily anticipated. The Semantic Web has been proposed to address both representational and semantic heterogeneity in distributed and collaborative environments. We introduce a semantic approach for the integration of health data using the Resource Definition Framework (RDF) and the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) developed by the Semantic Web community. PMID:17238611

Kunapareddy, Narendra; Mirhaji, Parsa; Richards, David; Casscells, S Ward

2006-01-01

424

Semantic web-based intelligent geospatial web services  

CERN Document Server

By introducing Semantic Web technologies into geospatial Web services, this book addresses the semantic description of geospatial data and standards-based Web services, discovery of geospatial data and services, and generation of composite services. Semantic descriptions for geospatial data, services, and geoprocessing service chains are structured, organized, and registered in geospatial catalogue services. The ontology-based approach helps to improve the recall and precision of data and services discovery. Semantics-enabled metadata tracking and satisfaction allows analysts to focus on the g

Yue, Peng

2013-01-01

425

Learning With Social Semantic Technologies - Exploiting Latest Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Even though it was only about three years ago that Social Software became a trend, it has become a common practice to utilize Social Software in learning institutions. It brought about a lot of advantages, but also challenges. Amounts of distributed and often unstructured user generated content make it difficult to meaningfully process and find relevant information. According to the estimate of the authors, the solution lies in underpinning Social Software with structure resulting in Social Semantic Software. In this contribution we introduce the central concepts Social Software, Semantic Web and Social Semantic Web and show how Social Semantic Technologies might be utilized in the higher education context.

Gisela Granitzer

2008-12-01

426

Towards a semantic web connecting knowledge in academic research  

CERN Document Server

This book addresses the question of how knowledge is currently documented, and may soon be documented in the context of what it calls 'semantic publishing'. This takes two forms: a more narrowly and technically defined 'semantic web'; as well as a broader notion of semantic publishing. This book examines the ways in which knowledge is represented in journal articles and books. By contrast, it goes on to explore the potential impacts of semantic publishing on academic research and authorship. It sets this in the context of changing knowledge ecologies: the way research is done; the way knowledg

Cope, Bill; Magee, Liam

2011-01-01

427

Combining temporal and spectral information with spatial mapping to identify differences between phonological and semantic networks: a Magnetoencephalographic (MEG approach.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Early, lesion-based models of language processing suggested that semantic and phonological processes are associated with distinct temporal and parietal regions respectively, with frontal areas more indirectly involved. Contemporary spatial brain mapping techniques have not supported such clear-cut segregation, with strong evidence of activation in left temporal areas by both processes and disputed evidence of involvement of frontal areas in both processes. We suggest that combining spatial information with temporal and spectral data may allow a closer scrutiny of the differential involvement of closely overlapping cortical areas in language processing. Using beamforming techniques to analyse MEG data, we localised the neuronal substrates underlying primed responses to nouns requiring either phonological or semantic processing, and examined the associated measures of time and frequency in those areas where activation was common to both tasks. Power changes in the beta (14-30 Hz and gamma (30-50 Hz frequency bands were analysed in pre-selected time windows of 350-550 ms. and 500 -700 ms. In left temporal regions, both tasks elicited power changes in the same time window (350-550 ms., but with different spectral characteristics, low beta (14-20 Hz for the phonological task and high beta (20-30 Hz for the semantic task. In frontal areas (BA10, both tasks elicited power changes in the gamma band (30-50 Hz, but in different time windows, 500-700 ms. for the phonological task and 350-550 ms. for the semantic task. In the left inferior parietal area (BA40, both tasks elicited changes in the 20-30 Hz beta frequency band but in different time windows, 350-550ms. for the phonological task and 500-700 ms. for the semantic task. Our findings suggest that, where spatial measures may indicate overlapping areas of involvement, additional beamforming techniques can demonstrate differential activation in time and frequency domains.

GinaRippon

2012-08-01

428

Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG, set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need for a critical mass of practitioners and installed base, and growing pains as the technology is scaled up. Still, the potential of interoperable knowledge sources for biomedicine, at the scale of the World Wide Web, merits continued work.

Marshall M Scott

2007-05-01

429

Hypothesis of the Functional Semantic Constructions and Mathematics in the Functional Semantic Aspect  

CERN Document Server

This essay contains three parts. The first part of essay focuses on the hypothesis of the functional semantic constructions (FSC-Hypothesis). This hypothesis explains that a language, a number, a money are the functional semantic constructions. In the second part the author considers the Mathematics with respect to the FSC-Hypothesis. Author turns in the solution for the following problems: Ontology of Mathematics, Objects of Mathematics, Number, Classification of the numbers. Last part contains the critical remarks to the axiomatic allocation of the real numbers to the linear point continuum and to the countability / uncountability of the set of rational and of the set of real numbers.

Semenov, Yu G

2002-01-01

430

Comparison Latent Semantic and WordNet Approach for Semantic Similarity Calculation  

CERN Document Server

Information exchange among many sources in Internet is more autonomous, dynamic and free. The situation drive difference view of concepts among sources. For example, word 'bank' has meaning as economic institution for economy domain, but for ecology domain it will be defined as slope of river or lake. In this aper, we will evaluate latent semantic and WordNet approach to calculate semantic similarity. The evaluation will be run for some concepts from different domain with reference by expert or human. Result of the evaluation can provide a contribution for mapping of concept, query rewriting, interoperability, etc.

Wicaksana, I Wayan Simri

2011-01-01

431

Differential overconvergence  

CERN Document Server

We prove that some of the basic differential functions appearing in the (unramified) theory of arithmetic differential equations, especially some of the basic differential modular forms in that theory, arise from a "ramified situation". This property can be viewed as a special kind of overconvergence property. One can also go in the opposite direction by using differential functions that arise in a ramified situation to construct "new" (unramified) differential functions.

Buium, A

2011-01-01

432

Lost for emotion words : What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view 'emotion actions' as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstractverbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion-word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed.

Moseley, Rachel L; Shtyrov, Yury

2014-01-01

433

The MMI Semantic Framework: Rosetta Stones for Earth Sciences  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic interoperability—the exchange of meaning among computer systems—is needed to successfully share data in Ocean Science and across all Earth sciences. The best approach toward semantic interoperability requires a designed framework, and operationally tested tools and infrastructure within that framework. Currently available technologies make a scientific semantic framework feasible, but its development requires sustainable architectural vision and development processes. This presentation outlines the MMI Semantic Framework, including recent progress on it and its client applications. The MMI Semantic Framework consists of tools, infrastructure, and operational and community procedures and best practices, to meet short-term and long-term semantic interoperability goals. The design and prioritization of the semantic framework capabilities are based on real-world scenarios in Earth observation systems. We describe some key uses cases, as well as the associated requirements for building the overall infrastructure, which is realized through the MMI Ontology Registry and Repository. This system includes support for community creation and sharing of semantic content, ontology registration, version management, and seamless integration of user-friendly tools and application programming interfaces. The presentation describes the architectural components for semantic mediation, registry and repository for vocabularies, ontology, and term mappings. We show how the technologies and approaches in the framework can address community needs for managing and exchanging semantic information. We will demonstrate how different types of users and client applications exploit the tools and services for data aggregation, visualization, archiving, and integration. Specific examples from OOSTethys (http://www.oostethys.org) and the Ocean Observatories Initiative Cyberinfrastructure (http://www.oceanobservatories.org) will be cited. Finally, we show how semantic augmentation of web services standards could be performed using framework tools.

Rueda, C.; Bermudez, L. E.; Graybeal, J.; Alexander, P.

2009-12-01

434

Effects on Vocabulary Acquisition of Presenting New Words in Semantic Sets versus Semantically Unrelated Sets  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a study which investigated the effect on vocabulary recall of introducing new words via two different methods. A one-group quasi-experimental research design with alternating time series measures was employed. A group of 60 fourth graders were taught 80 carefully selected words either in semantically related sets or…

Erten, Ismail Hakki; Tekin, Mustafa

2008-01-01

435

Learnability in the Second Language Acquisition of Semantics: A Bidirectional Study of a Semantic Parameter  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigates the relationship between input, UG (Universal Grammar) parameter values, and the native language in the acquisition of a purely semantic property that is superficially unrelated to its syntactic trigger, The Bare Noun/Proper Name parameter (Longobardi, 1991; 1994; 1996; 2001; 2005). On the one hand, English and Italian bare…

Slabakova, Roumyana

2006-01-01

436

Dynamic composition of semantic pathways for medical computational problem solving by means of semantic rules.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a semantic rule-based system for the composition of successful algorithmic pathways capable of solving medical computational problems (MCPs). A subset of medical algorithms referring to MCP solving concerns well-known medical problems and their computational algorithmic solutions. These solutions result from computations within mathematical models aiming to enhance healthcare quality via support for diagnosis and treatment automation, especially useful for educational purposes. Currently, there is a plethora of computational algorithms on the web, which pertain to MCPs and provide all computational facilities required to solve a medical problem. An inherent requirement for the successful construction of algorithmic pathways for managing real medical cases is the composition of a sequence of computational algorithms. The aim of this paper is to approach the composition of such pathways via the design of appropriate finite-state machines (FSMs), the use of ontologies, and SWRL semantic rules. The goal of semantic rules is to automatically associate different algorithms that are represented as different states of the FSM in order to result in a successful pathway. The rule-based approach is herein implemented on top of Knowledge-Based System for Intelligent Computational Search in Medicine (KnowBaSICS-M), an ontology-based system for MCP semantic management. Preliminary results have shown that the proposed system adequately produces algorithmic pathways in agreement with current international medical guidelines. PMID:21335316

Bratsas, Charalampos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Kehagias, Dionisis D; Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Maglaveras, Nicos

2011-03-01

437

Modeling Semantic and Structural Knowledge in Web Navigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on cognitive modeling of information search and Web navigation emphasizes the importance of "information scent" (the relevance of semantic cues such as link labels and headings to a reader's goal; Pirolli & Card, 1999). This article shows that not only semantic but also structural knowledge is involved in navigating the Web (Juvina,…

Juvina, Ion; van Oostendorp, Herre

2008-01-01

438

Case-Based Learning, Pedagogical Innovation, and Semantic Web Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the potential of Semantic Web technologies to support teaching and learning in a variety of higher education settings in which some form of case-based learning is the pedagogy of choice. It draws on the empirical work of a major three year research and development project in the United Kingdom: "Ensemble: Semantic Technologies…

Martinez-Garcia, A.; Morris, S.; Tscholl, M.; Tracy, F.; Carmichael, P.

2012-01-01

439

Co-clustering for Weblogs in Semantic Space  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Web clustering is an approach for aggregating web objects into various groups according to underlying relationships among them. Finding co-clusters of web objects in semantic space is an interesting topic in the context of web usage mining, which is able to capture the underlying user navigational interest and content preference simultaneously. In this paper we will present a novel web co-clustering algorithm named Co-Clustering in Semantic space (COCS) to simultaneously partition web users and pages via a latent semantic analysis approach. In COCS, we first, train the latent semantic space of weblog data by using Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) model, and then, project all weblog data objects into this semantic space with probability distribution to capture the relationship among web pages and web users, at last, propose a clustering algorithm to generate the co-cluster corresponding to each semantic factor in the latent semantic space via probability inference. The proposed approach is evaluated by experiments performed on real datasets in terms of precision and recall metrics. Experimental results have demonstrated the proposed method can effectively reveal the co-aggregates of web users and pages which are closely related.

Zong, Yu; Xu, Guandong

2010-01-01

440

A Semantic Wiki on Cooperation in Public Administration in Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authorities cooperate in various ways. The Web portal www.verwaltungskooperation.eu aims to share knowledge on collaboration projects. A semantic wiki approach was used to facilitate best practice documentation with Semantic Web and Web 2.0 technology.

Bernhard Krabina

2010-06-01