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1

A Semantic Differential Science Interest Test  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports the results of a study to test an instrument which was designed to evaluate science interest. The instrument was fashioned from the scales of evaluation, potency, and activity from Osgood's Semantic Differential, and is presented in its entirety in the appendix. (JR)

Butzow, John W.

1974-01-01

2

Developing a semantic web model for medical differential diagnosis recommendation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we describe a novel model for differential diagnosis designed to make recommendations by utilizing semantic web technologies. The model is a response to a number of requirements, ranging from incorporating essential clinical diagnostic semantics to the integration of data mining for the process of identifying candidate diseases that best explain a set of clinical features. We introduce two major components, which we find essential to the construction of an integral differential diagnosis recommendation model: the evidence-based recommender component and the proximity-based recommender component. Both approaches are driven by disease diagnosis ontologies designed specifically to enable the process of generating diagnostic recommendations. These ontologies are the disease symptom ontology and the patient ontology. The evidence-based diagnosis process develops dynamic rules based on standardized clinical pathways. The proximity-based component employs data mining to provide clinicians with diagnosis predictions, as well as generates new diagnosis rules from provided training datasets. This article describes the integration between these two components along with the developed diagnosis ontologies to form a novel medical differential diagnosis recommendation model. This article also provides test cases from the implementation of the overall model, which shows quite promising diagnostic recommendation results. PMID:25178271

Mohammed, Osama; Benlamri, Rachid

2014-10-01

3

Workplace Information Literacy in the Scientific Field : an Empirical Analysis Using the Semantic Differential Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study focuses on eliciting a semantic concept of Information Literacy by capturing the information worker s perception of the information process. It is presumed that this perception influences the formation and advancement of Information Literacy at the workplace. The approach is based on the creation of a semantic differential scale. Target group are scientists from the field of natural sciences. The survey shows that five partly correlated principal aspects play a major role: personal ...

Mu?hlbacher, Susanne; Hammwo?hner, Rainer; Wolff, Christian

2008-01-01

4

The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

Adams, Katherine

2002-01-01

5

The Case for the Semantic Differential in Organizational and Business Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitude measurement has been and continues to be a central component in the field of social psychology. The semantic differential technique has proven to be a well-respected measuring device of attitudes since the 1960s, particularly in the social sciences. Given the importance of attitudes in the business world with reference to preferences in…

Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W., Jr.

2010-01-01

6

?????????? Semantic Web ? ???????? ???????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? Semantic Web ?? ???????? ???????? ????????. ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? Educational Semantic Web. ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????...

Anna Lamandini

2012-01-01

7

????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? Semantic Web ?? ???????? ???????? ????????. ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? Educational Semantic Web. ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????...

??????, ?. ?.; ??????, ?. ?.; Koren, O. M.

2011-01-01

8

Informatics in radiology: radiology gamuts ontology: differential diagnosis for the Semantic Web.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Semantic Web is an effort to add semantics, or "meaning," to empower automated searching and processing of Web-based information. The overarching goal of the Semantic Web is to enable users to more easily find, share, and combine information. Critical to this vision are knowledge models called ontologies, which define a set of concepts and formalize the relations between them. Ontologies have been developed to manage and exploit the large and rapidly growing volume of information in biomedical domains. In diagnostic radiology, lists of differential diagnoses of imaging observations, called gamuts, provide an important source of knowledge. The Radiology Gamuts Ontology (RGO) is a formal knowledge model of differential diagnoses in radiology that includes 1674 differential diagnoses, 19,017 terms, and 52,976 links between terms. Its knowledge is used to provide an interactive, freely available online reference of radiology gamuts ( www.gamuts.net ). A Web service allows its content to be discovered and consumed by other information systems. The RGO integrates radiologic knowledge with other biomedical ontologies as part of the Semantic Web. PMID:24428295

Budovec, Joseph J; Lam, Cesar A; Kahn, Charles E

2014-01-01

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On the `Semantics' of Differential Privacy: A Bayesian Formulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Differential privacy is a definition of "privacy'" for algorithms that analyze and publish information about statistical databases. It is often claimed that differential privacy provides guarantees against adversaries with arbitrary side information. In this paper, we provide a precise formulation of these guarantees in terms of the inferences drawn by a Bayesian adversary. We show that this formulation is satisfied by both "vanilla" differential privacy as well as a relaxat...

Kasiviswanathan, Shiva Prasad; Smith, Adam

2008-01-01

10

Application of a methodology for categorizing and differentiating urban soundscapes using acoustical descriptors and semantic-differential attributes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A subjective and physical categorization of an ambient sound is the first step to evaluate the soundscape and provides a basis for designing or adapting this ambient sound to match people's expectations. For this reason, the main goal of this work is to develop a categorization and differentiation analysis of soundscapes on the basis of acoustical and perceptual variables. A hierarchical cluster analysis, using 15 semantic-differential attributes and acoustical descriptors to include an equivalent sound-pressure level, maximum-minimum sound-pressure level, impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level, sound-pressure level time course, and spectral composition, was conducted to classify soundscapes into different typologies. This analysis identified 15 different soundscape typologies. Furthermore, based on a discriminant analysis the acoustical descriptors, the crest factor (impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level), and the sound level at 125?Hz were found to be the acoustical variables with the highest impact in the differentiation of the recognized types of soundscapes. Finally, to determine how the different soundscape typologies differed from each other, both subjectively and acoustically, a study was performed. PMID:23862885

Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, A F

2013-07-01

11

Noetics in pastoral counselling: The making of a semantic differential analysis in pastoral care and counselling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Praxis in pastoral care and counselling entails more than merely practice and practicalities (communication skills. Praxis refers to the intentionality within human action and behaviour. Praxis exhibits the realm of intentionality and meaning as displayed within and by human attitudes. It is hypothesised that due to the noetic dimension in human actions, the making of a pastoral diagnosis (a qualitative assessment of the impact of Christian spirituality and the meaning on the system of existential, relational networking should deal with the realm of significant and purposeful intentionality. The latter is already implied in the phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl’s eidetic observation or inspection (phenomenological consciousness. In order to incorporate noetics in pastoral care and counselling, a pastoral semantic differential analysis (PSDA within the making of a pastoral diagnosis was proposed. The PSDA was linked to the need for a qualitative approach regarding the impact of Godimages on religious association and existential life experiences.

Daniël J. Louw

2011-03-01

12

Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (? = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1 are significantly down regulated. All down regulated genes in this panel were highly up regulated in most other types of cancers. These panels of proteins may represent signature biomarkers for lung cancer and will aid in lung cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring as well as in the prediction of responses to therapeutics.

Srivastava Mousami

2012-11-01

13

Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

14

Two semantic systems in the brain for rapid and slow differentiation of abstract and concrete words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most studies of semantic processing address changes in the late (300-800 msec) components of evoked potentials. However, recent years have seen the appearance of data showing that humans can perceive the sense of stimuli presented to them in significantly shorter periods of time. We report here studies of the mechanism of semantic analysis of written abstract and concrete words in four series of experiments: 1) reading of words on a monitor screen; 2) simple classification of all presented words into the categories "abstract" and "concrete;" 3) complex, i.e., selective classification of words written only in a specified color with a prompt as to which color would be used for the word; 4) complex classification of words of only a specified color without a prior prompt. Early (40-100 msec) differences in evoked brain potentials were seen on comparison of responses to abstract and concrete words, predominantly in the frontal areas in the case of simple reading of words and in the more dorsal areas in the case of tasks with simple classification. All cases of explicit classification of words were characterized by differences in late (450-700 msec) components in the left frontal zone. The results indicate the existence of two semantic systems: a rapid, implicit system associated with activation of the right frontal area, and a slow, explicit system of word classification which is predominantly associated with activity in the left frontal area. The relationship between the two systems is to a certain extent reciprocal: the rapid system can by inhibited by introduction of a word classification task. PMID:18975097

Il'yuchenok, I R; Sysoeva, O V; Ivanitskii, A M

2008-11-01

15

Differential prefrontal–temporal neural correlates of semantic processing in children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain–behavior correlations in a group of 16 children (9-to 12-year-olds). Activation was measured during a semantic judgment task presented in either the visual or auditory modality that required the individual to determine whether a final word was related in meaning to one of two previous words (e.g., found–tank–lost). The main finding was that higher performers (i.e., accuracy) were associated with more activatio...

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.

2005-01-01

16

On process rate semantics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We provide translations between process algebra and systems of chemical reactions. We show that the translations preserve discrete-state (stochastic) and continuous-state (concentration) semantics, and in particular that the continuous-state semantics of processes corresponds to the differential equations of chemistry based on the law of mass action. The novel semantics of processes so obtained equates processes that have the same state occupation dynamics, but which may have different intera...

Cardelli, L.

2008-01-01

17

Análise da Validade e Precisão de Instrumento de Diferencial Semântico / Analysis of Validity and Precision of a Semantic Differential Instrument  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investigou evidências de validade e precisão de um instrumento de diferencial semântico que tem sido utilizado para medir a transferência de significados entre estímulos equivalentes. Um total de 196 estudantes universitários avaliou fotografias de faces expressando emoções e também figu [...] ras abstratas, utilizando um instrumento composto por 13 escalas bipolares ancoradas por adjetivos opostos. A análise fatorial dos dados coletados forneceu indicações da validade do instrumento e os coeficientes alfa obtidos indicam que os dois fatores extraídos nesta análise possuem níveis de precisão aceitáveis, embora um dos fatores deva ser revisto. Discute-se que o modelo de equivalência de estímulos, entendido como um modelo experimental de relações simbólicas, pode se beneficiar de instrumentos capazes de fornecer medidas válidas de transferência de significado. Abstract in english This study assessed evidence of validity and precision of a semantic differential test that has been used to measure the transfer of meaning among equivalent stimuli. Participants were 196 college students who evaluated pictures of faces expressing emotions and also abstract pictures using an instru [...] ment comprised by 13 bipolar scales anchored by opposite adjectives. The factor analysis of the data evidenced the validity of the instrument. Values of alpha coefficients indicated that the factors extracted by this analysis have acceptable levels of precision, although one of the factors might be revised. It is discussed that the stimulus equivalence paradigm, an experimental model for symbolic relations, can benefit from instruments that provide valid measures of meaning transfer.

João Henrique de, Almeida; Renato, Bortoloti; Paulo Roberto dos Santos, Ferreira; Patricia Waltz, Schelini; Julio César Coelho de, Rose.

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Semantic Advertising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such...

Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John

2013-01-01

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EL SEMANTICO DIFERENCIAL COMO PROPUESTA METODOLOGICA PARA CARACTERIZAR EL LIDERAZGO EN UNA ORGANIZACIÓN / THE DIFFERENTIAL SEMANTICS AS METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL TO CHARACTERIZE THE LEADERSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El liderazgo es un fenómeno esencial en la administración de cualquier tipo de organización, se refiere a un patrón de conducta según como lo perciben los demás, y se desarrolla a partir de experiencias, educación, capacitación y condiciones naturales. La primera parte de este artículo se dedica a r [...] ealizar una definición del liderazgo para luego clasificarlo en tres grupos: Liderazgo Transaccional, Liderazgo Transformacional y las teorías emergentes. A continuación se explican los pasos que componen la metodología propuesta para caracterizar el liderazgo en una organización la cual esta basada en la técnica de Semántica Diferencial de Osgood en la cual se construye una escala bipolar tipo diferencial semántico. Finalmente se muestran los resultados alcanzados de la aplicación de la metodología en las ONG en Antioquia, para lo cual se realiza una definición acerca de las ONG y las características percibidas de los líderes en esta clase de organizaciones en Antioquia. Abstract in english Leadership is a basic aspect f management for any type of organization, it refers to a behavioral pattern according to the perception of the other, and it is developed from experiences, education, capacity building and natural conditions. The first part of this paper focuses on defining leadership, [...] classifying it in three groups: transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and emergent theories. Later, there is a description of the steps that constitute a methodology proposed to characterize leadership in organizations. This methodology is grounded in the Osgood Differentiation Semantics, in which a bipolar scale of semantical differentiation type is constructed. Finally, results from the application of this methodology in NGO (Non-Governmental Organizations) in Antioquia are shown. A definition of NGOs is carried out, as well as a description of the perceived characteristics of NGO leaders in Antioquia.

GIOVANNY, PEREZ ORTEGA; MARTÍN DARIO, ARANGO SERNA; JHON WILLIAM, BRANCH BEDOYA.

2008-07-01

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Mechanized semantics  

CERN Document Server

The goal of this lecture is to show how modern theorem provers---in this case, the Coq proof assistant---can be used to mechanize the specification of programming languages and their semantics, and to reason over individual programs and over generic program transformations, as typically found in compilers. The topics covered include: operational semantics (small-step, big-step, definitional interpreters); a simple form of denotational semantics; axiomatic semantics and Hoare logic; generation of verification conditions, with application to program proof; compilation to virtual machine code and its proof of correctness; an example of an optimizing program transformation (dead code elimination) and its proof of correctness.

Leroy, Xavier

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Jigsaw Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017575313451Dekker, Paul. 2004. ‘Grounding Dynamic Semantics’. In Anne Bezuidenhout & Marga Reimer (eds. ‘Descriptions and Beyond: An Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays on Definite and Indefinite Descriptions and other Related Phenomena’, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Dekker, Paul. 2007. ‘Optimal Inquisitive Discourse’. In Maria Aloni, Alastair Butler & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Questions in Dynamic Semantics’, CRiSPI 17, pp. 83–101. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Frege, Gottlob. 1892. ‘Über Sinn und Bedeutung’. Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik NF 100: pp. 25–50.Ginzburg, Jonathan. 1995. ‘Resolving Questions, I & II’. Linguistics and Philosophy 18, no. 5,6: pp. 459–527 and 567–609.Ginzburg, Jonathan. To appear. The Interactive Stance: Meaning for Conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen. 1999. ‘The Logic of Interrogation’. In T. Matthews & D. Strolovitch (eds. ‘Proceedings of SALT IX’, Also appeared in Aloni, M., Butler, A., and Dekker, P., 2007, Questions in Dynamic Semantics, CRiSPI, Elsevier.: CLC Publications.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Roelofsen, Floris. 2009. ‘Inquisitive Semantics and Pragmatics’. In Jesus M. Larrazabal & Larraitz Zubeldia (eds. ‘Meaning, Content, and Argument: Proceedings of the ILCLI International Workshop on Semantics, Pragmatics, and Rhetoric’, Bilbao: University of the Basque Country Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Stokhof, Martin. 1991. ‘Dynamic Predicate Logic’. Linguistics and Philosophy 14, no. 1: pp. 39–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628304Hulstijn, Joris. 1997. ‘Structured Information States. Raising and Resolving Issues’. In Anton Benz & Gerhard Jäger (eds. ‘Proceedings of MunDial97’, pp. 99–117. University of Munich.Jäger, Gerhard. 1996. ‘Only Updates. On the Dynamics of the Focus Particle only’. In Martin Stokhof & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Tenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, pp. 387–405. Amsterdam: ILLC, University of Amsterdam.Lascarides, Alex & Asher, Nicholas. 2009. ‘The Interpreta

Paul J. E. Dekker

2010-12-01

22

Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785

Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

2015-01-01

23

Making secure Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

this paper first describes ways of semantic web security implementation through layers. These layers are presented as a backbone for semantic web architecture and are represented in XML security, RDF security and in an idea of semantic web security standardization.

Adis Medi?; Adis Golubovi?

2010-01-01

24

Generative Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of the program are a matter of some controversy and have been extensively debated. Generative semanticists took Chomsky's concept of deep structure

Karim Bagha

2011-01-01

25

Semantic Annotation: The Mainstay of Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given that semantic Web realization is based on the critical mass of metadata accessibility and the representation of data with formal knowledge, it needs to generate metadata that is specific, easy to understand and well-defined. However, semantic annotation of the web documents is the successful way to make the Semantic Web vision a reality. This paper introduces the Semantic Web and its vision (stack layers) with regard to some concept definitions that helps the understan...

Slimani, Thabet

2013-01-01

26

Higher-order semantic counterconditioning of Filipino women's evaluations of heterosexual behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if semantic counterconditioning could modify semantic differential ratings regarding premarital sexual behaviors, in Filipino women whose culture exerts great control over such matters. A total of 303 unmarried, predominantly middle class, English speaking, Roman Catholic Filipino women aged 15-21 years volunteered to be subjects. Significant changes in the semantic differential ratings were obtained in four of the five CS (conditioned stimuli) phrases for subjects receiving semantic counterconditioning. Lesser changes in the semantic differential ratings for the same phrases were obtained from subjects in the Pseudo Conditioning and Repetition Control groups. PMID:4044862

Tryon, W W; Briones, R G

1985-06-01

27

Inquisitive Semantics and Logic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inquisitive Semantics and Logic Salvador Mascarenhas Abstract: The first chapter introduces inquisitive semantics as a research program for the study of the semantics of natural language questions and disjunctions. The author begins by providing a brief outline of the necessary background on question semantics and erotetic logics, and then presents inquisitive semantics, by first laying out its main tenets and then defining a propositional logical system, InqL, that...

Mascarenhas, Salvador

2009-01-01

28

Action semantics in retrospect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is a themed account of the action semantics project, which Peter Mosses has led since the 1980s. It explains his motivations for developing action semantics, the inspirations behind its design, and the foundations of action semantics based on unified algebras. It goes on to outline some applications of action semantics to describe real programming languages, and some efforts to implement programming languages using action semantics directed compiler generation. It concludes by outl...

Watt, D. A.

2009-01-01

29

Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

Anna Lamandini

2011-06-01

30

Programming the semantic web  

CERN Document Server

With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

2009-01-01

31

Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will ...

Splendiani Andrea; Burger Albert; Paschke Adrian; Romano Paolo; Marshall M

2011-01-01

32

The Semantics of Motion  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present a semantic study of motion complexes (ie. of a motion verb followed by a spatial preposition). We focus on the spatial and the temporal intrinsic semantic properties of the motion verbs, on the one hand, and of the spatial prepositions, on the other hand. Then, we address the problem of combining these basic semantics in order to formally and automatically derive the spatiotemporal semantics of a motion complex from the spatiotemporal properties of its components.

Sablayrolles, P

1995-01-01

33

Semantically Interoperable XML Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

2013-09-01

34

Visualizing and Structuring Semantic Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper is proposed a method for representing semantic data and knowledge. The method is based two foundational concepts: semantic link network and adjacency model. The method allows graph presentations of semantic data and it preserves the semantic relationships between the concepts of the domain. Furthermore with the methodit is possible construct relational model of the semantically rich data.

Teemu Mäenpää

2013-04-01

35

Semantic search: issues and technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problems and general algorithm of a semantic search are considered in the paper. Distinctive features of the semantic search algorithm are described. The existing realization problems of semantic search engines are revealed.

Demich Olga Valerievna; Basipov Andrey Alekseevich

2012-01-01

36

Semantic search: issues and technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems and general algorithm of a semantic search are considered in the paper. Distinctive features of the semantic search algorithm are described. The existing realization problems of semantic search engines are revealed.

Demich Olga Valerievna

2012-02-01

37

Semantic Web Service Composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research community of Web, presently is working to generate its next generation i.e. Semantic Web. They are moving towards automation of the retrieval and processing of web contents. The systems based on the semantic web require performing various processes like discovery, selection, composition, orchestration, monitoring etc. on services provided by it for satisfying client needs. In this paper, we will be concentrating on semantic web service composition techniques. The work deals with ...

Kumar Sandeep; Mishra R

2008-01-01

38

The Collaborative Semantic Grid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grid and Semantic Web technologies both enable heterogeneous resources to be joined up to achieve new functionality and capability, and their combined effectiveness has been demonstrated through a number of 'Semantic Grid' projects. These typically apply Semantic Web technologies in Grid applications, in a datagrid or within the Grid middleware. In this paper we suggest how both approaches also support distributed collaborative endeavours, and explore their combined role. We illustrate this '...

Roure, Dd; Frey, Jg; Michaelides, Dt; Page, Kr; Smari, Ww; Mcquay, Wk

2006-01-01

39

Enhancing medical database semantics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, asso...

Lea?o, B. F.; Pavan, A.

1995-01-01

40

Frame-Semantic Parsing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Frame semantics is a linguistic theory that has been instantiated for English in the FrameNet lexicon. We solve the problem of frame-semantic parsing using a two-stage statistical model that takes lexical targets (i.e., content words and phrases) in their sentential contexts and predicts frame-semantic structures. Given a target in context, the first stage disambiguates it to a semantic frame. This model uses latent variables and semi-supervised learning to improve frame disambiguation for ta...

Das, Dipanjan; Chen, Desai; Martins, Andre? F. T.; Schneider, Nathan; Smith, Noah A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Semantic Role Labeling  

CERN Document Server

This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

2011-01-01

42

Semantic MediaWiki.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic MediaWiki is an extension of MediaWiki - a widely used wild-engine that also powers Wikipedia. Its aim is to make semantic technologies available to a broad community by smoothly integrating them with the established usage of MediaWiki. The software is already used on a number of productive installations world-wide, but the main target remains to establish "Semantic Wikipedia" as an early adopter of semantic technologies on the web. Thus usability and scalability are as important as ...

Kro?tzsch, M.; Vrandecic, D.; Vo?lkel, M.; Cruz, If; Decker, S.; Allemang, D.; Preist, C.; Schwabe, D.; Mika, P.; Uschold, M.; Aroyo, L.

2006-01-01

43

Semantic web for dummies  

CERN Document Server

Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

Pollock, Jeffrey T

2009-01-01

44

Semantics of Smalltalk-80  

Science.gov (United States)

A formal model of the Smalltalk-80 programming language is introduced. The semantics of much of the Smalltalk-80 language are described using the denotational style. A poorly-designed feature of Smalltalk is highlighted, and alternative semantics are presented for the language feature.

Wolczko, Mario

45

Semantic Business Process Modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

Markovic, Ivan

2010-01-01

46

A Semantic Graph Query Language  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

Kaplan, I L

2006-10-16

47

A Defense of Semantic Minimalism  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

Kim, Su

2012-01-01

48

UML 2 Semantics and Applications  

CERN Document Server

A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

Lano, Kevin

2009-01-01

49

Organizational Semantic Web based Portals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tries to treat organizational semantic web based portals. The first part of the paper focuses on concepts regarding semantic web based portals. After discussing some concepts we treat the basic functionalities that a semantic web based portal must have and we finish by presenting these functionalities by actual examples. We present semantic web based portals after studying the necessary implementations from literature and practice. We develop some examples that use semantic web ...

Necula, Sabina-cristiana

2011-01-01

50

Defining an Enhanced RTL Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we formally define an enhanced RTL semantics. This is intended to elevate the RTL design abstraction level and help bridge the HDL semantic gap among synthesis, simulation and formal verification tools. We define the enhanced semantics based on a new RTL++ language that supports pipelined operations using a new pipelined register variable concept. The execution semantics of RTL++ is specified in a structural operational semantics style aimed to form the basis for related simulat...

Zhao, Shuqing; Gajski, Daniel D.

2005-01-01

51

Reactive Kripke semantics  

CERN Document Server

This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

Gabbay, Dov M

2013-01-01

52

Benchmarking semantic web technology  

CERN Document Server

This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

García-Castro, R

2009-01-01

53

"Pre-semantic" cognition revisited: critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and "regularization errors" (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of "pre-semantic" processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven "pre-semantic" tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularization errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single-case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on "pre-semantic" tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory. PMID:19766662

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T; Hopper, Samantha; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

2010-01-01

54

Affective Dimension of University Professors about their Teaching: An Exploration through the Semantic Differential Technique / Dimensión afectiva de los profesores universitarios sobre la enseñanza: Una exploratoración através de la técnica del diferencial semántico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El principal objetivo de este estudio es incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las emociones de los profesores sobre su enseñanza, como un componente de la identidad docente. En la primera parte, presentamos una revisión comprensiva sobre la literatura acerca del tipo de emociones de los profes [...] ores y la enseñanza. En la segunda parte presentamos los resultados de un estudio de validez con una escala de diferencial semántico desarrollada para explorar las emociones de profesores universitarios sobre su enseñanza. Esta escala fue diligenciada por una muestra de 198 profesores universitarios y consistió en una lista de pares de adjetivos bipolares que resumen una gran cantidad de clasificaciones affectivas sobre la enseñanza en educación superior. El análisis factorial expoloratorio revela una estructura de tres factores de emociones sobre la enseñanza en educación superior: motivación para la enseñanza, auto-evaluación docente, y desempeño en la enseñanza. El cruzamiento de la escala con la aproximación docente de Trigwell y Prosser (2004) se analiza y se discute. Los resultados sugieren nuevas líneas de investigación acerca de las emociones de los profesores en educación superior, proponiendo estudios futuros para reunión una mayor evidencia de validez sobre las dimensiones afectivas en la enseñanza. Abstract in english The main objective of this study is to increase our knowledge regarding professors' emotions about their teaching, as a component of teacher identity. In the first part, we present a comprehensive review of the literature about the types of teachers' emotions and teaching. In the second part we pres [...] ent the results of a validity study with a semantic differential scale developed to explore the emotions of university professors about their teaching. This scale was fulfilled by a sample of198 university teachers and comprises a list of pairs of bi-polar adjectives that summarize a broad range of affective classifications about teaching in higher education. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three -factor structure of emotions about teaching in higher education: Motivation for teaching, Evaluation of oneself as a teacher, and Teaching performance. The cross-referencing of the scale to Trigwell and Prosser's (2004) teachers' approaches to teaching is analysed and discussed. Our results suggest new lines of research about teachers' emotions in higher education, proposing further studies to collect more validity evidences about the affective dimensions of teaching.

Antoni, Badia Garganté; Julio, Meneses; Carles, Monereo.

2014-03-01

55

Live social semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web~2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated...

Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; Den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain

2009-01-01

56

Semantic based DNS Forensics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages semantic and natural language processing tools in order to analyze large volumes of DNS data. The main research novelty consists in detecting malicious and dangerous domain names by evaluating the semantic similarity with already known names. This process can provide valuable information for...

Marchal, Samuel; Franc?ois, Je?ro?me; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

2012-01-01

57

Semantic based DNS Forensics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages semantic and natural language processing tools in order to analyze large volumes of DNS data. The main research novelty consists in detecting malicious and dangerous domain names by semantic similarity with already known names. This process can provide valuable information for reconstructing...

Marchal, Samuel; Franc?ois, Je?ro?me; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

2011-01-01

58

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis is a novel statistical technique for the analysis of two-mode and co-occurrence data, which has applications in information retrieval and filtering, natural language processing, machine learning from text, and in related areas. Compared to standard Latent Semantic Analysis which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of co-occurrence tables, the proposed method is based on a mixture decomposition derived f...

Hofmann, Thomas

2013-01-01

59

Compositional Semantics in Verbmobil  

CERN Document Server

The paper discusses how compositional semantics is implemented in the Verbmobil speech-to-speech translation system using LUD, a description language for underspecified discourse representation structures. The description language and its formal interpretation in DRT are described as well as its implementation together with the architecture of the system's entire syntactic-semantic processing module. We show that a linguistically sound theory and formalism can be properly implemented in a system with (near) real-time requirements.

Bos, J W; Lieske, C; Mori, Y; Pinkal, M; Worm, K L; Bos, Johan; Gambäck, Björn; Lieske, Christian; Mori, Yoshiki; Pinkal, Manfred; Worm, Karsten

1996-01-01

60

Overt vs. Null Direct Objects in Spoken Brazilian Portuguese: A Semantic/Pragmatic Account.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the semantic/pragmatic constraints on null objects spoken in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) in detail, and situates BP null objects in the broader crosslinguistic perspective of differential object marking. Demonstrates that semantic/pragmatic dimensions of animacy and specificity, and in particular their interaction, must be taken into…

Schwenter, Scott A.; Silva, Glaucia

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

2014-01-01

62

The Abilities and Differential Difficulties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment to Use Semantic and Social Contexts to Infer and Recall Novel Words  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies assessed the ability of 12 pre-school children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; N = 7) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI; N = 5) to use semantic context and eye gaze to infer the meanings of novel nouns, and to recall those meanings after a 24-hour delay. In Experiment 1, the children heard statements containing a familiar,…

Goldman, Melody R.

2010-01-01

63

Exploiting Semantic Indexing Images for Emergence Recommendation Semantics System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thanks to the efforts of the Semantic Web Community (W3C), images can be semantically indexed with metadata. The explicit representation of image contents is made possible by using ontologies that provide a common and shared understanding of a domain at both human users and application levels. The approach that we are proposing in this paper is a semantic indexing of images based on conceptual method. To make efficient the semantic indexing, we also propose a recommender system. User profiles...

Zomahoun, Damien; Houngue, Pe?lagie; Ye?tongnon, Kokou

2013-01-01

64

Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms...

Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

1991-01-01

65

On the Unification of Process Semantics: Logical Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We continue with the task of obtaining a unifying view of process semantics by considering in this case the logical characterization of the semantics. We start by considering the classic linear time-branching time spectrum developed by R.J. van Glabbeek. He provided a logical characterization of most of the semantics in his spectrum but, without following a unique pattern. In this paper, we present a uniform logical characterization of all the semantics in the enlarged spect...

David Romero-Hernández; David de Frutos-Escrig

2011-01-01

66

From compositional to systematic semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove a theorem stating that any semantics can be encoded as a compositional semantics, which means that, essentially, the standard definition of compositionality is formally vacuous. We then show that when compositional semantics is required to be "systematic" (that is, the meaning function cannot be arbitrary, but must belong to some class), it is possible to distinguish between compositional and non-compositional semantics. As a result, we believe that the paper clarif...

Zadrozny, Wlodek

1995-01-01

67

IMPLEMENTATION OF SEMANTIC SEARCH ENGINE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Diploma Thesis deals with working out the semantic search engine and the application by means of which information from the ontology can be obtained and consequently entered into the SQL database. In the theoretical section, we represented the conception of the semantic Web and the ontologies and which program languages are used for semantic description of the contents and the inquiry for them. In the practical section, we worked out the semantic search engine performing information inqui...

Vrbanc?ic?, David

2013-01-01

68

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.

69

Semantic Observation Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

Werner Kuhn

2012-09-01

70

A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory  

CERN Document Server

The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

2008-01-01

71

Semantic e-Science  

CERN Document Server

The Semantic Web has been a very important development in how knowledge is disseminated and manipulated on the Web, but it has been of particular importance to the flow of scientific knowledge, and will continue to shape how data is stored and accessed in a broad range of disciplines, including life sciences, earth science, materials science, and the social sciences. Many books and papers have been published on the semantic web (particularly by Springer), but nothing to date has specifically illustrated how applications can be used to acquire, integrate, and deliver knowledge in so many scient

Chen, Huajun; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

2010-01-01

72

Sequence Semantics for Dynamic Predicate Logic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper a semantics for dynamic predicate logic is developed that uses sequence valued assignments. This semantics is compared with the usual relational semantics for dynamic predicate logic: it is shown that the most important intuitions of the usual semantics are preserved. Then it is shown that the refined semantics reflects out intuitions about information growth. Some other issues in dynamic semantics are formulated and discussed in terms of the new sequence semantics.

Vermeulen, C. F. M.

1991-01-01

73

Learning Semantic Query Suggestions  

Science.gov (United States)

An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

74

Centering in Dynamic Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Centering theory posits a discourse center, a distinguished discourse entity that is the topic of a discourse. A simplified version of this theory is developed in a Dynamic Semantics framework. In the resulting system, the mechanism of center shift allows a simple, elegant analysis of a variety of phenomena involving sloppy identity in ellipsis and ``paycheck pronouns''.

Hardt, D

1998-01-01

75

The semantic similarity ensemble  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

Andrea Ballatore

2013-12-01

76

Latent Semantic Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

Dumais, Susan T.

2004-01-01

77

Causality in the semantics of Esterel : revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We re-examine the challenges concerning causality in the semantics of Esterel and show that they pertain to the known issues in the semantics of Structured Operational Semantics with negative premises. We show that the solutions offered for the semantics of SOS also provide answers to the semantic challenges of Esterel and that they satisfy the intuitive requirements set by the language designers.

MohammadReza Mousavi

2010-01-01

78

From Data to Semantic Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

Luciano Floridi

2003-06-01

79

Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

1991-01-01

80

Spatiotemporal Signatures of Lexical-Semantic Prediction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is broad agreement that top-down expectations can facilitate lexical-semantic processing, the mechanisms driving these effects are still unclear. In particular, while previous electroencephalography (EEG) research has demonstrated a reduction in the N400 response to words in a supportive context, it is often challenging to dissociate facilitation due to bottom-up spreading activation from facilitation due to top-down expectations. The goal of the current study was to specifically determine the cortical areas associated with facilitation due to top-down prediction, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings supplemented by EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic priming paradigm. In order to modulate expectation processes while holding context constant, we manipulated the proportion of related pairs across 2 blocks (10 and 50% related). Event-related potential results demonstrated a larger N400 reduction when a related word was predicted, and MEG source localization of activity in this time-window (350-450 ms) localized the differential responses to left anterior temporal cortex. fMRI data from the same participants support the MEG localization, showing contextual facilitation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus for the high expectation block only. Together, these results provide strong evidence that facilitatory effects of lexical-semantic prediction on the electrophysiological response 350-450 ms postonset reflect modulation of activity in left anterior temporal cortex. PMID:25316341

Lau, Ellen F; Weber, Kirsten; Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R

2014-10-14

 
 
 
 
81

Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

Rajab Abd al-Hamed

2007-01-01

82

Semantic Search Engine: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search engines which gives the selected results which the user searching for. So here in this paper, a survey is done about the semantic search engines to revel the promising features of the semantic search engines(SSE.It deals about the description of some of the best semantic search engines

Anusree.ramachandran

2011-11-01

83

A SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MEASURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Similarity measures are the most important tools in information retrieval and natural language processing. Sentence similarities are of capital importance in online translation. Words-to-document similarity is the key factor to compute query relevance. Text similarities play a big role in data mining. A lot of similarity measures have been used in different domains. Most of the measures are corpus dependent or language dependent. When some measures are good to compute word-to-document matching, they are unable to compute document-to-document similarity and vice versa. In this paper we present a method that can be used to compute any kind of semantic similarity. The method is neither corpus dependent nor language dependent, and gives a way to compare more accurately semantic relatedness.

Abdoulahi Boubacar

2013-08-01

84

Semantic service provisioning  

CERN Document Server

Service-oriented computing has recently gained extensive momentum in both industry and academia, and major software vendors hook on to the service paradigm and tailor their software systems towards services in order to accommodate ever-changing process and product requirements in todaya (TM)s dynamic market environments. While dynamic binding of services at runtime was identified as a core functionality of service-based environments as far back as 2000, its industrial-strength implementation has yet to be achieved. The main reason for this is the lack of rich service specifications, concepts, and tools to process them. This book introduces advanced concepts in service provisioning and service engineering, including semantic concepts, dynamic discovery and composition, and illustrates them in a concrete business use case scenario. To prove the validity of the concepts and technologies, a semantic service provisioning reference architecture framework as well as a prototypical implementation of its subsystems an...

Kuropka, Dominik; Staab, Steffen; Weske, Mathias

2008-01-01

85

Orienting attention to semantic categories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the ability to orient attention to a complex, non-perceptual attribute of stimuli-semantic category. Behavioral consequences and neural correlates of semantic orienting were revealed and compared with those of spatial orienting, using event-related functional magnetic-resonance imaging. Semantic orienting significantly shortened response times to identify word stimuli, showing that it is possible to focus attention on non-perceptual attributes of stimuli to enhance behavioral ...

Cristescu, Tc; Devlin, Jt; Nobre, Ac

2006-01-01

86

A Timed Semantics for SDL  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics allows true concurrency. We show how it can be used to address issues such as the verification oftemporal properties, process scheduling, and the nature of viewed (shared) variables.

MØrk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian

1996-01-01

87

Event in Compositional Dynamic Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a framework which constructs an event-style dis- course semantics. The discourse dynamics are encoded in continuation semantics and various rhetorical relations are embedded in the resulting interpretation of the framework. We assume discourse and sentence are distinct semantic objects, that play different roles in meaning evalua- tion. Moreover, two sets of composition functions, for handling different discourse relations, are introduced. The paper first gives th...

Qian, Sai; Amblard, Maxime

2011-01-01

88

Formal Component-Based Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. T...

Ken Madlener; Sjaak Smetsers; Marko van Eekelen

2011-01-01

89

Semantic multimedia analysis and processing  

CERN Document Server

Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

2014-01-01

90

An Operational Semantics for the Eiffel Language  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper formally describes the dynamic semantic of the Eiffel language (Eiffel parallel). Eiffel is a parallel extension of Eiffel language based on passive and active objects, asynchronous communication and wait-by-necessity. In this semantics we use formal specifications of inheritance and dynamic binding which we have defined in Natural Semantics for the Eiffel language. While in the framework of Natural Semantics (big-step semantics), we specify the \\ep\\/ semantics in the SOS style (sm...

Attali, Isabelle; Caromel, Denis; Ehmety, Sidi Ould

1995-01-01

91

Semantic Web Services Fundamentals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research area of Semantic Web Services investigates the annotation of services, typically in a SOA, with a precise mathematical meaning in a formal ontology. These annotations allow a higher degree of automation. The last decade has seen a wide proliferation of such approaches, proposing different ontology languages, and paradigms for employing these in practice. The next chapter gives an overview of these approaches. In the present chapter, we provide an understanding of the fundamental ...

Heymans, Stijn; Hoffmann, Joerg; Marconi, Annapaola; Phlipps, Joshua; Weber, Ingo

2011-01-01

92

Metaphor and Lexical Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT: This paper shows that several sorts of expressions cannot be interpreted metaphorically, including determiners, tenses, etc. Generally, functional categories cannot be interpreted metaphorically, while lexical categories can. This reveals a semantic property of functional categories, and it shows that metaphor can be used as a probe for investigating them. It also reveals an important linguistic constraint on metaphor. The paper argues this constraint applies to the interface betwee...

Michael Glanzberg

2008-01-01

93

Insensitive Enough Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to some philosophers, sentences like (1) “It is raining” and (2) “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005) summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5). They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1...

Richard Vallée

2006-01-01

94

Semantic Exploration of DNS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The DNS structure discloses useful information about the organization and the operation of an enterprise network, which can be used for designing attacks as well as monitoring domains supporting malicious activities. Thus, this paper introduces a new method for exploring the DNS domains. Although our previous work described a tool to generate existing DNS names accurately in order to probe a domain automatically, the approach is extended by leveraging semantic analysis of domain names. In par...

Marchal, Samuel; Franc?ois, Je?ro?me; Wagner, Cynthia; Engel, Thomas

2012-01-01

95

Towards the Semantic Desktop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this presentation we describe some key aspects of the social semantic desktop vision, the main results of research by computer scientists in this area so far. We discuss how this may change the way people manage and share their information, and we discuss how this may change the role of academic librarians.
The trends seem to point towards that computers will be more personal and personalised. People will wish to use different platforms, different applications, and in particular, th...

Hanssen, Øyvind

2010-01-01

96

Semantic trajectory compression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the light of rapidly growing repositories capturing the movement tra jectories of people in spacetime, the need for tra jectory compression becomes obvious. This paper argues for semantic trajectory compression (STC) as a means of substantially compressing the movement trajectories in an urban environment with acceptable information loss. STC exploits that human urban movement and its large–scale use (LBS, navigation) is embedded in some geographic context, typically de?ned by ...

Schmid, F.; Richter, K. F.; Laube, P.

2009-01-01

97

Event in Compositional Dynamic Semantics  

CERN Document Server

We present a framework which constructs an event-style dis- course semantics. The discourse dynamics are encoded in continuation semantics and various rhetorical relations are embedded in the resulting interpretation of the framework. We assume discourse and sentence are distinct semantic objects, that play different roles in meaning evalua- tion. Moreover, two sets of composition functions, for handling different discourse relations, are introduced. The paper first gives the necessary background and motivation for event and dynamic semantics, then the framework with detailed examples will be introduced.

Qian, Sai

2011-01-01

98

Semantic Representatives of the Concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

Elena N. Tsay

2013-01-01

99

Insensitive Enough Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

Richard Vallée

2006-06-01

100

The semantic priming project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Speeded naming and lexical decision data for 1,661 target words following related and unrelated primes were collected from 768 subjects across four different universities. These behavioral measures have been integrated with demographic information for each subject and descriptive characteristics for every item. Subjects also completed portions of the Woodcock-Johnson reading battery, three attentional control tasks, and a circadian rhythm measure. These data are available at a user-friendly Internet-based repository ( http://spp.montana.edu ). This Web site includes a search engine designed to generate lists of prime-target pairs with specific characteristics (e.g., length, frequency, associative strength, latent semantic similarity, priming effect in standardized and raw reaction times). We illustrate the types of questions that can be addressed via the Semantic Priming Project. These data represent the largest behavioral database on semantic priming and are available to researchers to aid in selecting stimuli, testing theories, and reducing potential confounds in their studies. PMID:23344737

Hutchison, Keith A; Balota, David A; Neely, James H; Cortese, Michael J; Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Bengson, Jesse J; Niemeyer, Dale; Buchanan, Erin

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

A Schema for Generating Update Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a general schema for dening new update semantics. This schema takes as input any basic logic programming semantics, such as the stable semantics, the p-stable semantics or the MMr semantics, and gives as output a new update semantics. The schema proposed is based on a concept called minimal generalized S models, where S is any of the logic programming semantics. Each update semantics is associated to an update operator. We also present some properties of these update...

Jos´e Luis Carballido Carranza; Claudia Zepeda; Guillermo Flores

2012-01-01

102

Extension-based argumentation semantics via logic programming semantics with negation as failure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extension-based argumentation semantics have been shown to be a suitable approach for performing practical reasoning. Since extension-based argumentation semantics were formalized in terms of relationships between atomic arguments, it has been shown that extension-based argumentation semantics (such as the grounded semantics and stable semantics) can be characterized by logic programming semantics with negation as failure. Recently, it has been shown that argumentation semantics such as...

Nieves Sa?nchez, Juan Carlos; Go?mez Sebastia?, Ignasi

2009-01-01

103

The UMLS Semantic Network and the Semantic Web.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Unified Medical Language System is an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) and is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologies on the Semantic Web, for representing the knowledge contained in the Semantic Network. Requirements specific to the Semantic Network, such as polymorphic relationships and blocking relationship inheritance are discussed and approaches to represent these in DAML+OIL are presented. Finally, conclusions are presented along with a discussion of ongoing and future work. PMID:14728193

Kashyap, Vipul

2003-01-01

104

Exploiting UMLS Semantics for Checking Semantic Consistency among UMLS concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To quantify semantic inconsistency in UMLS concepts from the perspective of their hierarchical relations and to show through examples how semantically-inconsistent concepts can help reveal erroneous synonymy relations. Methods Inconsistency is defined in reference to concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus. Consistency is evaluated by comparing the semantic groups of the two concepts in each pair of hierarchically-related concepts. A limited number of inconsistent concepts was inspected manually. Results 81,512 concepts are inconsistent due to the differences in semantic groups between a concept and its parent. Four examples of wrong synonymy are presented. Conclusions A vast majority of inconsistent hierarchical relations are not indicative of any errors. We discovered an interesting semantic pattern along hierarchies, which seems associated with wrong synonymy. PMID:20841786

Erdogan, Halit; Erdem, Esra; Bodenreider, Olivier

2015-01-01

105

Annotation for the semantic web  

CERN Document Server

A core technology for making the semantic web happen is the field of semantic annotation, which turns human-understandable content into a machine understandable form. This book reports on the range of technologies that are used to achieve this translation and nourish third millennium applications.

Handschuh, S

2003-01-01

106

The semantic planetary data system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

2005-01-01

107

Natural language processing semantic aspects  

CERN Document Server

This book introduces the semantic aspects of natural language processing and its applications. Topics covered include: measuring word meaning similarity, multi-lingual querying, and parametric theory, named entity recognition, semantics, query language, and the nature of language. The book also emphasizes the portions of mathematics needed to understand the discussed algorithms.

Kapetanios, Epaminondas; Sacarea, Christian

2013-01-01

108

Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

Deerwester, Scott; And Others

1990-01-01

109

Primary progressive aphasia: A comparative study of progressive nonfluent aphasia and semantic dementia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary progressive aphasia (PPA, a degenerative disorder, is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer?s disease. Its subtypes, semantic dementia (SD, and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA, are often difficult to differentiate from each other. Our objective was to highlight the differences in the language profiles of patients with SD and PNFA. To bring out these differences, we report two patients with PPA, one with SD and the other with PNFA. They were administered the Western aphasia battery (WAB and a semantic battery, which assesses semantic memory. The profiles of language impairment on the WAB indicated that the patient with PNFA had syntactic errors in expressive speech but relatively preserved semantics and comprehension, whereas the patient with SD had preserved syntax but made semantic errors in expressive speech, and had impaired comprehension. There were differences in their performance on the semantic battery too. The patient with SD made relatively less errors on confrontation naming, although on the pointing task he failed to point to those line drawings, which he was unable to name on confrontation. In contrast, the finding of the PNFA patient was the reverse of this. Supplementing conventional neuropsychological tests with formal tests for assessment of language functions is useful in the early diagnosis of PPA. The performance of PPA patients on a detailed assessment of language that includes use of formal tests such as the semantic battery helps to differentiate PNFA from SD.

George Annamma

2005-01-01

110

Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Psychologiser la sémantique de la fictionLes théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique.Semantic theorists of fiction typically look for an account of our semantic relations to the fictional within general-purpose theories of reference, privileging an explanation of the semantic over the psychological. In this paper, we counsel a reverse dependency. In sorting out our psychological relations to the fictional, there is useful guidance about how to proceed with the semantics of fiction. A sketch of the semantics follows.

John Woods

2010-04-01

111

Operational Semantics of Termination Types  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one based on denotational semantics and we identify the need for extending the semantic universe with low constructs whose sole purpose is to facilitate the proof. For dealing with partial correctness it suffices to consider approximations that are less defined than the desired fixed points; for dealing with total correctness we introduce functions that are more defined than the fixed points

Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

1996-01-01

112

An Abundance of Riches: Cross-Task Comparisons of Semantic Richness Effects In Visual Word Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is considerable evidence (e.g., Pexman, Hargreaves, Siakaluk, Bodner, & Pope, 2008 that semantically rich words, which are associated with relatively more semantic information, are recognized faster across different lexical processing tasks. The present study extends this earlier work by providing the most comprehensive evaluation to date of semantic richness effects on visual word recognition performance. Specifically, using regression analyses to control for the influence of correlated lexical variables, we considered the impact of contextual dispersion, number of features, number of senses, semantic neighborhood density, imageability, and body-object interaction across five visual word recognition tasks: standard lexical decision, go/no-go lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, semantic classification, and progressive demasking. Semantic richness effects could be reliably detected in all tasks of lexical processing, indicating that semantic representations, particularly their imaginal and featural aspects, play a fundamental role in visual word recognition. However, there was also evidence that the strength of certain richness effects could be flexibly and adaptively modulated by task demands, consistent with an intriguing interplay between task-specific mechanisms and differentiated semantic processing.

MelvinJ.Yap

2012-04-01

113

Communication of Semantic Properties  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself, but by the specific way that the materials are used in the product. Selection of materials is therefore often done by looking at similar products. The product as well as its constitutive materials possesses a number of technical properties like strength, stiffness and hardness. Furthermore the product possesses a number of semantic properties associated with the meaning we read from the form, colour, texture and sound of the product. The purpose of working with these properties can be to make the use of the product more self-evident, to form or enhance the cultural meaning of the product and to give the product a distinct character. For the technical properties there exists a well developed and commonly accepted terminology that can be utilised at product search and material selection (Ashby 1996). This is not the case for the semantic properties which are important for the outcome reflecting the product design processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material search also require a clear terminology. It is not our aim to identify a new terminology but rather to identify the terminology already in use. The paper also describes different research methods for identifying such a terminology.

Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

2004-01-01

114

Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for l...

Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-cohen, Simon; Pulvermu?ller, Friedemann

2015-01-01

115

Universal semantic communication  

CERN Document Server

Is meaningful communication possible between two intelligent parties who share no common language or background? In this work, a theoretical framework is proposed in which it is possible to address when and to what extent such semantic communication is possible: such problems can be rigorously addressed by explicitly focusing on the goals of the communication. Under this framework, it is possible to show that for many goals, communication without any common language or background is possible using universal protocols. This work should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate-level knowled

Juba, Brendan

2011-01-01

116

"Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

117

On semantic underspecification examining lexeme osnova  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term semantic underspecification coined by J. Pustejovsky was initially introduced in Serbian linguistics by Milka Ivic. This paper further develops the term, investigates the level of semantic underspecification of lexemes and examining Serbian lexeme osnova [base] emphasizes conceptual analysis as an appropriate semantic method for investigating lexemes with the broadest (underspecified) semantics.

Dragi?evi? Rajna

2008-01-01

118

Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

2013-01-01

119

Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic

Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

2010-01-01

120

The Equational Approach to CF2 Semantics  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a family of new equational semantics for argumentation networks which can handle odd and even loops in a uniform manner. We offer one version of equational semantics which is equivalent to CF2 semantics, and a better version which gives the same results as traditional Dung semantics for even loops but can still handle odd loops.

Gabbay, Dov M

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network  

Science.gov (United States)

With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

2004-01-01

122

Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

Syeda Farha Shazmeen

2012-12-01

123

Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

Rose, Kristoffer HØgsbro

1992-01-01

124

Semantic WEB Services Using Clustering Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web Services, like conventional web services, are the server end of a client–server system for machine-to-machine interaction via the World Wide Web. Semantic services are a component of the semantic web because they use markup which makes data machine-readable in a detailed and sophisticated way (as compared with human-readable HTML which is usually not easily "understood" by computer programs). Semantic similarity measures are specific types of Semantic measures: ...

Jayeeta Majumder,; Saikat Khanra

2014-01-01

125

Search Relevance based on the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, we explore the challenge of search relevance in the context of semantic search. Specifically, the notion of semantic relevance can be distinguished from the other types of relevance in Information Retrieval (IR) in terms of employing an underlying semantic model. We propose the emerging Semantic Web data on the Web which is represented in RDF graph structures as an important candidate to become such a semantic model in a search process.

Bicer, Veli

2012-01-01

126

Semantics of Complex Sentences in Japanese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The important part of semantics of complex sentence is captured as relations among semantic roles in subordinate and main clause respectively. However if there can be relations between every pair of semantic roles, the amount of computation to identify the relations that hold in the given sentence is extremely large. In this paper, for semantics of Japanese complex sentence, we introduce new pragmatic roles called `observer' and `motivated' respectively to bridge semantic ro...

Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Shin Ichiro

1994-01-01

127

Qualifying Semantic graphs using Model Checking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic interoperability problems have found their solutions using languages and techniques from the Semantic Web. The proliferation of ontologies and meta-information has improved the understanding of information and the relevance of search engine responses. However, the construction of semantic graphs is a source of numerous errors of interpretation or modeling and scalability remains a major problem. The processing of large semantic graphs is a limit to the use of semantics in current inf...

Gueffaz, Mahdi; Rampacek, Sylvain; Nicolle, Christophe

2011-01-01

128

Semantic understanding of Image content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large amounts of spatial data are becoming available today due to the rapid development of remote sensing techniques. Several retrieval systems are proposed to retrieve necessary, interested and effective information such as key- word based image retrieval and content based image retrieval. However, the results of these approaches are generally unsatisfactory, unpredictable and do not match human perception due to the well gap between visual features and semantic concepts. In this paper, we propose a new approach allowing semantic satellite image retrieval, describing the semantic image content and managing uncertain information. It is based on ontology model which represents spatial knowledge in order to provide semantic understanding of image content. Our retrieval system is based on two modules: ontological model merging and semantic strategic image retrieval. The first module allows developing ontological models which represent spatial knowledge of the satellite image, and managing uncertain information. The second module allows retrieving satellite images basing on their ontological model. In order to improve the quality of retrieval system and to facilitate the retrieval process, we propose two retrieval strategies which are the opportunist strategy and the hypothetic strategy. Our approach attempts to improve the quality of image retrieval, to reduce the semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts and to provide an automatic solution for efficient satellite image retrieval.

D D Dhobale

2011-05-01

129

Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho / Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing / Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e [...] o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de val [...] idación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and ca [...] lculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulting measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

Juliana de Lima, Lopes; Luiz Antonio, Nogueira-Martins; Alexsandro Luiz de, Andrade; Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de, Barros.

130

Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito.OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de validación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama.OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and calculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulting measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

Juliana de Lima Lopes

2011-01-01

131

Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrate its potential by two applications. As a first application, we localize lane structures by the semantic descriptors and their relations in a Bayesian framework. As the second application, which is in the context of vision based grasping, we show how the semantic relations can be associated to actions that allow for grasping without using any object knowledge.

Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre

2008-01-01

132

Semantic Search Engine: A Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search ...

Anusree.ramachandran; Sujatha, R.

2011-01-01

133

Workspaces in the Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

2005-01-01

134

Semantic perception for ground robotics  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic perception involves naming objects and features in the scene, understanding the relations between them, and understanding the behaviors of agents, e.g., people, and their intent from sensor data. Semantic perception is a central component of future UGVs to provide representations which 1) can be used for higher-level reasoning and tactical behaviors, beyond the immediate needs of autonomous mobility, and 2) provide an intuitive description of the robot's environment in terms of semantic elements that can shared effectively with a human operator. In this paper, we summarize the main approaches that we are investigating in the RCTA as initial steps toward the development of perception systems for UGVs.

Hebert, M.; Bagnell, J. A.; Bajracharya, M.; Daniilidis, K.; Matthies, L. H.; Mianzo, L.; Navarro-Serment, L.; Shi, J.; Wellfare, M.

2012-06-01

135

Formal Component-Based Semantics  

CERN Document Server

One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2

2011-01-01

136

Formal Component-Based Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

Ken Madlener

2011-08-01

137

An Asynchronous Automata Approach to the Semantics of Temporal Logic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the differential equations that characterize an asynchronous automaton and gives their solution x:R->{0,1}x...x{0,1}. Remarks are made on the connection between the continuous time and the discrete time of the approach. The continuous and the discrete time, the linear and the branching temporal logics have the semantics depending on x and their formulas give the properties of the automaton.

Vlad, Serban E.

2001-01-01

138

The UMLS® Semantic Network and the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) , an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologie...

Kashyap, Vipul

2003-01-01

139

Operational semantics for signal handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

Maxim Strygin

2012-08-01

140

Benchmarking in the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web technology needs to be thoroughly evaluated for providing objective results and obtaining massive improvement in its quality; thus, the transfer of this technology from research to industry will speed up. This chapter presents software benchmarking, a process that aims to improve the Semantic Web technology and to find the best practices. The chapter also describes a specific software benchmarking methodology and shows how this methodology has been used to benchmark the inter...

Garci?a-castro, Rau?l; Go?mez-pe?rez, A.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Benchmarking in the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web technology needs to be thoroughly evaluated for providing objective results and obtaining massive improvement in its quality; thus, the transfer of this technology from research to industry will speed up. This chapter presents software benchmarking, a process that aims to improve the Semantic Web technology and to find the best practices. The chapter also describes a specific software benchmarking methodology and shows how this methodology has been used to benchmark the inter...

Garci?a-castro, Rau?l; Go?mez-pe?rez, A.

2008-01-01

142

Semantic Description of Web Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tasks of semantic web service (discovery, selection, composition, and execution) are supposed to enable seamless interoperation between systems, whereby human intervention is kept at a minimum. In the field of Web service description research, the exploitation of descriptions of services through semantics is a better support for the life-cycle of Web services. The large number of developed ontologies, languages of representations, and integrated frameworks supporting the...

Thabet Slimani

2013-01-01

143

Efficient computation of argumentation semantics  

CERN Document Server

Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

Liao, Beishui

2013-01-01

144

Generic Trace Semantics via Coinduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trace semantics has been defined for various kinds of state-based systems, notably with different forms of branching such as non-determinism vs. probability. In this paper we claim to identify one underlying mathematical structure behind these "trace semantics," namely coinduction in a Kleisli category. This claim is based on our technical result that, under a suitably order-enriched setting, a final coalgebra in a Kleisli category is given by an initial algebra in the categ...

Hasuo, I.; Jacobs, Bpf; Sokolova, A.

2007-01-01

145

Qubit semantics and quantum trees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the qubit semantics the \\emph{meaning} of any sentence $\\alpha$ is represented by a \\emph{quregister}: a unit vector of the $n$--fold tensor product $\\otimes^n \\C^2$, where $n$ depends on the number of occurrences of atomic sentences in $\\alpha$. The logic characterized by this semantics, called {\\it quantum computational logic} (QCL), is {\\it unsharp}, because the non-contradiction principle is violated. We show that QCL does not admit any logical truth. In this framewor...

Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporati, Alberto; Leporini, Roberto

2002-01-01

146

NASA and The Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

Ashish, Naveen

2005-01-01

147

Language networks in semantic dementia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognitive deficits in semantic dementia have been attributed to anterior temporal lobe grey matter damage; however, key aspects of the syndrome could be due to altered anatomical connectivity between language pathways involving the temporal lobe. The aim of this study was to investigate the left language-related cerebral pathways in semantic dementia using diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography and to combine the findings with cortical anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging...

Agosta, Federica; Henry, Roland G.; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Bruce L.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Brambati, Simona M.; Filippi, Massimo; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Wilson, Stephen M.; Gorno-tempini, Maria Luisa

2010-01-01

148

Semantic Approach for Query Explication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

Shruti Gupta

2013-06-01

149

Semantic preview benefit during reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895448

Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

2014-01-01

150

Service composition for the semantic web  

CERN Document Server

Service Composition for the Semantic Web presents an in-depth analysis of aspects related to semantic-enabled Web service modeling and composition. It also covers challenges and solutions to composing Web services on the semantic Web, and proposing a semantic framework for organizing and describing Web services. Service Composition for the Semantic Web describes composability and matching models to check whether semantic Web services can be combined together to avoid unexpected failures at run time, and a set of algorithms that automatically generate detailed descriptions of composite services

Medjahed, Brahim

2011-01-01

151

Theoretical Formulas of Semantic Measure: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, several semantic similarity and relatedness measures have been developed and applied in many domains including linguistics, biomedical informatics, GeoInformatics, and Semantic Web. This paper discusses different semantic measures which compute similarity and relatedness scores between concepts based on a knowledge representation model offered by ontologies and semantic networks. The benchmarks and approaches used for the evaluation of semantic similarity methods are also described. The aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive view of these measures which helps researchers to choose the best semantic similarity or relatedness metric for their needs.

Kalthoum Rezgui

2013-11-01

152

Theorem proving support in programming language semantics  

CERN Document Server

We describe several views of the semantics of a simple programming language as formal documents in the calculus of inductive constructions that can be verified by the Coq proof system. Covered aspects are natural semantics, denotational semantics, axiomatic semantics, and abstract interpretation. Descriptions as recursive functions are also provided whenever suitable, thus yielding a a verification condition generator and a static analyser that can be run inside the theorem prover for use in reflective proofs. Extraction of an interpreter from the denotational semantics is also described. All different aspects are formally proved sound with respect to the natural semantics specification.

Bertot, Yves

2007-01-01

153

“Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this ...

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

154

Evaluation of the Project Management Competences Based on the Semantic Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the testing and evaluation facilities of the SinPers system. The SinPers is a web based learning environment in project management, capable of building and conducting a complete and personalized training cycle, from the definition of the learning objectives to the assessment of the learning results for each learner. The testing and evaluation facilities of SinPers system are based on the ontological approach. The educational ontology is mapped on a semantic network. Further, the semantic network is projected into a concept space graph. The semantic computability of the concept space graph is used to design the tests. The paper focuses on the applicability of the system in the certification, for the knowledge assessment, related to each element of competence. The semantic computability is used for differentiating between different certification levels.

Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

2008-01-01

155

Connectivity among Semantic Associates: An fMRI Study of Semantic Priming  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic priming refers to a reduction in the reaction time to identify or make a judgment about a stimulus that has been immediately preceded by a semantically related word or picture and is thought to result from a partial overlap in the semantic associates of the two words. A semantic priming lexical decision task using spoken words was…

Wible, Cynthia G.; Han, S. Duke; Spencer, Magdalena H.; Kubicki, Marek; Niznikiewicz, Margaret H.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.; Nestor, Paul

2006-01-01

156

Formal Language Decomposition into Semantic Primes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for semantic decomposition. For that we surveys languages used to enrich contextual information with semantic descriptions. Such descriptions can be e.g. applied to enable reasoning when collecting vast amounts of information. In particular, we focus on the elements of the languages that make up their semantic. To do so, we compare the expressiveness of the well-known languages OWL, PDDL and MOF with a theory from linguistic called the Natural Semantic Metalanguage. We then analyze how the semantic of the language is build up and describe how semantic decomposition based on the semantic primes can be used for a so called mental lexicon. This mental lexicon can be used to reason upon semantic service description in the research domain of service match making.

Johannes FÄHNDRICH

2014-10-01

157

Ontology management semantic web, semantic web services, and business applications  

CERN Document Server

Managing ontologies and annotated data throughout their life-cycles is at the core of semantic systems of all kinds. Ontology Management, an edited volume by senior researchers in the field, provides an up-to-date, concise and easy-to-read reference on this topic. This volume describes relevant tasks, practical and theoretical challenges, limitations and methodologies, plus available software tools. The editors discuss integrating the conceptual and technical dimensions with a business view on using ontologies, by stressing the cost dimension of ontology engineering and by providing guidance on how up-to-date tooling helps to build, maintain, and use ontologies. Also included is a one-stop reference on all aspects of managing ontological data and best practices on ontology management for a number of application domains. Ontology Management is designed as a reference or secondary text for researchers and advanced-level students studying semantic systems, Semantic Web Services (SWS) and Web Services, informatio...

Hepp, M; Moor, A De; Sure, York

2007-01-01

158

Ontology Learning for Semantic Web using Lexical-Semantic Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, web has evolved from global information space where data has linked well. Linking Open Data project has enabled a large number of semantic datasets to be published on the web. Due to the open and distributed nature of the web both schema and instances of published datasets may have heterogeneity problems. In order to overcome these problems we use semantic technologies such as Ontology, RDF, Xml and OWL. This paper proposes how to learn an ontology and solve these heterogeneous problem. We also use taxonomic and partonomic relations to learn the ontology. This project also uses lexical semantic analysis to identify relationship. Lexical method retrieves the words which are having multiple meaning.

Senduru Srinivasulu

2014-03-01

159

Dynamic switching between semantic and episodic memory systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that episodic and semantic long-term memory systems interact during retrieval. Here we examined the flexibility of memory retrieval in an associative task taxing memories of different strength, assumed to differentially engage episodic and semantic memory. Healthy volunteers were pre-trained on a set of 36 face-name pairs over a 6-week period. Another set of 36 items was shown only once during the same time period. About 3 months after the training period all items were presented in a randomly intermixed order in an event-related fMRI study of face-name memory. Once presented items differentially activated anterior cingulate cortex and a right prefrontal region that previously have been associated with episodic retrieval mode. High-familiar items were associated with stronger activation of posterior cortices and a left frontal region. These findings fit a model of memory retrieval by which early processes determine, on a trial-by-trial basis, if the task can be solved by the default semantic system. If not, there is a dynamic shift to cognitive control processes that guide retrieval from episodic memory. PMID:19109984

Kompus, Kristiina; Olsson, Carl-Johan; Larsson, Anne; Nyberg, Lars

2009-09-01

160

Semantic graphs and associative memories  

Science.gov (United States)

Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Orienting attention to semantic categories  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the ability to orient attention to a complex, non-perceptual attribute of stimuli—semantic category. Behavioral consequences and neural correlates of semantic orienting were revealed and compared with those of spatial orienting, using event-related functional magnetic-resonance imaging. Semantic orienting significantly shortened response times to identify word stimuli, showing that it is possible to focus attention on non-perceptual attributes of stimuli to enhance behavioral performance. Semantic-orienting cues engaged parietal and frontal areas that were also involved in spatial orienting, but in addition engaged brain areas associated with semantic analysis of words, such as the left anterior inferior frontal cortex. These findings show that attentional orienting selectively engages brain areas with functional specialization for the predicted attributes. They also support the existence of a core frontoparietal network, which controls attentional orienting in speeded response tasks independently of the type of expectations, interacting with task-relevant functionally specialized areas to optimize perception and action. PMID:17011212

Cristescu, Tamara C.; Devlin, Joseph T.; Nobre, Anna C.

2006-01-01

162

A Semantic web page linguistic annotation model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although with the Semantic Web initiative much research on web page semantic annotation has already been done by AI researchers, linguistic text annotation, including the semantic one, was originally developed in Corpus Linguistics and its results have been somehow neglected by AI. The purpose of the research presented in this proposal is to prove that integration of results in both fields is not only possible, but also highly useful in order to make Semantic Web pages more mac...

Aguado Cea, G.; A?lvarez Mon Rego, I.; Pareja-lora, A.; Plaza Arteche, R.

2002-01-01

163

Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word "Semantic" refers to "meaning" - a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and result oriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding information on the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision of linking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new i...

Siddharth Gupta; Narina Thakur

2010-01-01

164

PowerAqua: fishing the semantic web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web (SW) offers an opportunity to develop novel, sophisticated forms of question answering (QA). Specifically, the availability of distributed semantic markup on a large scale opens the way to QA systems which can make use of such semantic information to provide precise, formally derived answers to questions. At the same time the distributed, heterogeneous, large-scale nature of the semantic information introduces significant challenges. In this paper we describe the design of a ...

Lopez, Vanessa; Motta, Enrico; Uren, Victoria

2006-01-01

165

Semantic Similarity Calculation of Chinese Word  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper puts forward a two layers computing method to calculate semantic similarity of Chinese word. Firstly, using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) subject model to generate subject spatial domain. Then mapping word into topic space and forming topic distribution which is used to calculate semantic similarity of word(the first layer computing). Finally, using semantic dictionary "HowNet" to deeply excavate semantic similarity of word (the second layer computing). This method not only ove...

Liqiang Pan; Pu Zhang; Anping Xiong

2014-01-01

166

Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS) for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS). The paper intro...

Heindel, T.; Dorman, A.; Ko?nig, B.

2012-01-01

167

Continuation semantics for PROLOG with cut  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a denotational continuation semantics for PROLOG with cut. First a uniform language B is studied, which captures the control flow aspects of PROLOG. The denotational semantics for B is proven equivalent to a transition system based operational semantics. The congruence proof relies on the representation of the operational semantics as a chain of approximations and on a convenient induction principle. Finally, we interpret the abstract language B such that we obtain equivalent...

Bruin, A.; Vink, E. P.

1989-01-01

168

Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic sys...

Aceto, Luca; Sobocin?ski, Pawe?

2010-01-01

169

Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female) terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical mea...

Azam Estaji; Fakhteh Nakhavali

2012-01-01

170

Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female) terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical meanings of...

Azam Estaji; Fakhteh Nakhavali

2011-01-01

171

Semantics by Analogy for Illustrative Volume Visualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly exp...

Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gro?ller, Eduard

2012-01-01

172

Inductive reasoning and semantic web search.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extensive research activities are recently directed towards the Semantic Web as a future form of the Web. Consequently, Web search as the key technology of the Web is evolving towards some novel form of Semantic Web search. A very promising recent approach to such Semantic Web search is based on combining standard Web search with ontological background knowledge and using standard Web search engines as the main inference motor of Semantic Web search. In this paper, we propose to further enhan...

D Amato, C.; Esposito, F.; Fanizzi, N.; Fazzinga, B.; Gottlob, G.; Lukasiewicz, T.; Shin, Sy; Ossowski, S.; Schumacher, M.; Palakal, Mj; Hung, C-c

2010-01-01

173

ENGLISH TO SANSKRIT MACHINE TRANSLATION SEMANTIC MAPPER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Here we propose to develop a converter which converts English Statement to Sanskrit statement Using Rule based approach of Machine Translation .The proposed method has following features: The Proposed modules are as follows:MODULE 1: LEXICAL PARSERMODULE 2: SEMANTIC MAPPERMODULE 3: ITRANSLATORMODULE 4: COMPOSERHere we would concentrate only on the Second module that is Semantic Mapper. To map the English semantic word with Sanskrit semantic word

VAISHALI M. BARKADE,; Devale, Prakash R.

2010-01-01

174

ENGLISH TO SANSKRIT MACHINE TRANSLATION SEMANTIC MAPPER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we propose to develop a converter which converts English Statement to Sanskrit statement Using Rule based approach of Machine Translation .The proposed method has following features: The Proposed modules are as follows:MODULE 1: LEXICAL PARSERMODULE 2: SEMANTIC MAPPERMODULE 3: ITRANSLATORMODULE 4: COMPOSERHere we would concentrate only on the Second module that is Semantic Mapper. To map the English semantic word with Sanskrit semantic word

VAISHALI M. BARKADE,

2010-10-01

175

Semantic Artificial Immune Model for Fault Diagnosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Applying artificial immune system to fault diagnosis is a new development direction in artificial intelligence, but the traditional artificial immune mode could not reasonably reflect the semantic similarity in the complexity problem space. For issues of semantic description of fault diagnosis, this paper introduces group cooperative mechanism of lymphocyte with a semantic tag to artificial immune system, thus solves the problem of semantic logical reasoning of fault knowl...

Chu-jiao Wang; Shi-xiong Xia; Yong Zhou

2013-01-01

176

Using multi-categorization semantic analysis and personalization for semantic search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic search technology has received more attention in the last years. Compared with the keyword based search, semantic search is used to excavate the latent semantics information and help users find the information items that they want indeed. In this paper, we present a novel approach for semantic search which combines Multi-Categorization Semantic Analysis with personalization technology. The MCSA approach can classify documents into multiple categories, which is disti...

Ma, Yinglong; Shi, Moyi

2014-01-01

177

Linking the Semantics Ecosystem with Semantics Derivation Rules for Multimedia Content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multimedia content exhibits multiple semantics that is influenced by different factors like time, contextual use, and personal background. With the semantics ecosystem, we find an elegant and high-level description of the different factors that influence the semantics of multimedia content. On the other hand, semantics derivation rules are a concrete means to extract and to derive semantics of multimedia content while authoring it. These rules are directly applicable in concrete applications ...

Scherp, Ansgar

2009-01-01

178

Experiences from semantic web service tutorials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have given around 20 tutorials on Semantic Web Services in international events during the last two years. This position paper presents our experiences and depicts central aspects relevant for education, dissemination and exploitation of Semantic Web and Semantic Web service technologies in academia and industry.

Stollberg, Michael; Moran, Matthew; Cabral, Liliana; Norton, Barry; Domingue, John

2006-01-01

179

Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

Rajab Abd al-Hamed

2007-09-01

180

Web to Semantic Web & Role of Ontology  

CERN Document Server

In this research paper we are briefly presenting current major web problems and introducing semantic web technologies with the claim of solving existing web's problems. Furthermore we are describing Ontology as the main building block of semantic web and focusing on its contributions to semantic web progress and current limitations.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

Yang, Beibei

2012-01-01

182

Semantic HMC for Big Data Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analyzing Big Data can help corporations to im-prove their efficiency. In this work we present a new vision to derive Value from Big Data using a Semantic Hierarchical Multi-label Classification called Semantic HMC based in a non-supervised Ontology learning process. We also proposea Semantic HMC process, using scalable Machine-Learning techniques and Rule-based reasoning.

Hassan, Thomas; Peixoto, Rafael; Cruz, Christophe; Bertaux, Aurlie; Silva, Nuno

2014-01-01

183

Agency and the semantic web  

CERN Document Server

This text looks at the construction of the Semantic Web, which will enable computers to automatically and independently consume Web-based information. With numerous programming examples, it is ideal for undergraduates and graduates in mathematics, computer science and logic and researchers interested in Multi-Agent Systems and the Semantic Web. - ;This highly topical text considers the construction of the next generation of the Web, called the Semantic Web. This will enable computers to automatically consume Web-based information, overcoming the human-centric focus of the Web as it stands at present, and expediting the construction of a whole new class of knowledge-based applications that will intelligently utilise Web content. The text is structured into three main sections on knowledge representation techniques, reasoning with multi-agent systems, and knowledge services. For each of these topics, the text provides an overview of the state-of-the-art techniques and the popular standards that have been define...

Walton, Christopher

2006-01-01

184

Operational Semantics for Lazy Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An operational semantics for lazy evaluation of a calculus without higher order functions was defined. Although it optimizes many aspects of implementation, e.g. there is a sharing in the recursive computation, there is no ? conversion, the heap is automatically reclaimed, and an attempt to evaluate an argument is done at most once. It is still suitable for reasoning about program behavior and proofs of program correctness; this is primarily due to the definition via inferences and axioms which allows for proofs by induction on the height of the proof tree. We also proved the correctness of this operational semantics by showing that it is equivalent with respect to the values calculated to the operational semantics of LAZY-PCF+SHAR due to S. Purushothaman Iyer and Jill Seaman.

Mahmoud A. AbouGhaly

2007-01-01

185

Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die tekskorpusmetode kan nie gebruik word vir minderheidstale waarin tekste ontbreek nie. Om in die behoefte te voorsien, het die skrywer 'n lys van 1 600 semantiese domeine opgestel wat hy suksesvol gebruik het om woorde te versamel. In 'n werksessie-omgewing kan 'n groep sprekers tot soveel as 17 000 woorde in tien dae versamel. Hierdie metode lei tot 'n geklassifiseerde woordelys wat doeltreffend uitgebrei kan word tot 'n volledige woordeboek. Die metode werk omdat die mentale leksikon 'n groot web is wat rondom sleutelbegrippe gestruktureer is. 'n Semantiese domein kan gedefinieer word as 'n belangrike kon-sep saam met die woorde wat direk daarmee verband hou vanweë leksikale verwantskappe. 'n Persoon kan die mentale web gebruik om vinnig van woord tot woord binne 'n domein te spring. Die skrywer is besig om vir elke domein 'n profiel te ontwikkel om te help met die versameling van woorde en met die beskrywing van hul semantiek. 'n Ondersoek van semantiek binne die konteks van 'n domein lewer baie insigte. Die metode laat die totstandbrenging van sowel alfabeties as semanties gerangskikte woordeboeke toe. Die lys domeine is bedoel om univer-seel in omvang en toepassing te wees. Moontlik as gevolg van universalia van menslike ervaring en universalia van taalkundige vermoë, is daar treffende ooreenkomste tussen verskillende lyste semantiese domeine wat ontwikkel is vir tale oor die hele wêreld. Die gebruik van 'n gestandaardi-seerde lys domeine om veelsoortige woordeboeke te klassifiseer, skep moontlikhede vir kruislin-guistiese navorsing oor semantiese en leksikale universalia. Sleutelwoorde: SEMANTIESE DOMEINE, SEMANTIESE VELDE, SEMANTIESE KATE-GORIEË, LEKSIKALE VERWANTSKAPPE, SEMANTIESE PRIMITIEWES, DOMEINPROFIELE, MENTALE LEKSIKON, SEMANTIESE UNIVERSALIA, MINDERHEIDSTALE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE

Ronald Moe

2011-10-01

186

Business Intelligence using Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computers becomes an essential thing in our day-to-day life. Currently, computers can change from single, isolated devices into entry points to exchange the information called World Wide Web(WWW. Humans are capable of using the web to carry our the task. However, a computer cannot accomplish the same task without the human direction, because web pages are designed to be read by the people, not by the machines. Usually, humans interact with the web to gather information or to improve their business intelligence. The information is accessed by giving a related keyword to search. This keyword is used by the server to provide the relevant information about the given keyword. The server provides only limited information for the given keyword. But there exists a lot of information regarding the keyword but it is not provided to the user due to the lack of word in the given keyword. So the keyword searching becomes intangible to fulfill the requirements of the user in some situation. This kind of searching is made with the presence of humans. To overcome this problem and to reduce the human effort, we propose a new method in this paper. This new method is termed as “SEMANTIC WEB”. The Semantic Web is an extension of the WWW. This is used to carry out the task directly by the computers instead of humans. The computer generates the Machine-Processable Information. The Semantic Web provides the automated schemes for gaining more relevant information by analyzing the kind of user behavior who currently use the web. With the help of Semantic Web, the user can access the web and gather more information with less effort. Semantic web is used to provide information by the web itself. This paper is used to explain the use and applications of the Semantic Web in a precise way.

S. Yasodha

2010-10-01

187

Semantic Services for Wikipedia  

Science.gov (United States)

Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

188

Process algebra semantics of ?SDL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new semantics of an interesting subset of the specification language SDL is given by a translation to a discrete-time variant of process algebra in the form of ACP extended with data as in ?CRL. The strength of the chosen subset, called ?SDL, is its close connection with full SDL, despite its dramatically reduced size. Thus, we are able to concentrate on solving the basic semantic issues without being in danger of having to turn the results inside out in order to deal wi...

Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C. A.

1996-01-01

189

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic An...

Hamed Hassanzadeh; MohammadReza Keyvanpour,

2011-01-01

190

Ontology Based Semantics Checking for UML Activity Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

UML activity model is mainly used to model the behaviors of software system and the quality of activity model will influence the quality of software system. But because the UML activity model lacks strictly formal semantics, it is difficult to make formal semantics analysis and checking for activity model. An ontology based method of semantics checking for activity model is proposed. The semantics of activity model is divided into static semantics and dynamic semantics. The static semantics i...

Li Chen; Hongyue He; Zhixue Wang; Ying Zhang

2012-01-01

191

Multimedia Semantics Metadata, Analysis and Interaction  

CERN Document Server

In this book, the authors present the latest research results in the multimedia and semantic web communities, bridging the "Semantic Gap" This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science,

Troncy, Raphael; Schenk, Simon

2011-01-01

192

Semantic grid model, methodology, and applications  

CERN Document Server

Semantic Grid: Model, Methodology, and Applications introduces to the science, core technologies, and killer applications. First, scientific issues of semantic grid systems are covered, followed by two basic technical issues, data-level semantic mapping, and service-level semantic interoperating. Two killer applications are then introduced to show how to build a semantic grid for specific application domains. Although this book is organized in a step by step manner, each chapter is independent. Detailed application scenarios are also presented. In 1990, Prof. Wu invented the first KB-system tool, ZIPE, based on C on a SUN platform. He proposed the first coupling knowledge representing model, Couplingua, which embodies Rule, Frame, Semantic Network and Nerve Cell Network, and supports symbol computing and data processing computing. His current focus is on semantic web, grid & ubiquitous computing, and their applications in the life sciences.

Chen, Hua-jun

2008-01-01

193

Semantic Similarity Calculation of Chinese Word  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper puts forward a two layers computing method to calculate semantic similarity of Chinese word. Firstly, using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA subject model to generate subject spatial domain. Then mapping word into topic space and forming topic distribution which is used to calculate semantic similarity of word(the first layer computing. Finally, using semantic dictionary "HowNet" to deeply excavate semantic similarity of word (the second layer computing. This method not only overcomes the problem that it’s not specific enough merely using LDA to calculate semantic similarity of word, but also solves the problems such as new words (haven’t been added in dictionary and without considering specific context when calculating semantic similarity based on semantic dictionary "HowNet". By experimental comparison, this thesis proves feasibility,availability and advantages of the calculation method.

Liqiang Pan

2014-08-01

194

Learning Dependency-Based Compositional Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Suppose we want to build a system that answers a natural language question by representing its semantics as a logical form and computing the answer given a structured database of facts. The core part of such a system is the semantic parser that maps questions to logical forms. Semantic parsers are typically trained from examples of questions annotated with their target logical forms, but this type of annotation is expensive. Our goal is to learn a semantic parser from question-answer pairs instead, where the logical form is modeled as a latent variable. Motivated by this challenging learning problem, we develop a new semantic formalism, dependency-based compositional semantics (DCS), which has favorable linguistic, statistical, and computational properties. We define a log-linear distribution over DCS logical forms and estimate the parameters using a simple procedure that alternates between beam search and numerical optimization. On two standard semantic parsing benchmarks, our system outperforms all existing...

Liang, Percy; Klein, Dan

2011-01-01

195

Semantics of Complex Sentences in Japanese  

CERN Document Server

The important part of semantics of complex sentence is captured as relations among semantic roles in subordinate and main clause respectively. However if there can be relations between every pair of semantic roles, the amount of computation to identify the relations that hold in the given sentence is extremely large. In this paper, for semantics of Japanese complex sentence, we introduce new pragmatic roles called `observer' and `motivated' respectively to bridge semantic roles of subordinate and those of main clauses. By these new roles constraints on the relations among semantic/pragmatic roles are known to be almost local within subordinate or main clause. In other words, as for the semantics of the whole complex sentence, the only role we should deal with is a motivated.

Nakagawa, H; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Shin'ichiro

1994-01-01

196

Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web Services are mounting as an inventive mechanism for rendering services to subjective devices over the WWW. As a consequence of the rapid growth of Web Services applications and the plenty of Service Providers, the consumer is facing with the inevitability of selecting the “right” Service Provider. In such a scenario the Quality of Service (QoS serves as a target to differentiate Service Providers. To select the best Web Services / Service Providers, Ranking and Optimization of Web Service Compositions are challenging areas of research with significant implications for the realization of the “Web of Services” revelation. The “Semantic Web Services” use formal semantic descriptions of Web Service functionality and interface to enable automated reasoning over Web Service Compositions. This study from its experimental results revealed that the existing Semantic Web Services faces a few challenging issues such as poor prediction of best Web Services and optimized Service Providers, which leads to QoS degradation of Semantic Web. To address and overcome these identified issues, this research work is calculating the semantic similarities, utilization of various Web Services and Service Providers. After measuring these parameters, all the Web Services are ranked based on their Utilization. Finally, our proposed technique, selected best Web Services based on their ranking and placed in Web Services Composition. From the experimental results, it is established that our proposed mechanism improves the performance of Semantic Web in terms of Execution Time, Processor Utilization and Memory Management.

N.K. Sakthivel

2012-04-01

197

Incrementally Dissociating Syntax and Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

A basic challenge for research into the neurobiology of language is understanding how the brain combines words to make complex representations. Linguistic theory divides this task into several computations including syntactic structure building and semantic composition. The close relationship between these computations, however, poses a strong…

Brennan, Jonathan R.

2010-01-01

198

Real world semantic web applications  

CERN Document Server

This work covers commercial applications that make immediate advances and gains insight into the evolution of Semantic Web technology. It focuses on real applications attacking real world problems. This potentially means pragmatic decisions caused by the limitations of today''s technology.

Kashyap, V

2002-01-01

199

The semantic conception of proof  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the informal semantic conception of proof and axiomatize the proof relation and the provability operator. A self referential propositional calculus which admits provable liar type sentences is introduced and proven consistent. We also investigate the problem of interpreting arbitrary formal systems in systems which include a provability operator.

Weaver, Nik

2011-01-01

200

Knowledge Provenance in Semantic Wikis  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaborative online environments with a technical Wiki infrastructure are becoming more widespread. One of the strengths of a Wiki environment is that it is relatively easy for numerous users to contribute original content and modify existing content (potentially originally generated by others). As more users begin to depend on informational content that is evolving by Wiki communities, it becomes more important to track the provenance of the information. Semantic Wikis expand upon traditional Wiki environments by adding some computationally understandable encodings of some of the terms and relationships in Wikis. We have developed a semantic Wiki environment that expands a semantic Wiki with provenance markup. Provenance of original contributions as well as modifications is encoded using the provenance markup component of the Proof Markup Language. The Wiki environment provides the provenance markup automatically, thus users are not required to make specific encodings of author, contribution date, and modification trail. Further, our Wiki environment includes a search component that understands the provenance primitives and thus can be used to provide a provenance-aware search facility. We will describe the knowledge provenance infrastructure of our Semantic Wiki and show how it is being used as the foundation of our group web site as well as a number of project web sites.

Ding, L.; Bao, J.; McGuinness, D. L.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Entanglement as a Semantic Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristic holistic features of the quantum theoretic formalism and the intriguing notion of entanglement can be applied to a field that is far from microphysics: logical semantics. Quantum computational logics are new forms of quantum logic that have been suggested by the theory of quantum logical gates in quantum computation. In the standard semantics of these logics, sentences denote quantum information quantities: systems of qubits ( quregisters) or, more generally, mixtures of quregisters ( qumixes), while logical connectives are interpreted as special quantum logical gates (which have a characteristic reversible and dynamic behavior). In this framework, states of knowledge may be entangled, in such a way that our information about the whole determines our information about the parts; and the procedure cannot be, generally, inverted. In spite of its appealing properties, the standard version of the quantum computational semantics is strongly “Hilbert-space dependent”. This certainly represents a shortcoming for all applications, where real and complex numbers do not generally play any significant role (as happens, for instance, in the case of natural and of artistic languages). We propose an abstract version of quantum computational semantics, where abstract qumixes, quregisters and registers are identified with some special objects (not necessarily living in a Hilbert space), while gates are reversible functions that transform qumixes into qumixes. In this framework, one can give an abstract definition of the notions of superposition and of entangled pieces of information, quite independently of any numerical values. We investigate three different forms of abstract holistic quantum computational logic.

Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

2010-10-01

202

The Semantic Web in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

Ohler, Jason

2008-01-01

203

Semantic Activation in Action Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments investigated activation of semantic information in action preparation. Participants either prepared to grasp and use an object (e.g., to drink from a cup) or to lift a finger in association with the object's position following a go/no-go lexical-decision task. Word stimuli were consistent to the action goals of the object use…

Lindemann, Oliver; Stenneken, Prisca; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold

2006-01-01

204

Functional heterogeneity within the default network during semantic processing and speech production.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This fMRI study investigated the functional heterogeneity of the core nodes of the default mode network (DMN during language processing. The core nodes of the DMN were defined as task-induced deactivations over multiple tasks in 94 healthy subjects. We used a factorial design that manipulated different tasks (semantic matching or speech production and stimuli (familiar words and objects or unfamiliar stimuli, alternating with periods of fixation/rest. Our findings revealed several consistent effects in the DMN, namely less deactivations in the left inferior parietal lobule during semantic than perceptual matching in parallel with greater deactivations during semantic matching in anterior subdivisions of the posterior cingulate cortex and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This suggests that, when the brain is engaged in effortful semantic tasks, a part of the DMN in the left angular gyrus was less deactivated as five other nodes of the DMN were more deactivated. These five DMN areas, where deactivation was greater for semantic than perceptual matching, were further differentiated because deactivation was greater in (i posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex for speech production relative to semantic matching, (ii posterior precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex for perceptual processing relative to speech production and (iii right inferior parietal cortex for pictures of objects relative to written words during both naming and semantic decisions. Our results thus highlight that task difficulty alone cannot fully explain the functional variability in task-induced deactivations. Together these results emphasize that core nodes within the DMN are functionally heterogeneous and differentially sensitive to the type of language processing.

MohamedLSeghier

2012-08-01

205

The SemSearchXplorer - exploring semantic search results with semantic visualizations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SemSearchXplorer is a toolkit for the exploration of semantic data. The goal is to lower user barriers to access information in semantic data repositories. Therefore SemSearchXplorer supports the user in three respects: (1) it supports querying of the semantic data with a keyword based approach, so the users do not need to learn a semantic query language, (2) it helps users find relevant results both by using semantic enriched information about the results and semantic filter options to narro...

Ullmann, Thomas Daniel; Uren, Victoria; Nikolov, Andriy

2009-01-01

206

Uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto: evaluación mediante diferencial semántico / Use of the mirror in the second stage of labor: evaluation by means of semantic differential  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: examinar la actitud de la mujer y su pareja, sobre el uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado en el Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón. A partir de un estudio piloto realizado sobre una muestra de 92 sujetos, se elaboró un [...] a escala de 14 ítems basada en la técnica del diferencial semántico. Una muestra de 159 sujetos completó la escala así como el cuestionario estado-rasgo (STAI). Resultados: el porcentaje de aceptación fue del 90%. Las puntuaciones medias superan el valor neutro en todos los ítems. El 88,5% (IC 95%:78,8 a 98,1) de la mujeres que experimentaron la vivencia consideraron que el uso del espejo estimula pujar frente al 73,6% (IC 95%:62,7 a 84,4) que lo manifestaron como expectativa. Conclusiones: El uso del espejo durante el periodo expulsivo es valorado favorablemente por la mayoría de las mujeres y sus parejas. Abstract in english Aims: To know the attitude of the woman and her partner the use of the mirror in the second stage of labor. Methods: This descriptive cross - sectional study was carried at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, Spain). The data were collected using an 14 Items scale based on the semanti [...] c differential technique developed from a pilot study with 92 subjects. A sample de 159 subjects they completed the scale, as well as the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: The percentage of acceptance was of 90%. The mean score in the scale overcame the neutral value in all items. The 88,5% (CI 95%:78,8 a 98,1) of women who experienced the experience thought that the use of the mirror stimulates to push versus 73,6% (CI 95%:62,7 a 84,4) before the delivery. Conclusions: The use of the mirror during the second stage of labor is valued favorably by the majority of the women and her pairs.

Emilio José, Becerra-Maya; Gloria, Lapuente-Jambrina; Verónica María, Alonso-Ortega.

2011-06-01

207

Well-Founded Argumentation Semantics for Extended Logic Programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper defines an argumentation semantics for extended logic programming and shows its equivalence to the well-founded semantics with explicit negation. We set up a general framework in which we extensively compare this semantics to other argumentation semantics, including those of Dung, and Prakken and Sartor. We present a general dialectical proof theory for these argumentation semantics.

Schweimeier, Ralf; Schroeder, Michael

2002-01-01

208

The Correctness of Launchbury's Natural Semantics for Lazy Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In his seminal paper "A Natural Semantics for Lazy Evaluation", John Launchbury proves his semantics correct with respect to a denotational semantics. We machine-checked the proof and found it to fail, and provide two ways to fix it: One by taking a detour via a modified natural semantics with an explicit stack, and one by adjusting the denotational semantics of heaps.

Breitner, Joachim

2014-01-01

209

Functional differential geometry  

CERN Document Server

Physics is naturally expressed in mathematical language. Students new to the subject must simultaneously learn an idiomatic mathematical language and the content that is expressed in that language. It is as if they were asked to read Les Misérables while struggling with French grammar. This book offers an innovative way to learn the differential geometry needed as a foundation for a deep understanding of general relativity or quantum field theory as taught at the college level.The approach taken by the authors (and used in their classes at MIT for many years) differs from the conventional one in several ways, including an emphasis on the development of the covariant derivative and an avoidance of the use of traditional index notation for tensors in favor of a semantically richer language of vector fields and differential forms. But the biggest single difference is the authors' integration of computer programming into their explanations. By programming a computer to interpret a formula, the student soon learn...

Sussman, Gerald Jay

2013-01-01

210

An overview of semantic compression  

Science.gov (United States)

We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and approaches are considered, ranging from low-level semantic compression for text and database compaction, to high-level semantic analysis of images or video in which objects of interest have been detected, segmented, and represented compactly to facilitate indexing. In particular, we overview previous work in semantic pattern recognition, and how this has been applied to object-based compression. Discussion centers on lossless versus lossy transformations, quality of service in lossy compression, and computational efficiency.

Schmalz, Mark S.

2010-08-01

211

Age effects on semantic coherence: Latent semantic analysis applied to letter fluency data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated age-related changes in the semantic distance between successively generated words in two letter fluency tasks differing with respect to demands placed on executive control. The semantic distance was measured by Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). The results show that older people have a larger semantic distance between successively generated items than young people, and that this effect is particularly pronounced in the more demanding fluency task. Taken together, our findings su...

Marklund, Petter; Sikstro?m, Sverker; Ba?a?th, Ramus

2009-01-01

212

Semantics of Programming Languages: A Tool-Oriented Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By paying more attention to semantics-based tool generation, programming language semantics can significantly increase its impact. Ultimately, this may lead to ``Language Design Assistants'' incorporating substantial amounts of semantic knowledge.

Heering, Jan; Klint, Paul

1999-01-01

213

Semantics in the motor system: motor-cortical beta oscillations reflect semantic knowledge of end-postures for object use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present EEG study we investigated whether semantic knowledge for object use is represented in motor-related brain areas. Subjects were required to perform actions with everyday objects and to maintain either a meaningful or a meaningless end posture with the object. Analysis of the EEG data focused on the beta-frequency band, as previous studies have indicated that the maintenance of a posture is reflected in stronger beta-oscillations. Time frequency analysis indicated that the execution of actions resulting in a meaningless compared to a meaningful end posture was accompanied by a stronger beta-desynchronization towards the end of the movement and a stronger subsequent beta-rebound after posture-onset. The effect in the beta-frequency band was localized to premotor, parietal and medial frontal areas and could not be attributed to differences in timing or movement complexity between meaningful and meaningless actions. Together these findings directly show that the motor system is differentially activated during the execution and maintenance of semantically correct or incorrect end postures. This suggests that semantic object knowledge is indeed represented in motor-related brain areas, organized around specific end postures associated with the use of objects.

HeinT Van Schie

2010-02-01

214

Semantic WEB Services Using Clustering Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Services, like conventional web services, are the server end of a client–server system for machine-to-machine interaction via the World Wide Web. Semantic services are a component of the semantic web because they use markup which makes data machine-readable in a detailed and sophisticated way (as compared with human-readable HTML which is usually not easily "understood" by computer programs. Semantic similarity measures are specific types of Semantic measures: mathematical tools used to estimate the strength of the semantic relationship between units of language, concepts or instances, through a numerical description obtained according to the comparison of information formally or implicitly supporting their meaning or describing their nature.

Jayeeta Majumder,

2014-03-01

215

Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services  

CERN Document Server

For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

Wang, Xia

2013-01-01

216

Coinductive big-step operational semantics  

CERN Document Server

Using a call-by-value functional language as an example, this article illustrates the use of coinductive definitions and proofs in big-step operational semantics, enabling it to describe diverging evaluations in addition to terminating evaluations. We formalize the connections between the coinductive big-step semantics and the standard small-step semantics, proving that both semantics are equivalent. We then study the use of coinductive big-step semantics in proofs of type soundness and proofs of semantic preservation for compilers. A methodological originality of this paper is that all results have been proved using the Coq proof assistant. We explain the proof-theoretic presentation of coinductive definitions and proofs offered by Coq, and show that it facilitates the discovery and the presentation of the results.

Leroy, Xavier

2008-01-01

217

The Formal Semantics of PVS  

Science.gov (United States)

A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.

Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

1999-01-01

218

Modular Graph Rewriting to Compute Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taking an asynchronous perspective on the syntax-semantics interface, we propose to use modular graph rewriting systems as the model of computation. We formally define them and demonstrate their use with a set of modules which produce underspecified semantic representations from a syntactic dependency graph. We experimentally validate this approach on a set of sentences. The results open the way for the production of underspecified semantic dependency structures from corpora annotated with sy...

Bonfante, Guillaume; Guillaume, Bruno; Morey, Mathieu; Perrier, Guy

2011-01-01

219

Folksonomies, the semantic web, and movie recommendation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While the Semantic Web has evolved to support the meaningful exchange ofheterogeneous data through shared and controlled conceptualisations, Web 2.0 has demonstrated that large-scale community tagging sites can enrich the semantic web with readily accessible and valuable knowledge. In this paper, we investigate the integration of a movies folksonomy with a semantic knowledge base about user-movie rentals. The folksonomy is used to enrich the knowledge base with descriptions and categorisation...

Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; Alani, Harith; O Hara, Kieron; Baldassarri, Andrea; Loreto, Vittorio; Servedio, Vito D. P.

2007-01-01

220

Normativity and interaction: from ethics to semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Normativity and interaction: from ethics to semantics María Inés Crespo Abstract: Judgments about semantic (in)correctness in natural language occur in our daily conversations. Regarding a speaker or interpreter, we can make an assessment of her use or interpretation of an expression with respect to that expression~s linguistic meaning. Judgments about semantic (in)correctness steer our behaviour in conversations. An interpreter who considers that the speaker has ma...

Ine?s Crespo, Mari?a

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Semantic priming of different affective categories.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors investigated affective semantic priming using a lexical decision task with 4 affective categories of related word pairs: neutral, happy, fearful, and sad. Results demonstrated a striking and reliable effect of affective category on semantic priming. Neutral and happy prime-targets yielded significant semantic priming. Fearful pairs showed no or modest priming facilitation, and sad primes slowed reactions to sad targets. A further experiment established that affective primes do not...

Rossell, Sl; Nobre, AC

2004-01-01

222

Semantic Data Management (Dagstuhl Seminar 12171)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 12171 "Semantic Data Management". The purpose of the seminar was to have a fruitful exchange of ideas between the semantic web, database systems and information retrieval communities, organised across four main themes: scalability, provenance, dynamicity and search. Relevant key questions cutting across all of these themes were: (i) how can existing DB and IR solutions be adapted to manage semantic data; and (ii) are there...

Antoniou, Grigoris; Corcho, Oscar; Aberer, Karl; Simperl, Elena; Studer, Rudi

2012-01-01

223

Document space models using latent semantic analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, an approach for constructing mixture language models (LMs) based on some notion of semantics is discussed. To this end, a technique known as latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used. The approach encapsulates corpus-derived semantic information and is able to model the varying style of the text. Using such information, the corpus texts are clustered in an unsupervised manner and mixture LMs are automatically created. This work builds on previous work in the field of information r...

Gotoh, Yoshihiko; Renals, Steve

1997-01-01

224

Fisher Kernels and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tasks that rely on semantic content of documents, notably Information Retrieval and Document Classification, can benefit from a good account of document context, i.e. the semantic association between documents. To this effect, the scheme of latent semantics blends individual words appearing throughout a document collection into latent topics, thus providing a way to handle documents that is less constrained than the conventional approach by the mere ...

Eckard, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

225

Semantically enhanced Uyghur Information Retrieval Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional Uyghur search engine lacks semantic information, aiming to solve this problem, a semantically enhanced Uyghur information retrieval model was proposed based on the characteristics of Uyghur language. Firstly word stemming was carried out and web pages were represented by the form of 3-triples to construct the Uyghur knowledge base, then the matching between ontologies and web pages was established by computing concept similarity and relation similarity. Semantic inverted index was...

Bo Ma; Yating Yang; Xi Zhou; Junlin Zhou

2012-01-01

226

Symbolic and Asynchronous Semantics via Normalized Coalgebras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The operational semantics of interactive systems is usually described by labeled transition systems. Abstract semantics (that is defined in terms of bisimilarity) is characterized by the final morphism in some category of coalgebras. Since the behaviour of interactive systems is for many reasons infinite, symbolic semantics were introduced as a mean to define smaller, possibly finite, transition systems, by employing symbolic actions and avoiding some sources of infiniteness...

Bonchi, Filippo; Montanari, Ugo

2012-01-01

227

A variable-free dynamic semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I propose a variable-free treatment of dynamic semantics. By "dynamic semantics" I mean analyses of donkey sentences ("Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it") and other binding and anaphora phenomena in natural language where meanings of constituents are updates to information states, for instance as proposed by Groenendijk and Stokhof. By "variable-free" I mean denotational semantics in which functional combinators replace variable indices and assignment functions, for in...

Shan, Chung-chieh

2002-01-01

228

From Causal Semantics To Duration Timed Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interleaving semantics is not compatible with both action refinement and durational actions. Since many true concurrency semantics are congruent w.r.t. action refinement, notably the causality and the maximality ones, this has challenged us to study the dense time behavior - where the actions are of arbitrary fixed duration - within the causality semantics of Da Costa. We extend the causal transition systems with the clocks and the timed constraints, and thus we obtain...

Belkhir, Walid

2009-01-01

229

Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building systems based on Semantic-Web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic-Web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing (IT) endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific inf...

Ashish, Naveen; Industrial Experiences

2005-01-01

230

Exploiting Social Semantics for Multilingual Information Retrieval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we consider how user-generated content that is assembled by different popular Web portals can be exploited for Multilingual Information Retrieval. We define the knowledge that can be derived from such portals as Social Semantics. We present to approaches, Cross-lingual Explicit Semantic Analysis and Discriminative Retrieval Models, that are able to support multilingual retrieval models by integrating Social Semantics derived from Wikipedia and Yahoo! Answers.

Sorg, Philipp

2011-01-01

231

Semantic Clustering Based Relevance Language Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How to effectively generate clusters and use the information in clusters to improve information retrieval performance are still open research questions. By viewing a document as an interaction of a set of independent hidden topics, we propose a novel semantic clustering technique using independent component analysis. Then within language modeling framework, we apply the obtained semantic topic clusters into the estimation process of relevance model. We expect that semantic clustering wi...

Qiang Pu; Daqing He

2010-01-01

232

Knowledge Organization Systems for Semantic Digital Libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the traditional knowledge organization systems (KOS) like classification, thesauri are paving way for ontologies, transtechnological data models and semantic networks of data exchange provide impetus for developing semantic digital libraries. This paper attempts to find the KOS in the early digital libraries, and how they can be integrated with the digital library architectures using emergent semantic technologies and data. Metadata remains as a core area at the heart o...

Babu, Preedip Balaji; Sarangi, Amit K.; Madalli, Devika P.

2012-01-01

233

Semantic Types, Lexical Sorts and Classifiers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a cognitively and linguistically motivated set of sorts for lexical semantics in a compositional setting: the classifiers in languages that do have such pronouns. These sorts are needed to include lexical considerations in a semantical analyser such as Boxer or Grail. Indeed, all proposed lexical extensions of usual Montague semantics to model restriction of selection, felicitous and infelicitous copredication require a rich and refined type system whose base type...

Mery, Bruno; Retore?, Christian

2013-01-01

234

Semantic Plagiarism Detection System Using Ontology Mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism detection can play an important role in detecting stealing of original ideas in papers, journals and internet web sites. Checking these manually is simply impossible nowadays due to existence of large digital repository. Ontology is a way of describing documents semantics. Ontology mapping can resolve semantic heterogeneity in documents. Our paper proposes an automatic system for semantic plagiarism detection based on ontology mapping.

Manjula Shenoy K

2012-06-01

235

Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

2007-01-01

236

Explicit fairness in testing semantics  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we investigate fair computations in the pi-calculus. Following Costa and Stirling's approach for CCS-like languages, we consider a method to label process actions in order to filter out unfair computations. We contrast the existing fair-testing notion with those that naturally arise by imposing weak and strong fairness. This comparison provides insight about the expressiveness of the various `fair' testing semantics and about their discriminating power.

Cacciagrano, D; Palamidessi, C

2009-01-01

237

Harnessing manpower for creating semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The eective information processing (e.g. search, organi-zation) of the heterogeneous information spaces requiresmetadata layer above the resources. However, the acqui-sition of resource metadata and domain models are chal-lenging tasks. Here, the crowdsourcing has emerged asan alternative to expert-based and automated semanticsacquisition approaches. One of its branches are the gameswith a purpose (GWAPs) which encapsulate the seman-tics acquisition tasks into the game processes. We analyzeex...

Jakub Simko

2013-01-01

238

Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. X...

Juha Puustjarvi

2010-01-01

239

Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Syste...

Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

2010-01-01

240

Flavour processing in semantic dementia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cognitive mechanisms for the analysis of flavour information remain poorly understood. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) could potentially provide a window on these mechanisms; however, while abnormal eating behaviour and altered food preferences are common in SD, flavour processing has been little studied in this disorder. Here we undertook a detailed investigation of flavour processing in three patients at different stages of SD. One patient with a clinical syndrome of logopenic apha...

Piwnica-worms, K. E.; Omar, R.; Hailstone, J. C.; Warren, J. D.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Social and semantic web integration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the following thesis is to present the key concepts of Social and Semantic Web, to examine the possibilities of their integration and to develop and implement on the basis of good practice a concrete example of an application that combines the advantages of both areas. The thematic area of social web, its basic forms and examples of popular web applications are presented more thoroughly. These applications offer a range of technologies for content syndication, networking, mu...

Trop, Matej

2009-01-01

242

Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning  

CERN Document Server

In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Systems in this research paper.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

243

A semantic spatial hypertext wiki  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spatial Hypertext Wiki (ShyWiki) is a wiki which represents knowledge using notes that are spatially distributed in wiki pages and have some visual characteristics such as colour, size, or font type. Spatial and visual characteristics are important in a wiki to improve human comprehension, creation and organization of knowledge. Another important capability in wikis is to allow machines to process knowledge. Wikis that formally structure knowledge for this purpose are called semantic wikis. ...

Solis, Carlos; Ali, Nour

2010-01-01

244

Synonyms Provide Semantic Preview Benefit in English.  

Science.gov (United States)

While orthographic and phonological preview benefits in reading are uncontroversial (see Schotter, Angele, & Rayner, 2012 for a review), researchers have debated the existence of semantic preview benefit with positive evidence in Chinese and German, but no support in English. Two experiments, using the gazecontingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), show that semantic preview benefit can be observed in English when the preview and target are synonyms (share the same or highly similar meaning, e.g., curlers-rollers). However, no semantic preview benefit was observed for semantic associates (e.g., curlers-styling). These different preview conditions represent different degrees to which the meaning of the sentence changes when the preview is replaced by the target. When this continuous variable (determined by a norming procedure) was used as the predictor in the analyses, there was a significant relationship between it and all reading time measures, suggesting that similarity in meaning between what is accessed parafoveally and what is processed foveally may be an important influence on the presence of semantic preview benefit. Why synonyms provide semantic preview benefit in reading English is discussed in relation to (1) previous failures to find semantic preview benefit in English and (2) the fact that semantic preview benefit is observed in other languages even for non-synonymous words. Semantic preview benefit is argued to depend on several factors-attentional resources, depth of orthography, and degree of similarity between preview and target. PMID:24347813

Schotter, Elizabeth R

2013-11-01

245

Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical meanings of the female proverbs connote worse qualities than those connoted by the male proverbs.

Azam Estaji

2011-09-01

246

Automatic Annotation and Semantic Search from Protégé  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic search has been one of the major envisioned benefits of the Semantic Web since its emergence in the late 90’s [1]. Our demo shows a proposal towards this goal. One way to view a semantic search engine is as a tool that gets formal queries (e.g. in RDQL, RQL, SPARQL, or the like) from a client, executes them against an ontology-based knowledge base, and returns tuples of ontology values (resources) that satisfy the query [2]. While this conception of semantic search brings enormous ...

Fernandez, Miriam; Vallett, David; Castells, Pablo

2005-01-01

247

Semantic Clustering Based Relevance Language Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to effectively generate clusters and use the information in clusters to improve information retrieval performance are still open research questions. By viewing a document as an interaction of a set of independent hidden topics, we propose a novel semantic clustering technique using independent component analysis. Then within language modeling framework, we apply the obtained semantic topic clusters into the estimation process of relevance model. We expect that semantic clustering will filter out those noisy documents so that the estimation of relevance model is only based on relevant documents and some useful semantic information. A semantic cluster is activated to be the most similar to a user’s information need by user’s query, the documents in the activated semantic cluster and the keywords of representing the activated semantic cluster are used for the estimation of relevance model. Therefore, we obtain a semantic cluster based relevance language model that uses pseudo relevance feedback technique without requiring any relevance training information. We applied the model in experiments on five TREC data sets. The experiment results show that our model can significantly improve retrieval performance over previous language models including relevance-based language models. We think that the main contribution of the improved performance comes from the estimation of relevance model on the semantic cluster that is closely related to a user’s information need.

Qiang Pu

2010-01-01

248

Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems  

CERN Document Server

Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

2013-01-01

249

Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

Ganapathi Babu, K.; Komali, A.; Mythry, V.; Ratnam, A. S. K.

2012-01-01

250

Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

Juha Puustjarvi

2010-09-01

251

Nature of personal semantic memory: evidence from Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personal semantic memory is factual knowledge about a person's own past. Although personal semantic memory is assumed to have features of both semantic memory and episodic memory, the relationship to episodic memory and to semantic memory have not been well documented. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, episodic memory, semantic memory, and personal semantic memory are all defective. In this study, the hypothesis that defective personal semantic memory is related to both semantic and episodic memory dysfunction was tested in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Functions of episodic, semantic, and personal semantic memory were examined by using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), subtests of the WAIS-R (Information, Vocabulary, Comprehension and Similarities), and the Family Line Test (FLT) in 62 patients who met the NINCDS/ADRDA criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease. Specific effects of episodic and semantic memory on personal semantic memory were examined by using multiple linear regression analysis with the total score of the FLT as the dependent variable and the WMS-R Delayed Recall weighted sum score and the WAIS-R Semantic Memory score (a composite of standardized scores of the four subtests) as the independent variables. Personal semantic memory function was significantly correlated with both the episodic and semantic memory functions, after controlling age, sex, educational attainment, and severity of dementia. This result supports the hypotheses that personal semantic memory has features of both episodic and semantic memory, and that semantic memory is transformed from episodic memory. PMID:12667533

Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Hirono, Nobutsugu; Mori, Etsuro

2003-01-01

252

Integrating dynamic resources in corporate semantic web: an approach to enterprise application integration using semantic web services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing semantic web server architecture used by the ACACIA team to implement corporate memories. We rely on CORESE, a semantic web search engine, to provide web applications based on the semantic web services it can identify. Thus, CORESE is used as a semantic UDDI registry and allows us to automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules and an extensi...

Lo, Moussa; Gandon, Fabien

2006-01-01

253

Biomedical Knowledge Extraction Using Fuzzy Differential Profiles and Semantic Ranking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, technologies such as DNA microarrays allow to generate big scale of transcriptomic data used to the aim of exploring background of genes. The analysis and the interpretation of such data requires important databases and efficient mining methods, in order to extract specific biological functions belonging to a group of genes of an expression profile. To this aim, we propose here a new approach for mining transcriptomic data combining domain knowledge and classification methods. First...

Benabderrahmane, Sidahmed

2013-01-01

254

HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ON SEMANTIC WEB :(SEMANTIC HIM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information technology have changed information media by networking and internet .using technology inhealth as same as another part improve efficieincy and effectivness. currently the medical document isReality-based medicine, so that is the most important ,richest and the most realistic source of medical andhealth information.Health information management systems that require systems to the storage, retrieval,storage and elimination of health records (by law, and adjust to the rules of professional. these processare difficult and time consumig for human. In the meantime semantic HIM seem best solution.KEYWORDS

Nasim Khozoie

2012-02-01

255

Modelling Semantic Association and Conceptual Inheritance for Semantic Analysis  

CERN Document Server

Allowing users to interact through language borders is an interesting challenge for information technology. For the purpose of a computer assisted language learning system, we have chosen icons for representing meaning on the input interface, since icons do not depend on a particular language. However, a key limitation of this type of communication is the expression of articulated ideas instead of isolated concepts. We propose a method to interpret sequences of icons as complex messages by reconstructing the relations between concepts, so as to build conceptual graphs able to represent meaning and to be used for natural language sentence generation. This method is based on an electronic dictionary containing semantic information.

Vaillant, P

2001-01-01

256

When the zebra loses its stripes but is still in the savannah: results from a semantic priming paradigm in semantic dementia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies using semantic priming paradigms to measure the integrity of the features underlying concepts in semantic dementia (SD) reported differential impairment, in that functional features appeared to be more robust to brain damage than other features, such as perceptual ones. However, these prior studies were single case reports and the inclusion of too many heterogeneous features under the "functional features" heading casts doubts on their apparent preservation. To verify the robustness of functional features compared with perceptual ones, we carried out a group study where we deliberately restricted the exploration of semantic features to two clearly defined types of attribute: visuoperceptual ("visual") versus contextual-functional ("contextual"). We administered an implicit lexical-decision priming task to 8 SD patients and 31 healthy matched controls, at baseline. Four of the patients underwent a follow-up assessment at one year. For controls, we found a significant priming effect in the visual condition, but not in the contextual one, whereas the SD group exhibited the reverse pattern of performances. The follow-up data provided evidence of the robustness of the dissociation between priming performances in the two attribute conditions. The fact that a particular priming effect was observed in the SD patients but not in controls could be regarded as a sign of semantic disequilibrium. Since perceptual features have been shown to be a core determinant of similarity-based/taxonomic relationships, whereas complementary-based/thematic processing relies mainly on contextual relationships, we interpreted our findings in terms of the differential recruitment of one of the two systems of semantic relationships (taxonomic vs. thematic). Moreover, these two distinct and parallel systems have previously been reported to coexist - and compete - in healthy adults. We thus argue that controls automatically drew on similarity-based/taxonomic relationships, leading to a significant priming effect for visual features but not for contextual ones. By contrast, their impaired perceptual features forced the SD patients to resort to the system of thematic relationships. PMID:24316142

Merck, Catherine; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Laisney, Mickaël; Vichard, Hélène; Belliard, Serge

2014-01-01

257

Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information  

Science.gov (United States)

The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

2005-01-01

258

Compositional semantics and the lemma dilemma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss two key assumptions of Levelt et al.'s model of lexical retrieval: (1) the nondecompositional character of concepts and (2) lemmas as purely syntactic representations. These assumptions fail to capture the broader role of lemmas, which we propose as that of lexical-semantic representations binding (compositional) semantics with phonology (or orthography).

Zorzi, M.; Vigliocco, G.

1999-01-01

259

Semantically Annotating RESTful Services with SWEET  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents SWEET: Semantic Web sErvices Editing Tool, the first tool developed for the semi-automatic acquisition of semantic RESTful service descriptions, aiming to support a higher level of automation of common RESTful service tasks, such as discovery and composition.

Maleshkova, Maria; Pedrinaci, Carlos; Domingue, John

2009-01-01

260

Event Semantics, Typeshifting and Passive in Swahili.  

Science.gov (United States)

This semantic analysis assumes the overall framework of an extended standard theory of grammar, focusing on the lexicon and making a case for semantic mapping. It assumes Chomsky's (1986) theory that the projection of a verb and its arguments into syntax is determined by its lexical specifications. It further accepts the arguments of Williams…

Salone, S. B.

 
 
 
 
261

Semantic search integration to climate data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present how research projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using Semantic Search capabilities to help scientists perform their research. We will discuss how the Mercury metadata search system, with the help of the semantic search capability, is being used to find, retrieve, and link climate change data. DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2014.6867639

Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Shrestha, Biva [ORNL

2014-01-01

262

Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

2013-01-01

263

Social Networking on the Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

2005-01-01

264

Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise  

Science.gov (United States)

An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

2012-01-01

265

Essay Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is an automated, statistical technique for comparing the semantic similarity of words or documents. In this article, I examine the application of LSA to automated essay scoring. I compare LSA methods to earlier statistical methods for assessing essay quality, and critically review contemporary essay-scoring systems…

Miller, Tristan

2003-01-01

266

Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

Le Ny, Jean-Francois

1975-01-01

267

The Semantic Web in Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

2014-01-01

268

Semantic Processing of Previews within Compound Words  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested that previews of words prior to fixation can be processed orthographically, but not semantically, during reading of sentences (K. Rayner, D. A. Balota, & A. Pollatsek, 1986). The present study tested whether semantic processing of previews can occur within words. The preview of the second constituent of…

White, Sarah J.; Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka

2008-01-01

269

The Semantic Web and Educational Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

2008-01-01

270

Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting  

CERN Document Server

Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS) for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS). The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems. The first result is its equivalence with the so-called Borrowed Context technique. Unfortunately, the axiomatization is not compositional in the expected manner as no rule captures "internal" communication of sub-systems. The main result states that such a rule is derivable if the given graph transformation system enjoys a certain property, which we call "complementarity of actions". Archetypal examples of such systems are interacti...

Dorman, Andrei; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.4

2011-01-01

271

SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

272

Semantic fields in low-functioning autism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Restricted semantic fields and resultant stimulus overselectivity are often thought to be typical of low-functioning autism, as is a strong visual processing preference. However, these conclusions may in part be an artifact of testing methodology. A 12-year-old, low-functioning and nonverbal autistic boy was tested on an auditory word-to-picture selection task. The picture foils were chosen to have visual features, semantic features, both, or neither in common with the correct answer. Errors were made more often to semantically than to visually related items, and he showed generalization to items that had not been explicitly trained. This is taken as evidence that his semantic fields are broader than otherwise apparent, and that he was capable of expanding his semantic representations independently of specific training. PMID:12553593

Boser, Katharina; Higgins, Susannah; Fetherston, Anne; Preissler, Melissa Allen; Gordon, Barry

2002-12-01

273

Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

Cheng Wen-Huang

2006-01-01

274

Semantic Approach for Query Explication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since ther...

Shruti Gupta; Mahesh Verma

2013-01-01

275

Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently...

Ronald Moe

2011-01-01

276

Semantic classification of business images  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital cameras are becoming increasingly common for capturing information in business settings. In this paper, we describe a novel method for classifying images into the following semantic classes: document, whiteboard, business card, slide, and regular images. Our method is based on combining low-level image features, such as text color, layout, and handwriting features with high-level OCR output analysis. Several Support Vector Machine Classifiers are combined for multi-class classification of input images. The system yields 95% accuracy in classification.

Erol, Berna; Hull, Jonathan J.

2006-01-01

277

Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

2011-01-01

278

Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

2011-01-01

279

The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

Yates, Mark

2012-01-01

280

Semantic Categorization: A Comparison between Deaf and Hearing Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic

Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

SRBIR: Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval by Extracting the Dominant Region and Semantic Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval (SRBIR system that automatically segments the dominant foreground region, consisting of the semantic concept of the image, such as elephants, roses and does the semantic learning, is proposed. Approach: The system segments an image into different regions and finds the dominant foreground region in it, which is the semantic concept of that image. Then it extracts the low-level features of that dominant foreground region. The Support Vector Machine-Binary Decision Tree (SVM-BDT is used for semantic learning and it finds the semantic category of an image. The low level features of the dominant region of each category image are used to find the semantic template of that category. The SVM-BDT is constructed with the help of these semantic templates. The high level concept of the query image is obtained using this SVM-BDT. Similarity matching is done between the query image and the set of images belonging to the semantic category of the query image and the top images with least distances are retrieved. Results: Experiments were conducted using the COREL dataset consisting of 10,000 images and its subset with 1000 images of 10 different semantic categories. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, compared to those of the commonly used region based image retrieval approaches. Conclusion: Efficient image searching, browsing and retrieval are required by users from various domains, such as medicine, fashion, architecture, training and teaching. The proposed SRBIR system aims at retrieving images based on their semantic content by extracting the dominant foreground region in the image and learning its semantic concept with the help of the SVM-BDT. The proposed SRBIR system provides an efficient image search based on semantics, with high accuracy and less access time.

I. F. Rajam

2011-01-01

282

Introduction to geospatial semantics and technology workshop handbook  

Science.gov (United States)

The workshop is a tutorial on introductory geospatial semantics with hands-on exercises using standard Web browsers. The workshop is divided into two sections, general semantics on the Web and specific examples of geospatial semantics using data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Open Ontology Repository. The general semantics section includes information and access to publicly available semantic archives. The specific session includes information on geospatial semantics with access to semantically enhanced data for hydrography, transportation, boundaries, and names. The Open Ontology Repository offers open-source ontologies for public use.

Varanka, Dalia E.

2012-01-01

283

Latent semantics as cognitive components  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures, which we suggest might function as cognitive components for perceiving the underlying structure in lyrics.

Petersen, Michael Kai; MØrup, Morten

2010-01-01

284

ISBD and the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possibilities of integration between ISBD and the semantic web have been examined through the work of the IFLA Study Groups, created with the task to investigate the possibilities for representing ISBD in web technologies and services. One of the main study groups is represented by the ISBD/XML Study Group, formed in 2008.The paper describes the activities developing a representation of International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD in Resource Description Framework (RDF: the research, technical, and administrative activities undertaken to make bibliographic metadata authorized by the IFLA standard available to the Semantic Web as trustworthy information.The paper discusses the ongoing representation of elements in RDF in the ISBD namespace, the treatment of aggregated statements composed of multiple elements, and the development of a Dublin Core Application Profile for ISBD. An introduction to recent initiatives within IFLA to develop representation of its models and standards in RDF, as well as an administrative and technical infrastructure to support such initiatives will be given as a background to the work on ISBD.Some European libraries such as the British Library and the Mannheim University Library, are experimenting means to transform their catalogues into tools interoperating with the web. RDF seems to be the most suitable tool for the universal bibliographic control within the libraries of the future.

Mirna Willer

2010-12-01

285

Learning Analogies and Semantic Relations  

CERN Document Server

We present an algorithm for learning from unlabeled text, based on the Vector Space Model (VSM) of information retrieval, that can solve verbal analogy questions of the kind found in the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A verbal analogy has the form A:B::C:D, meaning "A is to B as C is to D"; for example, mason:stone::carpenter:wood. SAT analogy questions provide a word pair, A:B, and the problem is to select the most analogous word pair, C:D, from a set of five choices. The VSM algorithm correctly answers 47% of a collection of 374 college-level analogy questions (random guessing would yield 20% correct). We motivate this research by relating it to work in cognitive science and linguistics, and by applying it to a difficult problem in natural language processing, determining semantic relations in noun-modifier pairs. The problem is to classify a noun-modifier pair, such as "laser printer", according to the semantic relation between the noun (printer) and the modifier (laser). We use a supervised nearest-neigh...

Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Littman, Michael L.

2003-01-01

286

Deregulated semantic cognition contributes to object-use deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A comparison with semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Executive control is impaired from the early stages of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and this produces deregulated semantic cognition (Corbett, Jefferies, Burns, & Lambon Ralph, ; Perry, Watson, & Hodges, ). While control deficits should affect semantic retrieval across all modalities, previous studies have typically focused on verbal semantic tasks. Even when non-verbal semantic tasks have been used, these have typically employed simple picture-matching tasks, which may be influenced by abnormalities in covert naming. Therefore, in the present study, we examined 10 patients with AD on a battery of object-use tasks, in order to advance our understanding of the origins of non-verbal semantic deficits in this population. The AD patients' deficits were contrasted with previously published performance on the same tasks within two additional groups of patients, displaying either semantic degradation (semantic dementia) or deregulation of semantic retrieval (semantic aphasia; Corbett, Jefferies, Ehsan, & Lambon Ralph, ). While overall accuracy was comparable to the scores in both other groups, the AD patients' object-use impairment most closely resembled that observed in SA; they exhibited poorer performance on comprehension tasks that placed strong demands on executive control. A similar pattern was observed in the expressive domain: the AD and SA groups were relatively good at straightforward object use compared to executively demanding, mechanical puzzles. Error types also differed: while all patients omitted essential actions, the SA and AD groups' demonstrations also featured unrelated intrusions. An association between AD patients' object use and their scores on standard executive measures suggested that control deficits contributed to their non-verbal semantic deficits. Moreover, in a task specifically designed to manipulate executive demand, patients with AD (and SA) exhibited difficulty in thinking flexibly about the non-canonical uses of everyday objects, especially when distracted by semantically related objects. This study provides converging evidence for the notion that a failure of regulatory control contributes to multimodal semantic impairment in AD and uniquely demonstrates this pattern for the highly non-verbal domain of object use. PMID:24909263

Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Burns, Alistair; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

2014-06-01

287

Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation towards semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited.

MarkusKiefer

2012-08-01

288

Information Interaction as a Mechanism of Semantic Gap Elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies semantic gap as an objective phenomenon, shows that semantic gap occurs both in parallel computing and in other areas. Semantic description of the content is revealed as a set of different descriptions. Causes of semantic gap are described. The content of information exchange is explained in the article. Information interaction in the semantic field is interpreted as a mechanism to lessen the gap

Victor Y. Tsvetkov

2013-01-01

289

Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construc...

Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

2010-01-01

290

Semantic Web search based on ontological conjunctive queries.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data, and will possibly consist of (some form of) the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Semantic Web search, called Serene, which allows for a semantic processing of Web search queries, and for evaluating complex Web search queries that involve reasoning over the Web. More specifically, we first add ontological structure and semantics to Web ...

Fazzinga, B.; Gianforme, G.; Gottlob, G.; Lukasiewicz, T.

2011-01-01

291

The usability of semantic search tools: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of semantic search is to improve on traditional search methods by exploiting the semantic metadata. In this paper, we argue that supporting iterative and exploratory search modes is important to the usability of all search systems. We also identify the types of semantic queries the users need to make, the issues concerning the search environment and the problems that are intrinsic to semantic search in particular. We then review the four modes of user interaction in existing semantic...

Uren, Victoria; Lei, Yuangui; Lopez, Vanessa; Liu, Haiming; Motta, Enrico; Giordanino, Marina

2007-01-01

292

Combining knowledge discovery, ontologies, annotations, and semantic wikis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Wikis provide an original and operational infrastructure for efficiently combining semantic technologies and collaborative design activities. This text presents: a running example and its context (organization of the collections in a museum); concepts of wikis as a tool to allow computer supported cooperative work (cscw); concepts of semantic technologies and knowledge representation; concepts and examples of semantic wikis; anatomy of a semantic wiki (reasoning tools, storage, query...

Astudillo, Hernan; Codocedo, Victor; Canals, Ge?ro?me; Torres, Diego; Diaz, Alicia; Napoli, Amedeo; Gomes, Alan; Pimentel, Maria-grac?a

2009-01-01

293

A Rewriting Logic Semantics Approach to Modular Program Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The K framework, based on rewriting logic semantics, provides a powerful logic for defining the semantics of programming languages. While most work in this area has focused on defining an evaluation semantics for a language, it is also possible to define an abstract semantics that can be used for program analysis. Using the SILF language (Hills, Serbanuta and Rosu, 2007), this paper describes one technique for defining such a semantics: policy frameworks. In policy frameworks, an analysis-gen...

Hills, Mark; Rosu, Grigore

2010-01-01

294

Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is fir...

Xiaohui Wang; Jia Jia; Yongxin Wang; Lianhong Cai

2011-01-01

295

MULTI LEVEL SEMANTIC EXTRACTION FOR CRICKET VIDEO BY TEXT PROCESSING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic video analysis, indexing and retrieval are necessary for effective utilization of video repositories. The semantics can be extracted from the semantic carriers such as voice and video text. Super imposed text is the proper source to extract semantics of the video which will increase the efficiency of retrieval system. This paper proposes a semiautomatic method to generate annotation for cricket videos and an automated tool- DLER, to extract the semantics of cricket video. The DLER to...

Sunitha Abburu, Dr

2010-01-01

296

Design of Collection and Semantic Annotation System for Web Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to satisfy the requirement of educators to automatically construct educational resource database with Web images, the paper designs and implements a collection and semantic annotation system for Web images. With the help of meta-search engine, the system collects Web images and their associated texts. In order to annotate semantic keywords, semantic dictionaries are built. Based on semantic dictionaries, the system annotates semantic keywords for Web images. The system is composed wi...

Ruojuan Xue; Wenpeng Lu; Jinyong Cheng

2013-01-01

297

SCALESEM : Evaluation of Semantic Graph based on Model Checking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic interoperability problems have found their solutions using languages and techniques from the Semantic Web. The proliferation of ontologies and meta-information has improved the understanding of information and the relevance of search engine responses. However, the construction of semantic graphs is a source of numerous errors of interpretation or modelling and scalability remains a major problem. The processing of large semantic graphs is a limit to the use of semantics in current in...

Gueffaz, Mahdi; Rampacek, Sylvain; Nicolle, Christophe

2011-01-01

298

Composing Semantic Web Services with PDDL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to solve the problem of composing semantic Web services with AI planner. Automatic semantic Web service composition is a key technique in the research of Web service. The idea of composing semantic Web services using AI planner has been presented in several studies. In our opinion, since the different application domains and the constraint of precondition that AI planners have, none of the existing planners can deal with the problem of semantic Web services composition perfectly. In this study, we present an algorithm for translating semantic Web service composition problem to AI planning problem described in PDDL. Based on this algorithm, according to the situation of the problem, we can use the most suitable AI planner to compose Web services. One of our goals is to support the claim that AI planner can be used in the domain of semantic Web service composition. The other goal of ours is that the description of semantic Web services can be translated into a description written in PDDL. There are also several key procedures of the translating algorithm in this study.

Bo Yang

2010-01-01

299

A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are playing a crucial role in enhancing traditional web search, as it is working to create machine readable data. but it will not replace traditional search engine. In this paper we made a brief survey on various promising features of some of the best semantic search engines developed so far and we have discussed the various approaches to semantic search. We have summarized the techniques, advantages of some important semantic web search engines that are developed so far.The most prominent part is that how the semantic search engines differ from the traditional searches and their results are shown by giving a sample query as input

G.Sudeepthi

2012-03-01

300

Semantic classification of pictures and words.  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide new behavioural norms for semantic classification of pictures and words. The picture stimuli are 288 black and white line drawings from the International Picture Naming Project ([Székely, A., Jacobsen, T., D'Amico, S., Devescovi, A., Andonova, E., Herron, D., et al. (2004). A new on-line resource for psycholinguistic studies. Journal of Memory & Language, 51, 247-250]). We presented these pictures for classification in a living/nonliving decision, and in a separate version of the task presented the corresponding word labels for classification. We analyzed behavioural responses to a subset of the stimuli in order to explore questions about semantic processing. We found multiple semantic richness effects for both picture and word classification. Further, while lexical-level factors were related to semantic classification of words, they were not related to semantic classification of pictures. We argue that these results are consistent with privileged semantic access for pictures, and point to ways in which these data could be used to address other questions about picture processing and semantic memory. PMID:25403693

Taikh, Alex; Hargreaves, Ian S; Yap, Melvin J; Pexman, Penny M

2014-11-18

 
 
 
 
301

Semantic Conflicts Reconciliation as a Viable Solution for Semantic Heterogeneity Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving semantic interoperability is a current challenge in the field of data integration in order to bridge semantic conflicts occurring when the participating sources and receivers use different or implicit data assumptions. Providing a framework that automatically detects and resolves semantic conflicts is considered as a daunting task for many reasons, it should preserve the local autonomy of the integrated sources, as well as provides a standard query language for accessing the integrated data on a global basis. Many existing traditional and ontology-based approaches have tried to achieve semantic interoperability, but they have certain drawbacks that make them inappropriate for integrating data from a large number of participating sources. We propose semantic conflicts reconciliation (SCR framework, it is ontology-based system in which all data semantics explicitly described in the knowledge representation phase and automatically taken into account through the interpretation mediation service phase, so conflicts detected and resolved automatically at the query time

Walaa S. Ismail

2013-05-01

302

SemanticOrganizer: A Customizable Semantic Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams  

Science.gov (United States)

SemanticOrganizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, semantically structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. SemanticOrganizer is one of the earliest and largest semantic web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes SemanticOrganizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful semantic web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.

Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

2004-01-01

303

The Semantic eScience Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF

McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James

2010-05-01

304

SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. To improve the internet service quality and increase the user click rate on a specific website, it is necessary for a web developer to know what the user really want to do, predict which pages the user is potentially interested in. In this paper, various techniques for Semantic Web mining like web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining are discussed. Our main focus is on web usage mining and its application in web personalization. Study shows that the accuracy of recommendation system has improved significantly with the use of semantic web mining in web personalization. Keywords: Navigation Pattern, Pattern Analysis, Semantic Web, Web Personalization, Web Usage Mining.

Anil Sharma

2011-07-01

305

Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,

2011-07-01

306

A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web  

CERN Document Server

The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

Yu, Liyang

2011-01-01

307

Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics  

CERN Document Server

Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

Grimm, S

2009-01-01

308

UTP Semantics for Handel-C  

Science.gov (United States)

Only limited progress has been made so far towards an axiomatic semantics or discovering the algebraic rules that characterise Handel-C programs. In this paper we present a UTP semantics together with extensions we needed to include in order to express Handel-C properties that were not addressable with standard UTP. We also show how our extensions can be abstracted to a more general context and prove a set of algebraic rules that hold for them. Finally, we use the semantics to prove some properties about Handel-C constructs.

Perna, Juan Ignacio; Woodcock, Jim

309

A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are pla...

Sudeepthi, G.; Anuradha, G.; Surendra Prasad Babu, M.

2012-01-01

310

Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

Ashish, Naveen

2004-01-01

311

The lexical semantics of derived statives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This paper investigates the semantics of derived statives, deverbal adjectives that fail to entail there to have been a preceding (temporal) event of the kind named by the verb they are derived from, e.g. darkened in a darkened portion of skin. Building on Gawron’s (The lexical semantics of extent verbs, San Diego State University, ms, 2009) recent observations regarding the semantics of extent uses of change of state verbs (e.g., Kim’s skin darkens between the knee an...

Koontz-garboden, Andrew

2011-01-01

312

Change management for semantic web services  

CERN Document Server

Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman

2011-01-01

313

On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

G. Plotkin and the author have worked out the equivalence between state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics in a domain theoretical setting for programs combining nondeterminism and probability. Works of C. Morgan and co-authors, Keimel, Rosenbusch and Streicher, already go in the same direction using only discrete state spaces. It is the aim of this paper to exhibit a general framework in which one can hope that state transformer semantics and predicat...

Keimel, Klaus

2014-01-01

314

Lexical typology through similarity semantics: Toward a semantic map of motion verbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses a multidimensional probabilistic semantic map of lexical motion verb stems based on data collected from parallel texts (viz. translations of the Gospel according to Mark) for 100 languages from all continents. The crosslinguistic diversity of lexical semantics in motion verbs is illustrated in detail for the domain of `go', `come', and `arrive' type contexts. It is argued that the theoretical bases underlying probabilistic semantic maps from exemplar data are the isomorph...

Wa?lchli, Bernhard; Cysouw, Michael

2012-01-01

315

Semantic Integration Workshop at the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2003)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In numerous distributed environments, including today's World Wide Web, enterprise data management systems, large science projects, and the emerging semantic web, applications will inevitably use the information described by multiple ontologies and schemas. We organized the Workshop on Semantic Integration at the Second International Semantic Web Conference to bring together different communities working on the issues of enabling integration among different resources. The workshop generated a...

Doan, Anhai; Halevy, Alon Y.; Noy, Natalya F.

2004-01-01

316

Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced to provide accurate results.

P Pabitha

2011-05-01

317

Semantic Data Integration: Overall Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The information has always been a valuable patrimony for the information systems that every company tries to capitalize as much as possible. With the web, the amount of information is increased and several problems arise for instance for the safety of the exchanged data but also to the semantic heterogeneity: the same information is very often represented in different ways in different information systems. In this paper we present an architecture of interchange of data both within the same information system and among different information systems founded on the ontologies in order to overcome the problem list of the heterogeneity. Ontologies, today, they seem to be the best tool useful to resolve the problem of heterogeneity, but that has not now been exploited fully.

Roberto Paiano

2009-12-01

318

Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures  

CERN Document Server

We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

2012-01-01

319

Semantic Aspect Retrieval for Encyclopedia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english With the development of Web 2.0, more and more people contribute their knowledge to the Internet. Many general and domain-specific online encyclopedia resources become available, and they are valuable for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, such as summarization and question-answeri [...] ng. We propose a novel encyclopedia-specific method to retrieve passages which are semantically related to a short query (usually comprises of only one word/phrase) from a given article in the encyclopedia. The method captures the expression word features and categorical word features in the surrounding snippets of the aspect words by setting up massive hybrid language models. These local models outperform the global models such as LSA and ESA in our task.

Chao, Han; Yicheng, Liu; Yu, Hao; Xiaoyan, Zhu.

2011-06-01

320

Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the ?-calculus with explicit substitution.

André Hirschowitz

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Distributional Measures as Proxies for Semantic Relatedness  

CERN Document Server

The automatic ranking of word pairs as per their semantic relatedness and ability to mimic human notions of semantic relatedness has widespread applications. Measures that rely on raw data (distributional measures) and those that use knowledge-rich ontologies both exist. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare ontological measures with human judgment, the distributional measures have primarily been evaluated by indirect means. This paper is a detailed study of some of the major distributional measures; it lists their respective merits and limitations. New measures that overcome these drawbacks, that are more in line with the human notions of semantic relatedness, are suggested. The paper concludes with an exhaustive comparison of the distributional and ontology-based measures. Along the way, significant research problems are identified. Work on these problems may lead to a better understanding of how semantic relatedness is to be measured.

Mohammad, Saif M

2012-01-01

322

Enabling Semantic Interoperability for Earth System Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Data interoperability across heterogeneous systems can be hampered by differences in terminology, particularly when multiple scientific communities are involved. To reconcile differences in semantics, a common semantic framework was created as a collection of ontologies. Such a shared understanding of concepts enables ontology-aware software tools to understand the meaning of terms in documents and web pages. The ontologies were created as part of the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) prototype. The ontologies provide a representation of Earth system science knowledge and associated data, organized in a scalable structure, bulding on the keywords developed by the NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). An integrated search tool consults the ontologies to enable searches without an exact term match. The ontologies can be used within other applications (such as Earth Science Markup Language descriptors) and future semantic web services in Earth system science.

Raskin, R.

2004-12-01

323

Building Requirements Semantics for Networked Software Interoperability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Naturally, like the web, integrated software systems in Internet will have to be distributed and heterogeneous. To im-prove the interoperability of services for SAAS, it is crucial to build requirements semantics that will cross the entire lifecycle of services especially on requirements stage. In this paper, a requirements semantics interoperability extend-ing approach called Connecting Ontologies (CO that will act as semantics information carrier designing to facilitate the requirements identification and services composition is proposed. Semantic measurement of Chinese scenario is explored. By adopting the approach, a series of tools support for transport domain are developed and applied based on CO and DPO (Domain Problem Ontology to enforce requirements engineering of networked software efficiently.

Bin Wen

2010-03-01

324

Information Extraction by Mining the Semantic Web?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose research on how semantic web technologies can be used to mine theweb, for information extraction. We also examine how new unsupervised processes can aid in extractingprecise and useful information from semantic data, thus reducing the problem of information overload .TheSemantic Web adds structure to the meaningful content of Web pages; hence information is given a welldefinedmeaning; which is both human readable as well as machine-processable. This enables thedevelopment of automated intelligent systems, allowing machines to comprehend the semantics of documentsand data. Here we propose techniques for automating the process of search, analysis and categorization ofsemantic data, further we examine how these techniques can aid in improving the efficiency of alreadyexisting information retrieval technologies by implementing reporting functionalities, which is highlighted inthe future work and challenges.

R. PREETHI

2013-04-01

325

SEMANTIC TERM BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL USING ONTOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information Searching and retrieval is a challenging task in the traditional keyword based textual information retrieval system. In the growing information age, adding huge data every day the searching problem also augmented. Keyword based retrieval system returns bulk of junk document irrelevant to query. To address the limitations, this paper proposed query terms along with semantic terms for information retrieval using multiple ontology reference. User query sometimes reflects multiple domain of interest that persist us to collect semantically related ontologies. If no related ontology exists then WordNet ontology used to retrieve semantic terms related to query term. In this approach, classes on the ontology derived as semantic related text keywords, these keywords considered for rank the documents.

J. Mannar Mannan

2014-01-01

326

Learning Semantic String Transformations from Examples  

CERN Document Server

We address the problem of performing semantic transformations on strings, which may represent a variety of data types (or their combination) such as a column in a relational table, time, date, currency, etc. Unlike syntactic transformations, which are based on regular expressions and which interpret a string as a sequence of characters, semantic transformations additionally require exploiting the semantics of the data type represented by the string, which may be encoded as a database of relational tables. Manually performing such transformations on a large collection of strings is error prone and cumbersome, while programmatic solutions are beyond the skill-set of end-users. We present a programming by example technology that allows end-users to automate such repetitive tasks. We describe an expressive transformation language for semantic manipulation that combines table lookup operations and syntactic manipulations. We then present a synthesis algorithm that can learn all transformations in the language that...

Singh, Rishabh

2012-01-01

327

Propagating semantic information in biochemical network models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To enable automatic searches, alignments, and model combination, the elements of systems biology models need to be compared and matched across models. Elements can be identified by machine-readable biological annotations, but assigning such annotations and matching non-annotated elements is tedious work and calls for automation. Results A new method called "semantic propagation" allows the comparison of model elements based not only on their own annotations, but also on annotations of surrounding elements in the network. One may either propagate feature vectors, describing the annotations of individual elements, or quantitative similarities between elements from different models. Based on semantic propagation, we align partially annotated models and find annotations for non-annotated model elements. Conclusions Semantic propagation and model alignment are included in the open-source library semanticSBML, available on sourceforge. Online services for model alignment and for annotation prediction can be used at http://www.semanticsbml.org.

Schulz Marvin

2012-01-01

328

A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

2007-05-02

329

SEMANTIC GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR TAGBASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag basedrecommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases.Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevantrecommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show acomprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The studybesides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentageof the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much asit does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with suchnumber of expansions, the recommendations change considerably

Frederico Durao

2011-11-01

330

Hybrid Rules with Well-Founded Semantics  

CERN Document Server

A general framework is proposed for integration of rules and external first order theories. It is based on the well-founded semantics of normal logic programs and inspired by ideas of Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) and constructive negation for logic programs. Hybrid rules are normal clauses extended with constraints in the bodies; constraints are certain formulae in the language of the external theory. A hybrid program is a pair of a set of hybrid rules and an external theory. Instances of the framework are obtained by specifying the class of external theories, and the class of constraints. An example instance is integration of (non-disjunctive) Datalog with ontologies formalized as description logics. The paper defines a declarative semantics of hybrid programs and a goal-driven formal operational semantics. The latter can be seen as a generalization of SLS-resolution. It provides a basis for hybrid implementations combining Prolog with constraint solvers. Soundness of the operational semantics is prove...

Drabent, W

2009-01-01

331

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

Ana Comesaña

2009-12-01

332

Semantic annotation of Web APIs with SWEET  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently technology developments in the area of services on the Web are marked by the proliferation of Web applications and APIs. The development and evolution of applications based on Web APIs is, however, hampered by the lack of automation that can be achieved with current technologies. In this paper we present SWEET - Semantic Web sErvices Editing Tool - a lightweight Web application for creating semantic descriptions of Web APIs. SWEET directly supports the creation of mashups by enabling...

Maleshkova, Maria; Pedrinaci, Carlos; Domingue, John

2010-01-01

333

From semantic networks to dictionary structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates how thoughts become words, and to what degree semantic relationships between words can be captured in dictionaries. It analyses differences in the segmentation of the world by words, realisations of notions in parts of speech, and the lin- guistic appearance of event factors on the basis of five ethnic languages (Hungarian, Polish, English, French and German) as well as the planned language Esperanto. Semantic compo- sitionality as reflected in word derivation and form...

Koutny, Ilona

2012-01-01

334

Metaprogrammed algorithmic skeletons : implementations, performances and semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Structured parallelism approaches are a trade-off between automatic parallelisation and concurrent and distributed programming such as Pthreads and MPI. Skeletal parallelism is one of the structured approaches. An algorithmic skeleton can be seen as higher-order function that captures a pattern of a parallel algorithm such as a pipeline, a parallel reduction, etc. Often the sequential semantics of the skeleton is quite simple and corresponds to the usual semantics of similar higher-order func...

Javed, Noman

2011-01-01

335

An Electrophysiological Investigation of Indirect Semantic Priming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In two experiments, direct and indirect semantic priming were measured using event-related potentials. In Experiment 1, participants rated the relatedness between prime and target on a seven-point scale. In Experiment 2, participants simply read the primes and targets as they monitored for a semantic category in probe filler items. Significant direct and indirect N400 priming effects were observed in both experiments. In Experiment 1, the indirect N400 priming effect remained significant when...

Kreher, Donna A.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

2006-01-01

336

Wikipedia Arborification and Stratified Explicit Semantic Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[This is the translation of paper "Arborification de Wikip\\'edia et analyse s\\'emantique explicite stratifi\\'ee" submitted to TALN 2012.] We present an extension of the Explicit Semantic Analysis method by Gabrilovich and Markovitch. Using their semantic relatedness measure, we weight the Wikipedia categories graph. Then, we extract a minimal spanning tree, using Chu-Liu & Edmonds' algorithm. We define a notion of stratified tfidf where the stratas, for a given Wikipedia p...

Haralambous, Yannis; Klyuev, Vitaly

2012-01-01

337

Data Quality Principles in the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing size and availability of web data make data quality a core challenge in many applications. Principles of data quality are recognized as essential to ensure that data fit for their intended use in operations, decision-making, and planning. However, with the rise of the Semantic Web, new data quality issues appear and require deeper consideration. In this paper, we propose to extend the data quality principles to the context of Semantic Web. Based on our extensi...

Assaf, Ahmad; Senart, Aline

2013-01-01

338

Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. This paper gives an overview of how the semantic web is used for mining the World Wide Web.

K.Ganapathi Babu

2012-07-01

339

A semantic Grid for molecular science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The properties of molecules have very well defined semantics and allow the creation of a semantic GRID. Markup languages (CML - Chemical Markup Language) and dictionary-based ontologies have been designed to support a wide range of applications, including chemical supply, publication and the safety of compounds. Many properties can be computed by Quantum Mechanical (QM) programs and we have developed a "black-box" system based on XML wrappers for all components. This is installed on a Condor ...

Murray-rust, Peter; Glen, Robert C.; Rzepa, Henry S.; Stewart, James J. P.; Townsend, Joseph A.; Willighagen, Egon L.; Yong, Zhang

2008-01-01

340

Using semantic cues to learn syntax  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a method for dependency grammar induction that utilizes sparse annotations of semantic relations. This induction set-up is attractive because such annotations provide useful clues about the underlying syntactic structure, and they are readily available in many domains (e.g., info-boxes and HTML markup). Our method is based on the intuition that syntactic realizations of the same semantic predicate exhibit some degree of consistency. We incorporate this intuition in a directed...

Naseem, Tahira; Barzilay, Regina

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Semantic Aggregator of Public Professional Events  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The data on the web has been created by a large number of people and is hosted in a large number of independent resources across the globe. Therefore, there is a need to develop data aggregators to help the process of knowledge-based integration. The data without central coordination resulted in heterogeneity. The integration of data on the Internet continues to be a challenge for searching and discovery efforts. Semantic aggregators are agents for data integration using semantic web te...

Lama Assum; Rawan Babaier; Nour Alkhatib; Lilac Al-Safadi

2012-01-01

342

Biomedical Literature Exploration through Latent Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fast increasing amount of articles published in the biomedical field is creating difficulties in the way this wealth of information can be efficiently exploited by researchers. As a way of overcoming these limitations and potentiating a more efficient use of the literature, we propose an approach for structuring the results of a literature search based on the latent semantic information extracted from a corpus. Moreover, we show how the results of the Latent Semantic Analysis method can b...

Matos, Se?rgio; Arau?jo, Hugo; Oliveira, Jose? Lui?s

2013-01-01

343

Measuring Semantic Similarity by Latent Relational Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper introduces Latent Relational Analysis (LRA), a method for measuring semantic similarity. LRA measures similarity in the semantic relations between two pairs of words. When two pairs have a high degree of relational similarity, they are analogous. For example, the pair cat:meow is analogous to the pair dog:bark. There is evidence from cognitive science that relational similarity is fundamental to many cognitive and linguistic tasks (e.g., analogical reasoning). In ...

Turney, Peter D.

2005-01-01

344

A Framework for Semantic Map Construction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper proposes a framework for building a semantic map for indoor environment using a mobile robot. The framework includes five main modules which are: 1) Raw and spatial data acquisition module, 2)Steering and exploration module, 3)Information detection and extraction module, 4)Semantic knowledge mapping module and 5) High level task planner interface. The framework will be implemented on the ATRV-Mini robot. A simulation and control environment has been developed for this purpose. The s...

Basem Ibrahim; Abeer Hamdy; Nevien Darwish

2012-01-01

345

Variant-Frequency Semantics for Green Futures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes an operational semantics for futures, with the primary target on energy efficiency. The work in progress is built around an insight that different threads can coordinate by running at different "paces," so that the time for synchronization and the resulting wasteful energy consumption can be reduced. We exploit several inherent characteristics of futures to determine how the paces of involving threads can be coordinated. The semantics is inspired by rece...

Yu David Liu

2013-01-01

346

Context as foundation for a semantic desktop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adoption of semantic web technologies and principles presents an opportunity to change the conceptual model of desktop computing. Moving from a traditional position where the desktop is largely tied to a specific computational device, a semantic desktop could exist as a broad, networked space defined relative to the user. In this position paper we argue that personal, computing, and knowledge contexts are the appropriate means by which to define and shape the desktop space, and that collectiv...

Heath, Thomas; Motta, Enrico; Dzbor, Martin

2005-01-01

347

Crips, fuzzy, and probabilistic faceted semantic search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation presents contributions to the development of the faceted semantic search (FSS) paradigm. First, two fundamental solutions to FSS, which have been widely used since their development are presented. The first is the projection of search facets from annotation ontologies using logical rules. The second is the logic rule-based generation of recommendation links for search items based on the semantic relations of these items. After presenting these solutions, the rest of the...

Holi, Markus

2010-01-01

348

Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search...

Mas, Massimiliano Dal

2012-01-01

349

Associating Semantics to Multilingual Tags in Folksonomies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tagging systems are nowadays a common feature in web sites where user-generated content plays an important role. However, the lack of semantics and multilinguality hamper information retrieval process based on folksonomies. In this paper we propose an approach to bring semantics to multilingual folksonomies. This approach includes a sense disambiguation activity and takes advantage from knowledge generated by the masses in the form of articles, redirection and disambiguation links, and transl...

Garci?a-silva, A.; Corcho, O?scar; Gracia Del Ri?o, Jorge

2010-01-01

350

Semantic modelling of learning objects and instruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce an ontology-based semantic modelling framework that addresses subject domain modelling, instruction modelling, and interoperability aspects in the development of complex reusable learning objects. Ontologies are knowledge representation frameworks, ideally suited to support knowledge-based modelling of these learning objects. We illustrate the benefits of semantic modelling for learning object assemblies within the context of standards such as SCORM Sequencing and Navigation and ...

Pahl, Claus; Melia, Mark

2006-01-01

351

Semantic Solutions to Program Analysis Problems  

CERN Document Server

Problems in program analysis can be solved by developing novel program semantics and deriving abstractions conventionally. For over thirty years, higher-order program analysis has been sold as a hard problem. Its solutions have required ingenuity and complex models of approximation. We claim that this difficulty is due to premature focus on abstraction and propose a new approach that emphasizes semantics. Its simplicity enables new analyses that are beyond the current state of the art.

Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam

2011-01-01

352

Semantic modeling and management of multimedia data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research is two fold: (i) semantic modeling and management of video data; (ii) modeling of and management of multimedia documents. A semantic-based abstraction of video data for capturing the spatio-temporal concepts associated with various objects in an input image or in a sequence of video frames is proposed. This abstraction can manifest itself effectively in conceptualizing events and views in multimedia data as perceived by individual users. The goal is to provide a...

Day, Young Francis

1996-01-01

353

Semantic Awareness for Automatic Image Interpretation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Finding relations between image semantics and image characteristics is a problem of long standing in computer vision and related fields. Despite persistent efforts and significant advances in the field, today’s computers are still strikingly unable to achieve the same complex understanding of semantic image content as human users do with ease. This is a problem when large sets of images have to be interpreted or somehow processed by algorithms. This problem becomes increasingly urgent with ...

Lindner, Albrecht

2014-01-01

354

Digging out implicit semantics from user interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

User interaction may take many forms in multimedia systems. Current systems mainly waste this implicit and natural source of semantic knowledge and rather create tedious and unnatural interaction protocols. We advocate for a complete integration of natural interaction protocols and semantic knowledge capture, mainly thru mining interaction sessions. We assert that users possess the ability to quickly examine and summarise these documents, even subconsciously. Examples include specifyin...

Marchand-maillet, Ste?phane

2009-01-01

355

Semantic technologies for distributed information systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this book we show how semantic technologies ? and in particular the use of ontologies ? can be employed to address a number of typical challenges in distributed information systems: First, we illustrate how ontologies enable the integration of information across heterogeneous nodes. Second, we show how ontology evolution allows dealing with the dynamics in the information in a consistent manner. Third, we present a model for ontologybased coordination using semantic overlay networks.

Haase, Peter

2007-01-01

356

A Semantic Approach for Document Clustering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conventional document mining systems mainly use the presence or absence of keywords to mine texts. However, simple word counting and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. In this paper, the application of a semantic understanding-based approach to mine documents is presented. The approach is based on semantic notions to represent text, and to measure similarity between text documents. T...

Khaled Shaban

2009-01-01

357

Semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background More than in other domains the heterogeneous services world in bioinformatics demands for a methodology to classify and relate resources in a both human and machine accessible manner. The Semantic Web, which is meant to address exactly this challenge, is currently one of the most ambitious projects in computer science. Collective efforts within the community have already led to a basis of standards for semantic service descriptions and meta-information. In...

Lamprecht Anna-Lena; Naujokat Stefan; Margaria Tiziana; Steffen Bernhard

2011-01-01

358

A Semantics-based visualization building process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A successful visualization allows the user to gain insight into the data in an effective way. Even with today’s visualization systems that give the user a considerable control over the visualization process, it can be difficult to produce an effective visualization. This paper is a step forward to achieve a visualization system that assists the user in the configuration and preparation of the visualization by considering both the semantic of the data and the semantic of the stages, through ...

Larrea, Marti?n Leonardo; Martig, Sergio R.; Castro, Silvia Mabel

2010-01-01

359

From surface dependencies towards deeper semantic representations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the past, a divide could be seen between ’deep’ parsers on the one hand, which construct a semantic representation out of their input, but usually have significant coverage problems, and more robust parsers on the other hand, which are usually based on a (statistical) model derived from a treebank and have larger coverage, but leave the problem of semantic interpretation to the user. More recently, approaches have emerged that combine the robustness of datadriven (statistical) models w...

Versley, Yannick; Zinsmeister, Heike

2008-01-01

360

Query Expansion based on Associated Semantic Space  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expansion of query keywords based on semantic relations is an effective approach to improve the performance of information retrieval. Traditional methods of query expansion did not adequately make use of semantic relations between query keywords. In this paper, a novel approach for query expansion is presented. The main idea of the approach is to construct a ‘Tree of Associational Semantics Model’ and select candidate keywords from the tree. In the first step, a group of initial semantic trees for original keywords are constructed based on WordNet thesaurus. Secondly, noise nodes on the trees are removed by calculating the similarities between words. The pruned trees are subsequently assembled into a big integrated tree, i.e. Tree of Associational Semantics Model, by expanding the trees upward until finding a common root. Finally, the nodes on the integrated tree are filtered and supplemented based on Mutual Information. All words selected from the tree are assigned semantic weights which are used in computing similarity between the query and documents in internet. In addition, the distributional situation of query keywords in documents is also considered in document retrieval. Experimental results demonstrate about 14.6% precision and 13.7% prec@20 improvement over the traditional tfidf-based method.

Guangjun Huang

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization?  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use semantic shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the semantics by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation. PMID:23576827

Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gröller, Eduard

2012-01-01

362

Semantics by analogy for illustrative volume visualization.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly explore a wide range of mappings. Our approach is based on three concepts. First, we use semantic shader augmentation to automatically add rule-based rendering functionality to static visualization mappings in a shader program, while preserving the visual abstraction that the initial shader encodes. With this technique we extend recent developments that define a mapping between data attributes and visual attributes with rules, which are evaluated using fuzzy logic. Second, we let users define the semantics by analogy through brushing on renderings of the data attributes of interest. Third, the rules are specified graphically in an interface that provides visual clues for potential modifications. Together, the presented methods offer a high degree of freedom in the specification and exploration of rule-based mappings and avoid the limitations of a linguistic rule formulation. PMID:23576827

Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gröller, Eduard

2012-05-01

363

Semantic Retrieval Approach for Web Documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because of explosive growth of resources in the internet, the information retrieval technology has become particularly important. However the current retrieval methods are essentially based on the full text matching of keywords approach lacking of semantic information and can’t understand the user's query intent very well. These methods return a large number of irrelevant information, and are unable to meet the user's request. Systems have been established so far failed to overcome fully the limitations of search based on keywords. Such systems are built from variations of classic models that represent information by keywords. Using Semantic Web is a way to increase the precision of information retrieval systems. In this paper, we propose the semantic information retrieval approach to extract the information from the web documents in certain domain (jaundice diseases by collecting the domain relevant documents using focused crawler based on domain ontology, and using similar semantic content that is matched with a given user’s query. Semantic retrieval approach aims to discover semantically similar terms in documents and query terms using WordNet.

Hany M. Harb

2011-09-01

364

Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene. PMID:17405446

Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

2007-04-01

365

Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content providers can access Reflect programmatically using SOAP, REST (HTTP post), and JavaScript. Usage of Reflect has grown rapidly within the life sciences, and while currently only genes, protein and small molecule names are tagged, we plan to soon expand the scope to include a much broader range of terms (e.g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, ‘semantics is in the eye of the end-user’, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic web technologies.

O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko

2010-01-01

366

Geoscience Challenges and Semantic Web Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays geosciences face a triple of major challenges. These challenges are the study and understanding of complex systems, like e.g. climate change, further the exponential growing of raw and unstructured data, information and knowledge and finally the necessity of an inter-domain group-based collaboration of geoscientists. In addition to this triple of issues, new Web 2.0 techniques, like the mash-up of data content and context or the inclusion of user feedback data and information wait to be used for enhanced geoscientific research. The semantic web approach for the semantic integration of data, information and knowledge seems to be a promising way for geoscientists. It should be used in order to find the right language and common vocabularies for the inter-domain joint study of earth system processes. This approach enables both, first the right semantic preparation of domain specific data and information in a certain context and second -based on this preparation- the interdisciplinary use of world-wide distributed and semantic augmented data, information especially in a different context. This paper shows the impact of a semantic based thinking and the usage of semantic web-based techniques on the example of specific geophysical and geodetic data and information for the improvement of geoscience research in a much broader context.

Ritschel, B.

2009-12-01

367

Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2012-01-01

368

A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in the research on semantic web and knowledge processing and presents some recent research initiatives.

M.VENU GOPALACHARI

2013-04-01

369

Study of Semantic Web Based Library Knowledge Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study firstly proposes a structure of semantic grid by combining the advantage of semantic web with the research of the grid technology and discusses the key technologies and services of knowledge management un-der semantic grid environment. Then not only discusses semantic notes and knowledge discovery on the basis of ontology but also the model transformation tacit knowledge based on ontology. Then based on the above, it describes the ideas about the knowledge management model under the semantic grid environment. Lastly it analyzes this modal from application layer and semantic space layer and knowledge grid services layer and the distributed resources.

Zhang Qing-song

2013-01-01

370

Semantic Web Framework for Development of Very Large Ontologies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english This paper deals with the development of the Semantic Web framework for very large ontologies. The Semantic Web is often associated with specific XML-based standards for semantics, such as RDF and OWL. Application of lexical ontologies such as WordNet and others for different tasks on the Semantic W [...] eb requires their representation in RDF and/or OWL formats with possibility of the different ontology mappings, semantic workflows, services and other semantic technologies.

Sergey, Yablonsky.

2009-06-01

371

How Does Ontology Contribute in Semantic Web Development?  

CERN Document Server

This paper investigates and briefly describes the major currently existing problems with World Wide Web .i.e., Information filtration and Security became the main reasons of semantic web's invention. The semantic web claims of providing the semantic based solutions towards current web problems. Semantic web have introduced and relies on a main building block "Ontology" to provide the information in machine processable semantic models and produce semantically modelled knowledge representation systems. This paper also describes the role, construction process and the contributions of ontology in providing some in time proposed and implemented solutions. Furthermore paper concludes with the currently existing limitations in Ontology and the areas which need improvements.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

372

Mechanized semantics for the Clight subset of the C language  

CERN Document Server

This article presents the formal semantics of a large subset of the C language called Clight. Clight includes pointer arithmetic, "struct" and "union" types, C loops and structured "switch" statements. Clight is the source language of the CompCert verified compiler. The formal semantics of Clight is a big-step operational semantics that observes both terminating and diverging executions and produces traces of input/output events. The formal semantics of Clight is mechanized using the Coq proof assistant. In addition to the semantics of Clight, this article describes its integration in the CompCert verified compiler and several ways by which the semantics was validated.

Blazy, Sandrine

2009-01-01

373

Semantic fluency: cognitive basis and diagnostic performance in focal dementias and Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic fluency is widely used both as a clinical test and as a basic tool for understanding how humans extract information from the semantic store. Recently, major efforts have been made to devise fine-grained scoring procedures to measure the multiple cognitive processes underlying fluency performance. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how many and which independent components are necessary to thoroughly describe performance on the fluency task. Furthermore, whether a combination of multiple indices can improve the diagnostic performance of the test should be assessed. In this study, we extracted multiple indices of performance on the semantic fluency test from a large sample of healthy controls (n = 307) and patients (n = 145) suffering from three types of focal dementia or Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that five independent components underlie semantic fluency performance. We argue that these components functionally map onto the generation and application of a search strategy (component 2), to the monitoring of the overall sequence to avoid repetitions (component 3) and out-of-category items (component 4), and to the full integrity of the semantic store (component 5). The integrated and effective work of all these components would relate to a "general effectiveness" component (component 1). Importantly, while all the focal dementia groups were equally impaired on general effectiveness measures, they showed differential patterns of failure in the other components. This finding suggests that the cognitive deficit that impairs fluency differs among the three focal dementia groups: a semantic store deficit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA), a strategy deficit in the non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfv-PPA), and an initiation deficit in the behavioural variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD). Finally, we showed that the concurrent use of multiple fluency indices improves the diagnostic accuracy of semantic fluency both for focal dementias and for AD. More generally, our study suggests that a formal evaluation of fine-grained patterns of performance would improve the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests. PMID:24681692

Reverberi, Carlo; Cherubini, Paolo; Baldinelli, Sara; Luzzi, Simona

2014-05-01

374

An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

2006-01-01

375

On the Existence of Semantic Working Memory: Evidence for Direct Semantic Maintenance  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online semantic maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with semantic working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…

Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.

2011-01-01

376

Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control  

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Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2011-01-01

377

Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study  

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Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

2013-01-01

378

SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap" is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains. The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies, providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies, and discovery servers (semantic search engines interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info" uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet". Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

Town Christopher D

2009-09-01

379

From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia  

CERN Document Server

Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions to content enrichment. Work starts from harvesting multimedia annotations in class-room recordings, and proceeds to deriving a dense educational semantic net between eLearning Objects decorated with extended LOM relations. Special focus is drawn on the processing of recorded speech and on an Ontological Evaluation Layer that autonomously derives meaningful inter-object relations. Further on, a semantic representation of hyperlinks is developed and elaborated to the concept of semantic link contexts, an approach to manage a coherent rhetori...

Schmidt, Thomas C; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

2009-01-01

380

WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC  

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Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.

Ana Meštrovi?

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Blood differential  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...

382

Arabic Semantic Web Applications – A Survey  

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Full Text Available Arabic Language is the mother tongue for 23 countries and more than 350 million persons. It is the language of the Holy Quran; therefore, many non-Arabic Islamic countries, like Pakistan, teach Arabic as a second language. Nevertheless, it is observable that the Arabic content on the Web is less than what should be. The evolution of the Semantic Web (SW added a new dimension to this problem. This paper is an attempt to figure out the problem, its causes, and to open avenues to think about the solutions. The survey presented in this paper concerned with the SW applications regarding the Arabic Language in the domains of Ontology construction and utilization, Arabic WordNet (AWN exploiting and enrichment, Arabic Named Entities Extraction, Holy Quran and Islamic Knowledge semantic representation, and Arabic Semantic Search Engines. In fact, the study revealed serious deficiencies in dealing semantically with the Arabic Language. That is mainly owing to the rarity of tools that can support the Arabic script. Furthermore, the Arabic resources, if available, are not free. Moreover, there are many technical problems in the semantic dealing with the Arabic context. Therefore, most of the developed applications are not sufficiently proficient. However, due to the significance of the Arabic Language, it is inevitable to overcome these deficiencies in order to put the Arabic Language in the category of the machine-semantically-interpretable languages, rather than just the textually processable ones. This way, we can exploit the power of the Semantic Web features in extracting the essence of the knowledge residing in the Arabic web documents and going beyond dealing with its rigid texts. 

Aya M. Al-Zoghby

2013-02-01

383

Differential characters  

CERN Document Server

Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.  

Bär, Christian

2014-01-01

384

Formalizing cCSP Synchronous Semantics in PVS  

CERN Document Server

Compensating CSP (cCSP) is a language defined to model long running business transactions within the framework of standard CSP process algebra. In earlier work, we have defined both traces and operational semantics of the language. We have shown the consistency between the two semantic models by defining a relationship between them. Synchronization was missing from the earlier semantic definitions which is an important feature for any process algebra. In this paper, we address this issue by extending the syntax and semantics to support synchronization and define a relationship between the semantic models. Moreover, we improve the scalability of our proof technique by mechanically verifying the semantic relationship using theorem prover PVS. We show how to embed process algebra terms and semantics into PVS and to use these embeddings to prove the semantic relationship.

Ripon, Shamim H

2010-01-01

385

Harnessing manpower for creating semantics  

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Full Text Available The eective information processing (e.g. search, organi-zation of the heterogeneous information spaces requiresmetadata layer above the resources. However, the acqui-sition of resource metadata and domain models are chal-lenging tasks. Here, the crowdsourcing has emerged asan alternative to expert-based and automated semanticsacquisition approaches. One of its branches are the gameswith a purpose (GWAPs which encapsulate the seman-tics acquisition tasks into the game processes. We analyzeexisting GWAPs and propose their classication. Fur-thermore we devised our own GWAP-based approaches.For acquisition of lightweight term relationship network,we devised a search query formulation game, usable alsofor specic domain models. For acquisition of (personalimage tags, we devised a card game, where players mem-orize positions of concealed cards and identify identicalpairs. For validation of music metadata, we devised amulti-choice question-based game, where players identifytag sets that are characteristic to music tracks they hear.We also looked at the GWAPs from their design per-spectives. We present a design oriented classication sys-tem for GWAPs, adress several design issues recurring inGWAPs and present new design patterns to solve them.

Jakub Simko

2013-10-01

386

Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics  

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Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980. ‘Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds. ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

Martin Stokhof

2010-12-01

387

Semantic Aggregator of Public Professional Events  

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Full Text Available The data on the web has been created by a large number of people and is hosted in a large number of independent resources across the globe. Therefore, there is a need to develop data aggregators to help the process of knowledge-based integration. The data without central coordination resulted in heterogeneity. The integration of data on the Internet continues to be a challenge for searching and discovery efforts. Semantic aggregators are agents for data integration using semantic web techniques. Semantic web technologies provide the capability to more easily aggregate data and thus can be utilized to improve the efficiency of information discovery. This study describes an implementation of a semantic web infrastructure that collects and integrates data in Extensible Markup Language (XML format and utilizes the Resource Description Framework (RDF Data model as the repository. One of the main challenges addressed in this paper is the heterogeneity of existing XML schemata and semantics of websites. The proposed approach is designed to be implemented and tested on publicly available professional events.

Lama Assum

2012-01-01

388

Deriving Logical Consequences Using Ontological Formal Semantics  

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Full Text Available Semantic Web technology enables us to specify metadata about things in the world and help us to relate this metadata using ontology databases and language. The core of the Semantic Web is Ontology, which is used to explicitly represent our conceptualizations. This paper is an efforts to improve the relevancy of results in a search system for a particular domain by exploiting the domain knowledge captured in an OWL ontology using the protégé tool. We make ontological database from static relational database using protégé. The key ingredients that make up an ontology are a vocabulary of basic terms, semantic interconnections, simple rules of inference and some logic for a particular topic. We extract semantic meaning from query entered by the user using tool and then we map this meaning into ontological database. To achieve semantic search, a search engine is needed which can interpret the meaning of a user's query and the relations among the concepts that a document contains with respect to a particular domain. Protégé is an extensible and customizable tool for constructing ontologies and for developing applications that use these ontologies. After that we display this data on user screen. The output of this project is to provide appropriate result to user for enter his queries.

Nikhil S. Langde

2014-03-01

389

SEMANTIC BASED MULTIPLE WEB SEARCH ENGINE  

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Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of information available to end users through the Web, search engines come to play ever a more critical role. Nevertheless, because of their general-purpose approach, it is always less uncommon that obtained result sets provide a burden ofuseless pages. The next-generation Web architecture, represented by the Semantic Web, provides the layered architecture possibly allowing overcoming this limitation. Several search engines have been proposed, which allow increasing information retrieval accuracy by exploiting a key content of Semantic Web resources, that is, relations. To make the Semantic Web work, well-structured data andrules are necessary for agents to roam the Web [2]. XML and RDF are two important technologies: we can create our own structures by XML without indicating what they mean; RDF uses sets of triples which express basic concepts [2]. DAML is the extension of XML and RDF The aim of this project is to develop a search engine based on ontologymatching within the Semantic Web. It uses the data in Semantic Web form such as DAML or RDF. When the user input a query, the program accepts the query and transfers it to a machine learning agent. Then the agent measures the similarity between different ontology’s, and feedback the matched item to the user.

MS.S.LATHA SHANMUGAVADIVU,

2010-08-01

390

FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS  

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Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

My Abdellah Kassimi

2012-01-01

391

Semantic Stability in Social Tagging Streams  

CERN Document Server

One potential disadvantage of social tagging systems is that due to the lack of a centralized vocabulary, a crowd of users may never manage to reach a consensus on the description of resources (e.g., books, users or songs) on the Web. Yet, previous research has provided interesting evidence that the tag distributions of resources may become semantically stable over time as more and more users tag them. At the same time, previous work has raised an array of new questions such as: (i) How can we assess the semantic stability of social tagging systems in a robust and methodical way? (ii) Does semantic stabilization of tags vary across different social tagging systems and ultimately, (iii) what are the factors that can explain semantic stabilization in such systems? In this work we tackle these questions by (i) presenting a novel and robust method which overcomes a number of limitations in existing methods, (ii) empirically investigating semantic stabilization processes in a wide range of social tagging systems w...

Wagner, Claudia; Strohmaier, Markus; Huberman, Bernardo A

2013-01-01

392

Description and Evaluation of Semantic Similarity Measures Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, semantic similarity measure has a great interest in Semantic Web and Natural Language Processing (NLP). Several similarity measures have been developed, being given the existence of a structured knowledge representation offered by ontologies and corpus which enable semantic interpretation of terms. Semantic similarity measures compute the similarity between concepts/terms included in knowledge sources in order to perform estimations. This paper discusses the...

Slimani, Thabet

2013-01-01

393

Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new ...

Radhika Malik; Udayan Ghose

2011-01-01

394

BUSINESS USER FRIENDLY RULE EDITING ON THE SEMANTIC WEB  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web is an evolution of the current Web where information is given semantic meaning. This will enable development of automatic software agents which will carry out various tasks for the users. The implementation of Semantic Web is based on a set of technologies and standards, which form layers. The most important part of the Semantic Web are the two concepts of knowledge representation in the form of ontologies and rules over these ontologies. Although there are already se...

S?ega, Matjaz?

2008-01-01

395

A Secured and Semantically Addressed E-Mail Service  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper illustrates the use of semantic addresses to send emails in a corporate environment. Semantic Email Addressing (SEA) allows emails to be sent to a semantically speci?ed recipient or group of recipients, which may be dynamically changingovertime. In order to describe the concept of SEA and its advantages, it is compared with the concept of mailing lists. Two solutions to send semantically addressed emails are presented, on one hand a client sided solution has been elaborated wher...

OSOFISAN; Adenike O; Amadi, J. C.; ETENG; Idongesit.E

2012-01-01

396

A Consistent Semantics of Self-Adjusting Computation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a semantics of self-adjusting computation and proves that the semantics are correct and consistent. The semantics integrate change propagation with the classic idea of memoization to enable reuse of computations under mutation to memory. During evaluation, reuse of a computation via memoization triggers a change propagation that adjusts the reused computation to reflect the mutated memory. Since the semantics integrate memoization and change-propagation, ...

Acar, Umut A.; Blume, Matthias; Donham, Jacob

2011-01-01

397

A Formal Semantics for UML Activity Diagrams - Formalising Workflow Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this report we define a formal execution semantics for UML activity diagrams that is appropriate for workflow modelling. Our workflow models express software requirements and therefore assume a perfect implementation. In our semantics, software state changes do not take time. It is based upon the Statemate semantics of statecharts, extended with some transactional properties to deal with data manipulation. Our semantics also deals with real time and with multiple state instances. We first ...

Eshuis, Rik; Wieringa, Roel

2001-01-01

398

Efficient Approach for Semantic Web Searching Using Markov Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The semantic search usually the web pages for the required information and filter the pages from semantic web searching unnecessary pages by using advanced algorithms. Web pages are vulnerable in answering intelligent semantic search from the user due to the confidence of their consequences on information obtainable in web pages. To get the trusted results semantic web search engines require searching for pages that maintain such information at some place including domain knowledge. The layer...

Pradeep Salve; Rajesh Chakrawarti

2012-01-01

399

Evaluating semantic search tools using the SEALS platform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In common with many state of the art semantic technologies, there is a lack of comprehensive, established evaluation mechanisms for semantic search tools. In this paper, we describe a new evaluation and benchmarking approach for semantic search tools using the infrastructure under development within the SEALS initiative. To our knowledge, it is the first effort to present a comprehensive evaluation methodology for semantic search tools. The paper describes the evaluation methodology including...

Wrigley, S. N.; Elbedweihy, K.; Reinhardt, D.; Bernstein, A.; Ciravegna, F.

2010-01-01

400

Ontology-Driven Query Reformulation in Semantic Search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic search is a research area in which the goal is to understand the users intended meaning of the query. This requires disambiguation of the user query and interpreting the semantics of the query. Semantic search would thus improve the users search experience through more precise result sets. Moreover, ontologies are explicit conceptualizations of domains, defining concepts, their properties, and the relations among them. This makes ontologies semantic representations of specific...

Solskinnsbakk, Geir

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Semantic Self-Formation of Communities of Peers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The formation of semantic communities of peers plays a crucial role for realizing effective query propagation mechanisms on a semantic basis. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the self-organization of autonomous communities of peers; we propose semantic handshake techniques based on semantic community aggregation and community-aware query propagation techniques exploiting dynamic ontology matching techniques for improving traditional P2P search and discovery capabilities.

Castano, Silvana; Montanelli, Stefano

2005-01-01

402

Semantic Web Search based on Ontology Modeling using Protege Reasoner  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web works on the existing Web which presents the meaning of information as well-defined vocabularies understood by the people. Semantic Search, at the same time, works on improving the accuracy if a search by understanding the intent of the search and providing contextually relevant results. This paper describes a semantic approach toward web search through a PHP application. The goal was to parse through a user's browsing history and return semantically relevan...

Shekhar, Monica; K, Saravanaguru Ra

2013-01-01

403

Automatic and Intelligent Decision Making In Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Concepts like "semantic computing" and "semantic search" refer to computational techniques that use knowledge representation and deep linkage into the referents of information tokens in language dictionaries, thesauri and ontology’s) and in data resources (libraries, databases and web-based repositories). Perhaps the best-known sense is in the "semantic web", it is also reviews the technologies that make up the SW with the implications of these technologies Semantic Intelligence, Defined Se...

Shrutika Kulkarni; Pradeep Chouskey; Gajendra Vaiker

2012-01-01

404

Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence  

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Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

Dinu AIRINEI

2012-01-01

405

Urban Design Logical Scheming Based on Semantic Network Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban design logical scheming is a research based on the semantic network method, supplementing and perfecting the semantic network method. After the introduction of the semantic network logical scheming method, some experimental studies had been done from the aspects of logical judgment, logical screening and logical solving to text the validity and feasibility of semantic network scheming method applied in urban designing. Thereinto, logical judgment was mainly used to evaluate the accuracy...

Jun Dong; Guangtian Zou; Lin Qi

2013-01-01

406

AceWiki: A Natural and Expressive Semantic Wiki  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present AceWiki, a prototype of a new kind of semantic wiki using the controlled natural language Attempto Controlled English (ACE) for representing its content. ACE is a subset of English with a restricted grammar and a formal semantics. The use of ACE has two important advantages over existing semantic wikis. First, we can improve the usability and achieve a shallow learning curve. Second, ACE is more expressive than the formal languages of existing semantic wikis. Our ...

Kuhn, T.

2008-01-01

407

When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5  

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Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

Salvatore F. Pileggi

2012-09-01

408

Multiuse of Oceanographic Data on the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Collaborative Ocean is an initiative to build a semantic web infrastructure to enable marine scientists to collaboratively publish their resources on the semantic web to assist multi use of the ocean data. We borrow concepts and technologies in the semantic web and adopt the Agile Knowledge Engineering (AKE) methodology to enable collaborative knowledge engineering in ocean resource management.

Tao, Feng; Campbell, Jon; Griffiths, Gwyn

2008-01-01

409

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

410

Causal and Semantic Relatedness in Discourse Understanding and Representation  

Science.gov (United States)

Processing time and memory for sentences were examined as a function of the degree of semantic and causal relatedness between sentences in short narratives. In Experiments 1-2B, semantic and causal relatedness between sentence pairs was independently manipulated. Causal relatedness was assessed through pretesting and semantic relatedness was…

Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Larsen, Benjamin

2005-01-01

411

Semantic Perspicuity and the Locative Hypothesis: Implications for Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes American Sign Language (ASL) as "locative," because its grammatical/semantic structures derive from spatial notions; and "semantically perspicuous," because its phonetic and semantic structures are isomorphically related. Presents an ASL morphology showing how verbs are built from six basic locative/directional stems. Discusses…

Gee, James Paul; Kegl, Judy Anne

1982-01-01

412

Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in alzheimer's disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used a semantic verification task and resting 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of mild to moderate AD patients to investigate this issue. The four task conditions required semantic knowledge of (1) visual, (2) functional properties of living objects, and (3) visual or (4) functional properties of nonliving objects. Visual property verification of living objects was significantly correlated with left posterior fusiform gyrus metabolism (Brodmann's area [BA] 37/19). Effects of visual and functional property verification for nonliving objects largely overlapped in the left anterior temporal (BA 38/20) and bilateral premotor areas (BA 6), with the visual condition extending more into left lateral precentral areas. There were no associations with functional property verification for living concepts. Our results provide strong support for anatomically separable representations of living and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas.

Zahn, R.; Garrard, P.

2006-01-01

413

Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema

2006-01-01

414

Semantic Usage Policies for Web Services  

Science.gov (United States)

Web Services provide standardized interfaces for accessing software systems and data sources over the Internet. Semantic descriptions of Web Services help to automate the discovery and invocation of new services and their integration into existing applications. However not all services are freely available for every purpose and not all data is in the public domain. Usage policies describe the terms and conditions under which services and data can be used. Current approaches to semantic Web Service description are mostly focused on functional properties and quality attributes, and do not cover usage policies. We plan to develop a formal language for usage policies with clearly defined semantics that relies on ontologies for representing domain specific terms. We will also extend service discovery and ranking algorithms to incorporate usage policies.

Speiser, Sebastian

415

A new account of rationality and semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how a new outlook on human cognitive abilities, and in accordance with this a different view of rationality, can influence semantics and one of the most prominent debates in this field, namely, conflict between Fregeans and non Fregean anti-indiviidualists. This new account of rationality will help us difuse some of the main motivators for Fregean view of semantics and it will help us in justifying non-Fregean anti-individualism but also in eliminating some of the apparent contradictions in Fregean anti-individualism of, e.g. Campbell and Evans. In this attempt of bringing together some of the latest insights into human cognition and semantics I will be dealing mainly with Jessica Brown's outlook on motivation for Fregean sense and Ruth Millikan's embedded view on rationality.

Milojevi? Miljana

2011-01-01

416

Semantic markup for geospatial Web services  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing number of Web services, including more and more geospatial Web services, are becoming available to public, but it is difficult to find them and to judge whether they could be used in combination with other services on the Web .It is caused by the fact that conventional service descriptions fall short in capturing the semantics of services. In this paper, we firstly identify the possible problems that can result from such semantically heterogeneous descriptions during service composition. Then we present a method of ontology-based annotation to enrich service descriptions of geospatial Web services. The method allows for much more expressive descriptions than WSDL and can be used to semantically enable geospatial services discovery and composition.

Ling, Jiang; Gong, Jianya; Li, Bin

2006-10-01

417

Proceedings Sixth Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics  

CERN Document Server

This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2009, the Sixth Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics held on the 31st of August 2009 in Bologna, Italy as a affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2009, the 20th International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. The workshop is forum for researchers, students and practitioners interested in new developments and directions for future investigations in the area of SOS. One of the specific goals of the workshop is to provide a meeting point for the concurrency and programming language communities. Another goal is the dissemination of the theory and practice of SOS amongst postgraduate students and young researchers worldwide.

Klin, Bartek; 10.4204/EPTCS.18

2010-01-01

418

Semantic Web Approach towards E-Commerce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Technologies enable machines to interpret data published in a machine-interpretable form on the web. The existing e-commerce web data can be understandable to humans to read but machines cannot process it due to lack of semantics. To gain the advantage of using online shopping, consumer needs to search different e-commerce websites for a better price of product. Hence searching plays a crucial role in e-commerce to overcome information asymmetry and price dispersion. In this paper, we explained the basics of e-commerce with advantage, disadvantages and where the semantic web technologies can be applied is given for the benefit of consumer.

V.Kiran Kumar

2013-12-01

419

Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

2009-01-01

420

A Semantic Layer for Embedded Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensor Networks progressively assumed the critical role of bridges between the real world and information systems, through always more consolidated and efficient sensor technologies that enable advanced heterogeneous sensor grids. Sensor data is commonly used by advanced systems and intelligent applications in order to archive complex goals. Processes that build high-level knowledge from sensor data are commonly considered as the key core concept. This paper proposes a semantic layer that would optimally support the knowledge building in sensor systems as well as it enables semantic interaction model at different levels (module, subsystem, system. The semantic layer proposed in the paper is currently used by several architectures and applications in the context of different domains.

Salvatore F. Pileggi

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
421

Robust Semantic Framework for web search engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available . However, in order to rank results, most of the existing solutions need to work on the whole annotated knowledge base. In the existing system a relation-based page rank algorithm to be used in conjunction with Semantic Web search engines that simply relies on information that could be extracted from user queries and on annotated resources. This system retrieves all matching results that are based on minimum spanning nodes and fails to represent the owl and rdf structure in graphical representation.Proposed system overcomes all the drawbacks by introducing a new framework to represent the web semantic results based on the query. This system uses OWL , logic programming in order to get effective semantic search results. This proposed system represents all the OWL structure relationships in graphical node representation.

V.Swamy Naidu #1 , S.Narayana #2

2012-10-01

422

Towards Semantic Clustering – A Brief Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image clustering is an important technology which helps users to get hold of thelarge amount of online visual information, especially after the rapid growth of theWeb. This paper focuses on image clustering methods and their application inimage collection or online image repository. Current progress of image clusteringrelated to image retrieval and image annotation are summarized and some openproblems are discussed. Related works are summarized based on the problemsaddressed, which are image segmentation, compact representation of image set,search space reduction, and semantic gap. Issues are also identified in currentprogress and semantic clustering is conjectured to be the potential trend. Ourframework of semantic clustering as well as the main abstraction levels involvedis briefly discussed.

Phei-Chin Lim, Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer, Dayang NurFatimah Awg. Iskandar

2011-02-01

423

Refining the Semantics of Social Influence  

CERN Document Server

With the proliferation of network data, researchers are increasingly focusing on questions investigating phenomena occurring on networks. This often includes analysis of peer-effects, i.e., how the connections of an individual affect that individual's behavior. This type of influence is not limited to direct connections of an individual (such as friends), but also to individuals that are connected through longer paths (for example, friends of friends, or friends of friends of friends). In this work, we identify an ambiguity in the definition of what constitutes the extended neighborhood of an individual. This ambiguity gives rise to different semantics and supports different types of underlying phenomena. We present experimental results, both on synthetic and real networks, that quantify differences among the sets of extended neighbors under different semantics. Finally, we provide experimental evidence that demonstrates how the use of different semantics affects model selection.

Marazopoulou, Katerina; Jensen, David

2014-01-01

424

Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI to semantically find plagiarism.

Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

2013-05-01

425

[Why radiologists should be concerned with semantics].  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiological image and data archives contain huge amounts of data which are barely utilized by current technologies. In the future semantic technologies currently under development will enable analysis of the contents not only on the level of individual patients but also along entire data collections thereby resulting in new applications that will benefit routine clinical practice, teaching activities and research. As a prerequisite the development of software for semantic analysis of image and report contents is necessary, i.e. an "understanding" of the contents by the software. Based on specific ontologies, standardized protocols and semantic image annotation new systems will be developed that make the content of these data archives accessible and support diagnosis, quality assurance, innovative research applications and last not least, the merging of data of different medical disciplines, such as radiology, pathology and clinical chemistry. PMID:23760620

Gerstmair, A; Kotter, E

2013-08-01

426

Relational Semantics for Databases and Predicate Calculus  

CERN Document Server

The relational data model requires a theory of relations in which tuples are not only many-sorted, but can also have indexes that are not necessarily numerical. In this paper we develop such a theory and define operations on relations that are adequate for database use. The operations are similar to those of Codd's relational algebra, but differ in being based on a mathematically adequate theory of relations. The semantics of predicate calculus, being oriented toward the concept of satisfiability, is not suitable for relational databases. We develop an alternative semantics that assigns relations as meaning to formulas with free variables. This semantics makes the classical predicate calculus suitable as a query language for relational databases.

Kelly, Philip

2012-01-01

427

Analysis of verbal fluency ability in Alzheimer's disease: the role of clustering, switching and semantic proximities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The underlying nature of verbal fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in this study. Participants were 48 individuals with AD and 48 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performance on letter and category tasks was analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, mean cluster size, and total switches. Compared with the control group, AD participants produced fewer words and switches on both fluency tasks and had a reduced category cluster size. The AD group was differentially impaired on category compared with letter fluency and produced more repetitive responses but fewer category exemplars than controls on the category task. A multidimensional scaling approach revealed that AD participants' semantic maps were similar to controls. Overall, the data suggest that executive abilities involving search and retrieval processes and a reduced availability of semantically related words contributed to the AD group's poorer performance despite similar temporal recall and organizational patterns. PMID:24687588

Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

2014-05-01

428

Cognitive semantic networks: emotional verbs throw a tantrum but don't bite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neuroimaging studies have over the past decades established that language is grounded in sensorimotor areas of the brain. The same neuronal circuits seem involved whether we literally pick up a ball or in a phrase refer to grasping an idea. However recent findings have demonstrated that not only leg, hand and face related but also emotional action verbs activate premotor systems in the brain. Hypothesizing that the force and spatial parameters which define action based language might also be reflected in the latent semantics of words, we select motor and emotion related verbs and apply latent semantic analysis, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering and network graph analysis to quantify their interaction and identify parameters of force and spatial differentiation which we propose cognitively relate emotions to sensorimotor action schemas.

Petersen, Michael Kai; Hansen, Lars Kai

2012-01-01

429

Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there i...

Al-feel, Haytham T.; Magdy Koutb; Hoda Suoror

2008-01-01

430

A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that ? is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.

Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

2014-10-01

431

User Search Personalization in Semantic Web Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behaviour (usage data in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In the first part of our Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the second part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank, a Page Rank style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query.

T.Venkata Ramana , Dr.K.Venugopala Rao

2012-05-01

432

Semantic web service automation with lightweight annotations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Web services, both RESTful and WSDL-based, are an increasingly important part of the Web. With the application of semantic technologies, we can achieve automation of the use of those services. In this paper, we present WSMO-Lite and MicroWSMO, two related lightweight approaches to semantic Web service description, evolved from the WSMO framework. WSMO-Lite uses SAWSDL to annotate WSDL-based services, whereas MicroWSMO uses the hRESTS microformat to annotate RESTful APIs and services. Both fra...

Kopecky, Jacek; Vitvar, Tomas; Fensel, Dieter

2009-01-01

433

Knowledge Representation in the Social Semantic Web  

CERN Document Server

The main purpose of this book is to sum up the vital and highly topical research issue of knowledge representation on the Web and to discuss novel solutions by combining benefits of folksonomies and Web 2.0 approaches with ontologies and semantic technologies. The book contains an overview of knowledge representation approaches in past, present and future, introduction to ontologies, Web indexing and in first case the novel approaches of developing ontologies. combines aspects of knowledge representation for both the Semantic Web (ontologies) and the Web 2.0 (folksonomies). Currently there is

Weller, Katrin

2010-01-01

434

Semantic Integration of Knowledge Management Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ontologies are essential for a semantic integration of knowledge components which can be seen as superior pieces of intellectual capital. Knowledge structures connect individual or group knowledge elements from organizational knowledge bases that have been developed independently. This can aid search and navigation for the entire organizational knowledge base. As many knowledge processes cross boundaries of organizational units or of whole organizations, standardization of techniques for representing knowledge structures (Semantic Web technologies, play an important role in enabling organizations to share documented knowledge.

Constantin Florin Sîrbu

2008-12-01

435

Modular Analysis via Abstract Reduction Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Modular static analysis requires treating some portion of the program opaquely. To enable such analysis, we introduce a notion of abstract reduction semantics. Opaque components are approximated by their specifications, which in turn are treated as abstract values during reduction. We demonstrate the technique by applying it to two kinds of specifications for higher-order languages: types and first-class contracts, showing that each soundly approximates opaque components. Finally, we derive modular static analyzers from these semantics, soundly predicting evaluation, contract violations, and blame assignment.

Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam

2011-01-01

436

Supervised Semantic Classification for Nuclear Proliferation Monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing feature extraction and classification approaches are not suitable for monitoring proliferation activity using high-resolution multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. In this paper we present a supervised semantic labeling framework based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation method. This framework is used to analyze over 120 images collected under different spatial and temporal settings over the globe representing three major semantic categories: airports, nuclear, and coal power plants. Initial experimental results show a reasonable discrimination of these three categories even though coal and nuclear images share highly common and overlapping objects. This research also identified several research challenges associated with nuclear proliferation monitoring using high resolution remote sensing images.

437

Semantic Visualization and Navigation in Textual Corpus  

CERN Document Server

This paper gives a survey of related work on the information visualization domain and study the real integration of the cartography paradigms in actual information search systems. Based on this study, we propose a semantic visualization and navigation approach which offer to users three search modes: precise search, connotative search and thematic search. The objective is to propose to the users of an information search system, new interaction paradigms which support the semantic aspect of the considered information space and guide users in their searches by assisting them to locate their interest center and to improve serendipity.

Kboubi, Férihane; BenAhmed, Mohamed

2012-01-01

438

Mathematical aspects of logic programming semantics  

CERN Document Server

Covering the authors' own state-of-the-art research results, Mathematical Aspects of Logic Programming Semantics presents a rigorous, modern account of the mathematical methods and tools required for the semantic analysis of logic programs. It significantly extends the tools and methods from traditional order theory to include nonconventional methods from mathematical analysis that depend on topology, domain theory, generalized distance functions, and associated fixed-point theory.The book covers topics spanning the period from the early days of logic programming to current times. It discusses

Hitzler, Pascal

2010-01-01

439

Semantic mashups intelligent reuse of web resources  

CERN Document Server

Mashups are mostly lightweight Web applications that offer new functionalities by combining, aggregating and transforming resources and services available on the Web. Popular examples include a map in their main offer, for instance for real estate, hotel recommendations, or navigation tools.  Mashups may contain and mix client-side and server-side activity. Obviously, understanding the incoming resources (services, statistical figures, text, videos, etc.) is a precondition for optimally combining them, so that there is always some undercover semantics being used.  By using semantic annotations

Endres-Niggemeyer, Brigitte

2013-01-01

440

Semantic technologies and e-business  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this chapter, we study what semantic technologies can bring to the e-business domain and how they can be applied to it. After an overview of the goals to be achieved by e-business applications we detail a large panel of existing e-business standards, with a specific focus on B2B (Business to Business) and their current modus operandi. Furthermore we also present some of the most relevant e-business ontologies. We then argue that the use of semantic technologies will simplify the automatic ...

Bedini, Ivan; Gardarin, Georges; Nguyen, Benjamin

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Timed Automata Semantics for Analyzing Creol  

CERN Document Server

We give a real-time semantics for the concurrent, object-oriented modeling language Creol, by mapping Creol processes to a network of timed automata. We can use our semantics to verify real time properties of Creol objects, in particular to see whether processes can be scheduled correctly and meet their end-to-end deadlines. Real-time Creol can be useful for analyzing, for instance, abstract models of multi-core embedded systems. We show how analysis can be done in Uppaal.

Jaghoori, Mohammad Mahdi; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.8

2010-01-01

442

Seam Carving for semantic video coding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compression standards such as H.264/AVC encode video sequences to maximize fidelity at a given bitrate. However, semantic-oriented and content-aware compression remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a semantic video compression method using seam carving. Seam carving changes the dimension of an image/video with a non-uniform resampling of each row and column while keeping the rectangular shape of the image. Our main contribution is a new approach to identify areas where seams are con...

Decombas, Marc; Capman, Francois; Renan, Erwann; Dufaux, Frederic; Pesquet-popescu, Beatrice

2011-01-01

443

Semi-automatic creation of semantic networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vision of the Semantic Web ist one of extending the World Wide Web of today to one "[..] in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation." (Tim Berners-Lee in an article for the Scientific American in 2001). This promises an exciting future for the WWW. The advantages for users and machines alike are eminent, many of the building stones like RDF or OWL are in place already. But why has the Semantic Web not been adopted by mor...

Bro?cker, L.

2007-01-01

444

Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 X 20 emotion, face, and hand related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora; HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

Petersen, Michael Kai

2015-01-01

445

Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing amount of health information and frequent outbreaks of diseases, the retrieval of health information is given more concern. Machine understanding of spatial information can improve the interpretation of health data semantics. Most of the current research focused on the non-spatial semantics of health data, using ontologies and rules. Utilizing the spatial component of health data can assist in the understanding of health phenomena. This research proposes a semantic health information query architecture that allows the incorporation of both non-spatial semantics and geospatial semantics in health information integration and retrieval.

Gao, S.; Anton, François

2012-01-01

446

Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure...

Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo

2013-01-01

447

Differentiable manifolds  

CERN Document Server

The basics of differentiable manifolds, global calculus, differential geometry, and related topics constitute a core of information essential for the first or second year graduate student preparing for advanced courses and seminars in differential topology and geometry. Differentiable Manifolds is a text designed to cover this material in a careful and sufficiently detailed manner, presupposing only a good foundation in general topology, calculus, and modern algebra. This second edition contains a significant amount of new material, which, in addition to classroom use, will make it a useful re

Conlon, Lawrence

2009-01-01

448

The large-scale structure of semantic networks statistical analyses and a model for semantic growth  

CERN Document Server

We present statistical analyses of the large-scale structure of three types of semantic networks: word associations, WordNet, and Roget's thesaurus. We show that they have a small-world structure, characterized by sparse connectivity, short average path-lengths between words, and strong local clustering. In addition, the distributions of the number of connections follow power laws that indicate a scale-free pattern of connectivity, with most nodes having relatively few connections joined together through a small number of hubs with many connections. These regularities have also been found in certain other complex natural networks, such as the world wide web, but they are not consistent with many conventional models of semantic organization, based on inheritance hierarchies, arbitrarily structured networks, or high-dimensional vector spaces. We propose that these structures reflect the mechanisms by which semantic networks grow. We describe a simple model for semantic growth, in which each new word or concept ...

Steyvers, M; Tenenbaum, Mark Steyvers & Joshua B.

2001-01-01

449

SEMANTIC ASSOCIATION-BASED SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION METHOD ON THE SEMANTIC WEB PORTAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the information on the web dramatically increases, the existing web reveals more and more limitationsin information search because web pages are designed only for human consumption by mixing contentwith presentation. In order to improve this situation, the Semantic Web based on ontology comes on thestage by W3C, and it will bring a significant advancement in web search. To do this, the Semantic Webmust provide novel search and visualization methods which can help users instantly and intuitivelyunderstand why and how the results are retrieved. In this paper, we propose a semantic associationbasedsearch methodology that consists of how to find relevant information for a given user’s query in theontology, that is, a semantic network of resources and properties, and how to provide propervisualization and navigation methods on the results. From this work, users can search the semanticallyassociated resources with their query and also navigate such associations between resources.

Myungjin Lee

2010-01-01

450

Discovering Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Document and Context Aware Semantic Association Ranking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of information in the web is too large,so search engine come to play a more critical role to findrelation between input keywords. Semantic Similarity Measureis widely used in Information Retrieval (IR and also it isimportant component in various tasks on the web such asrelation extraction, community mining, document clustering,and automatic metadata extraction. An empirical method toestimate semantic similarity using page counts and text snippetsretrieved from a web search engine for two words. Specifically,define various word co-occurrence measures using page countsand integrate those with lexical patterns extracted from textsnippets. Pattern clustering is used to identify the numeroussemantic relations that exist between two given words. Theoptimal combination of page counts-based co-occurrencemeasures and lexical pattern clusters is learned using supportvector machines. The proposed method context AwareSemantic Association Ranking discovering complex andmeaningful relationships, which we call Semantic Associations.

P.Ilakiya

2013-06-01

451

The role of non-semantic factors in semantic satiation effect in schizophrenia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background and Objectives: Semantic satiation is defined as the subjective experience of the loss of access to the meanings of words or images caused by prolonged and quick repetitions of the material. Previous researches indicated that the semantic satiation of words and images occurs faster in sch [...] izophrenics than in healthy subjects. Individuals suffering from schizophrenia reveal the tendency to lose of access to the meaning of words after fewer words repetition than healthy controls. The aim of the research was to establish whether the semantic satiation of images in schizophrenia is the effect of the loss of meanings of images or is caused by non - semantic factors i.e. fatiguing experimental procedure. Methods: It was assumed that in conditions where the participant's level of fatigue was parallel to the fatigue observed in the research on semantic satiation and the meaning of satiated images was not required for semantic decisions, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls would not reveal the semantic satiation effect defined as an increase in reaction time. Two groups of participants: patients suffering from schizophrenia (10 women and 10 men, average age 30) and healthy controls (9 female and 9 male, average age 30.7) were shown 80 trails. Each one of them consisted of a satiated image which appeared repeatedly on the computer screen, and a non-satiated image accompanied by a written word, which were shown simultaneously after the final presentation of the satiated image. The participants' task was to decide whether the written word named the object presented on the non-satiated picture correctly. The participants did not make any decisions on the basis of satiated images. Results: The results obtained confirmed the hypothesis. In conditions where participants were shown the images flashing on the computer screen but were not required to make a semantic decision related to those images, their reaction time to subsequently presented stimuli did not lengthen. Conclusions: The results confirmed the hypothesis that the semantic satiation effect in schizophrenia is a semantic phenomenon and is not related to non-semantic factors such as the subjects' fatigue.

Katarzyna, Prochwicz; Judyta, & #379; uchowicz.

2013-06-01

452

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning.The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changingits contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of thecornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is calledSemantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality,scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages.Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systemsmust be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges inthis domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervisedlearning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learninghave been utilized. In this paper we present an inclusive layered classification of Semantic Annotationchallenges and discuss the most important issues in this field. Also, we review and analyze machinelearning applications for solving semantic annotation problems. For this goal, the article tries to closelystudy and categorize related researches for better understanding and to reach a framework that can mapmachine learning techniques into the Semantic Annotation challenges and requirements.

Hamed Hassanzadeh

2011-04-01

453

Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new techniques for discovering relationshipsacross different database, business applications and Webservices. Since this is an interdisciplinary concept in bothengineering and management; we first review web mining,semantic web, semantic web mining and finally propose anapplication of semantic web mining in human resourcemanagement.

Radhika Malik

2011-08-01

454

Syntactic and semantic metadata integration for science data use  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a novel metadata solution to allow applications to intelligently use science data in an automated fashion. The solution provides rich syntactic and semantic metadata, where the semantic metadata is linked with an ontology to define the semantic terms. This solution allows applications to exploit the syntactic metadata to read the data and the semantic metadata to infer the content and the meaning of the data. The solution presented in this paper leverages the Earth Science Markup Language for providing the syntactic metadata and adds a semantic metadata component along with links to the appropriate ontology. This new semantic component is orthogonal to the syntactic metadata, so it does not perturb the existing design. An example application was designed and built that integrates this syntactic and semantic metadata via an ontology to perform a data processing operation.

Movva, Sunil; Ramachandran, Rahul; Li, Xiang; Khaire, Sarita; Keiser, Ken; Conover, Helen; Graves, Sara

2005-11-01

455

Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancements of a research article.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research articles, and thereby break down present barriers to the discovery and re-use of information within traditional modes of scholarly communication. PMID:19381256

Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

2009-04-01

456

Comparison Latent Semantic and WordNet Approach for Semantic Similarity Calculation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information exchange among many sources in Internet is more autonomous, dynamic and free. The situation drive difference view of concepts among sources. For example, word 'bank' has meaning as economic institution for economy domain, but for ecology domain it will be defined as slope of river or lake. In this aper, we will evaluate latent semantic and WordNet approach to calculate semantic similarity. The evaluation will be run for some concepts from different domain with re...

Wicaksana, I. Wayan Simri; Wahyudi, Bambang

2011-01-01

457

Semantic Richness and the Activation of Concepts in Semantic Memory: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic richness refers to the amount of semantic information associated with a concept. Reaction-time (RT) studies have shown that words referring to rich concepts elicit faster responses than those referring to impoverished ones, suggesting that richer concepts are activated more quickly. In a recent functional neuroimaging study, richer concepts evoked less neural activity, which was interpreted as faster activation. The interpretations of these findings appear to conflict with event-rela...

Kounios, John; Green, Deborah L.; Payne, Lisa; Fleck, Jessica I.; Grondin, Ray; Mcrae, Ken

2009-01-01

458

Fuzzy Semantic Retrieval for Traffic Information Based on Fuzzy Ontology and RDF on the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 7.8 ? 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Information retrieval is the essential task for Traffic Information Service System in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS.  There a lot of fuzzy traffic information derived from human factor. To achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper proposes an approach using Resource Description Framework (RDF and fuzzy ontology. First, we apply RDF data model to represent traffic information on the Semantic Web. Then we present fuzzy linguistic variable ontology models and its formal representation with RDF. Introducing new data type referred as fuzzy linguistic variables to RDF data model, the semantic query expansions in SeRQL query language are constructed by order relation, equivalence relation, inclusion relation and complement relation between fuzzy concepts defined in linguistic variable ontologies. Examples show that the extended query can return all results which satisfy research requirement at semantic level without upgrading current main search algorithm, and this research facilitates the semantic retrieval of traffic information through fuzzy concepts for ITS on the Semantic Web.

Jun Zhai

2009-09-01

459

SemantEco: a semantically powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data  

Science.gov (United States)

We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a semantic technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a semantically enabled environmental monitoring framework called SemantEco and used it to build a water quality portal named SemantAqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss SemantEco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of semantic technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.

Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.

2014-01-01

460

Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
461

Expressing Implicit Semantic Relations without Supervision  

CERN Document Server

We present an unsupervised learning algorithm that mines large text corpora for patterns that express implicit semantic relations. For a given input word pair X:Y with some unspecified semantic relations, the corresponding output list of patterns is ranked according to how well each pattern Pi expresses the relations between X and Y. For example, given X=ostrich and Y=bird, the two highest ranking output patterns are "X is the largest Y" and "Y such as the X". The output patterns are intended to be useful for finding further pairs with the same relations, to support the construction of lexicons, ontologies, and semantic networks. The patterns are sorted by pertinence, where the pertinence of a pattern Pi for a word pair X:Y is the expected relational similarity between the given pair and typical pairs for Pi. The algorithm is empirically evaluated on two tasks, solving multiple-choice SAT word analogy questions and classifying semantic relations in noun-modifier pairs. On both tasks, the algorithm achieves s...

Turney, P D

2006-01-01

462

Semantic Shot Classification in Sports Video  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a unified framework for semantic shot classification in sports videos. Unlike previous approaches, which focus on clustering by aggregating shots with similar low-level features, the proposed scheme makes use of domain knowledge of a specific sport to perform a top-down video shot classification, including identification of video shot classes for each sport, and supervised learning and classification of the given sports video with low-level and middle-level features extracted from the sports video. It is observed that for each sport we can predefine a small number of semantic shot classes, about 5~10, which covers 90~95% of sports broadcasting video. With the supervised learning method, we can map the low-level features to middle-level semantic video shot attributes such as dominant object motion (a player), camera motion patterns, and court shape, etc. On the basis of the appropriate fusion of those middle-level shot classes, we classify video shots into the predefined video shot classes, each of which has a clear semantic meaning. The proposed method has been tested over 4 types of sports videos: tennis, basketball, volleyball and soccer. Good classification accuracy of 85~95% has been achieved. With correctly classified sports video shots, further structural and temporal analysis, such as event detection, video skimming, table of content, etc, will be greatly facilitated.

Duan, Ling-Yu; Xu, Min; Tian, Qi

2003-01-01

463

Semantic Organizers: Implications for Reading and Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching organizational strategies to language-disordered children can improve comprehension and formulation of written language. The semantic organizer approach involves activating and organizing prior knowledge, understanding text structure, and developing organizational strategies with both a verbal component and a graphic-structure component.…

Pehrsson, Robert S.; Denner, Peter R.

1988-01-01

464

Knowledge transformation for the semantic web  

CERN Document Server

This guide covers main issues in transforming the vast majority of models to be used in the context of the semantic web: XML schemas, relational models, UML diagrams, RDF schemas and ontologies. Different practical approaches are presented as well as discussions on some theoretical issues.

Klein, M

2003-01-01

465

Cases, Simulacra, and Semantic Web Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

"Ensemble" is an interdisciplinary research and development project exploring the potential role of emerging Semantic Web technologies in case-based learning across learning environments in higher education. Empirical findings have challenged the claim that cases "bring reality into the classroom" and that this, in turn, might provide the basis…

Carmichael, P.; Tscholl, M.

2013-01-01

466

Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common da