WorldWideScience
1

Developing a semantic web model for medical differential diagnosis recommendation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we describe a novel model for differential diagnosis designed to make recommendations by utilizing semantic web technologies. The model is a response to a number of requirements, ranging from incorporating essential clinical diagnostic semantics to the integration of data mining for the process of identifying candidate diseases that best explain a set of clinical features. We introduce two major components, which we find essential to the construction of an integral differential diagnosis recommendation model: the evidence-based recommender component and the proximity-based recommender component. Both approaches are driven by disease diagnosis ontologies designed specifically to enable the process of generating diagnostic recommendations. These ontologies are the disease symptom ontology and the patient ontology. The evidence-based diagnosis process develops dynamic rules based on standardized clinical pathways. The proximity-based component employs data mining to provide clinicians with diagnosis predictions, as well as generates new diagnosis rules from provided training datasets. This article describes the integration between these two components along with the developed diagnosis ontologies to form a novel medical differential diagnosis recommendation model. This article also provides test cases from the implementation of the overall model, which shows quite promising diagnostic recommendation results. PMID:25178271

Mohammed, Osama; Benlamri, Rachid

2014-10-01

2

Workplace Information Literacy in the Scientific Field : an Empirical Analysis Using the Semantic Differential Approach  

OpenAIRE

The study focuses on eliciting a semantic concept of Information Literacy by capturing the information worker s perception of the information process. It is presumed that this perception influences the formation and advancement of Information Literacy at the workplace. The approach is based on the creation of a semantic differential scale. Target group are scientists from the field of natural sciences. The survey shows that five partly correlated principal aspects play a major role: personal ...

Mu?hlbacher, Susanne; Hammwo?hner, Rainer; Wolff, Christian

2008-01-01

3

The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

Adams, Katherine

2002-01-01

4

Combining a semantic differential with fMRI to investigate brands as cultural symbols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, complex cultural symbols like brands are investigated with psychological approaches. Often this is done by using semantic differentials, in which participants are asked to rate a brand regarding different pairs of adjectives. Only recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to examine brands. In the current work we used fMRI in combination with a semantic differential to cross-validate both methods and to improve the characterization of the basic factors constituting the semantic space. To this end we presented pictures of brands while recording subject's brain activity during an fMRI experiment. Results of the semantic differential arranged the brands in a semantic space illustrating their relationships to other cultural symbols. FMRI results revealed activation of the medial prefrontal cortex for brands that loaded high on the factor 'social competence', suggesting an involvement of a cortical network associated with social cognitions. In contrast, brands closely related to the factor 'potency' showed decreased activity in the superior frontal gyri, possibly related to working memory during task performance. We discuss the results as a different engagement of the prefrontal cortex when perceiving brands as cultural symbols. PMID:20080877

Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael

2010-06-01

5

Informatics in radiology: radiology gamuts ontology: differential diagnosis for the Semantic Web.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Semantic Web is an effort to add semantics, or "meaning," to empower automated searching and processing of Web-based information. The overarching goal of the Semantic Web is to enable users to more easily find, share, and combine information. Critical to this vision are knowledge models called ontologies, which define a set of concepts and formalize the relations between them. Ontologies have been developed to manage and exploit the large and rapidly growing volume of information in biomedical domains. In diagnostic radiology, lists of differential diagnoses of imaging observations, called gamuts, provide an important source of knowledge. The Radiology Gamuts Ontology (RGO) is a formal knowledge model of differential diagnoses in radiology that includes 1674 differential diagnoses, 19,017 terms, and 52,976 links between terms. Its knowledge is used to provide an interactive, freely available online reference of radiology gamuts ( www.gamuts.net ). A Web service allows its content to be discovered and consumed by other information systems. The RGO integrates radiologic knowledge with other biomedical ontologies as part of the Semantic Web. PMID:24428295

Budovec, Joseph J; Lam, Cesar A; Kahn, Charles E

2014-01-01

6

On the `Semantics' of Differential Privacy: A Bayesian Formulation  

OpenAIRE

Differential privacy is a definition of "privacy'" for algorithms that analyze and publish information about statistical databases. It is often claimed that differential privacy provides guarantees against adversaries with arbitrary side information. In this paper, we provide a precise formulation of these guarantees in terms of the inferences drawn by a Bayesian adversary. We show that this formulation is satisfied by both "vanilla" differential privacy as well as a relaxat...

Kasiviswanathan, Shiva Prasad; Smith, Adam

2008-01-01

7

Enhancing delay differentiation semantics of class-based IP networks  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a time-sensitive scheduler oriented to delay differentiation in class-based networks, studying its behaviour from a single node to an end-to-end perspective. The novel feature of this scheduler is that it tries to bound the queuing delay per class and, simultaneously, to control the excess queuing delays in order to avoid class starvation. The study analyses the scheduler behaviour for heterogeneous class-load distributions and distinct timescales proving the robustnes...

Sousa, Pedro; Carvalho, Paulo; Freitas, Vasco

2004-01-01

8

Departmentality :   The functional differentiation of systems & the decapitation of the body semantics - or: how to ground Luhmann's theory of functional differentiation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Niklas Luhmann's system theory outlines a methodology that focuses empirical problems in depth. This is possible by means of an abductive use of an overwhelmingly accessibility to theoretical observations. However, this theory is itself a result of historical developments. It origins in a path of self-descriptive communications studied by Luhmann as semantic transformations. The paper goes back to Immanuel Kant's theory of systems and traces its origins on the basis of an evolution of a subdifferentiated legal system. Especially the semantic differentiation of forms is followed and takes a focus on semantic forms in chancellor H.-F. d'Aguesseau's and Fredrick the Great's self-description of power. The overall aim is to study the legacy and the strength of functional differentiation in state formation. How did the separated powers of functional differentiation emerge and how did it describe itself as difference to a reason of state?

Harste, Gorm

2008-01-01

9

Development of an Appropriate Method for Applying the Semantic Differential to the Measurement of Affective Outcomes of Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for statistical analysis of semantic differential data in educational evaluation is discussed. Estimated scores for unobserved affective variables are obtained using the canonical factor regression method. This method overcomes previous prolems of bias and inefficiency in computing composite affective indices. In an application of the…

Davis, Richard W.

10

Generation Y, wine and alcohol. A semantic differential approach to consumption analysis in Tuscany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is the elicitation of the consumer's semantic perception of different alcoholic beverages in order to provide information for the definition of communication strategies for both the private sector (and specifically the wine industry) and the public decision maker. Such information can be seen as the basis of a wider social marketing construct aimed at the promotion of responsible drinking among young consumers. The semantic differential approach was used in this study. The data collection was based on a survey to 430 consumers between 18 and 35years old in Tuscany, Italy. The database was organized in a three-way structure, indexing the data in a multiway matrix. The data were processed using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Moreover, homogeneous clusters of consumers were identified using a Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) approach. The results of the study highlight that beer and spirits are mainly perceived as "Young", "Social", "Euphoric", "Happy", "Appealing" and "Trendy" beverages, while wine is associated mostly with terms such as "Pleasure", "Quality" and "Comfortable". Furthermore, the cluster analysis allowed for the identification of three groups of individuals with different approaches to alcohol drinking. The results of the study supply a useful information framework for the elaboration of specific communication strategies that, based on the drinking habits of young consumers and their perception of different beverages, can use a language that is very close to the consumer typologies. Such information can be helpful for both private and public communication strategies. PMID:24370355

Marinelli, Nicola; Fabbrizzi, Sara; Alampi Sottini, Veronica; Sacchelli, Sandro; Bernetti, Iacopo; Menghini, Silvio

2014-04-01

11

Judging the other: psychiatric nurses' attitudes towards identified inpatients as measured by the semantic differential technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses' attitudes towards psychiatric patients can be expressed in terms of either a symptom-oriented approach or a personhood-focused approach where the latter is characterized by the ambition to establish a genuine and lasting relationship, while the former places the emphasis on correcting 'defective' patient behaviour. To study whether previous typologies found in a qualitative in-depth interview study exist in a larger quantitative investigation and, if so, to identify and describe a structure for the nurses' attitudes connected to each of the identified typologies. Six psychiatric group dwellings and six acute psychiatric hospital wards participated in the study. In all, 2700 assessments of 163 patients were sent out to 160 respondents and 2436 answers were returned, that is, the external dropout rate was 9.8%. The semantic differential technique was used. This is a method for quantifying the meaning that is attached to an identified phenomenon through series of bipolar pairs of adjectives. The scale has 57 bipolar pairs of adjectives, which estimates an unknown number of dimensions of nurses' attitudes towards an identified patient. The respondents' answers were analysed through entropy-based measures of association combined with structural plots. The analysis revealed that the four typologies existed as a delimited group, especially the groups of 'good' and 'evil' patients, while the 'crazy' and 'invisible' patients existed in a more blurred form. The analysis also revealed that the two groups, 'good' and 'evil', were connected to the nurses' ethical and aesthetic attitude structure, while the 'crazy' patients were linked to the cognitive structure and the 'invisible' patients to the empathetic structure. The study indicates that the two typologies, 'good' and 'evil', could be seen as each other's antithesis and, together with the other two typologies, 'crazy' and 'invisible', they touched upon a structure of the nurses' attitudes that was closely connected to a negative view of the patient except in one case -'the good' patients, which was probably based on his/her exterior symptoms. PMID:15450021

Lilja, L; Ordell, M; Dahl, A; Hellzén, O

2004-10-01

12

The Effect of Ethnic and Social Class Variables on Semantic Differential Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a study instituted to determine whether attitude scales standardized on a white population falter when applied to black subjects. The subjects were 656 white and black college students, 457 of these being middle class white students, 29 middle class black students, and 70 lower class black students. Eight semantic

Denmark, Florence L.; And Others

13

Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency  

Science.gov (United States)

Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

2012-01-01

14

Differential task effects on N400 and P600 elicited by semantic and syntactic violations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Syntactic violations in sentences elicit a P600 component in the event-related potential, which is frequently interpreted as signaling reanalysis or repair of the sentence structure. However, P600 components have been reported also for semantic and combined semantic and syntactic violations, giving rise to still other interpretations. In many of these studies, the violation might be of special significance for the task of the participants; however there is a lack of studies directly targeting task effects on the P600. Here we repeated a previously published study but using a probe verification task, focusing on individual words rather than on sentence correctness and directly compared the results with the previous ones. Although a (somewhat smaller) N400 component occurred also in the present study, we did not observe a parietal P600 component. Instead, we found a late anterior negativity. Possibly, the parietal P600 observed in sentence acceptability paradigms relates to the target value of the violations or to late sentence structure-specific processes that are more task-sensitive than the N400 and which are or not initiated in the probe verification task. In any case the present findings show a strong dependency of P600-eliciting processes from attention to the sentences context whereas the N400 eliciting processes appear relatively robust. PMID:24614675

Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Shmuilovich, Olga; Martíenz, Pilar Casado; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

2014-01-01

15

Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD) data  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD) rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However...

Srivastava Mousami; Khurana Pankaj; Sugadev Ragumani

2012-01-01

16

[Proposal for a modified method of semantic differential diagnosis in testing for stereotyping of the mentally ill patient].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the paper, a proposal of using the semantic differential (by Osgood) for the research on social perception of mentally ill is presented. It allows for investigation of the basic attributes of the stereotype of psychiatric patient: social character, evaluative aspect, simplification, over-generalization of the opinion and its stiffness. The article presents the pilot results coming from the research in a group of students of psychology (first year of studying), who had no lectures in psychiatry by that time (N = 149). The results lead to the conclusion that the picture of mentally ill has social character, that is--some of its attributes are common for a majority of responders (over 77%). They also confirm (with a high certainty--coming to 79%) that most of mentally ill persons (64-80%) are unpredictable, lost, difficult to understand, introvert, unconscious, not self-possessed, excitable, threatening, aggressive and violent. The results show that in the portrait of mentally ill negative attributes are in majority. This portrait--so one-sided and negative--can be one of the basic predictores of social rejection of mentally ill persons. PMID:11202021

Bak, O

2000-01-01

17

Semantic Advertising  

OpenAIRE

We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such...

Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John

2013-01-01

18

Mechanized semantics  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this lecture is to show how modern theorem provers---in this case, the Coq proof assistant---can be used to mechanize the specification of programming languages and their semantics, and to reason over individual programs and over generic program transformations, as typically found in compilers. The topics covered include: operational semantics (small-step, big-step, definitional interpreters); a simple form of denotational semantics; axiomatic semantics and Hoare...

Leroy, Xavier

2010-01-01

19

EL SEMANTICO DIFERENCIAL COMO PROPUESTA METODOLOGICA PARA CARACTERIZAR EL LIDERAZGO EN UNA ORGANIZACIÓN / THE DIFFERENTIAL SEMANTICS AS METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL TO CHARACTERIZE THE LEADERSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El liderazgo es un fenómeno esencial en la administración de cualquier tipo de organización, se refiere a un patrón de conducta según como lo perciben los demás, y se desarrolla a partir de experiencias, educación, capacitación y condiciones naturales. La primera parte de este artículo se dedica a r [...] ealizar una definición del liderazgo para luego clasificarlo en tres grupos: Liderazgo Transaccional, Liderazgo Transformacional y las teorías emergentes. A continuación se explican los pasos que componen la metodología propuesta para caracterizar el liderazgo en una organización la cual esta basada en la técnica de Semántica Diferencial de Osgood en la cual se construye una escala bipolar tipo diferencial semántico. Finalmente se muestran los resultados alcanzados de la aplicación de la metodología en las ONG en Antioquia, para lo cual se realiza una definición acerca de las ONG y las características percibidas de los líderes en esta clase de organizaciones en Antioquia. Abstract in english Leadership is a basic aspect f management for any type of organization, it refers to a behavioral pattern according to the perception of the other, and it is developed from experiences, education, capacity building and natural conditions. The first part of this paper focuses on defining leadership, [...] classifying it in three groups: transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and emergent theories. Later, there is a description of the steps that constitute a methodology proposed to characterize leadership in organizations. This methodology is grounded in the Osgood Differentiation Semantics, in which a bipolar scale of semantical differentiation type is constructed. Finally, results from the application of this methodology in NGO (Non-Governmental Organizations) in Antioquia are shown. A definition of NGOs is carried out, as well as a description of the perceived characteristics of NGO leaders in Antioquia.

GIOVANNY, PEREZ ORTEGA; MARTÍN DARIO, ARANGO SERNA; JHON WILLIAM, BRANCH BEDOYA.

2008-07-01

20

Semantic Normativity without Semantic Norm  

OpenAIRE

Against both strongly normativist views of language (Putnam, Burge) and strongly anti-normativist views (Chomsky, Bilgrami), I defend a moderate view of semantic normativity, on which normativity does not require the existence of ultimate semantic authorities and is consistent with the possibility of semantic deviance.

Marconi, Diego

1997-01-01

21

Differential Prefrontal and Subcortical Circuitry Engagement During Encoding of Semantically Related Words in Patients with Late Life Depression  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Verbal memory difficulties are common among individuals with late-life depression (LLD), though there is limited knowledge about disruptions to underlying cerebral circuitry. The purpose of this study is to examine aberrations to cerebral networks implicated in encoding novel verbal semantic material among older adults with LLD. Methods Twenty-four older adults with early-onset LLD and 23 non-depressed comparisons (NDC) participated in the study. Participants completed a word list-learning task while undergoing fMRI. Results In the context of equivalent recall and recognition of words following scanning and similar hippocampal volumes, patients with LLD exhibited less activation in structures known to be relevant for new learning and memory, including hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, insula, and cingulate, relative to non-ill comparisons. An important region in which the LLD group displayed greater activation than the NDC group was in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area involved in cognitive control and controlled semantic/phonological retrieval and analysis; this region may be critical for LLD patients to consolidate encoded words into memory. Conclusions Functional irregularities found in LLD patients may reflect different modes of processing to-be-remembered information and/or early changes predictive of incipient cognitive decline. Future studies might consider mechanisms that could contribute to these functional differences, including HPA-axis functioning and vascular integrity, and utilize longitudinal designs in order to understand whether functional changes are predictive of incipient cognitive decline. PMID:24948034

Weisenbach, Sara L.; Kassel, Michelle T.; Rao, Julia; Weldon, Annie L.; Avery, Erich T.; Briceno, Emily M.; Ajilore, Olusala; Mann, Megan; Kales, Helen C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A.

2015-01-01

22

Visual Product Evaluation: Using the Semantic Differential to Investigate the Influence of Basic Vase Geometry on Users’ Perception  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Products evoke emotions in people. Emotions can influence purchase decisions and product evaluations. It is widely acknowledged that better product performance and higher user satisfaction can be reached through aesthetic design. However, when designing a new product, most of the attention is generally paid to enhance its functionality and usability and much less consideration is given to the emotional needs of users. This paper explores a methodology based on Emotional Design theory in order to discover implicit emotional needs of users toward product design and how they are related to very simple product features. Various forms of vases are used as a product case. Additionally, a compact list of product-specific semantic descriptors is proposed and used. Survey, interview techniques and statistical methods were performed in this paper, where significant correlations between semantic descriptors were found. A formal link between specific product features and how the products are perceived is introduced and the results were used to build prototype vases. A simple validation on aesthetic value was performed with the results confirming the general trend of the possibility to define perception from a simple set of geometric features.

Achiche, Sofiane; Maier, Anja

2014-01-01

23

Semantic Integration  

OpenAIRE

Sharing data across disparate sources requires solving many problems of semantic integration, such as matching ontologies or schemas, detecting duplicate tuples, reconciling inconsistent data values, modeling complex relations between concepts in different sources, and reasoning with semantic mappings. This issue of AI Magazine includes papers that discuss various methods on establishing mappings between ontology elements or data fragments. The collection includes papers that discuss semantic...

Noy, Natalya F.; Doan, Anhai; Halevy, Alon Y.

2005-01-01

24

Automatic processing of taxonomic and thematic relations in semantic priming - Differentiation by early N400 and late frontal negativity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical (plant-pine) or taxonomic categories (animal-plant). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categories, which performs external or complementary roles in the same scenario or event (bee-honey). The goal of this study was to explore the processing of hierarchical categories and thematic categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. The Evoked response potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the time course of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 300ms as participants performed a lexical decision task. Six experimental conditions were compared: hierarchical relations (offspring-grandson), internal features (gold-golden), productive relations (bee-honey), script relations (room-tenant), unrelated (star-spoon), and non-word trials (star-derf). We found faster reaction times for related prime-target pairs than unrelated pairs except for productive relations. The ERP data showed that an early N400 effect (200-400ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, a frontal negativity (400-550ms) elicited by productive relations was smaller (more positive) than other related words. We suggest that the smaller frontal negativity in the processing of productive relations indicates their increased salience in knowledge structure compared to less prominent hierarchical relations. Indeed, the allocation of attentional resources and subsequent recruitment of additional memory processing might be two of the hallmarks of thematic relations. PMID:25234647

Chen, Qingfei; Ye, Chun; Liang, Xiuling; Cao, Bihua; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

2014-09-16

25

Emotional valence and semantic relatedness differentially influence false recognition in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and healthy elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are at higher risk for later Alzheimer disease (AD) display deficits comparable to patients with diagnosed dementia. We assessed 27 patients with MCI, 36 patients with AD, and 20 healthy older adults with an emotional variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-paradigm. Participants studied four lists that were semantically related to a nonpresented critical theme word. These theme words were either depression-related (i.e., loneliness) or delusion-related (betrayal) or had a positive (holidays) or neutral (window) valence. Despite a normal overall emotional memory and a normal corrected overall false recognition, patients with MCI, as predicted, produced as many false memories as patients with AD. On closer examination, both patient groups showed enhanced false memories to unrelated stimuli and a significant bias to falsely remember stimuli with a positive valence. We conclude that although patients with MCI are not distinguishable from healthy older adults in terms of their overall emotional recognition, positively valenced memories and more specifically false positive memories may represent the signature of a breakdown of emotional memory along the continuum between normal aging and AD. PMID:19203441

Brueckner, Katja; Moritz, Steffen

2009-03-01

26

Understanding semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types.

Thrane, Torben

1997-01-01

27

Are Semantic Response Scales Equivalent?  

Science.gov (United States)

Three frequently used response formats are compared via analysis of covariance structures. The cumulative results based on four data sets provided evidence inconsistent with previous research suggesting that these formats are interchangeable. The semantic-differential format is most preferred while in most cases the Stapel format is least…

Ofir, Chezy; And Others

1987-01-01

28

Differential Impacts of Age of Acquisition on Letter and Semantic Fluency in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients and Healthy Older Adults  

OpenAIRE

The degree to which the typical age of acquisition (AoA) of words and word frequency have separable influences on verbal production tasks has been strongly debated. To examine the overlap between these factors in verbal fluency tasks, the performance of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients (N=34) and normal elderly controls (N=36) was compared on semantic (e.g., vegetables) and letter (e.g. words that begin with F) fluency tasks. These comparisons revealed that words generated for the semantic...

Sailor, Kevin M.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Sanders, Amy E.

2011-01-01

29

Making secure Semantic Web  

OpenAIRE

this paper first describes ways of semantic web security implementation through layers. These layers are presented as a backbone for semantic web architecture and are represented in XML security, RDF security and in an idea of semantic web security standardization.

Adis Medi?; Adis Golubovi?

2010-01-01

30

Semantic Annotation: The Mainstay of Semantic Web  

OpenAIRE

Given that semantic Web realization is based on the critical mass of metadata accessibility and the representation of data with formal knowledge, it needs to generate metadata that is specific, easy to understand and well-defined. However, semantic annotation of the web documents is the successful way to make the Semantic Web vision a reality. This paper introduces the Semantic Web and its vision (stack layers) with regard to some concept definitions that helps the understan...

Slimani, Thabet

2013-01-01

31

Semantic relation vs. surprise: the differential effects of related and unrelated co-verbal gestures on neural encoding and subsequent recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Speech-associated gesturing leads to memory advantages for spoken sentences. However, unexpected or surprising events are also likely to be remembered. With this study we test the hypothesis that different neural mechanisms (semantic elaboration and surprise) lead to memory advantages for iconic and unrelated gestures. During fMRI-data acquisition participants were presented with video clips of an actor verbalising concrete sentences accompanied by iconic gestures (IG; e.g., circular gesture; sentence: "The man is sitting at the round table"), unrelated free gestures (FG; e.g., unrelated up down movements; same sentence) and no gestures (NG; same sentence). After scanning, recognition performance for the three conditions was tested. Videos were evaluated regarding semantic relation and surprise by a different group of participants. The semantic relationship between speech and gesture was rated higher for IG (IG>FG), whereas surprise was rated higher for FG (FG>IG). Activation of the hippocampus correlated with subsequent memory performance of both gesture conditions (IG+FG>NG). For the IG condition we found activation in the left temporal pole and middle cingulate cortex (MCC; IG>FG). In contrast, for the FG condition posterior thalamic structures (FG>IG) as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices were activated (FG>NG). Our behavioral and fMRI-data suggest different mechanisms for processing related and unrelated co-verbal gestures, both of them leading to enhanced memory performance. Whereas activation in MCC and left temporal pole for iconic co-verbal gestures may reflect semantic memory processes, memory enhancement for unrelated gestures relies on the surprise response, mediated by anterior/posterior cingulate cortex and thalamico-hippocampal structures. PMID:24746497

Straube, Benjamin; Meyer, Lea; Green, Antonia; Kircher, Tilo

2014-06-01

32

Differentiation  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity about lunar magmatic differentiation, in which learners simulate the process of geological differentiation. The activity ends with an extension question that asks about the makeup of the highlands of the Moon. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teacher's guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

33

Programming the semantic web  

CERN Document Server

With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

2009-01-01

34

Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more be...

Splendiani Andrea; Burger Albert; Paschke Adrian; Romano Paolo; Marshall M

2011-01-01

35

The Semantics of Motion  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present a semantic study of motion complexes (ie. of a motion verb followed by a spatial preposition). We focus on the spatial and the temporal intrinsic semantic properties of the motion verbs, on the one hand, and of the spatial prepositions, on the other hand. Then, we address the problem of combining these basic semantics in order to formally and automatically derive the spatiotemporal semantics of a motion complex from the spatiotemporal properties of its components.

Sablayrolles, P

1995-01-01

36

Measuring semantic complexity  

CERN Document Server

We define {\\em semantic complexity} using a new concept of {\\em meaning automata}. We measure the semantic complexity of understanding of prepositional phrases, of an "in depth understanding system", and of a natural language interface to an on-line calendar. We argue that it is possible to measure some semantic complexities of natural language processing systems before building them, and that systems that exhibit relatively complex behavior can be built from semantically simple components.

Zadrozny, W

1995-01-01

37

Improving Semantic Schema Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Schema matching is a critical step in many applications, such as data warehouse loading, Online Analytical Process (OLAP, Data mining, semantic web and schema integration. This task is defined for finding the semantic correspondences between elements of two schemas. Recently, schema matching has found considerable interest in both research and practice. In this paper, some approaches for supporting semantic schema matching compared and then we suggest three solutions for improving semantic schema matching problem.

Zahra Sheikhnajdy

2011-07-01

38

Semantics via Machine Translation  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

Culhane, P. T.

1977-01-01

39

Making secure Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available this paper first describes ways of semantic web security implementation through layers. These layers are presented as a backbone for semantic web architecture and are represented in XML security, RDF security and in an idea of semantic web security standardization.

Adis Medi?

2010-11-01

40

Semantically Interoperable XML Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

XML is ubiquitously used as an information exchange platform for web-based applications in healthcare, life sciences, and many other domains. Proliferating XML data are now managed through latest native XML database technologies. XML data sources conforming to common XML schemas could be shared and integrated with syntactic interoperability. Semantic interoperability can be achieved through semantic annotations of data models using common data elements linked to concepts from ontologies. In this paper, we present a framework and software system to support the development of semantic interoperable XML based data sources that can be shared through a Grid infrastructure. We also present our work on supporting semantic validated XML data through semantic annotations for XML Schema, semantic validation and semantic authoring of XML data. We demonstrate the use of the system for a biomedical database of medical image annotations and markups. PMID:25298789

Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

2013-09-01

41

Semantic component of a cross-modal Stroop-like task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments showed that the pattern of interference of single-modality Stroop tests also exists cross-modally. Distractors and targets were either pictures or auditory words. In a naming task (Experiment 1), word distractors from the same semantic category as picture targets interfered with picture naming more than did semantically unrelated distractors; the semantic category of picture distractors did not differentially affect word naming. In a categorization task (Experiment 2), this Stroop-like effect was reversed: Picture distractors from the same semantic category as word targets interfered less with word categorization than picture distractors that were semantically unrelated; the semantic category of word distractors did not differentially affect picture categorization. Experiment 3 replicated these effects when each subject performed both tasks; the task, naming or categorizing, determined the pattern of interference between pictures and auditory words. The results thus support the existence of a semantic component of a cross-modal Stroop-like effect. PMID:21957508

Stuart, D M; Carrasco, M

1993-01-01

42

Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web  

CERN Document Server

The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

Ashish, Naveen

2011-01-01

43

Semantic Role Labeling  

CERN Document Server

This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

2011-01-01

44

Applied Semantic Web Technologies  

CERN Document Server

The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

Sugumaran, Vijayan

2011-01-01

45

Semantic Business Process Modeling  

OpenAIRE

This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

Markovic, Ivan

2010-01-01

46

The Semantic Learning Organization  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

2005-01-01

47

A Semantic Graph Query Language  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

Kaplan, I L

2006-10-16

48

UML 2 Semantics and Applications  

CERN Document Server

A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

Lano, Kevin

2009-01-01

49

Reactive Kripke semantics  

CERN Document Server

This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

Gabbay, Dov M

2013-01-01

50

Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge  

CERN Document Server

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

2014-01-01

51

Benchmarking semantic web technology  

CERN Document Server

This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

García-Castro, R

2009-01-01

52

Semantics of Persian Auxiliaries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the semantics of Persian modal auxiliaries, considering them in the light of comparable verbs in English. A discussion of dimension of modality in English is provided for clarification. (Author/VWL)

Rahimian, Jalal

1999-01-01

53

Semantic Game Worlds:  

OpenAIRE

The visual quality of game worlds increased massively in the last three decades. However, the closer game worlds depict reality, the more noticeable it is for gamers when objects do not behave accordingly. An important problem is that the data of a game world is often scattered across different components of the game engine. What lacks is a common semantic representation that can act as the glue between these components. In this thesis we define semantic game worlds as game worlds that ar...

Tutenel, T.

2012-01-01

54

Semantic based DNS Forensics  

OpenAIRE

In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages semantic and natural language processing tools in order to analyze large volumes of DNS data. The main research novelty consists in detecting malicious and dangerous domain names by evaluating the semantic similarity with already known names. This process can provide valuable information for...

Marchal, Samuel; Franc?ois, Je?ro?me; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

2012-01-01

55

Semantic Observation Integration  

OpenAIRE

Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest...

Werner Kuhn; Laura Spinsanti; Frank Ostermann; Sven Schade

2012-01-01

56

Overt vs. Null Direct Objects in Spoken Brazilian Portuguese: A Semantic/Pragmatic Account.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the semantic/pragmatic constraints on null objects spoken in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) in detail, and situates BP null objects in the broader crosslinguistic perspective of differential object marking. Demonstrates that semantic/pragmatic dimensions of animacy and specificity, and in particular their interaction, must be taken into…

Schwenter, Scott A.; Silva, Glaucia

2002-01-01

57

Exploiting Semantic Indexing Images for Emergence Recommendation Semantics System  

OpenAIRE

Thanks to the efforts of the Semantic Web Community (W3C), images can be semantically indexed with metadata. The explicit representation of image contents is made possible by using ontologies that provide a common and shared understanding of a domain at both human users and application levels. The approach that we are proposing in this paper is a semantic indexing of images based on conceptual method. To make efficient the semantic indexing, we also propose a recommender system. User profiles...

Zomahoun, Damien; Houngue, Pe?lagie; Ye?tongnon, Kokou

2013-01-01

58

Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.  

OpenAIRE

The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms...

Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

1991-01-01

59

Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

2007-08-07

60

The Semantic SPASE  

Science.gov (United States)

The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide the means to easily implement semantic search for science data archives using space science data models and metadata. It also suggests the means to support correlative search across science disciplines, missions, and instruments since multiple ontologies can be gathered together for processing . Finally broad scope interoperability can be envisioned where semantically aware software agents reason about and process distributed science data repositories.

Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

2005-12-01

61

Semantic Search of Web Services  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

Hao, Ke

2013-01-01

62

Semantic Observation Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

Werner Kuhn

2012-09-01

63

Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference. PMID:23867104

Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

2013-10-01

64

A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory  

CERN Document Server

The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

2008-01-01

65

Semantic e-Science  

CERN Document Server

The Semantic Web has been a very important development in how knowledge is disseminated and manipulated on the Web, but it has been of particular importance to the flow of scientific knowledge, and will continue to shape how data is stored and accessed in a broad range of disciplines, including life sciences, earth science, materials science, and the social sciences. Many books and papers have been published on the semantic web (particularly by Springer), but nothing to date has specifically illustrated how applications can be used to acquire, integrate, and deliver knowledge in so many scient

Chen, Huajun; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

2010-01-01

66

Evolution of semantic systems  

CERN Document Server

Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

2013-01-01

67

Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

2015-01-01

68

Universal Semantics in Translation  

OpenAIRE

What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which applications are also briefly looked into.

Zhenying Wang

2009-01-01

69

Latent Semantic Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

Dumais, Susan T.

2004-01-01

70

The semantic similarity ensemble  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

Andrea Ballatore

2013-12-01

71

Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

Chute, C G; Yang, Y; Evans, D A

1991-01-01

72

A compositional Semantics for CHR  

CERN Document Server

Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are a committed-choice declarative language which has been designed for writing constraint solvers. A CHR program consists of multi-headed guarded rules which allow one to rewrite constraints into simpler ones until a solved form is reached. CHR has received a considerable attention, both from the practical and from the theoretical side. Nevertheless, due the use of multi-headed clauses, there are several aspects of the CHR semantics which have not been clarified yet. In particular, no compositional semantics for CHR has been defined so far. In this paper we introduce a fix-point semantics which characterizes the input/output behavior of a CHR program and which is and-compositional, that is, which allows to retrieve the semantics of a conjunctive query from the semantics of its components. Such a semantics can be used as a basis to define incremental and modular analysis and verification tools.

Gabbrielli, M; Gabbrielli, Maurizio; Meo, Maria Chiara

2006-01-01

73

System Model Semantics of Class Diagrams  

OpenAIRE

Defining semantics for UML is a difficult task. Disagreements in the meaning of UML constructs as well as the size of UML are major obstacles. In this report, we describe our approach to define the semantics for UML. Semantics is defined denotationally as a mapping into our semantics domain called the system model [4, 5, 6]. We demonstrate our approach by defining the semantics for a comprehensive version of class diagrams. The semantics definition is detailed for UML/P clas...

Cengarle, Maria Victoria; Gro?nninger, Hans; Rumpe, Bernhard

2014-01-01

74

Fully Abstract Game Semantics for Actors  

OpenAIRE

Along the way paved by the recent concurrent game semantics for process algebra CCS and $\\pi$-calculus, based on the basic characteristics of the actor computational model and the very reductive semantics for actors, we establish a fully abstract concurrent game semantics for actors by borrowing the algebraic structure from CCS. This semantics can both be seen as an innocent presheaf semantics, and a concurrent game semantics.

Wang, Yong

2014-01-01

75

Uncertainty in the Semantic Web  

OpenAIRE

During the recent decade, significant research activities have been directed towards the Semantic Web as future substitute of the Web. Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data. An important role in research towards the Semantic Web is played by formalisms and technologies for handling uncertainty and/or vagueness. In this paper, I give an overview of some own recent formalisms for handling uncertainty a...

Lukasiewicz, T.

2009-01-01

76

Towards a Semantic Grid Architecture  

OpenAIRE

The Semantic Grid is an extension of the current Grid in which information and services are given well defined and explicitly represented meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. In the last few years, several projects have embraced this vision and there are already successful pioneering applications that combine the strengths of the Grid and of semantic technologies. However, the Semantic Grid currently lacks a reference architecture, or a systematic approach for...

Goble, Carole

2005-01-01

77

Survey of semantic modeling techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

Smith, C.L.

1975-07-01

78

Semantics and Complexity of SPARQL  

CERN Document Server

SPARQL is the W3C candidate recommendation query language for RDF. In this paper we address systematically the formal study of SPARQL, concentrating in its graph pattern facility. We consider for this study a fragment without literals and a simple version of filters which encompasses all the main issues yet is simple to formalize. We provide a compositional semantics, prove there are normal forms, prove complexity bounds, among others that the evaluation of SPARQL patterns is PSPACE-complete, compare our semantics to an alternative operational semantics, give simple and natural conditions when both semantics coincide and discuss optimizations procedures.

Pérez, J; Gutíerrez, C; Perez, Jorge; Arenas, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Claudio

2006-01-01

79

Semantic trajectory compression  

OpenAIRE

In the light of rapidly growing repositories capturing the movement tra jectories of people in spacetime, the need for tra jectory compression becomes obvious. This paper argues for semantic trajectory compression (STC) as a means of substantially compressing the movement trajectories in an urban environment with acceptable information loss. STC exploits that human urban movement and its large–scale use (LBS, navigation) is embedded in some geographic context, typically de?ned by ...

Schmid, F.; Richter, K. F.; Laube, P.

2009-01-01

80

Semantic Exploration of DNS  

OpenAIRE

The DNS structure discloses useful information about the organization and the operation of an enterprise network, which can be used for designing attacks as well as monitoring domains supporting malicious activities. Thus, this paper introduces a new method for exploring the DNS domains. Although our previous work described a tool to generate existing DNS names accurately in order to probe a domain automatically, the approach is extended by leveraging semantic analysis of domain names. In par...

Marchal, Samuel; Franc?ois, Je?ro?me; Wagner, Cynthia; Engel, Thomas

2012-01-01

81

Dissociating the effects of semantic grouping and rehearsal strategies on event-related brain potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of elaborative encoding strategies during learning, such as grouping items on similar semantic categories, increases the likelihood of later recall. Previous studies have suggested that stimuli that encourage semantic grouping strategies had modulating effects on specific ERP components. However, these studies did not differentiate between ERP activation patterns evoked by elaborative working memory strategies like semantic grouping and more simple strategies like rote rehearsal. Identification of neurocognitive correlates underlying successful use of elaborative strategies is important to understand better why certain populations, like children or elderly people, have problems applying such strategies. To compare ERP activation during the application of elaborative versus more simple strategies subjects had to encode either four semantically related or unrelated pictures by respectively applying a semantic category grouping or a simple rehearsal strategy. Another goal was to investigate if maintenance of semantically grouped vs. ungrouped pictures modulated ERP-slow waves differently. At the behavioral level there was only a semantic grouping benefit in terms of faster responding on correct rejections (i.e. when the memory probe stimulus was not part of the memory set). At the neural level, during encoding semantic grouping only had a modest specific modulatory effect on a fronto-central Late Positive Component (LPC), emerging around 650 ms. Other ERP components (i.e. P200, N400 and a second Late Positive Component) that had been earlier related to semantic grouping encoding processes now showed stronger modulation by rehearsal than by semantic grouping. During maintenance semantic grouping had specific modulatory effects on left and right frontal slow wave activity. These results stress the importance of careful control of strategy use when investigating the neural correlates of elaborative encoding. PMID:25242500

Schleepen, T M J; Markus, C R; Jonkman, L M

2014-12-01

82

Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

Deerwester, Scott; And Others

1990-01-01

83

The Problem of Naturalizing Semantics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates conceptual barriers prevalent in the works of both proponents and opponents of semantic naturalism. Searches for a tenable definition of naturalism according to which one can be a realist, a non-reductionist, and a naturalist about semantic content. (Author/VWL)

Sullivan, Arthur

2000-01-01

84

Evolutionary Self-Adaptive Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

We present SASC, Self-Adaptive Semantic Crossover, a new class of crossover operators for genetic programming. SASC operators are designed to induce the emergence and then preserve good building-blocks, using meta-control techniques based on semantic compatibility measures. SASC performance is tested in a case study concerning the replication of investment funds.

Inhasz, Rafael; Stern, Julio M.

2011-03-01

85

Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

Skorokhodko, E. F.

1970-01-01

86

Structural Correlates of Semantic and Phonemic Fluency Ability in First and Second Languages  

OpenAIRE

Category and letter fluency tasks are commonly used clinically to investigate the semantic and phonological processes central to speech production, but the neural correlates of these processes are difficult to establish with functional neuroimaging because of the relatively unconstrained nature of the tasks. This study investigated whether differential performance on semantic (category) and phonemic (letter) fluency in neurologically normal participants was reflected in regional gray matter d...

Grogan, A.; Green, D. W.; Ali, N.; Crinion, J. T.; Price, C. J.

2009-01-01

87

Communication of Semantic Properties  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself, but by the specific way that the materials are used in the product. Selection of materials is therefore often done by looking at similar products. The product as well as its constitutive materials possesses a number of technical properties like strength, stiffness and hardness. Furthermore the product possesses a number of semantic properties associated with the meaning we read from the form, colour, texture and sound of the product. The purpose of working with these properties can be to make the use of the product more self-evident, to form or enhance the cultural meaning of the product and to give the product a distinct character. For the technical properties there exists a well developed and commonly accepted terminology that can be utilised at product search and material selection (Ashby 1996). This is not the case for the semantic properties which are important for the outcome reflecting the product design processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material search also require a clear terminology. It is not our aim to identify a new terminology but rather to identify the terminology already in use. The paper also describes different research methods for identifying such a terminology.

Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

2004-01-01

88

Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

2012-12-01

89

Coinductive big-step operational semantics  

OpenAIRE

Using a call-by-value functional language as an example, this article illustrates the use of coinductive definitions and proofs in big-step operational semantics, enabling it to describe diverging evaluations in addition to terminating evaluations. We formalize the connections between the coinductive big-step semantics and the standard small-step semantics, proving that both semantics are equivalent. We then study the use of coinductive big-step semantics in proofs of type s...

Leroy, Xavier; Grall, Herve?

2006-01-01

90

On the Semantics of SPARQL  

Science.gov (United States)

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard data model for representing information about World Wide Web resources. In January 2008, it was released the recommendation of the W3C for querying RDF data, a query language called SPARQL. In this chapter, we give a detailed description of the semantics of this language. We start by focusing on the definition of a formal semantics for the core part of SPARQL, and then move to the definition for the entire language, including all the features in the specification of SPARQL by the W3C such as blank nodes in graph patterns and bag semantics for solutions.

Arenas, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Claudio; Pérez, Jorge

91

Workspaces in the Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

2005-01-01

92

Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrate its potential by two applications. As a first application, we localize lane structures by the semantic descriptors and their relations in a Bayesian framework. As the second application, which is in the context of vision based grasping, we show how the semantic relations can be associated to actions that allow for grasping without using any object knowledge.

Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre

2008-01-01

93

High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

2011-06-02

94

A Semantic Approach for Recommendations generation: some Cultural Heritage applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EnThe growing availability of data in the information systems has raised the challenging problem of distinguishing between the resources that belong to the same information context. Starting from the hypothesis that the information system is based on Semantic Web technologies, is it possible to use these technologies to make an information system more adaptive to user requirements in order to enable personalization and differentiation mechanisms in the information delivery process?This paper proposes an approach to building recommendations by using Semantic Web technologies, in order to give the users a different access to the information. The outcome is a semantic recommender engine, capable of retrieving and ranking semantically annotated resources, by using a set of domain ontologies and a semantic matching algorithm. We are showing some applications of this model in the Cultural Heritage domain in which the presented approach seems to be particularly effective, due to the richness of semantic structures and models existing for such domain.ItLa crescente quantità di dati disponibili da parte dei sistemi informativi ha sollevato il complesso problema della distinzione tra risorse appartenenti allo stesso contesto informativo. Partendo dall'ipotesi che il sistema informativo si basi sulle tecnologie proprie del Web Semantico, è possibile utilizzare tali tecnologie per rendere il sistema adattivo ai requisiti dell'utente, abilitando, in questo modo, meccanismi di personalizzazione e differenziazione?Questo articolo propone un approccio per la generazione di recommendation,  utilizzando le tecnologie del Web Semantico, al fine di fornire, ai singoli utenti, accessi differenziati alle informazioni. Il risultato è un motore di generazione di recommendation semantiche, in grado di recuperare e classificare risorse annotate semanticamente, avvalendosi di un set di ontologie di dominio e di un algoritmo di matching semantico. Saranno infine descritte alcune applicazioni di tale modello nel dominio del Cultural Heritage. In tale dominio, infatti, grazie all'enorme mole di ontologie, modelli e strutture semantiche esistenti, l'approccio presentato sembra essere particolarmente efficace.

Maurizio De Tommasi

2011-12-01

95

UML 2 Semantics Symposium: Formal Semantics for UML  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this symposium, held in conjunction with MoDELS 2006, was to present the current state of research of the UML 2 Semantics Project. Equally important to receiving feedback from an audience of experts was the opportunity to invite researchers in the field to discuss their own work related to a formal semantics for the Unified Modeling Language. This symposium is a follow-on to our first workshop, held in conjunction with ECMDA 2005.

Broy, Manfred; Crane, Michelle L.; Dingel, Juergen; Hartman, Alan; Rumpe, Bernhar; Selic, Brau

2014-01-01

96

Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito.OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de validación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama.OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and calculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulting measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

Juliana de Lima Lopes

2011-01-01

97

Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS. The algorithm uses the description of the service capabilities to match the semantic values. The traditional matching has been improved using ontologies which constitute a step further in the matching algorithms. To implement the algorithm, an agent FIPA compliant architecture has been designed and developed. The results obtained are positive. The semantic web services framework developed in combination with the use of the matchmaking algorithm, which allows finding services based on their similarities.

J. Javier Samper

2008-01-01

98

Monads for natural language semantics  

OpenAIRE

Accounts of semantic phenomena often involve extending types of meanings and revising composition rules at the same time. The concept of monads allows many such accounts -- for intensionality, variable binding, quantification and focus -- to be stated uniformly and compositionally.

Shan, Chung-chieh

2002-01-01

99

Operational semantics for signal handling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

Maxim Strygin

2012-08-01

100

NASA and The Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

Ashish, Naveen

2005-01-01

101

Semantic Description of Web Services  

OpenAIRE

The tasks of semantic web service (discovery, selection, composition, and execution) are supposed to enable seamless interoperation between systems, whereby human intervention is kept at a minimum. In the field of Web service description research, the exploitation of descriptions of services through semantics is a better support for the life-cycle of Web services. The large number of developed ontologies, languages of representations, and integrated frameworks supporting the...

Thabet Slimani

2013-01-01

102

Semantic processing in information retrieval.  

OpenAIRE

Intuition suggests that one way to enhance the information retrieval process would be the use of phrases to characterize the contents of text. A number of researchers, however, have noted that phrases alone do not improve retrieval effectiveness. In this paper we briefly review the use of phrases in information retrieval and then suggest extensions to this paradigm using semantic information. We claim that semantic processing, which can be viewed as expressing relations between the concepts r...

Rindflesch, T. C.; Aronson, A. R.

1993-01-01

103

Towards a Mathematical Operational Semantics  

OpenAIRE

We present a categorical theory of ‘well-behaved’ operational semantics which aims at complementing the established theory of domains and denotational semantics to form a coherent whole. It is shown that, if the operational rules of a programming language can be modelled as a natural transformation of a suitable general form, depending on functorial notions of syntax and behaviour, then one gets the following for free: an operational model satisfying the rules and a cano...

Plotkin, Gordon; Turi, Daniele

2003-01-01

104

Generic Trace Semantics via Coinduction  

OpenAIRE

Trace semantics has been defined for various kinds of state-based systems, notably with different forms of branching such as non-determinism vs. probability. In this paper we claim to identify one underlying mathematical structure behind these "trace semantics," namely coinduction in a Kleisli category. This claim is based on our technical result that, under a suitably order-enriched setting, a final coalgebra in a Kleisli category is given by an initial algebra in the categ...

Hasuo, I.; Jacobs, Bpf; Sokolova, A.

2007-01-01

105

Semantic Approach for Query Explication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

Shruti Gupta

2013-06-01

106

Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network  

CERN Document Server

Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meaningful ways. However, new models have emerged that explicitly encode procedural information within the semantic network substrate. With these new technologies, the Semantic Web has evolved from a data modeling medium to a computational medium. This article provides a classification of existing computational modeling efforts and the requirements of supporting technologies that will aid in the further growth of this burgeoning domain.

Rodriguez, Marko A

2007-01-01

107

Formal Language Decomposition into Semantic Primes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for semantic decomposition. For that we surveys languages used to enrich contextual information with semantic descriptions. Such descriptions can be e.g. applied to enable reasoning when collecting vast amounts of information. In particular, we focus on the elements of the languages that make up their semantic. To do so, we compare the expressiveness of the well-known languages OWL, PDDL and MOF with a theory from linguistic called the Natural Semantic Metalanguage. We then analyze how the semantic of the language is build up and describe how semantic decomposition based on the semantic primes can be used for a so called mental lexicon. This mental lexicon can be used to reason upon semantic service description in the research domain of service match making.

Johannes FÄHNDRICH

2014-10-01

108

An Efficient Inductive Unsupervised Semantic Tagger  

CERN Document Server

We report our development of a simple but fast and efficient inductive unsupervised semantic tagger for Chinese words. A POS hand-tagged corpus of 348,000 words is used. The corpus is being tagged in two steps. First, possible semantic tags are selected from a semantic dictionary(Tong Yi Ci Ci Lin), the POS and the conditional probability of semantic from POS, i.e., P(S|P). The final semantic tag is then assigned by considering the semantic tags before and after the current word and the semantic-word conditional probability P(S|W) derived from the first step. Semantic bigram probabilities P(S|S) are used in the second step. Final manual checking shows that this simple but efficient algorithm has a hit rate of 91%. The tagger tags 142 words per second, using a 120 MHz Pentium running FOXPRO. It runs about 2.3 times faster than a Viterbi tagger.

Lua, K T

1996-01-01

109

Ontology Learning for Semantic Web using Lexical-Semantic Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, web has evolved from global information space where data has linked well. Linking Open Data project has enabled a large number of semantic datasets to be published on the web. Due to the open and distributed nature of the web both schema and instances of published datasets may have heterogeneity problems. In order to overcome these problems we use semantic technologies such as Ontology, RDF, Xml and OWL. This paper proposes how to learn an ontology and solve these heterogeneous problem. We also use taxonomic and partonomic relations to learn the ontology. This project also uses lexical semantic analysis to identify relationship. Lexical method retrieves the words which are having multiple meaning.

Senduru Srinivasulu

2014-03-01

110

Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic systems and systems biology.

Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.32

2010-01-01

111

Concurrent validity of Family Semantics Grid  

OpenAIRE

The Family Semantics Grid (FSG) is a unitizing and coding system for the semantic analysis of dyadic therapeutic conversations and self-narratives. It is based on the hypothesis (Guidano 1987; Ugazio 1998) stating that each psychopathology is linked to a prevalent bipolar pattern of meanings or Family Semantics (FS). In particular, phobic disorders should be connected to the “semantics of freedom” which has the fear/courage emotions and independence/dependence polarity at its core, obsess...

Negri, Atta Ambrogio Maria; Pedercini, Davide; Bonizzi, Federica

2012-01-01

112

A Relative Timed Semantics for BPMN  

OpenAIRE

We describe a relative-timed semantic model for Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN). We define the semantics in the language of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP). This model augments our untimed model by introducing the notion of relative time in the form of delays chosen non-deterministically from a range. We illustrate the application by an example. We also show some properties relating the timed semantics and BPMN's untimed process semantics by exploiting CSP refinement. Our ...

Wong, Pyh; Gibbons, J.

2009-01-01

113

Identifying Bengali Multiword Expressions using Semantic Clustering  

OpenAIRE

One of the key issues in both natural language understanding and generation is the appropriate processing of Multiword Expressions (MWEs). MWEs pose a huge problem to the precise language processing due to their idiosyncratic nature and diversity in lexical, syntactical and semantic properties. The semantics of a MWE cannot be expressed after combining the semantics of its constituents. Therefore, the formalism of semantic clustering is often viewed as an instrument for extr...

Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Das, Dipankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sivaji

2014-01-01

114

SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION  

OpenAIRE

Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide W...

Anil Sharma

2011-01-01

115

Semantic Measures: A State of the Art  

OpenAIRE

Significant advances in terms of syntactic, structural and schematic heterogeneity have been achieved by adopting conventions and standards. The IT community is now trying to solve the problem of semantic heterogeneity (particularly in the Semantic Web field). To reach this objective, it is necessary to enable machines to understand the semantics of terms. Semantics, as opposed to syntax, defines the mental representation of concepts corresponding to the symbols used in texts or images. When ...

Chabot, Yoan; Nicolle, Christophe

2014-01-01

116

Theorem proving support in programming language semantics  

OpenAIRE

We describe several views of the semantics of a simple programming language as formal documents in the calculus of inductive constructions that can be verified by the Coq proof system. Covered aspects are natural semantics, denotational semantics, axiomatic semantics, and abstract interpretation. Descriptions as recursive functions are also provided whenever suitable, thus yielding a a verification condition generator and a static analyser that can be run inside the theorem ...

Bertot, Yves

2007-01-01

117

Information retrieval with semantic memory model  

OpenAIRE

Psycholinguistic theories of semantic memory form the basis of understanding of natural language concepts. These theories are used here as an inspiration for implementing a computational model of semantic memory in the form of semantic network. Combining this network with a vector-based object-relation-feature value representation of concepts that includes also weights for confidence and support, allows for recognition of concepts by referring to their features, enabling a semantic search alg...

Duch, W?odzis?aw; Szyman?ski, Julian

2011-01-01

118

A Semantic Normalization Proof for Inductive Types  

OpenAIRE

Semantics methods have been used to prove cut elimination theorems for a long time. It is only recently that they have been extended to prove strong normalization results. For instance using the notion of super-consistency that is a semantic criterion for theories expressed in deduction modulo implying strong normalization. However, the strong normalization of System T has always been reluctant to such semantic methods. In this paper we give a semantic normalization proof of system T using th...

Allali, Lisa; Brauner, Paul

2008-01-01

119

ENGLISH TO SANSKRIT MACHINE TRANSLATION SEMANTIC MAPPER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we propose to develop a converter which converts English Statement to Sanskrit statement Using Rule based approach of Machine Translation .The proposed method has following features: The Proposed modules are as follows:MODULE 1: LEXICAL PARSERMODULE 2: SEMANTIC MAPPERMODULE 3: ITRANSLATORMODULE 4: COMPOSERHere we would concentrate only on the Second module that is Semantic Mapper. To map the English semantic word with Sanskrit semantic word

VAISHALI M. BARKADE,

2010-10-01

120

Fold and Unfold for Program Semantics  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we explain how recursion operators can be used to structure and reason about program semantics within a functional language. In particular, we show how the recursion operator fold can be used to structure denotational semantics, how the dual recursion operator unfold can be used to structure operational semantics, and how algebraic properties of these operators can be used to reason about program semantics. The techniques are explained with the aid of two main examples, the fi...

Hutton, Graham

1998-01-01

121

Semantic photo synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite images are synthesized from existing photographs by artists who make concept art, e.g. storyboards for movies or architectural planning. Current techniques allow an artist to fabricate such an image by digitally splicing parts of stock photographs. While these images serve mainly to "quickly" convey how a scene should look, their production is laborious. We propose a technique that allows a person to design a new photograph with substantially less effort. This paper presents a method that generates a composite image when a user types in nouns, such as "boat" and "sand." The artist can optionally design an intended image by specifying other constraints. Our algorithm formulates the constraints as queries to search an automatically annotated image database. The desired photograph, not a collage, is then synthesized using graph-cut optimization, optionally allowing for further user interaction to edit or choose among alternative generated photos. Our results demonstrate our contributions of (1) a method of creating specific images with minimal human effort, and (2) a combined algorithm for automatically building an image library with semantic annotations from any photo collection.

Johnson, Matthew; Brostow, G. J.; Shotton, J.; Kwatra, V.; Cipolla, R.

2007-02-01

122

Semantic Features in Argument Selection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the problems that has to be dealt with by theorists of early language acquisition theory is the mismatch between semantic constructs, like Agent, and syntactic ones, like subject. It is proposed that the linguistic system is based on semantic features that are more fine-grained than thematic roles, and that selection of subject and direct object can be accounted for by merely four semantic features. These features are conceived of as properties of participants in the lexical entries of verbs, and in this respect, too, they are unlike thematic roles, which are ascribed to NPs in sentences. Thematic roles play a part only in the realization of certain other arguments, notably, the oblique object. It is shown that this different treatment of direct and oblique objects permits a parsimonious explanation of certain linguistic regularities that have posed problems for other theories. Early language acquisition can be explained in terms of the acquisition of these semantic features, and this account thus supersedes the semantic assimilation hypothesis proposed previously to deal with the lack of congruence between thematic roles and syntactic categories.

Izchak M. Schlesinger

2013-08-01

123

Web to Semantic Web & Role of Ontology  

OpenAIRE

In this research paper we are briefly presenting current major web problems and introducing semantic web technologies with the claim of solving existing web's problems. Furthermore we are describing Ontology as the main building block of semantic web and focusing on its contributions to semantic web progress and current limitations.

Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

2010-01-01

124

CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998.

Haxthausen, Anne

1998-01-01

125

Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

Rajab Abd al-Hamed

2007-09-01

126

Semantic HMC for Big Data Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Analyzing Big Data can help corporations to im-prove their efficiency. In this work we present a new vision to derive Value from Big Data using a Semantic Hierarchical Multi-label Classification called Semantic HMC based in a non-supervised Ontology learning process. We also proposea Semantic HMC process, using scalable Machine-Learning techniques and Rule-based reasoning.

Hassan, Thomas; Peixoto, Rafael; Cruz, Christophe; Bertaux, Aurlie; Silva, Nuno

2014-01-01

127

Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die tekskorpusmetode kan nie gebruik word vir minderheidstale waarin tekste ontbreek nie. Om in die behoefte te voorsien, het die skrywer 'n lys van 1 600 semantiese domeine opgestel wat hy suksesvol gebruik het om woorde te versamel. In 'n werksessie-omgewing kan 'n groep sprekers tot soveel as 17 000 woorde in tien dae versamel. Hierdie metode lei tot 'n geklassifiseerde woordelys wat doeltreffend uitgebrei kan word tot 'n volledige woordeboek. Die metode werk omdat die mentale leksikon 'n groot web is wat rondom sleutelbegrippe gestruktureer is. 'n Semantiese domein kan gedefinieer word as 'n belangrike kon-sep saam met die woorde wat direk daarmee verband hou vanweë leksikale verwantskappe. 'n Persoon kan die mentale web gebruik om vinnig van woord tot woord binne 'n domein te spring. Die skrywer is besig om vir elke domein 'n profiel te ontwikkel om te help met die versameling van woorde en met die beskrywing van hul semantiek. 'n Ondersoek van semantiek binne die konteks van 'n domein lewer baie insigte. Die metode laat die totstandbrenging van sowel alfabeties as semanties gerangskikte woordeboeke toe. Die lys domeine is bedoel om univer-seel in omvang en toepassing te wees. Moontlik as gevolg van universalia van menslike ervaring en universalia van taalkundige vermoë, is daar treffende ooreenkomste tussen verskillende lyste semantiese domeine wat ontwikkel is vir tale oor die hele wêreld. Die gebruik van 'n gestandaardi-seerde lys domeine om veelsoortige woordeboeke te klassifiseer, skep moontlikhede vir kruislin-guistiese navorsing oor semantiese en leksikale universalia. Sleutelwoorde: SEMANTIESE DOMEINE, SEMANTIESE VELDE, SEMANTIESE KATE-GORIEË, LEKSIKALE VERWANTSKAPPE, SEMANTIESE PRIMITIEWES, DOMEINPROFIELE, MENTALE LEKSIKON, SEMANTIESE UNIVERSALIA, MINDERHEIDSTALE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE

Ronald Moe

2011-10-01

128

Semantic Description of Web Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tasks of semantic web service (discovery, selection, composition, and execution are supposed to enable seamless interoperation between systems, whereby human intervention is kept at a minimum. In the field of Web service description research, the exploitation of descriptions of services through semantics is a better support for the life-cycle of Web services. The large number of developed ontologies, languages of representations, and integrated frameworks supporting the discovery, composition and invocation of services is a good indicator that research in the field of Semantic Web Services (SWS has been considerably active. We provide in this paper a detailed classification of the approaches and solutions, indicating their core characteristics and objectives required and provide indicators for the interested reader to follow up further insights and details about these solutions and related software.

Thabet Slimani

2013-01-01

129

Operational Semantics for Lazy Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An operational semantics for lazy evaluation of a calculus without higher order functions was defined. Although it optimizes many aspects of implementation, e.g. there is a sharing in the recursive computation, there is no ? conversion, the heap is automatically reclaimed, and an attempt to evaluate an argument is done at most once. It is still suitable for reasoning about program behavior and proofs of program correctness; this is primarily due to the definition via inferences and axioms which allows for proofs by induction on the height of the proof tree. We also proved the correctness of this operational semantics by showing that it is equivalent with respect to the values calculated to the operational semantics of LAZY-PCF+SHAR due to S. Purushothaman Iyer and Jill Seaman.

Mahmoud A. AbouGhaly

2007-01-01

130

Business Intelligence using Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computers becomes an essential thing in our day-to-day life. Currently, computers can change from single, isolated devices into entry points to exchange the information called World Wide Web(WWW. Humans are capable of using the web to carry our the task. However, a computer cannot accomplish the same task without the human direction, because web pages are designed to be read by the people, not by the machines. Usually, humans interact with the web to gather information or to improve their business intelligence. The information is accessed by giving a related keyword to search. This keyword is used by the server to provide the relevant information about the given keyword. The server provides only limited information for the given keyword. But there exists a lot of information regarding the keyword but it is not provided to the user due to the lack of word in the given keyword. So the keyword searching becomes intangible to fulfill the requirements of the user in some situation. This kind of searching is made with the presence of humans. To overcome this problem and to reduce the human effort, we propose a new method in this paper. This new method is termed as “SEMANTIC WEB”. The Semantic Web is an extension of the WWW. This is used to carry out the task directly by the computers instead of humans. The computer generates the Machine-Processable Information. The Semantic Web provides the automated schemes for gaining more relevant information by analyzing the kind of user behavior who currently use the web. With the help of Semantic Web, the user can access the web and gather more information with less effort. Semantic web is used to provide information by the web itself. This paper is used to explain the use and applications of the Semantic Web in a precise way.

S. Yasodha

2010-10-01

131

Linguistic Extraction for Semantic Annotation.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Berlin : Springer, 2008 - (Badica, C.; Mangioni, G.; Carchiolo, V.; Burdescu, D.), s. 85-94 ISBN 978-3-540-85256-8. - (Studies in Computational Intelligence. 162). [IDC 2008. International Symposium on Intelligent and Distributed Computing /2./. Catania (IT), 18.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA AV ?R 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic information extraction * linguistics * semantic computing * aggregation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

D?dek, J.; Vojtáš, Peter

132

Web Semantization – Design and Principles.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Berlin : Springer, 2010 - (Snášel, V.; Szczepaniak, P.; Abraham, A.; Kacprzyk, J.), s. 3-18 ISBN 978-3-642-10686-6. - (Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. 67). [AWIC 2009. Atlantic Web Intelligence Conference /6./. Prague (CZ), 09.09.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA ?R GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic web * semantic annotation * web information extraction * user preferences Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

D?dek, Jan; Eckhardt, Alan; Vojtáš, Peter

133

An Efficient Semantic Web Services Matching Mechanism  

Science.gov (United States)

Bringing semantics to Web Services description and matching remarkably improves the precision and recall performance of service discovery. However, it greatly increases the service matching time by executing semantic reasoning, and makes the real-time service selection and composition harder than before. To shorten service matching time, this paper presents an efficient Semantic Web Services matching mechanism with semantic information pretreatment. It shifts part of the reasoning process from service matching phase to service publishing phase. A prototype of Semantic Web Services matchmaker has been implemented based on this mechanism. The experiments on two service datasets show that our mechanism outperforms existing methods.

Li, Jing; Ma, Dianfu; Zhao, Zhuo; Zhu, Hong; Li, Lusong

134

Probabilistic Operational Semantics for the Lambda Calculus  

CERN Document Server

Probabilistic operational semantics for a nondeterministic extension of pure lambda calculus is studied. In this semantics, a term evaluates to a (finite or infinite) distribution of values. An inductively defined small-step semantics and a coinductively defined big step semantics are shown to produce identical outcomes, both in call-by-value and in call-by-name. Plotkin's CPS translation is extended to accommodate the choice operator and shown correct with respect to the operational semantics. Finally, the expressive power of the obtained system is studied: the calculus is shown to be sound and complete with respect to computable probability distributions.

Lago, Ugo Dal

2011-01-01

135

Semantics of Complex Sentences in Japanese  

CERN Document Server

The important part of semantics of complex sentence is captured as relations among semantic roles in subordinate and main clause respectively. However if there can be relations between every pair of semantic roles, the amount of computation to identify the relations that hold in the given sentence is extremely large. In this paper, for semantics of Japanese complex sentence, we introduce new pragmatic roles called `observer' and `motivated' respectively to bridge semantic roles of subordinate and those of main clauses. By these new roles constraints on the relations among semantic/pragmatic roles are known to be almost local within subordinate or main clause. In other words, as for the semantics of the whole complex sentence, the only role we should deal with is a motivated.

Nakagawa, H; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Shin'ichiro

1994-01-01

136

Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web Services are mounting as an inventive mechanism for rendering services to subjective devices over the WWW. As a consequence of the rapid growth of Web Services applications and the plenty of Service Providers, the consumer is facing with the inevitability of selecting the “right” Service Provider. In such a scenario the Quality of Service (QoS serves as a target to differentiate Service Providers. To select the best Web Services / Service Providers, Ranking and Optimization of Web Service Compositions are challenging areas of research with significant implications for the realization of the “Web of Services” revelation. The “Semantic Web Services” use formal semantic descriptions of Web Service functionality and interface to enable automated reasoning over Web Service Compositions. This study from its experimental results revealed that the existing Semantic Web Services faces a few challenging issues such as poor prediction of best Web Services and optimized Service Providers, which leads to QoS degradation of Semantic Web. To address and overcome these identified issues, this research work is calculating the semantic similarities, utilization of various Web Services and Service Providers. After measuring these parameters, all the Web Services are ranked based on their Utilization. Finally, our proposed technique, selected best Web Services based on their ranking and placed in Web Services Composition. From the experimental results, it is established that our proposed mechanism improves the performance of Semantic Web in terms of Execution Time, Processor Utilization and Memory Management.

N.K. Sakthivel

2012-04-01

137

Corporate Semantic Web: Towards the Deployment of Semantic Technologies in Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of information that companies have to produce, acquire, maintain, propagate, and use has increased dramatically over the last decades. Nowadays, companies seek more capable approaches for gaining, managing, and utilizing knowledge, and the Semantic Web offers promising solutions. While the global Semantic Web still remains an unfulfilled vision for the present, the Corporate Semantic Web idea aims at bringing semantic technologies to enterprises. The expected results are a competitive advantage for enterprises using semantic technologies and a boost for the evolution of the global Semantic Web.

Paschke, Adrian; Coskun, Gökhan; Heese, Ralf; Luczak-Rösch, Markus; Oldakowski, Radoslaw; Schäfermeier, Ralph; Streibel, Olga

138

The Scandal of Semantic Platonism.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Dordrecht : Springer, 2012 - (Maclaurin, J.), s. 191-200 ISBN 978-94-007-3983-3. - (Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. 28) R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : semantics * Platonism, * constructions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

Svoboda, Vladimír

139

The Semantic Web in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

Ohler, Jason

2008-01-01

140

Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

Linn, Michael D.

141

Russian nominal semantics and morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which are also rooted in the lexical-semantic classification of Russian nouns. The presentation focuses on semantics, both lexical and grammatical, and not least the connection between these two levels of content. The principal theoretical impact is the insight that grammar and lexis should not be seen as a random collection of subsystems, but as a comprehensive structure of interconnected oppositions, repeating the same semantic distinctions at different levels and in different lexical and grammatical classes. The book is of interest to students of Russian and linguists with some command, stronger or weaker, of Russian. Students will see a pattern in what is traditionally described as disparate subsystems, and linguists may be inspired to consider the theoretical points concerning language as a coherent system, determining usage.

NØrgård-SØrensen, Jens

2011-01-01

142

Well-Founded Argumentation Semantics for Extended Logic Programming  

CERN Document Server

This paper defines an argumentation semantics for extended logic programming and shows its equivalence to the well-founded semantics with explicit negation. We set up a general framework in which we extensively compare this semantics to other argumentation semantics, including those of Dung, and Prakken and Sartor. We present a general dialectical proof theory for these argumentation semantics.

Schweimeier, R; Schweimeier, Ralf; Schroeder, Michael

2002-01-01

143

Differentials over differential fields  

OpenAIRE

Given an algebra $A$ over a differential field $K$, we study derivations on $A$ that are compatible with the derivation on $K$. There is a universal object, which is a twisted version of the usual module of differentials, and we establish some of its basic properties. In the context of differential algebraic geometry, one gets a sheaf of these $\\tau$-differentials which can be interpreted as certain natural functions on the prolongation of a variety, as studied by Buium. Thi...

Rosen, Eric

2007-01-01

144

Defining Key Semantics for the Semantic Web : a Theoretical View  

OpenAIRE

Many techniques were recently proposed to automate the linkage of RDF data sources on the Web. Predicate selection is the step of the linkage process that consists in selecting the smallest set of relevant predicates needed to enable instance comparison. We call keys this predicates set similar to the notion of keys in relational databases. We explore and explain formally the different assumptions behind various key semantics.

Chein, Michel; Croitoru, Madalina; Lecle?re, Michel; Pernelle, Nathalie; Sais, Fatiha; Symeonidou, Danai

2013-01-01

145

Semantics of Programming Languages: A Tool-Oriented Approach  

OpenAIRE

By paying more attention to semantics-based tool generation, programming language semantics can significantly increase its impact. Ultimately, this may lead to ``Language Design Assistants'' incorporating substantial amounts of semantic knowledge.

Heering, Jan; Klint, Paul

1999-01-01

146

An overview of semantic compression  

Science.gov (United States)

We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and approaches are considered, ranging from low-level semantic compression for text and database compaction, to high-level semantic analysis of images or video in which objects of interest have been detected, segmented, and represented compactly to facilitate indexing. In particular, we overview previous work in semantic pattern recognition, and how this has been applied to object-based compression. Discussion centers on lossless versus lossy transformations, quality of service in lossy compression, and computational efficiency.

Schmalz, Mark S.

2010-08-01

147

Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation  

OpenAIRE

Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced...

Pabitha, P.; Vignesh Nandha Kumar, K. R.; Pandurangan, N.; Vijayakumar, R.; Rajaram, M.

2011-01-01

148

Autobiographically significant concepts: more episodic than semantic in nature? An electrophysiological investigation of overlapping types of memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

A common assertion is that semantic memory emerges from episodic memory, shedding the distinctive contexts associated with episodes over time and/or repeated instances. Some semantic concepts, however, may retain their episodic origins or acquire episodic information during life experiences. The current study examined this hypothesis by investigating the ERP correlates of autobiographically significant (AS) concepts, that is, semantic concepts that are associated with vivid episodic memories. We inferred the contribution of semantic and episodic memory to AS concepts using the amplitudes of the N400 and late positive component, respectively. We compared famous names that easily brought to mind episodic memories (high AS names) against equally famous names that did not bring such recollections to mind (low AS names) on a semantic task (fame judgment) and an episodic task (recognition memory). Compared with low AS names, high AS names were associated with increased amplitude of the late positive component in both tasks. Moreover, in the recognition task, this effect of AS was highly correlated with recognition confidence. In contrast, the N400 component did not differentiate the high versus low AS names but, instead, was related to the amount of general knowledge participants had regarding each name. These results suggest that semantic concepts high in AS, such as famous names, have an episodic component and are associated with similar brain processes to those that are engaged by episodic memory. Studying AS concepts may provide unique insights into how episodic and semantic memory interact. PMID:25061931

Renoult, Louis; Davidson, Patrick S R; Schmitz, Erika; Park, Lillian; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

2015-01-01

149

Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services  

CERN Document Server

For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

Wang, Xia

2013-01-01

150

Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Pages  

OpenAIRE

Semantic similarity measures play an important role in the extraction of semantic relations. Semantic similarity measures are widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Information Retrieval (IR). The work proposed here uses web based metrics to compute the semantic similarity between words or terms and also compares with the state-of-the-art. For a computer to decide the semantic similarity, it should understand the semantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it can...

Sujatha, T.; Ramesh Naidu G; P.Suresh B

2012-01-01

151

Semantic Web Framework for Development of Very Large Ontologies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of the Semantic Web framework for very large ontologies. The Semantic Web is often associated with specific XML-based standards for semantics, such as RDF and OWL. Application of lexical ontologies such as WordNet and others for different tasks on the Semantic W [...] eb requires their representation in RDF and/or OWL formats with possibility of the different ontology mappings, semantic workflows, services and other semantic technologies.

Sergey, Yablonsky.

2009-06-01

152

Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

2007-01-01

153

Exploiting Social Semantics for Multilingual Information Retrieval  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis we consider how user-generated content that is assembled by different popular Web portals can be exploited for Multilingual Information Retrieval. We define the knowledge that can be derived from such portals as Social Semantics. We present to approaches, Cross-lingual Explicit Semantic Analysis and Discriminative Retrieval Models, that are able to support multilingual retrieval models by integrating Social Semantics derived from Wikipedia and Yahoo! Answers.

Sorg, Philipp

2011-01-01

154

A uniform approach to logic programming semantics  

OpenAIRE

Part of the theory of logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning concerns the study of fixed-point semantics for these paradigms. Several different semantics have been proposed during the last two decades, and some have been more successful and acknowledged than others. The rationales behind those various semantics have been manifold, depending on one's point of view, which may be that of a programmer or inspired by commonsense reasoning, and consequently the constructions...

Hitzler, Pascal; Wendt, Matthias

2002-01-01

155

Semantic Web Services and the traveller scenario  

OpenAIRE

To see if Semantic Web Services is a viable solution for the future of Web Services I take in to consideration the existing technologies their advantages and deficiencies. From this analysis I recognised the need for machine understandable semantics in Web Service technology. For adding such semantics to services there needs to be requirements set. Since there are several initiatives under development for implementing such services I start by setting up a list of requirements. Then the differ...

Rustad, Marianne

2006-01-01

156

Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web  

OpenAIRE

Significant research activities have recently been directed towards the Semantic Web as a potential future substitute of the current World Wide Web. Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data. An important role in research towards the Semantic Web is played by formalisms and technologies for handling uncertainty and/or vagueness. In this paper, I first provide some motivating examples for handling uncerta...

Lukasiewicz, T.

2009-01-01

157

Building Requirements Semantics for Networked Software Interoperability  

OpenAIRE

Naturally, like the web, integrated software systems in Internet will have to be distributed and heterogeneous. To im-prove the interoperability of services for SAAS, it is crucial to build requirements semantics that will cross the entire lifecycle of services especially on requirements stage. In this paper, a requirements semantics interoperability extend-ing approach called Connecting Ontologies (CO) that will act as semantics information carrier designing to facilitate the requirements id...

Bin Wen; Jian Wang; Keqing He

2010-01-01

158

A Semantic Web Approach for Geodata Discovery  

OpenAIRE

Currently, vast amounts of geospatial information are o ffered through OGC's services. However this information has limited formal semantics. The most common method to search for a dataset consists in matching keywords to metadata elements. By adding semantics to available descriptions we could use modern inference and reasoning mechanisms currently available in the SemanticWeb. In this paper we present a novel architecture currently in development in which we use state of the art triplestore...

Arenas, Helbert; Harbelot, Benjamin; Cruz, Christophe

2013-01-01

159

Automatic Ontology Matching Using Application Semantics  

OpenAIRE

We propose the use of application semantics to enhance the process of semantic reconciliation. Application semantics involves those elements of business reasoning that affect the way concepts are presented to users: their layout, and so on. In particular, we pursue in this article the notion of precedence, in which temporal constraints determine the order in which concepts are presented to the user. Existing matching algorithms use either syntactic means (such as term matching and domain matc...

Gal, Avigdor; Modica, Giovanni; Jamil, Hasan; Eyal, Ami

2005-01-01

160

Information Extraction by Mining the Semantic Web?  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we propose research on how semantic web technologies can be used to mine theweb, for information extraction. We also examine how new unsupervised processes can aid in extractingprecise and useful information from semantic data, thus reducing the problem of information overload .TheSemantic Web adds structure to the meaningful content of Web pages; hence information is given a welldefinedmeaning; which is both human readable as well as machine-processable. This enables thedevelop...

Preethi, R.; Anuradha, C.

2013-01-01

161

Semantic Hierarchies for Visual Object Recognition  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we propose to use lexical semantic networks to extend the state-of-the-art object recognition techniques. We use the semantics of image labels to integrate prior knowledge about inter-class relationships into the visual appearance learning. We show how to build and train a semantic hierarchy of discriminative classifiers and how to use it to perform object detection. We evaluate how our approach influences the classification accuracy and speed on the PASCAL VOC challenge 2006 da...

Marsza?ek, Marcin; Schmid, Cordelia

2007-01-01

162

A Deep Architecture for Semantic Parsing  

OpenAIRE

Many successful approaches to semantic parsing build on top of the syntactic analysis of text, and make use of distributional representations or statistical models to match parses to ontology-specific queries. This paper presents a novel deep learning architecture which provides a semantic parsing system through the union of two neural models of language semantics. It allows for the generation of ontology-specific queries from natural language statements and questions withou...

Grefenstette, Edward; Blunsom, Phil; Freitas, Nando; Hermann, Karl Moritz

2014-01-01

163

Neuronal Activation for Semantically Reversible Sentences  

OpenAIRE

Semantically reversible sentences are prone to misinterpretation and take longer for typically developing children and adults to comprehend; they are also particularly problematic for those with language difficulties such as aphasia or Specific Language Impairment. In our study, we used fMRI to compare the processing of semantically reversible and nonreversible sentences in 41 healthy participants to identify how semantic reversibility influences neuronal activation. By including several ling...

Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Price, Cathy J.

2010-01-01

164

Semantic Plagiarism Detection System Using Ontology Mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism detection can play an important role in detecting stealing of original ideas in papers, journals and internet web sites. Checking these manually is simply impossible nowadays due to existence of large digital repository. Ontology is a way of describing documents semantics. Ontology mapping can resolve semantic heterogeneity in documents. Our paper proposes an automatic system for semantic plagiarism detection based on ontology mapping.

Manjula Shenoy K

2012-06-01

165

Semantic Grounding Strategies for Tagbased Recommender Systems  

OpenAIRE

Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag based recommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases. Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevant recommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show a comprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from di...

Frederico Durao; Peter Dolog

2011-01-01

166

Qubit semantics and quantum trees  

CERN Document Server

In the qubit semantics the \\emph{meaning} of any sentence $\\alpha$ is represented by a \\emph{quregister}: a unit vector of the $n$--fold tensor product $\\otimes^n \\C^2$, where $n$ depends on the number of occurrences of atomic sentences in $\\alpha$. The logic characterized by this semantics, called {\\it quantum computational logic} (QCL), is {\\it unsharp}, because the non-contradiction principle is violated. We show that QCL does not admit any logical truth. In this framework, any sentence $\\alpha$ gives rise to a \\emph{quantum tree}, consisting of a sequence of unitary operators. The quantum tree of $\\alpha$ can be regarded as a quantum circuit that transforms the quregister associated to the atomic subformulas of $\\alpha$ into the quregster associated to $\\alpha$.

Chiara, M L D; Leporini, R; Leporati, A

2002-01-01

167

Neuropsychological differentiation of adaptive creativity and schizotypal cognition  

OpenAIRE

Both creativity and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders have been associated with activation of remote semantic concepts, but this activation results in innovative output in one case and communication disturbances in the other. The present study examined the relationship between monitoring semantic information (which relies on executive brain function), creativity, and characteristics of schizotypy in an undergraduate population. Results indicate that executive function differentiates the use of...

Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

168

Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

Ganapathi Babu, K.; Komali, A.; Mythry, V.; Ratnam, A. S. K.

2012-01-01

169

Semantic Clustering Based Relevance Language Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to effectively generate clusters and use the information in clusters to improve information retrieval performance are still open research questions. By viewing a document as an interaction of a set of independent hidden topics, we propose a novel semantic clustering technique using independent component analysis. Then within language modeling framework, we apply the obtained semantic topic clusters into the estimation process of relevance model. We expect that semantic clustering will filter out those noisy documents so that the estimation of relevance model is only based on relevant documents and some useful semantic information. A semantic cluster is activated to be the most similar to a user’s information need by user’s query, the documents in the activated semantic cluster and the keywords of representing the activated semantic cluster are used for the estimation of relevance model. Therefore, we obtain a semantic cluster based relevance language model that uses pseudo relevance feedback technique without requiring any relevance training information. We applied the model in experiments on five TREC data sets. The experiment results show that our model can significantly improve retrieval performance over previous language models including relevance-based language models. We think that the main contribution of the improved performance comes from the estimation of relevance model on the semantic cluster that is closely related to a user’s information need.

Qiang Pu

2010-01-01

170

Semantic deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to investigate, and establish neuroanatomical correlates of, semantic deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD), compared to semantic dementia (SD) and controls. Semantic deficits were evaluated using a naming and semantic knowledge composite score, comprising verbal and non-verbal neuropsychological measures of single-word processing (confrontational naming, comprehension, and semantic association) from the Sydney Language Battery (SYDBAT) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R). Voxel based morphometry (VBM) analysis was conducted using the region of interest approach. In total, 84 participants were recruited from a multidisciplinary research clinic in Sydney. Participants included 17 patients with ALS, 19 with ALS-FTD, 22 with SD and 26 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Significant semantic deficits were observed in ALS and ALS-FTD compared to controls. The severity of semantic deficits varied across the clinical phenotypes: ALS patients were less impaired than ALS-FTD patients, who in turn were not as impaired as SD patients. Anterior temporal lobe atrophy significantly correlated with semantic deficits. In conclusion, semantic impairment is a feature of ALS and ALS-FTD, and reflects the severity of temporal lobe pathology. PMID:25544644

Leslie, Felicity V C; Hsieh, Sharpley; Caga, Jashelle; Savage, Sharon A; Mioshi, Eneida; Hornberger, Michael; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R; Burrell, James R

2015-03-01

171

Semantics and Complexity of SPARQL  

OpenAIRE

SPARQL is the W3C candidate recommendation query language for RDF. In this paper we address systematically the formal study of SPARQL, concentrating in its graph pattern facility. We consider for this study a fragment without literals and a simple version of filters which encompasses all the main issues yet is simple to formalize. We provide a compositional semantics, prove there are normal forms, prove complexity bounds, among others that the evaluation of SPARQL patterns i...

Perez, Jorge; Arenas, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Claudio

2006-01-01

172

A compositional Semantics for CHR  

OpenAIRE

Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are a committed-choice declarative language which has been designed for writing constraint solvers. A CHR program consists of multi-headed guarded rules which allow one to rewrite constraints into simpler ones until a solved form is reached. CHR has received a considerable attention, both from the practical and from the theoretical side. Nevertheless, due the use of multi-headed clauses, there are several aspects of the CHR semantics which h...

Gabbrielli, Maurizio; Meo, Maria Chiara

2006-01-01

173

Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business  

OpenAIRE

E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. X...

Juha Puustjarvi

2010-01-01

174

Retractions in comparing PROLOG semantics  

OpenAIRE

We present an operational model O and a continuation based denotational model D for a uniform variant of PROLOG, including the cut operator. The two semantical definitions make use of higher order transformations Phi and Psi, respectively. We prove O and D equivalent in a novel way by comparing yet another pair of higher order transformations Phi~ and Psi~, that yield Phi and Psi, respectively, by application of a suitable abstraction operator.

Bruin, A.; Vink, E. P.

1989-01-01

175

Explicit fairness in testing semantics  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we investigate fair computations in the pi-calculus. Following Costa and Stirling's approach for CCS-like languages, we consider a method to label process actions in order to filter out unfair computations. We contrast the existing fair-testing notion with those that naturally arise by imposing weak and strong fairness. This comparison provides insight about the expressiveness of the various `fair' testing semantics and about their discriminating power.

Cacciagrano, D; Palamidessi, C

2009-01-01

176

Semantic understanding of Image content  

OpenAIRE

Large amounts of spatial data are becoming available today due to the rapid development of remote sensing techniques. Several retrieval systems are proposed to retrieve necessary, interested and effective information such as key- word based image retrieval and content based image retrieval. However, the results of these approaches are generally unsatisfactory, unpredictable and do not match human perception due to the well gap between visual features and semantic concepts. In this paper, we p...

Dhobale, D. D.; Patil, B. S.; Patil, S. B.; Ghorpade, V. R.

2011-01-01

177

Thematically Reinforced Explicit Semantic Analysis  

OpenAIRE

We present an extended, thematically reinforced version of Gabrilovich and Markovitch's Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA), where we obtain thematic information through the category structure of Wikipedia. For this we first define a notion of categorical tfidf which measures the relevance of terms in categories. Using this measure as a weight we calculate a maximal spanning tree of the Wikipedia corpus considered as a directed graph of pages and categories. This tree provides ...

Haralambous, Yannis; Klyuev, Vitaly

2014-01-01

178

Generation with Semantic Proof Nets  

OpenAIRE

Categorial grammars and Lambek calculus found a nice embedding in Linear Logic, and a lot of work have presented proof nets uses for linguistic purposes, with a special look at proof nets for Lambek calculus. But they have mainly explored the syntactic capabilities of proof nets, describing parsing processes. We present here our vision of the generation process based on semantic proof nets. The main features of this proposal consist in the use of proof nets for lambek calculus but also for se...

Pogodalla, Sylvain

2000-01-01

179

Unconscious semantic priming from pictures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments examined the effects of unconsciously presented picture primes on semantic categorization and naming responses to both word and picture targets. Picture naming and word categorization responses to targets were faster and more accurate when the picture primes belonged to the same semantic category as the targets, so called priming effect. No priming was found when subjects performed a word reading task. When priming was evident, no difference was found between responses to targets that were nominally identical to primes (e.g. the picture of a lion followed by either the word LION or the picture of a lion) compared with nominally different targets from the same semantic category as the primes (e.g. the picture of an ELEPHANT followed by either the word LION or the picture of a lion). Responding did not differ significantly from chance when subjects were asked to categorize the primes as natural objects vs. artifacts or as meaningful vs. meaningless objects in three distinct forced-choice unspeeded tasks. PMID:10536225

Dell'Acqua, R; Grainger, J

1999-11-01

180

Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

Juha Puustjarvi

2010-09-01

181

Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phon...

MarkusKiefer

2012-01-01

182

Functional differential geometry  

CERN Document Server

Physics is naturally expressed in mathematical language. Students new to the subject must simultaneously learn an idiomatic mathematical language and the content that is expressed in that language. It is as if they were asked to read Les Misérables while struggling with French grammar. This book offers an innovative way to learn the differential geometry needed as a foundation for a deep understanding of general relativity or quantum field theory as taught at the college level.The approach taken by the authors (and used in their classes at MIT for many years) differs from the conventional one in several ways, including an emphasis on the development of the covariant derivative and an avoidance of the use of traditional index notation for tensors in favor of a semantically richer language of vector fields and differential forms. But the biggest single difference is the authors' integration of computer programming into their explanations. By programming a computer to interpret a formula, the student soon learn...

Sussman, Gerald Jay

2013-01-01

183

Social Networking on the Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

2005-01-01

184

The Semantic Web and Educational Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

2008-01-01

185

The Semantic Web in Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

2014-01-01

186

An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language of trust policies. The operational semantics is given in terms of a composition of I/O automata. We prove that this semantics is faithful to its corresponding denotational semantics, in the sense that any run of the I/O automaton ``converges to'' the denotational semantics of the policies. Furthermore, as I/O automata are a natural model of asynchronous distributed computation, the semantics coincides with an asynchronous algorithm for distributedly computing the trust-state, suitable in the application environment.

Krukow, Karl

2006-01-01

187

Spatial information semantic query based on SPARQL  

Science.gov (United States)

How can the efficiency of spatial information inquiries be enhanced in today's fast-growing information age? We are rich in geospatial data but poor in up-to-date geospatial information and knowledge that are ready to be accessed by public users. This paper adopts an approach for querying spatial semantic by building an Web Ontology language(OWL) format ontology and introducing SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language(SPARQL) to search spatial semantic relations. It is important to establish spatial semantics that support for effective spatial reasoning for performing semantic query. Compared to earlier keyword-based and information retrieval techniques that rely on syntax, we use semantic approaches in our spatial queries system. Semantic approaches need to be developed by ontology, so we use OWL to describe spatial information extracted by the large-scale map of Wuhan. Spatial information expressed by ontology with formal semantics is available to machines for processing and to people for understanding. The approach is illustrated by introducing a case study for using SPARQL to query geo-spatial ontology instances of Wuhan. The paper shows that making use of SPARQL to search OWL ontology instances can ensure the result's accuracy and applicability. The result also indicates constructing a geo-spatial semantic query system has positive efforts on forming spatial query and retrieval.

Xiao, Zhifeng; Huang, Lei; Zhai, Xiaofang

2009-10-01

188

Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

Le Ny, Jean-Francois

1975-01-01

189

Measuring Individual Emotional Reactions and Semantic Spaces.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Praha : EFPA/UPA, 2007 - (Polišenská, V.; Šolc, M.; Kotrlová, J.). s. 163 ISBN 978-80-7064-017-3. [European Congress of Psychology /10./. 03.07.2007-06.07.2007, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : semantic proximity * Word Association Test * Semantic Selection Test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

Lukavský, Ji?í

190

Unconscious Primes Activate Motor Codes through Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, it is generally accepted that unconscious stimuli can activate a response code, which leads to a response congruency effect (RCE) on a subsequent target. However, it is not yet clear whether this is due to the semantic processing of the primes or to the formation of direct stimulus-response (S-R) associations bypassing the semantic system.…

Reynvoet, Bert; Gevers, Wim; Caessens, Bernie

2005-01-01

191

A Cognitive Semantic Approach to Teaching Prepositions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prepositions have different but related senses. In cognitive semantics, figurative senses are extended from spatial senses through conceptual metaphors. Pedagogically, it is useful to draw learners' attention to those aspects of a preposition's spatial sense that are especially relevant for its metaphorization. Ways in which cognitive semantic

Boers, Frank; Demecheleer, Murielle

1998-01-01

192

Exploring the relationship between semantics and space.  

Science.gov (United States)

The asymmetric distribution of human spatial attention has been repeatedly documented in both patients and healthy controls. Biases in the distribution of attention and/or in the mental representation of space may also affect some aspects of language processing. We investigated whether biases in attention and/or mental representation of space affect semantic representations. In particular, we investigated whether semantic judgments could be modulated by the location in space where the semantic information was presented and the role of the left and right parietal cortices in this task. Healthy subjects were presented with three pictures arranged horizontally (one middle and two outer pictures) of items belonging to the same semantic category. Subjects were asked to indicate the spatial position in which the semantic distance between the outer and middle pictures was smaller. Subjects systematically overestimated the semantic distance of items presented in the right side of space. We explored the neural correlates underpinning this bias using rTMS over the left and right parietal cortex. rTMS of the left parietal cortex selectively reduced this rightward bias. Our findings suggest the existence of an attentional and/or mental representational bias in semantic judgments, similar to that observed for the processing of space and numbers. Spatial manipulation of semantic material results in the activation of specialised attentional resources located in the left hemisphere. PMID:19396359

Turriziani, Patrizia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Bonnì, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo; Smirni, Daniela; Cipolotti, Lisa

2009-01-01

193

A temporal semantics for basic process algebra  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present a denotational semantics for Basic Process Algebra. The denotational domain is a new logic obtained by enrichiching the branching temporal logic CTL with a fixed point operator and a branching sequential composition operator, named chop bmnching. The temporal semantics so obtained is proved to be fully abstract with respect to the bisimulation sernantics defined on BPA terms.

Fantechi, Alessandro; Gnesi, Stefania; Perticaroli, Valeria

1992-01-01

194

Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

2008-01-01

195

Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds  

Science.gov (United States)

A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

2010-01-01

196

Semantically enhanced Uyghur Information Retrieval Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional Uyghur search engine lacks semantic information, aiming to solve this problem, a semantically enhanced Uyghur information retrieval model was proposed based on the characteristics of Uyghur language. Firstly word stemming was carried out and web pages were represented by the form of 3-triples to construct the Uyghur knowledge base, then the matching between ontologies and web pages was established by computing concept similarity and relation similarity. Semantic inverted index was built to save the association between semantic entities and web pages, and user query analysis was implemented by expanding the queries and analyzing the relations between the queries, finally by combining the benefits of both keyword-based and semantic-based methods, ranking algorithm was implemented. By comparing with the Google search engine and the Lucene based method, the experiments validate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the model preliminarily.

Bo Ma

2012-06-01

197

Semantically-Aided Business Process Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Enriching business process models with semantic annotations taken from an ontology has become a crucial necessity both in service provisioning, integration and composition, and in business processes management. In our work we represent semantically annotated business processes as part of an OWL knowledge base that formalises the business process structure, the business domain, and a set of criteria describing correct semantic annotations. In this paper we show how Semantic Web representation and reasoning techniques can be effectively applied to formalise, and automatically verify, sets of constraints on Business Process Diagrams that involve both knowledge about the domain and the process structure. We also present a tool for the automated transformation of an annotated Business Process Diagram into an OWL ontology. The use of the semantic web techniques and tool presented in the paper results in a novel support for the management of business processes in the phase of process modeling, whose feasibility and usefulness will be illustrated by means of a concrete example.

di Francescomarino, Chiara; Ghidini, Chiara; Rospocher, Marco; Serafini, Luciano; Tonella, Paolo

198

Semantic Matching with S-Match  

Science.gov (United States)

We view matching as an operation that takes two graph-like structures (e.g., lightweight ontologies) and produces an alignment between the nodes of these graphs that correspond semantically to each other. Semantic matching is based on two ideas: (i) we discover an alignment by computing semantic relations (e.g., equivalence, more general); (ii) we determine semantic relations by analyzing the meaning (concepts, not labels) which is codified in the entities and the structures of ontologies. In this chapter, we first overview the state of the art in the ontology matching field. Then we present basic and optimized algorithms for semantic matching as well as their implementation within the S-Match system. Finally, we evaluate S-Match against state of the art systems, thereby justifying empirically the strength of the approach.

Shvaiko, Pavel; Giunchiglia, Fausto; Yatskevich, Mikalai

199

Model Design of Semantic Website Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic web is an extension of the current World Wide Web. This paper proposes a new model of constructing semantic website, and takes the construction of semantic website in the field of tourism in Africa as an example, and describes an approach to build the semantic website. It is a common approach and can be applied to the construction of other semantic websites. First, analyze user’s requirements, and then build domain ontology based on them requirements, design interactive interface, and analyze the information entered by user. Then, retrieve and reason the ontology by Jena, and provide the required information and links. The proposed method takes full account of the demand of user’s interaction, facilitates obtaining the required information on the website. The example shows that the proposed model is effective.

Yu Guo

2014-08-01

200

Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

2011-01-01

201

Semantics Web and Ontology Learning  

OpenAIRE

The Semantics Web is a vision for the future of the Web in which informati on is given explicit meaning, making it easier for machines to automatically pro cess and integrate information available on the Web. An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledg e. Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowled ge, like medicine, tool manufacturing, real es...

Musumbu, Kaninda

2013-01-01

202

Semantic Approach for Query Explication  

OpenAIRE

The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since ther...

Shruti Gupta; Mahesh Verma

2013-01-01

203

Semantic Integration in the IFF  

CERN Document Server

The IEEE P1600.1 Standard Upper Ontology (SUO) project aims to specify an upper ontology that will provide a structure and a set of general concepts upon which domain ontologies could be constructed. The Information Flow Framework (IFF), which is being developed under the auspices of the SUO Working Group, represents the structural aspect of the SUO. The IFF is based on category theory. Semantic integration of object-level ontologies in the IFF is represented with its fusion construction. The IFF maintains ontologies using powerful composition primitives, which includes the fusion construction.

Kent, Robert E

2011-01-01

204

Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation  

Science.gov (United States)

A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic web technologies, including ontologies and a semantic mediator. The semantically-enhanced SPEGG allowed a client to submit a single query (e.g. ';hills') and to retrieve data from two separate gazetteers with different vocabularies (e.g. where one refers to ';summits' another refers to ';hills'). Supporting the SPEGG was a SPARQL server that held the ontologies and processed queries on them. Earth Science surveys and forecast always have a place on Earth. Being able to share the information about a place and solve inconsistencies about that place from different sources will enable geoscientists to better do their research. In the advent of mobile geo computing and location based services (LBS), brokering gazetteers will provide geoscientists with access to gazetteer services rich with information and functionality beyond that offered by current generic gazetteers.

Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

2013-12-01

205

A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

Stewart, Mark E. M.

1998-01-01

206

Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology) to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation toward semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited. PMID:22952461

Adams, Sarah C; Kiefer, Markus

2012-01-01

207

A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING  

OpenAIRE

The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provid...

Venu Gopalachari, M.; Sammulal, Dr P.

2013-01-01

208

Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning  

OpenAIRE

Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construc...

Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

2010-01-01

209

Semantic Web search based on ontological conjunctive queries.  

OpenAIRE

Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data, and will possibly consist of (some form of) the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Semantic Web search, called Serene, which allows for a semantic processing of Web search queries, and for evaluating complex Web search queries that involve reasoning over the Web. More specifically, we first add ontological structure and semantics to Web ...

Fazzinga, B.; Gianforme, G.; Gottlob, G.; Lukasiewicz, T.

2011-01-01

210

Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Documents  

OpenAIRE

Semantic similarity measures play an important role inthe extraction of semantic relations. Semantic similarity measuresare widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) andInformation Retrieval (IR). The work proposed here uses webbasedmetrics to compute the semantic similarity between words orterms and also compares with the state-of-the-art. For a computerto decide the semantic similarity, it should understand thesemantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it cannot unde...

Takale, Sheetal A.; Nandgaonkar, Sushma S.

2010-01-01

211

Information Interaction as a Mechanism of Semantic Gap Elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies semantic gap as an objective phenomenon, shows that semantic gap occurs both in parallel computing and in other areas. Semantic description of the content is revealed as a set of different descriptions. Causes of semantic gap are described. The content of information exchange is explained in the article. Information interaction in the semantic field is interpreted as a mechanism to lessen the gap

Victor Y. Tsvetkov

2013-01-01

212

Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images  

OpenAIRE

Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is fir...

Xiaohui Wang; Jia Jia; Yongxin Wang; Lianhong Cai

2011-01-01

213

MULTI LEVEL SEMANTIC EXTRACTION FOR CRICKET VIDEO BY TEXT PROCESSING  

OpenAIRE

Semantic video analysis, indexing and retrieval are necessary for effective utilization of video repositories. The semantics can be extracted from the semantic carriers such as voice and video text. Super imposed text is the proper source to extract semantics of the video which will increase the efficiency of retrieval system. This paper proposes a semiautomatic method to generate annotation for cricket videos and an automated tool- DLER, to extract the semantics of cricket video. The DLER to...

Sunitha Abburu, Dr

2010-01-01

214

Differentiation Rules: Implicit Differentiation  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource introduces that some curves cannot easily be represented as explicit functions of a single variable. In this case, one can use the method of implicit differentiation to determine the derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions.

Michael Freeze

215

Semantic Conflicts Reconciliation as a Viable Solution for Semantic Heterogeneity Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving semantic interoperability is a current challenge in the field of data integration in order to bridge semantic conflicts occurring when the participating sources and receivers use different or implicit data assumptions. Providing a framework that automatically detects and resolves semantic conflicts is considered as a daunting task for many reasons, it should preserve the local autonomy of the integrated sources, as well as provides a standard query language for accessing the integrated data on a global basis. Many existing traditional and ontology-based approaches have tried to achieve semantic interoperability, but they have certain drawbacks that make them inappropriate for integrating data from a large number of participating sources. We propose semantic conflicts reconciliation (SCR framework, it is ontology-based system in which all data semantics explicitly described in the knowledge representation phase and automatically taken into account through the interpretation mediation service phase, so conflicts detected and resolved automatically at the query time

Walaa S. Ismail

2013-05-01

216

The Semantic eScience Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF

McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James

2010-05-01

217

SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. To improve the internet service quality and increase the user click rate on a specific website, it is necessary for a web developer to know what the user really want to do, predict which pages the user is potentially interested in. In this paper, various techniques for Semantic Web mining like web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining are discussed. Our main focus is on web usage mining and its application in web personalization. Study shows that the accuracy of recommendation system has improved significantly with the use of semantic web mining in web personalization. Keywords: Navigation Pattern, Pattern Analysis, Semantic Web, Web Personalization, Web Usage Mining.

Anil Sharma

2011-07-01

218

On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics  

OpenAIRE

G. Plotkin and the author have worked out the equivalence between state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics in a domain theoretical setting for programs combining nondeterminism and probability. Works of C. Morgan and co-authors, Keimel, Rosenbusch and Streicher, already go in the same direction using only discrete state spaces. It is the aim of this paper to exhibit a general framework in which one can hope that state transformer semantics and predicat...

Keimel, Klaus

2014-01-01

219

Semantic Integration Workshop at the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2003)  

OpenAIRE

In numerous distributed environments, including today's World Wide Web, enterprise data management systems, large science projects, and the emerging semantic web, applications will inevitably use the information described by multiple ontologies and schemas. We organized the Workshop on Semantic Integration at the Second International Semantic Web Conference to bring together different communities working on the issues of enabling integration among different resources. The workshop generated a...

Doan, Anhai; Halevy, Alon Y.; Noy, Natalya F.

2004-01-01

220

Semantic Web Languages and Semantic Web Services as Application Areas for Answer Set Programming  

OpenAIRE

In the Semantic Web and Semantic Web Services areas there are still unclear issues concerning an appropriate language. Answer Set Programming and ASP engines can be particularly interesting for Ontological Reasoning, especially in the light of ongoing discussions of non-Monotonic extensions for Ontology Languages. Previously, the main concern of discussions was around OWL and Description Logics. Recently many extensions and suggestions for Rule Languages and Semantic Web Languages pop up, par...

Polleres, Axel

2005-01-01

221

Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

Ashish, Naveen

2004-01-01

222

Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics  

CERN Document Server

Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

Grimm, S

2009-01-01

223

Video semantic content analysis based on ontology  

OpenAIRE

The rapid increase in the available amount of video data is creating a growing demand for efficient methods for understanding and managing it at the semantic level. New multimedia standards, such as MPEG-4 and MPEG-7, provide the basic functionalities in order to manipulate and transmit objects and metadata. But importantly, most of the content of video data at a semantic level is out of the scope of the standards. In this paper, a video semantic content analysis framework based on ontology i...

Bai, Liang; Lao, Songyang; Jones, Gareth J. F.; Smeaton, Alan F.

2007-01-01

224

A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web  

CERN Document Server

The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

Yu, Liyang

2011-01-01

225

Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,

2011-07-01

226

Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced to provide accurate results.

P Pabitha

2011-05-01

227

Functional Cohesion of Gene Sets Determined by Latent Semantic Indexing of PubMed Abstracts  

OpenAIRE

High-throughput genomic technologies enable researchers to identify genes that are co-regulated with respect to specific experimental conditions. Numerous statistical approaches have been developed to identify differentially expressed genes. Because each approach can produce distinct gene sets, it is difficult for biologists to determine which statistical approach yields biologically relevant gene sets and is appropriate for their study. To address this issue, we implemented Latent Semantic I...

Xu, Lijing; Furlotte, Nicholas; Lin, Yunyue; Heinrich, Kevin; Berry, Michael W.; George, Ebenezer O.; Homayouni, Ramin

2011-01-01

228

Primary progressive aphasia: A comparative study of progressive nonfluent aphasia and semantic dementia  

OpenAIRE

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a degenerative disorder, is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer?s disease. Its subtypes, semantic dementia (SD), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), are often difficult to differentiate from each other. Our objective was to highlight the differences in the language profiles of patients with SD and PNFA. To bring out these differences, we report two patients with PPA, one with SD and the other with PNFA. They were administered the Western aphasia bat...

George Annamma; Mathuranath P

2005-01-01

229

Proceedings Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics 2011  

CERN Document Server

This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2011, the Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics, held on the 5th of September 2011 in Aachen, Germany as an affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2011, the 22nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) provides a framework for giving operational semantics to programming and specification languages. A growing number of programming languages from commercial and academic spheres have been given usable semantic descriptions by means of structural operational semantics. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, structural operational semantics has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs, and in proving compiler correctness. Moreover, it has found application in emerging areas of computing such as probabilistic systems and systems biology. Structural operational semantics has be...

Reniers, M A; 10.4204/EPTCS.62

2011-01-01

230

Next Generation Semantic Web and Its Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, computers are changing from single, isolated devices into entry points to a worldwide network of information exchange and business transactions called the World Wide Web (WWW. However, the success of the WWW has made it increasingly difficult to find, access, present and maintain the information required by a wide variety of users. In response to this problem, many new research initiatives and commercial enterprises have been set up to enrich the available information with machine-process able semantics. This Semantic Web will provide intelligent access to heterogeneous, distributed information, enabling software products (agents to mediate between user needs and the information sources available. In this paper we describe some areas for application of this new technology. We focus on on-going work in the fields of knowledge management and electronic commerce. We also take a perspective on the semantic web-enabled web services which will help to bring the semantic web to its full potential.

Soumyarashmi Panigrahi

2011-03-01

231

SPARK: Adapting Keyword Query to Semantic Search  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic search promises to provide more accurate result than present-day keyword search. However, progress with semantic search has been delayed due to the complexity of its query languages. In this paper, we explore a novel approach of adapting keywords to querying the semantic web: the approach automatically translates keyword queries into formal logic queries so that end users can use familiar keywords to perform semantic search. A prototype system named 'SPARK' has been implemented in light of this approach. Given a keyword query, SPARK outputs a ranked list of SPARQL queries as the translation result. The translation in SPARK consists of three major steps: term mapping, query graph construction and query ranking. Specifically, a probabilistic query ranking model is proposed to select the most likely SPARQL query. In the experiment, SPARK achieved an encouraging translation result.

Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chong; Xiong, Miao; Wang, Haofen; Yu, Yong

232

Extending and Implementing the Stable Model Semantics  

CERN Document Server

An algorithm for computing the stable model semantics of logic programs is developed. It is shown that one can extend the semantics and the algorithm to handle new and more expressive types of rules. Emphasis is placed on the use of efficient implementation techniques. In particular, an implementation of lookahead that safely avoids testing every literal for failure and that makes the use of lookahead feasible is presented. In addition, a good heuristic is derived from the principle that the search space should be minimized. Due to the lack of competitive algorithms and implementations for the computation of stable models, the system is compared with three satisfiability solvers. This shows that the heuristic can be improved by breaking ties, but leaves open the question of how to break them. It also demonstrates that the more expressive rules of the stable model semantics make the semantics clearly preferable over propositional logic when a problem has a more compact logic program representation. Conjunctive...

Simons, P

2000-01-01

233

A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

2007-05-02

234

Learning Semantic String Transformations from Examples  

CERN Document Server

We address the problem of performing semantic transformations on strings, which may represent a variety of data types (or their combination) such as a column in a relational table, time, date, currency, etc. Unlike syntactic transformations, which are based on regular expressions and which interpret a string as a sequence of characters, semantic transformations additionally require exploiting the semantics of the data type represented by the string, which may be encoded as a database of relational tables. Manually performing such transformations on a large collection of strings is error prone and cumbersome, while programmatic solutions are beyond the skill-set of end-users. We present a programming by example technology that allows end-users to automate such repetitive tasks. We describe an expressive transformation language for semantic manipulation that combines table lookup operations and syntactic manipulations. We then present a synthesis algorithm that can learn all transformations in the language that...

Singh, Rishabh

2012-01-01

235

Information Extraction by Mining the Semantic Web?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose research on how semantic web technologies can be used to mine theweb, for information extraction. We also examine how new unsupervised processes can aid in extractingprecise and useful information from semantic data, thus reducing the problem of information overload .TheSemantic Web adds structure to the meaningful content of Web pages; hence information is given a welldefinedmeaning; which is both human readable as well as machine-processable. This enables thedevelopment of automated intelligent systems, allowing machines to comprehend the semantics of documentsand data. Here we propose techniques for automating the process of search, analysis and categorization ofsemantic data, further we examine how these techniques can aid in improving the efficiency of alreadyexisting information retrieval technologies by implementing reporting functionalities, which is highlighted inthe future work and challenges.

R. PREETHI

2013-04-01

236

SEMANTIC GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR TAGBASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag basedrecommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases.Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevantrecommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show acomprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The studybesides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentageof the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much asit does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with suchnumber of expansions, the recommendations change considerably

Frederico Durao

2011-11-01

237

Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures  

CERN Document Server

We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

2012-01-01

238

Semantic Aspect Retrieval for Encyclopedia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available With the development of Web 2.0, more and more people contribute their knowledge to the Internet. Many general and domain-specific online encyclopedia resources become available, and they are valuable for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, such as summarization and question-answeri [...] ng. We propose a novel encyclopedia-specific method to retrieve passages which are semantically related to a short query (usually comprises of only one word/phrase) from a given article in the encyclopedia. The method captures the expression word features and categorical word features in the surrounding snippets of the aspect words by setting up massive hybrid language models. These local models outperform the global models such as LSA and ESA in our task.

Chao, Han; Yicheng, Liu; Yu, Hao; Xiaoyan, Zhu.

2011-06-01

239

Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics  

CERN Document Server

Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

Sapir, Mark V

2014-01-01

240

Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the ?-calculus with explicit substitution.

André Hirschowitz

2012-02-01

241

Semantic features of 'stepped' versus 'continuous' contours in German intonation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyses the meaning spaces of German pitch contours using two modes of melodic movement: continuous or in steps of sustained pitch. Both the continuous and stepped movements are represented by a set of five basic patterns, the latter being derived from the former. Thirty-six German native speakers judged the pattern sets on a 12-scale semantic differential. The semantic profiles confirm that stepped contours can be conceived of as stylized intonation, in a formal as well as in a functional sense. On the one hand, continuous (non-stylized) and stepped (stylized) contours are assigned different overall meanings (especially on the scales astonished - commonplace and interested - not interested). On the other hand, listeners organize the two contour sets in a similar fashion, which speaks in favour of parallel pattern inventories of continuous and stepped movement, respectively. However, the meaning space of the stylized patterns is affected by formal restrictions, for instance in the step transformation of continuous rises. PMID:24514158

Dombrowski, Ernst

2013-01-01

242

Variant-Frequency Semantics for Green Futures  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes an operational semantics for futures, with the primary target on energy efficiency. The work in progress is built around an insight that different threads can coordinate by running at different "paces," so that the time for synchronization and the resulting wasteful energy consumption can be reduced. We exploit several inherent characteristics of futures to determine how the paces of involving threads can be coordinated. The semantics is inspired by rece...

Yu David Liu

2013-01-01

243

Associating Semantics to Multilingual Tags in Folksonomies  

OpenAIRE

Tagging systems are nowadays a common feature in web sites where user-generated content plays an important role. However, the lack of semantics and multilinguality hamper information retrieval process based on folksonomies. In this paper we propose an approach to bring semantics to multilingual folksonomies. This approach includes a sense disambiguation activity and takes advantage from knowledge generated by the masses in the form of articles, redirection and disambiguation links, and transl...

Garci?a-silva, A.; Corcho, O?scar; Gracia Del Ri?o, Jorge

2010-01-01

244

Using semantic cues to learn syntax  

OpenAIRE

We present a method for dependency grammar induction that utilizes sparse annotations of semantic relations. This induction set-up is attractive because such annotations provide useful clues about the underlying syntactic structure, and they are readily available in many domains (e.g., info-boxes and HTML markup). Our method is based on the intuition that syntactic realizations of the same semantic predicate exhibit some degree of consistency. We incorporate this intuition in a directed...

Naseem, Tahira; Barzilay, Regina

2011-01-01

245

Assessing semantic coherence in conditional probability estimates  

OpenAIRE

Semantic coherence is a higher-order coherence benchmark that assesses whether a constellation of estimates—P(A), P(B), P(B | A), and P(A | B)—maps onto the relationship between sets implied by the description of a given problem. We present an automated method for evaluating semantic coherence in conditional probability estimates that efficiently reduces a large problem space into five meaningful patterns: identical sets, subsets, mutually exclusive sets, overlapping sets, and independent...

Fisher, Christopher R.; Wolfe, Christopher R.

2011-01-01

246

Semantic modelling of learning objects and instruction  

OpenAIRE

We introduce an ontology-based semantic modelling framework that addresses subject domain modelling, instruction modelling, and interoperability aspects in the development of complex reusable learning objects. Ontologies are knowledge representation frameworks, ideally suited to support knowledge-based modelling of these learning objects. We illustrate the benefits of semantic modelling for learning object assemblies within the context of standards such as SCORM Sequencing and Navigation and ...

Pahl, Claus; Melia, Mark

2006-01-01

247

Wikipedia Arborification and Stratified Explicit Semantic Analysis  

OpenAIRE

[This is the translation of paper "Arborification de Wikip\\'edia et analyse s\\'emantique explicite stratifi\\'ee" submitted to TALN 2012.] We present an extension of the Explicit Semantic Analysis method by Gabrilovich and Markovitch. Using their semantic relatedness measure, we weight the Wikipedia categories graph. Then, we extract a minimal spanning tree, using Chu-Liu & Edmonds' algorithm. We define a notion of stratified tfidf where the stratas, for a given Wikipedia p...

Haralambous, Yannis; Klyuev, Vitaly

2012-01-01

248

Personal Knowledge Mapping with semantic web technologies  

OpenAIRE

Semantic Web technologies promise great benefits for Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) and Knowledge Management (KM) in general when data needs to be exchanged or integrated. However, the Semantic Web also introduces new issues rooted in its distributed nature as multiple ontologies exist to encode data in the Personal Information Management (PIM) domain. This poses problems for applications processing this data as they would need to support all current and future PIM ontologies. In this pa...

Hert, M.; Reif, G.; Gall, H. C.

2009-01-01

249

A Framework for Semantic Map Construction  

OpenAIRE

The paper proposes a framework for building a semantic map for indoor environment using a mobile robot. The framework includes five main modules which are: 1) Raw and spatial data acquisition module, 2)Steering and exploration module, 3)Information detection and extraction module, 4)Semantic knowledge mapping module and 5) High level task planner interface. The framework will be implemented on the ATRV-Mini robot. A simulation and control environment has been developed for this purpose. The s...

Basem Ibrahim; Abeer Hamdy; Nevien Darwish

2012-01-01

250

Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection”, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

GiorgioGanis

2013-01-01

251

A semantic Grid for molecular science  

OpenAIRE

The properties of molecules have very well defined semantics and allow the creation of a semantic GRID. Markup languages (CML - Chemical Markup Language) and dictionary-based ontologies have been designed to support a wide range of applications, including chemical supply, publication and the safety of compounds. Many properties can be computed by Quantum Mechanical (QM) programs and we have developed a "black-box" system based on XML wrappers for all components. This is installed on a Condor ...

Murray-rust, Peter; Glen, Robert C.; Rzepa, Henry S.; Stewart, James J. P.; Townsend, Joseph A.; Willighagen, Egon L.; Yong, Zhang

2008-01-01

252

Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search  

OpenAIRE

Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search...

Mas, Massimiliano Dal

2012-01-01

253

Semantic web services for web databases  

CERN Document Server

Semantic Web Services for Web Databases introduces an end-to-end framework for querying Web databases using novel Web service querying techniques. This includes a detailed framework for the query infrastructure for Web databases and services. Case studies are covered in the last section of this book. Semantic Web Services For Web Databases is designed for practitioners and researchers focused on service-oriented computing and Web databases.

Ouzzani, Mourad

2011-01-01

254

Exploring the Relationship between Semantics and Space  

OpenAIRE

The asymmetric distribution of human spatial attention has been repeatedly documented in both patients and healthy controls. Biases in the distribution of attention and/or in the mental representation of space may also affect some aspects of language processing. We investigated whether biases in attention and/or mental representation of space affect semantic representations. In particular, we investigated whether semantic judgments could be modulated by the location in space where the semanti...

Turriziani, Patrizia; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Bonni?, Sonia; Koch, Giacomo; Smirni, Daniela; Cipolotti, Lisa

2009-01-01

255

From semantic networks to dictionary structures  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates how thoughts become words, and to what degree semantic relationships between words can be captured in dictionaries. It analyses differences in the segmentation of the world by words, realisations of notions in parts of speech, and the lin- guistic appearance of event factors on the basis of five ethnic languages (Hungarian, Polish, English, French and German) as well as the planned language Esperanto. Semantic compo- sitionality as reflected in word derivation and form...

Koutny, Ilona

2012-01-01

256

Deriving Logical Consequences Using Ontological Formal Semantics  

OpenAIRE

Semantic Web technology enables us to specify metadata about things in the world and help us to relate this metadata using ontology databases and language. The core of the Semantic Web is Ontology, which is used to explicitly represent our conceptualizations. This paper is an efforts to improve the relevancy of results in a search system for a particular domain by exploiting the domain knowledge captured in an OWL ontology using the protégé tool. We make ontological database from static rel...

Langde, Nikhil S.; Badere, Nilesh A.; Chetan Kunghadkar; Nilesh Kharbade

2014-01-01

257

Semantic place recognition for context aware services  

OpenAIRE

Extracting the meaning of the most significant places, which are frequently visited by a mobile user, is a relevant problem in mobile computing. Predicting semantic meaning of such places is useful in many areas. The problem of place semantic annotation of a user location can be challenging for service providers. Awareness of user activities is very important for development of personalized applications, which can be used in health care systems, living systems, etc. Predicting location of mob...

Ivannikova, Elena

2012-01-01

258

Lightweight Semantic Annotation of Geospatial RESTful Services  

OpenAIRE

RESTful services are increasingly gaining traction over WS-* ones. As with WS-* services, their semantic annotation can provide benefits in tasks related to their discovery, composition and mediation. In this paper we present an approach to automate the semantic annotation of RESTful services using a cross-domain ontology like DBpedia, domain ontologies like GeoNames, and additional external resources (suggestion and synonym services). We also present a preliminary evaluation in the geospatia...

Saquicela, V.; Vilches-bla?zquez, Lm; Corcho, O?scar

2011-01-01

259

APPLICATION BASED SEMANTIC WEB MINING TECHNIQUE  

OpenAIRE

The Web is a huge read-write information space where many items such as documents, images or other multimedia can be accessed. In this context, several information technologies have been developed to help users to satisfy their searching needs on the Web, and the most used are search engines. Search engines allow users to find Web resources formulating queries (a set of terms) and reviewing a list of answers. The Semantic Web improves the Web infrastructure with formal semantics and interlink...

Mahindra Pratap Singh Dohare

2011-01-01

260

Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages  

Science.gov (United States)

The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

Ježek, Petr; Mou?ek, Roman

2015-01-01

261

Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

Ježek, Petr; Mou?ek, Roman

2015-01-01

262

Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2012-01-01

263

Semantic Retrieval Approach for Web Documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because of explosive growth of resources in the internet, the information retrieval technology has become particularly important. However the current retrieval methods are essentially based on the full text matching of keywords approach lacking of semantic information and can’t understand the user's query intent very well. These methods return a large number of irrelevant information, and are unable to meet the user's request. Systems have been established so far failed to overcome fully the limitations of search based on keywords. Such systems are built from variations of classic models that represent information by keywords. Using Semantic Web is a way to increase the precision of information retrieval systems. In this paper, we propose the semantic information retrieval approach to extract the information from the web documents in certain domain (jaundice diseases by collecting the domain relevant documents using focused crawler based on domain ontology, and using similar semantic content that is matched with a given user’s query. Semantic retrieval approach aims to discover semantically similar terms in documents and query terms using WordNet.

Hany M. Harb

2011-09-01

264

Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content providers can access Reflect programmatically using SOAP, REST (HTTP post), and JavaScript. Usage of Reflect has grown rapidly within the life sciences, and while currently only genes, protein and small molecule names are tagged, we plan to soon expand the scope to include a much broader range of terms (e.g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, ‘semantics is in the eye of the end-user’, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic web technologies.

O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko

2010-01-01

265

Geoscience Challenges and Semantic Web Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays geosciences face a triple of major challenges. These challenges are the study and understanding of complex systems, like e.g. climate change, further the exponential growing of raw and unstructured data, information and knowledge and finally the necessity of an inter-domain group-based collaboration of geoscientists. In addition to this triple of issues, new Web 2.0 techniques, like the mash-up of data content and context or the inclusion of user feedback data and information wait to be used for enhanced geoscientific research. The semantic web approach for the semantic integration of data, information and knowledge seems to be a promising way for geoscientists. It should be used in order to find the right language and common vocabularies for the inter-domain joint study of earth system processes. This approach enables both, first the right semantic preparation of domain specific data and information in a certain context and second -based on this preparation- the interdisciplinary use of world-wide distributed and semantic augmented data, information especially in a different context. This paper shows the impact of a semantic based thinking and the usage of semantic web-based techniques on the example of specific geophysical and geodetic data and information for the improvement of geoscience research in a much broader context.

Ritschel, B.

2009-12-01

266

A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in the research on semantic web and knowledge processing and presents some recent research initiatives.

M.VENU GOPALACHARI

2013-04-01

267

Semantic fluency: cognitive basis and diagnostic performance in focal dementias and Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic fluency is widely used both as a clinical test and as a basic tool for understanding how humans extract information from the semantic store. Recently, major efforts have been made to devise fine-grained scoring procedures to measure the multiple cognitive processes underlying fluency performance. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how many and which independent components are necessary to thoroughly describe performance on the fluency task. Furthermore, whether a combination of multiple indices can improve the diagnostic performance of the test should be assessed. In this study, we extracted multiple indices of performance on the semantic fluency test from a large sample of healthy controls (n = 307) and patients (n = 145) suffering from three types of focal dementia or Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that five independent components underlie semantic fluency performance. We argue that these components functionally map onto the generation and application of a search strategy (component 2), to the monitoring of the overall sequence to avoid repetitions (component 3) and out-of-category items (component 4), and to the full integrity of the semantic store (component 5). The integrated and effective work of all these components would relate to a "general effectiveness" component (component 1). Importantly, while all the focal dementia groups were equally impaired on general effectiveness measures, they showed differential patterns of failure in the other components. This finding suggests that the cognitive deficit that impairs fluency differs among the three focal dementia groups: a semantic store deficit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA), a strategy deficit in the non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfv-PPA), and an initiation deficit in the behavioural variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD). Finally, we showed that the concurrent use of multiple fluency indices improves the diagnostic accuracy of semantic fluency both for focal dementias and for AD. More generally, our study suggests that a formal evaluation of fine-grained patterns of performance would improve the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests. PMID:24681692

Reverberi, Carlo; Cherubini, Paolo; Baldinelli, Sara; Luzzi, Simona

2014-05-01

268

An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

2006-01-01

269

Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2011-01-01

270

From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia  

OpenAIRE

Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions ...

Schmidt, Thomas C.; Hildebrand, Arne; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

2009-01-01

271

SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap" is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains. The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies, providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies, and discovery servers (semantic search engines interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info" uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet". Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

Town Christopher D

2009-09-01

272

WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.

Ana Meštrovi?

2007-06-01

273

RECONSIDER: A Program for Generating Differential Diagnoses *  

OpenAIRE

RECONSIDER is an interactive computer program which produces a differential diagnosis given a list of patient attributes. The program's principal knowledge base is a corpus of 3,262 disease definitions represented in the form of structured natural language text. As these definitions were originally prepared for human use, RECONSIDER uses medical knowledge that is semantically identical to an information source that might be used by a physician. Thus, RECONSIDER can explain the inclusion of a ...

Blois, Marsden S.; Tuttle, Mark S.; Sherertz, David D.

1981-01-01

274

Arabic Semantic Web Applications – A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arabic Language is the mother tongue for 23 countries and more than 350 million persons. It is the language of the Holy Quran; therefore, many non-Arabic Islamic countries, like Pakistan, teach Arabic as a second language. Nevertheless, it is observable that the Arabic content on the Web is less than what should be. The evolution of the Semantic Web (SW added a new dimension to this problem. This paper is an attempt to figure out the problem, its causes, and to open avenues to think about the solutions. The survey presented in this paper concerned with the SW applications regarding the Arabic Language in the domains of Ontology construction and utilization, Arabic WordNet (AWN exploiting and enrichment, Arabic Named Entities Extraction, Holy Quran and Islamic Knowledge semantic representation, and Arabic Semantic Search Engines. In fact, the study revealed serious deficiencies in dealing semantically with the Arabic Language. That is mainly owing to the rarity of tools that can support the Arabic script. Furthermore, the Arabic resources, if available, are not free. Moreover, there are many technical problems in the semantic dealing with the Arabic context. Therefore, most of the developed applications are not sufficiently proficient. However, due to the significance of the Arabic Language, it is inevitable to overcome these deficiencies in order to put the Arabic Language in the category of the machine-semantically-interpretable languages, rather than just the textually processable ones. This way, we can exploit the power of the Semantic Web features in extracting the essence of the knowledge residing in the Arabic web documents and going beyond dealing with its rigid texts. 

Aya M. Al-Zoghby

2013-02-01

275

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

CERN Document Server

The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality, scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages. Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systems must be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges in this domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervised learning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learn...

Hassanzadeh, Hamed; 10.5121/ijwest.2011.2203

2011-01-01

276

Dealing with Semantic Heterogeneity Issues on the Web  

OpenAIRE

The Semantic Web is an extension of the traditional Web in which meaning of information is well defined, thus allowing a better interaction between people and computers. To accomplish its goals, mechanisms are required to make explicit the semantics of Web resources, to be automatically processed by software agents (this semantics being described by means of online ontologies). Nevertheless, issues arise caused by the semantic heterogeneity that naturally happens on the Web, namely redundancy...

Gracia Del Ri?o, Jorge; Mena, Eduardo

2011-01-01

277

Role of semantics in Autonomic and Adaptive Web Services & Processes  

OpenAIRE

The emergence of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) has created a new paradigm of loosely coupled distributed systems. In the METEOR-S project, we have studied the comprehensive role of semantics in all stages of the life cycle of service and process-- including annotation, publication, discovery, interoperability/data mediation, and composition. In 2002-2003, we had offered a broad framework of semantics consisting of four types:1) Data semantics, 2) Functional semantics...

Sheth, Amit P.

2007-01-01

278

The denotational semantics of an object oriented programming language  

OpenAIRE

Recently, several descriptions of object oriented programming languages with denotational semantics have been given. Cook presented a denotational semantics of class inheritance. This semantics abstracts from the internal state of objects, which is one of their salient characteristics. In this paper we show that Cooks denotational semantics of class inheritance is applicable to object oriented programming languages, where objects have a state. For this purpose we define a direct denotation...

Hense, Andreas V.

1990-01-01

279

Wrapper semantics of an object oriented programming language with state  

OpenAIRE

Recently, several descriptions of object oriented programming languages with denotational semantics have been given. Cook presented an intuitive denotational semantics of class inheritance. This semantics abstracts from the internal state of objects, which is one of their salient characteristics. In this paper we show that Cooks denotational semantics of class inheritance is applicable to object oriented programming languages, where objects have a state. For this purpose we define a direct...

Hense, Andreas V.

1990-01-01

280

Description and Evaluation of Semantic Similarity Measures Approaches  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, semantic similarity measure has a great interest in Semantic Web and Natural Language Processing (NLP). Several similarity measures have been developed, being given the existence of a structured knowledge representation offered by ontologies and corpus which enable semantic interpretation of terms. Semantic similarity measures compute the similarity between concepts/terms included in knowledge sources in order to perform estimations. This paper discusses the...

Slimani, Thabet

2013-01-01

281

Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt  

OpenAIRE

The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new ...

Radhika Malik; Udayan Ghose

2011-01-01

282

Semantic-based subtree crossover applied to dynamic problems  

OpenAIRE

Although many real world problems are dynamic in nature, the study of Genetic Programming in dynamic environments is still immature. This paper investigates the application of some recently proposed semantic-based crossover operators on a series of dynamic problems. The operators studied include Semantic Similarity based Crossover and the Most Semantic Similarity based Crossover. The experimental results show the advantage of using semantic based crossovers when tackling dynamic problems.

Nguyen, Quang Uy; Murphy, Eoin; O Neill, Michael; Nguyen, Xuan Hoai

2011-01-01

283

Automatic and Intelligent Decision Making In Semantic Web  

OpenAIRE

Concepts like "semantic computing" and "semantic search" refer to computational techniques that use knowledge representation and deep linkage into the referents of information tokens in language dictionaries, thesauri and ontology’s) and in data resources (libraries, databases and web-based repositories). Perhaps the best-known sense is in the "semantic web", it is also reviews the technologies that make up the SW with the implications of these technologies Semantic Intelligence, Defined Se...

Shrutika Kulkarni; Pradeep Chouskey; Gajendra Vaiker

2012-01-01

284

Mechanized semantics for the Clight subset of the C language  

OpenAIRE

This article presents the formal semantics of a large subset of the C language called Clight. Clight includes pointer arithmetic, "struct" and "union" types, C loops and structured "switch" statements. Clight is the source language of the CompCert verified compiler. The formal semantics of Clight is a big-step operational semantics that observes both terminating and diverging executions and produces traces of input/output events. The formal semantics of Clight is mechanized ...

Blazy, Sandrine; Leroy, Xavier

2009-01-01

285

Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

Dinu AIRINEI

2012-01-01

286

Verb production during action naming in semantic dementia  

OpenAIRE

In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an action naming task based on video clips. The pattern of errors, involving a huge proportion of generic verbs (e.g. “to remove” versus “to peel”...

Me?ligne, D.; Fossard, Marion; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; De?monet, J. -f

2012-01-01

287

CLEARS - An Education and Research Tool for Computational Semantics  

OpenAIRE

The CLEARS (Computational Linguistics Education and Research for Semantics) tool provides a graphical interface allowing interactive construction of semantic representations in a variety of different formalisms, and using several construction methods. CLEARS was developed as part of the FraCaS project which was designed to encourage convergence between different semantic formalisms, such as Montague-Grammar, DRT, and Situation Semantics. The CLEARS system is freely available...

Milward, David; Konrad, Karsten; Maier, Holger; Pinkal, Manfred

1996-01-01

288

Semantic Annotation of RESTful Services Using External Resources  

OpenAIRE

Since the advent of Web 2.0, RESTful services have become an increasing phenomenon. Currently, Semantic Web technologies are being integrated into Web 2.0 services for both to leverage each other strengths. The need to take advantage of data available in RESTful services in the scope of Semantic Web evidences the difficulties to cope with syntactic and semantic description of the services. In this paper we present an approach to tackle the problem of automatic the semantic annotation of RESTf...

Saquicela, V.; Vilches-bla?zquez, Lm; Corcho, O?scar

2010-01-01

289

Building a Project Memory Using Semantic Design Rationale Process  

OpenAIRE

In the proposal, a construction project memory process based on the semantic annotation is presented. A project Mem-ory concerns the representation and the identification of the experience acquired during projects realization. The main feature of this approach is that the semantic annotation is used to build a continuous semantic design rationale process. We propose in this paper, a semantic traceability in four stages (identifying, structuring, annotating and integrating). The identification...

Zizette Boufaîda; Sonia Gueraich

2011-01-01

290

Formal semantics for propositional attitudes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psycholog [...] ical modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka), human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

Daniel, Vanderveken.

2011-06-01

291

Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity  

CERN Document Server

We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

Jarmasz, Mario

2012-01-01

292

Harnessing manpower for creating semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The eective information processing (e.g. search, organi-zation of the heterogeneous information spaces requiresmetadata layer above the resources. However, the acqui-sition of resource metadata and domain models are chal-lenging tasks. Here, the crowdsourcing has emerged asan alternative to expert-based and automated semanticsacquisition approaches. One of its branches are the gameswith a purpose (GWAPs which encapsulate the seman-tics acquisition tasks into the game processes. We analyzeexisting GWAPs and propose their classication. Fur-thermore we devised our own GWAP-based approaches.For acquisition of lightweight term relationship network,we devised a search query formulation game, usable alsofor specic domain models. For acquisition of (personalimage tags, we devised a card game, where players mem-orize positions of concealed cards and identify identicalpairs. For validation of music metadata, we devised amulti-choice question-based game, where players identifytag sets that are characteristic to music tracks they hear.We also looked at the GWAPs from their design per-spectives. We present a design oriented classication sys-tem for GWAPs, adress several design issues recurring inGWAPs and present new design patterns to solve them.

Jakub Simko

2013-10-01

293

Semantic Linkage of Control Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

Rolf Andreas Rasenack

2006-01-01

294

SEMANTIC BASED MULTIPLE WEB SEARCH ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of information available to end users through the Web, search engines come to play ever a more critical role. Nevertheless, because of their general-purpose approach, it is always less uncommon that obtained result sets provide a burden ofuseless pages. The next-generation Web architecture, represented by the Semantic Web, provides the layered architecture possibly allowing overcoming this limitation. Several search engines have been proposed, which allow increasing information retrieval accuracy by exploiting a key content of Semantic Web resources, that is, relations. To make the Semantic Web work, well-structured data andrules are necessary for agents to roam the Web [2]. XML and RDF are two important technologies: we can create our own structures by XML without indicating what they mean; RDF uses sets of triples which express basic concepts [2]. DAML is the extension of XML and RDF The aim of this project is to develop a search engine based on ontologymatching within the Semantic Web. It uses the data in Semantic Web form such as DAML or RDF. When the user input a query, the program accepts the query and transfers it to a machine learning agent. Then the agent measures the similarity between different ontology’s, and feedback the matched item to the user.

MS.S.LATHA SHANMUGAVADIVU,

2010-08-01

295

Semantic Aggregator of Public Professional Events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data on the web has been created by a large number of people and is hosted in a large number of independent resources across the globe. Therefore, there is a need to develop data aggregators to help the process of knowledge-based integration. The data without central coordination resulted in heterogeneity. The integration of data on the Internet continues to be a challenge for searching and discovery efforts. Semantic aggregators are agents for data integration using semantic web techniques. Semantic web technologies provide the capability to more easily aggregate data and thus can be utilized to improve the efficiency of information discovery. This study describes an implementation of a semantic web infrastructure that collects and integrates data in Extensible Markup Language (XML format and utilizes the Resource Description Framework (RDF Data model as the repository. One of the main challenges addressed in this paper is the heterogeneity of existing XML schemata and semantics of websites. The proposed approach is designed to be implemented and tested on publicly available professional events.

Lama Assum

2012-01-01

296

Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW, and with values of the type NOW + D, where D is a non-variable time duration. To accommodate these semantics, three new timestamp values are introduced. Finally, implementation is explored. We show how to represent the variable NOW with columns of standard SQL data types and give a mapping from SQL on NOW-relative  data to standard SQL on these columns. The paper thereby completes the semantics, the querying, and the modification of now-relative databases.   Udgivelsesdato: DEC

Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian SØndergaard

2004-01-01

297

Deriving Logical Consequences Using Ontological Formal Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web technology enables us to specify metadata about things in the world and help us to relate this metadata using ontology databases and language. The core of the Semantic Web is Ontology, which is used to explicitly represent our conceptualizations. This paper is an efforts to improve the relevancy of results in a search system for a particular domain by exploiting the domain knowledge captured in an OWL ontology using the protégé tool. We make ontological database from static relational database using protégé. The key ingredients that make up an ontology are a vocabulary of basic terms, semantic interconnections, simple rules of inference and some logic for a particular topic. We extract semantic meaning from query entered by the user using tool and then we map this meaning into ontological database. To achieve semantic search, a search engine is needed which can interpret the meaning of a user's query and the relations among the concepts that a document contains with respect to a particular domain. Protégé is an extensible and customizable tool for constructing ontologies and for developing applications that use these ontologies. After that we display this data on user screen. The output of this project is to provide appropriate result to user for enter his queries.

Nikhil S. Langde

2014-03-01

298

When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

Salvatore F. Pileggi

2012-09-01

299

CASL - The CoFI Algebraic Specification Language - Semantics.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999.

Haxthausen, Anne

1999-01-01

300

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

301

SEMANTIC SPACE OF COMPUTER GAMES: THE ATTEMPT OF RECONSTRUCTION ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???: ???? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents an empirical psycho semantic survey with the aim to reveal implicit model categories of computer games in everyday consciousness. Semantic space contained two main psychological «dimensions» of computer games and may to explain human disposition to computer play activity. New term “semantic space of computer games” is determined

Luzakov A. A.

2012-04-01

302

Age-related vulnerability in the neural systems supporting semantic processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our ability to form abstract representations of objects in semantic memory is crucial to language and thought. The utility of this information relies both on the representations of sensory-motor feature knowledge stored in long-term memory and the executive processes required to retrieve, manipulate, and evaluate this semantic knowledge in a task-relevant manner. These complementary components of semantic memory can be differentially impacted by aging. We investigated semantic processing in normal aging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young and older adults were asked to judge whether two printed object names match on a particular feature (for example, whether a tomato and strawberry have the same color. The task thus required both retrieval of relevant visual feature knowledge of object concepts and evaluating this information. Objects were drawn from either natural kinds or manufactured objects, and were queried on either color or shape in a factorial design. Behaviorally, all subjects performed well, but older adults could be divided into those whose performance matched that of young adults (better performers and those whose performance was worse (poorer performers. All subjects activated several cortical regions while performing this task, including bilateral inferior and lateral temporal cortex and left frontal and prefrontal cortex. Better performing older adults showed increased overall activity in bilateral premotor cortex and left lateral occipital cortex compared to young adults, and increased activity in these brain regions relative to poorer performing older adults who also showed gray matter atrophy in premotor cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of domain-general executive processing brain regions to semantic memory, and illustrate differences in how these regions are recruited in healthy older adults.

JonathanEPeelle

2013-09-01

303

A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that ? is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.

Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

2014-10-01

304

Assessing semantic coherence in conditional probability estimates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic coherence is a higher-order coherence benchmark that assesses whether a constellation of estimates--P(A), P(B), P(B | A), and P(A | B)--maps onto the relationship between sets implied by the description of a given problem. We present an automated method for evaluating semantic coherence in conditional probability estimates that efficiently reduces a large problem space into five meaningful patterns: identical sets, subsets, mutually exclusive sets, overlapping sets, and independent sets. It also identifies three theoretically interesting nonfallacious errors. We discuss unique issues in evaluating semantic coherence in conditional probabilities that are not present in joint probability judgments, such as errors resulting from dividing by zero and the use of a tolerance parameter to manage rounding errors. A spreadsheet implementing the methods described above can be downloaded as a supplement from www.springerlink.com . PMID:21512870

Fisher, Christopher R; Wolfe, Christopher R

2011-12-01

305

A new account of rationality and semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how a new outlook on human cognitive abilities, and in accordance with this a different view of rationality, can influence semantics and one of the most prominent debates in this field, namely, conflict between Fregeans and non Fregean anti-indiviidualists. This new account of rationality will help us difuse some of the main motivators for Fregean view of semantics and it will help us in justifying non-Fregean anti-individualism but also in eliminating some of the apparent contradictions in Fregean anti-individualism of, e.g. Campbell and Evans. In this attempt of bringing together some of the latest insights into human cognition and semantics I will be dealing mainly with Jessica Brown's outlook on motivation for Fregean sense and Ruth Millikan's embedded view on rationality.

Milojevi? Miljana

2011-01-01

306

Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI to semantically find plagiarism.

Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

2013-05-01

307

Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search  

CERN Document Server

Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search is based on "joint meaning" understood as a joint construal of the creators of the contents and the user of the contents using the faced taxonomy with the Semantic Web. A proof-of concept prototype shows how the proposed methodological approach can also be applied to existing presentation components, built with different languages and/or component technologies.

Mas, Massimiliano Dal

2012-01-01

308

Semantic Web Approach towards E-Commerce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Technologies enable machines to interpret data published in a machine-interpretable form on the web. The existing e-commerce web data can be understandable to humans to read but machines cannot process it due to lack of semantics. To gain the advantage of using online shopping, consumer needs to search different e-commerce websites for a better price of product. Hence searching plays a crucial role in e-commerce to overcome information asymmetry and price dispersion. In this paper, we explained the basics of e-commerce with advantage, disadvantages and where the semantic web technologies can be applied is given for the benefit of consumer.

V.Kiran Kumar

2013-12-01

309

Semantic Textual Entailment Recognition using UNL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english A two-way textual entailment (TE) recognition system that uses semantic features has been described in this paper. We have used the Universal Networking Language (UNL) to identify the semantic features. UNL has all the components of a natural language. The development of a UNL based textual entailme [...] nt system that compares the UNL relations in both the text and the hypothesis has been reported. The semantic TE system has been developed using the RTE-3 test annotated set as a development set (includes 800 text-hypothesis pairs). Evaluation scores obtained on the RTE-4 test set (includes 1000 text-hypothesis pairs) show 55.89% precision and 65.40% recall for YES decisions and 66.50% precision and 55.20% recall for NO decisions and overall 60.3% precision and 60.3% recall.

Partha, Pakray; Soujanya, Poria; Sivaji, Bandyopadhyay; Alexander, Gelbukh.

2011-06-01

310

Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema

2006-01-01

311

Grammar-Based Geodesics in Semantic Networks  

CERN Document Server

A geodesic is the shortest path between two vertices in a connected network. The geodesic is the kernel of various network metrics including radius, diameter, eccentricity, closeness, and betweenness. These metrics are the foundation of much network research and thus, have been studied extensively in the domain of single-relational networks (both in their directed and undirected forms). However, geodesics for single-relational networks do not translate directly to multi-relational, or semantic networks, where vertices are connected to one another by any number of edge labels. Here, a more sophisticated method for calculating a geodesic is necessary. This article presents a technique for calculating geodesics in semantic networks with a focus on semantic networks represented according to the Resource Description Framework (RDF). In this framework, a discrete "walker" utilizes an abstract path description called a grammar to determine which paths to include in its geodesic calculation. The grammar-based model f...

Rodriguez, Marko A; 10.1016/j.knosys.2010.05.009

2010-01-01

312

A Semantic Layer for Embedded Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensor Networks progressively assumed the critical role of bridges between the real world and information systems, through always more consolidated and efficient sensor technologies that enable advanced heterogeneous sensor grids. Sensor data is commonly used by advanced systems and intelligent applications in order to archive complex goals. Processes that build high-level knowledge from sensor data are commonly considered as the key core concept. This paper proposes a semantic layer that would optimally support the knowledge building in sensor systems as well as it enables semantic interaction model at different levels (module, subsystem, system. The semantic layer proposed in the paper is currently used by several architectures and applications in the context of different domains.

Salvatore F. Pileggi

2011-06-01

313

Relational Semantics for Databases and Predicate Calculus  

CERN Document Server

The relational data model requires a theory of relations in which tuples are not only many-sorted, but can also have indexes that are not necessarily numerical. In this paper we develop such a theory and define operations on relations that are adequate for database use. The operations are similar to those of Codd's relational algebra, but differ in being based on a mathematically adequate theory of relations. The semantics of predicate calculus, being oriented toward the concept of satisfiability, is not suitable for relational databases. We develop an alternative semantics that assigns relations as meaning to formulas with free variables. This semantics makes the classical predicate calculus suitable as a query language for relational databases.

Kelly, Philip

2012-01-01

314

Cognitive semantic networks: emotional verbs throw a tantrum but don't bite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neuroimaging studies have over the past decades established that language is grounded in sensorimotor areas of the brain. The same neuronal circuits seem involved whether we literally pick up a ball or in a phrase refer to grasping an idea. However recent findings have demonstrated that not only leg, hand and face related but also emotional action verbs activate premotor systems in the brain. Hypothesizing that the force and spatial parameters which define action based language might also be reflected in the latent semantics of words, we select motor and emotion related verbs and apply latent semantic analysis, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering and network graph analysis to quantify their interaction and identify parameters of force and spatial differentiation which we propose cognitively relate emotions to sensorimotor action schemas.

Petersen, Michael Kai; Hansen, Lars Kai

2012-01-01

315

e-Science and biological pathway semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the semantic integration of these data. Semantic Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this semantic integration. Since pathway knowledge is central to much of the scientific research today it is a good test-bed for semantic integration. Within the context of biological pathways, the BioPAX initiative, part of a broader movement towards the standardization and integration of life science databases, forms a necessary prerequisite for its successful application of e-Science in health care and life science research. This paper examines whether BioPAX, an effort to overcome the barrier of disparate and heterogeneous pathway data sources, addresses the needs of e-Science. Results We demonstrate how BioPAX pathway data can be used to ask and answer some useful biological questions. We find that BioPAX comes close to meeting a broad range of e-Science needs, but certain semantic weaknesses mean that these goals are missed. We make a series of recommendations for re-modeling some aspects of BioPAX to better meet these needs. Conclusion Once these semantic weaknesses are addressed, it will be possible to integrate pathway information in a manner that would be useful in e-Science.

Luciano Joanne S

2007-05-01

316

User Search Personalization in Semantic Web Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behaviour (usage data in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In the first part of our Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the second part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank, a Page Rank style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query.

T.Venkata Ramana , Dr.K.Venugopala Rao

2012-05-01

317

Pretty-big-step-semantics-based Certified Abstract Interpretation (Preliminary version)  

OpenAIRE

We present a technique for deriving semantic program analyses from a natural semantics specification of the programming language. The technique is based on a particular kind of semantics called pretty-big-step semantics. We present a pretty-big-step semantics of a language with simple objects called O'While and specify a series of instrumentations of the semantics that explicitates the flows of values in a program. This leads to a semantics-based dependency analysis, at the ...

Martin Bodin; Thomas Jensen; Alan Schmitt

2013-01-01

318

Treatment of Semantic Heterogeneity in Information Retrieval  

CERN Document Server

The first step to handle semantic heterogeneity should be the attempt to enrich the semantic information about documents, i.e. to fill up the gaps in the documents meta-data automatically. Section 2 describes a set of cascading deductive and heuristic extraction rules, which were developed in the project CARMEN for the domain of Social Sciences. The mapping between different terminologies can be done by using intellectual, statistical and/or neural network transfer modules. Intellectual transfers use cross-concordances between different classification schemes or thesauri. Section 3 describes the creation, storage and handling of such transfers.

Hellweg, Heiko; Mandl, Thomas; Marx, Jutta; Müller, Matthias N O; Mutschke, Peter; Strötgen, Robert

2011-01-01

319

Semantic Description of Humans in Images  

OpenAIRE

In the present thesis we are interested in semantic description of humans in images. We propose to describe humans with the help of (i) semantic attributes e.g. male or female, wearing a tee-shirt, (ii) actions e.g. riding a horse, running and (iii) facial expressions e.g. smiling, angry. First, we propose a new image representation to better exploit the class specific spatial information. The standard representation \\ie spatial pyramids, has two shortcomings. It assumes that the distribution...

Sharma, Gaurav

2012-01-01

320

Semantic Integration of Knowledge Management Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ontologies are essential for a semantic integration of knowledge components which can be seen as superior pieces of intellectual capital. Knowledge structures connect individual or group knowledge elements from organizational knowledge bases that have been developed independently. This can aid search and navigation for the entire organizational knowledge base. As many knowledge processes cross boundaries of organizational units or of whole organizations, standardization of techniques for representing knowledge structures (Semantic Web technologies, play an important role in enabling organizations to share documented knowledge.

Constantin Florin Sîrbu

2008-12-01

321

Semantic Web and Model-Driven Engineering  

CERN Document Server

The next enterprise computing era will rely on the synergy between both technologies: semantic web and model-driven software development (MDSD). The semantic web organizes system knowledge in conceptual domains according to its meaning. It addresses various enterprise computing needs by identifying, abstracting and rationalizing commonalities, and checking for inconsistencies across system specifications. On the other side, model-driven software development is closing the gap among business requirements, designs and executables by using domain-specific languages with custom-built syntax and se

Parreiras, Fernando S

2012-01-01

322

Mathematical aspects of logic programming semantics  

CERN Document Server

Covering the authors' own state-of-the-art research results, Mathematical Aspects of Logic Programming Semantics presents a rigorous, modern account of the mathematical methods and tools required for the semantic analysis of logic programs. It significantly extends the tools and methods from traditional order theory to include nonconventional methods from mathematical analysis that depend on topology, domain theory, generalized distance functions, and associated fixed-point theory.The book covers topics spanning the period from the early days of logic programming to current times. It discusses

Hitzler, Pascal

2010-01-01

323

Large-scale latent semantic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a statistical technique for representing word meaning that has been widely used for making semantic similarity judgments between words, sentences, and documents. In order to perform an LSA analysis, an LSA space is created in a two-stage procedure, involving the construction of a word frequency matrix and the dimensionality reduction of that matrix through singular value decomposition (SVD). This article presents LANSE, an SVD algorithm specifically designed for LSA, which allows extremely large matrices to be processed using off-the-shelf computer hardware. PMID:21302024

Olney, Andrew McGregor

2011-06-01

324

Web Information Extraction Systems for Web Semantization.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Se?a : Pont, 2009 - (Vojtáš, P.), s. 1-6 ISBN 978-80-970179-2-7. [ITAT 2009. Conference on Theory and Practice of Information Theory. Krá?ova stud?a (SK), 25.09.2009-29.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA ?R GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : web information extraction * web semantization * semantic web * information systems Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

D?dek, Jan

325

Semantic mashups intelligent reuse of web resources  

CERN Document Server

Mashups are mostly lightweight Web applications that offer new functionalities by combining, aggregating and transforming resources and services available on the Web. Popular examples include a map in their main offer, for instance for real estate, hotel recommendations, or navigation tools.  Mashups may contain and mix client-side and server-side activity. Obviously, understanding the incoming resources (services, statistical figures, text, videos, etc.) is a precondition for optimally combining them, so that there is always some undercover semantics being used.  By using semantic annotations

Endres-Niggemeyer, Brigitte

2013-01-01

326

Order Metrics for Semantic Knowledge Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge systems technologies, as derived from AI methods and used in the modern Semantic Web movement, are dominated by graphical knowledge structures such as ontologies and semantic graph databases. A critical but typically overlooked aspect of all of these structures is their admission to analyses in terms of formal hierarchical relations. The partial order representations of whatever hierarchy is present within a knowledge structure afford opportunities to exploit these hierarchical constraints to facilitate a variety of tasks, including ontology analysis and alignment, visual layout, and anomaly detection. We introduce the basic concepts of order metrics and address the impact of a hierarchical (order-theoretical) analysis on knowledge systems tasks.

Joslyn, Cliff; Hogan, Emilie

327

Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 X 20 emotion, face, and hand related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora; HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

Petersen, Michael Kai

2015-01-01

328

Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing amount of health information and frequent outbreaks of diseases, the retrieval of health information is given more concern. Machine understanding of spatial information can improve the interpretation of health data semantics. Most of the current research focused on the non-spatial semantics of health data, using ontologies and rules. Utilizing the spatial component of health data can assist in the understanding of health phenomena. This research proposes a semantic health information query architecture that allows the incorporation of both non-spatial semantics and geospatial semantics in health information integration and retrieval.

Gao, S.; Anton, François

2012-01-01

329

Semantic e-Learning: Next Generation of e-Learning?  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic e-learning aspires to be the next generation of e-learning, since the understanding of learning materials and knowledge semantics allows their advanced representation, manipulation, sharing, exchange and reuse and ultimately promote efficient online experiences for users. In this context, the paper firstly explores some fundamental Semantic Web technologies and then discusses current and potential applications of these technologies in e-learning domain, namely, Semantic portals, Semantic search, personalization, recommendation systems, social software and Web 2.0 tools. Finally, it highlights future research directions and open issues of the field.

Konstantinos, Markellos; Penelope, Markellou; Giannis, Koutsonikos; Aglaia, Liopa-Tsakalidi

330

RDF2SPIN: Mapping Semantic Graphs to SPIN Model Checker  

OpenAIRE

The most frequently used language to represent the semantic graphs is the RDF (W3C standard for meta-modeling). The construction of semantic graphs is a source of numerous errors of interpretation. The processing of large semantic graphs is a limit to the use of semantics in current information systems. The work presented in this paper is part of a new research at the border between two areas: the semantic web and the model checking. For this, we developed a tool, RDF2SPIN, which converts RDF...

Gueffaz, Mahdi; Rampacek, Sylvain; Nicolle, Christophe

2011-01-01

331

A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models into the domain of the logical correspondence.

Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian

2013-01-01

332

High performance semantic factoring of giga-scale semantic graph databases.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to bring high performance computational resources to bear on their analysis, interpretation, and visualization, especially with respect to their innate semantic structure. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multithreaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional clusters, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture, and present the results of our deploying that for the analysis of the Billion Triple dataset with respect to its semantic factors, including basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths.

al-Saffar, Sinan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Adolf, Bob (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Haglin, David (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mackey, Greg Edward; Goodman, Eric L.; Joslyn, Cliff A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Feo, John (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mizell, David (Cray, Inc.)

2010-10-01

333

Puzzling thoughts for H. M.: can new semantic information be anchored to old semantic memories?  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers currently debate whether new semantic knowledge can be learned and retrieved despite extensive damage to medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. The authors explored whether H. M., a patient with amnesia, could acquire new semantic information in the context of his lifelong hobby of solving crossword puzzles. First, H. M. was tested on a series of word-skills tests believed important in solving crosswords. He also completed 3 new crosswords: 1 puzzle testing pre-1953 knowledge, another testing post-1953 knowledge, and another combining the 2 by giving postoperative semantic clues for preoperative answers. From the results, the authors concluded that H. M. can acquire new semantic knowledge, at least temporarily, when he can anchor it to mental representations established preoperatively. PMID:15506844

Skotko, Brian G; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Locascio, Joseph J; Einstein, Gillian; Rubin, David C; Tupler, Larry A; Krendl, Anne; Corkin, Suzanne

2004-10-01

334

A three-valued semantics for logic programmers  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes a simpler way for programmers to reason about the correctness of their code. The study of semantics of logic programs has shown strong links between the model theoretic semantics (truth and falsity of atoms in the programmer's interpretation of a program), procedural semantics (for example, SLD resolution) and fixpoint semantics (which is useful for program analysis and alternative execution mechanisms). Most of this work assumes that intended interpretations are two-valued: a ground atom is true (and should succeed according to the procedural semantics) or false (and should not succeed). In reality, intended interpretations are less precise. Programmers consider that some atoms "should not occur" or are "ill-typed" or "inadmissible". Programmers don't know and don't care whether such atoms succeed. In this paper we propose a three-valued semantics for (essentially) pure Prolog programs with (ground) negation as failure which reflects this. The semantics of Fitting is similar but only ass...

Naish, L

2005-01-01

335

The role of non-semantic factors in semantic satiation effect in schizophrenia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Semantic satiation is defined as the subjective experience of the loss of access to the meanings of words or images caused by prolonged and quick repetitions of the material. Previous researches indicated that the semantic satiation of words and images occurs faster in sch [...] izophrenics than in healthy subjects. Individuals suffering from schizophrenia reveal the tendency to lose of access to the meaning of words after fewer words repetition than healthy controls. The aim of the research was to establish whether the semantic satiation of images in schizophrenia is the effect of the loss of meanings of images or is caused by non - semantic factors i.e. fatiguing experimental procedure. Methods: It was assumed that in conditions where the participant's level of fatigue was parallel to the fatigue observed in the research on semantic satiation and the meaning of satiated images was not required for semantic decisions, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls would not reveal the semantic satiation effect defined as an increase in reaction time. Two groups of participants: patients suffering from schizophrenia (10 women and 10 men, average age 30) and healthy controls (9 female and 9 male, average age 30.7) were shown 80 trails. Each one of them consisted of a satiated image which appeared repeatedly on the computer screen, and a non-satiated image accompanied by a written word, which were shown simultaneously after the final presentation of the satiated image. The participants' task was to decide whether the written word named the object presented on the non-satiated picture correctly. The participants did not make any decisions on the basis of satiated images. Results: The results obtained confirmed the hypothesis. In conditions where participants were shown the images flashing on the computer screen but were not required to make a semantic decision related to those images, their reaction time to subsequently presented stimuli did not lengthen. Conclusions: The results confirmed the hypothesis that the semantic satiation effect in schizophrenia is a semantic phenomenon and is not related to non-semantic factors such as the subjects' fatigue.

336

Blood differential  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...

337

Hypothesis of the Functional Semantic Constructions and Mathematics in the Functional Semantic Aspect  

OpenAIRE

This essay contains three parts. The first part of essay focuses on the hypothesis of the functional semantic constructions (FSC-Hypothesis). This hypothesis explains that a language, a number, a money are the functional semantic constructions. In the second part the author considers the Mathematics with respect to the FSC-Hypothesis. Author turns in the solution for the following problems: Ontology of Mathematics, Objects of Mathematics, Number, Classification of the number...

Semenov, Y.

2002-01-01

338

Semantic Gap in CBIR: Automatic Objects Spatial Relationships Semantic Extraction and Representation  

OpenAIRE

The explosive growth of image data leads to the need of research anddevelopment of Image retrieval. Image retrieval researches are moving fromkeyword, to low level features and to semantic features. Drive towards semanticfeatures is due to the problem of the keywords which can be very subjective andtime consuming while low level features cannot always describe high levelconcepts in the users’ mind. This paper is proposed a novel technique for objectsspatial relationships semantics extractio...

Hui Hui Wang, Dzulkifli Mohamad N. A. Ismail

2010-01-01

339

Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there is no agreement for one of these visions nor is there a clear picture for the relation between different layers inside this architecture and the associated technologies. The objectives of this study were to: (i Identify the weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures and (ii Reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses. Approach: This research uses the Qualitative Analysis Approach of Taylor and Renner, presents the four versions of the Semantic Web architecture, describing the function(s and status of each layer and associated technologies, evaluates them using Gerber evaluation method and determines other design principles needed to modify and adapt this architecture as a step toward an agreement for one Semantic Web architecture. Results: The design of a new model for the Semantic Web architecture depends on the idea of previous versions. Conclusion: As a step toward a unified architecture for the Semantic Web, our study of the Semantic Web architecture highlighted some weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures, modify, adapt and reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses.

Haytham T. Al-Feel

2008-01-01

340

Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure...

Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo

2013-01-01

341

Fuzzy Semantic Retrieval for Traffic Information Based on Fuzzy Ontology and RDF on the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 7.8 ? 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Information retrieval is the essential task for Traffic Information Service System in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS.  There a lot of fuzzy traffic information derived from human factor. To achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper proposes an approach using Resource Description Framework (RDF and fuzzy ontology. First, we apply RDF data model to represent traffic information on the Semantic Web. Then we present fuzzy linguistic variable ontology models and its formal representation with RDF. Introducing new data type referred as fuzzy linguistic variables to RDF data model, the semantic query expansions in SeRQL query language are constructed by order relation, equivalence relation, inclusion relation and complement relation between fuzzy concepts defined in linguistic variable ontologies. Examples show that the extended query can return all results which satisfy research requirement at semantic level without upgrading current main search algorithm, and this research facilitates the semantic retrieval of traffic information through fuzzy concepts for ITS on the Semantic Web.

Jun Zhai

2009-09-01

342

Students as Designers of Semantic Web Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper draws upon the experience of an interdisciplinary research group in engaging undergraduate university students in the design and development of semantic web technologies. A flexible approach to participatory design challenged conventional distinctions between "designer" and "user" and allowed students to play a role in developing…

Tracy, Fran; Jordan, Katy

2012-01-01

343

Social image tagging with diverse semantics.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have witnessed the popularity of image-sharing websites for sharing personal experiences through photos on the Web. These websites allow users describing the content of their uploaded images with a set of tags. Those user-annotated tags are often noisy and biased. Social image tagging aims at removing noisy tags and suggests new relevant tags. However, most existing tag enrichment approaches predominantly focus on tag relevance and overlook tag diversity problem. How to make the top-ranked tags covering a wide range of semantic is still an opening, yet challenging, issue. In this paper, we propose an approach to retag social images with diverse semantics. Both the relevance of a tag to image as well as its semantic compensations to the already determined tags are fused to determine the final tag list for a given image. Different from existing image tagging approaches, the top-ranked tags are not only highly relevant to the image but also have significant semantic compensations with each other. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25415950

Qian, Xueming; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Tang, Yuan Yan; Mei, Tao

2014-12-01

344

Cases, Simulacra, and Semantic Web Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

"Ensemble" is an interdisciplinary research and development project exploring the potential role of emerging Semantic Web technologies in case-based learning across learning environments in higher education. Empirical findings have challenged the claim that cases "bring reality into the classroom" and that this, in turn, might provide the basis…

Carmichael, P.; Tscholl, M.

2013-01-01

345

Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

Jeong, Hanjo

2011-01-01

346

Leveraging the Semantic Web for Adaptive Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In the area of technology-enhanced learning reusability and interoperability issues essentially influence the productivity and efficiency of learning and authoring solutions. There are two basic approaches how to overcome these problems--one attempts to do it via standards and the other by means of the Semantic Web. In practice, these approaches…

Kravcik, Milos; Gasevic, Dragan

2007-01-01

347

Expressing Implicit Semantic Relations without Supervision  

CERN Document Server

We present an unsupervised learning algorithm that mines large text corpora for patterns that express implicit semantic relations. For a given input word pair X:Y with some unspecified semantic relations, the corresponding output list of patterns is ranked according to how well each pattern Pi expresses the relations between X and Y. For example, given X=ostrich and Y=bird, the two highest ranking output patterns are "X is the largest Y" and "Y such as the X". The output patterns are intended to be useful for finding further pairs with the same relations, to support the construction of lexicons, ontologies, and semantic networks. The patterns are sorted by pertinence, where the pertinence of a pattern Pi for a word pair X:Y is the expected relational similarity between the given pair and typical pairs for Pi. The algorithm is empirically evaluated on two tasks, solving multiple-choice SAT word analogy questions and classifying semantic relations in noun-modifier pairs. On both tasks, the algorithm achieves s...

Turney, P D

2006-01-01

348

Semantic knowledge representation for information retrieval  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.

Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias

2014-01-01

349

Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Semantic Field Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.

Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

2011-10-01

350

Reference, inference and the semantics of pejoratives  

OpenAIRE

The full-text of this book chapter is not available in ORA. Citation: Williamson, T. (2009). Reference, inference and the semantics of pejoratives. In: Almog, J. & Leonardi, P. (eds.) The Philosophy of David Kaplan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 137-158.

Williamson, Timothy; Almog, Joseph; Leonardi, Paolo

2009-01-01

351

Mathematical Knowledge Representation: Semantic Models and Formalisms  

OpenAIRE

The paper provides a survey of semantic methods for solution of fundamental tasks in mathematical knowledge management. Ontological models and formalisms are discussed. We propose an ontology of mathematical knowledge, covering a wide range of fields of mathematics. We demonstrate applications of this representation in mathematical formula search, and learning.

Elizarov, Alexander; Kirillovich, Alexander; Lipachev, Evgeny; Nevzorova, Olga; Solovyev, Valery; Zhiltsov, Nikita

2014-01-01

352

Semantic agent technologies for tactical sensor networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in wireless communication and microelectronics have enabled the development of low-cost sensor devices leading to interest in large-scale sensor networks for military applications. Sensor networks consist of large numbers of networked sensors that can be dynamically deployed and used for tactical situational awareness. One critical challenge is how to dynamically integrate these sensor networks with information fusion processes to support real-time sensing, exploitation and decision-making in a rich tactical environment. In this paper, we describe our work on an extensible prototype to address the challenge. The prototype and its constituent technologies provide a proof-of-concept that demonstrates several fundamental new approaches for implementing next generation battlefield information systems. Many cutting-edge technologies are used to implement this system, including semantic web, web services, peer-to-peer network and content-based routing. This prototype system is able to dynamically integrate various distributed sensors and multi-level information fusion services into new applications and run them across a distributed network to support different mission goals. Agent technology plays a role in two fundamental ways: resources are described, located and tasked using semantic descriptions based on ontologies and semantic services; tracking, fusion and decision-making logic is implemented using agent objects and semantic descriptions as well.

Jiang, Guofei; Chung, Wayne W.; Cybenko, George

2003-09-01

353

Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

Etzkorn, Lethe

2003-01-01

354

Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components are crucial to be formalized by the semantic web ontologies for adaptive web. We use examples from an eLearning domain to illustrate the principles which are broadly applicable to any information domain on the web.

Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

355

Brain Oscillations during Semantic Evaluation of Speech  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in oscillatory brain activity have been related to perceptual and cognitive processes such as selective attention and memory matching. Here we examined brain oscillations, measured with electroencephalography (EEG), during a semantic speech processing task that required both lexically mediated memory matching and selective attention.…

Shahin, Antoine J.; Picton, Terence W.; Miller, Lee M.

2009-01-01

356

Cross-modal semantic priming in schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Work on implicit memory in normal subjects has demonstrated the influence of stimulus modality on the retrieval of semantic information. The present study examined the effects of auditory and visual semantic priming on the recognition of visual words using a lexical decision task. Performance was studied in a group of 20 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 26 normal volunteers of similar age and sex. There were two versions of the task: ipsimodal, in which the word or nonword visual target followed 400 ms after the onset of a visual word prime which may or may not be semantically related to the target; and cross-modal, in which the visual target followed 400 ms after the onset of an auditory word prime. Both groups showed significant priming in both modality conditions, although the schizophrenia patients exhibited significantly greater priming in the cross-modal condition. Priming effects in the ipsimodal condition did not differ substantially between patients and controls. The priming effects in the two conditions correlated with each other in the schizophrenia patients only. The results suggest that priming may occur through amodal semantic representations. In schizophrenia, there appears to be increased cross-modal connectivity (reduced modality modularity and informational encapsulation) between lexical representations that could result in impaired language, particularly speech, processing. PMID:12405539

Surguladze, Simon; Rossell, Susan; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; David, Anthony S

2002-11-01

357

Semantic Verbal Fluency in Two Contrasting Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF…

Pekkala, Seija; Goral, Mira; Hyun, JungMoon; Obler, Loraine K.; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Albert, Martin L.

2009-01-01

358

Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by existential closure. Quantifiers can then be interpreted in situ. The resulting framework combines the strengths of event semantics and type-shifting accounts of quantifiers and thus does not force the semanticist to posit either a default underlying word order or a syntactic LF-style level. It is therefore well suited for applications to languages where word order is free and quantifier scope is determined by surface order. As an additional benefit, the system leads to a straightforward account of negation, which has also been claimed to be problematic for event-based frameworks.ReferencesBarker, Chris. 2002. ‘Continuations and the nature of quantification’. Natural Language Semantics 10: 211–242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022183511876Barker, Chris & Shan, Chung-chieh. 2008. ‘Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding’. Semantics and Pragmatics 1: 1–46.Beaver, David & Condoravdi, Cleo. 2007. ‘On the logic of verbal modification’. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, 3–9. Amsterdam, Netherlands: University of Amsterdam.Beghelli, Filippo & Stowell, Tim. 1997. ‘Distributivity and negation: The syntax of each and every’. In Anna Szabolcsi (ed. ‘Ways of scope taking’, 71–107. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Brasoveanu, Adrian. 2010. ‘Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6042, 203–212. Berlin, Germany: Springer.Carlson, Gregory N. 1977. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.Carlson, Gregory N. 1984. ‘Thematic roles and their role in semantic interpretation’. Linguistics 22: 259–279.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ling.1984.22.3.259Champollion, Lucas. 2010. Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Champollion, Lucas, Tauberer, Josh & Romero, Maribel. 2007. ‘The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical software for natural language semantics’. In Tracy Holloway King & Emily Bender (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks(GEAF 2007 Workshop’, Stanford, CA: CSLI Online Publications.Condoravdi, Cleo. 2002. ‘Punctual until as a scalar NPI’. In Sharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson (eds. ‘The nature of the word’, 631–654. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Csirmaz, Aniko. 2006. ‘Aspect, Negation and Quantifiers’. In Liliane Haegeman, Joan Maling, James McCloskey & Katalin E. Kiss (eds. ‘Event Structure And The Left Periphery’, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol. 68, 225–253. SpringerNetherlands.Davidson, Donald. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In Nicholas Rescher (ed. ‘The logic of decision and action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.de Swart, Henriëtte. 1996. ‘Meaning and use of not . . . until’. Journal of Semantics 13: 221–263.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/13.3.221de Swart, Henriëtte & Molendijk, Arie. 1999. ‘Negation and the temporal structure of narrative discourse’. Journal of Semantics 16: 1–42.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/16.1.1Dowty, David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel.Eckardt, Regine. 2010. ‘A Logic for Easy Linking Semantics’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vo

Lucas Champollion

2010-12-01

359

APPLICATION BASED SEMANTIC WEB MINING TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Web is a huge read-write information space where many items such as documents, images or other multimedia can be accessed. In this context, several information technologies have been developed to help users to satisfy their searching needs on the Web, and the most used are search engines. Search engines allow users to find Web resources formulating queries (a set of terms and reviewing a list of answers. The Semantic Web improves the Web infrastructure with formal semantics and interlinked data, enabling flexible, reusable, and open knowledge management systems. The move towards open and interlinked data on the Web and the Semantic Web results in more open systems. In contrast to traditional database-driven applications, open systems liberate the data that they operate on: sources are decentralized, data can be semi-structured with arbitrary vocabulary and contributions can be published anywhere. This thesis offers algorithms and components that simplify and support knowledge management based on Semantic Web technology. We address four areas of Semantic Web application development: programmatic access: how to program against the flexible graph-based model; data navigation: how to navigate arbitrary information spaces; data entry: how to guide users through collaborative recommendation; and data discovery: how to locate relevant data sources. Our hypothesis is that the issues of programmatic access, data navigation, data entry, and data discovery can be addressed, with acceptable results, through the sole introspection of instance data at runtime, without relying on fixed schema structures at design time. In all four areas we devise solutions that are domain independent, rely only on instance data and dynamically adjust to the available data.

Mahindra Pratap Singh Dohare

2011-04-01

360

Exploring multimodal semantic control impairments in semantic aphasia: evidence from naturalistic object use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic processing can break down in qualitatively distinct ways in different neuropsychological populations. Previous studies have shown that patients with multimodal semantic impairments following stroke - referred to as semantic aphasia (SA) - show deficits on a range of conceptual tasks due to a failure of semantic control processes in the context of prefrontal and/or temporoparietal infarction. Although a deficit of semantic control would be expected to impair performance in all modalities in parallel, most previous research in this patient group has focussed primarily on tasks employing words. This study explored the consequences of deregulated semantic cognition for an indisputably non-verbal task-naturalistic object use. Patients with SA performed more poorly than control participants on a range of everyday tasks assessed by the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT, Schwartz, M. F., Buxbaum, L. J., Ferraro, M., Veramonti, T., & Segal, M. (2002). Naturalistic action test. Thames Valley Test Company). Moreover, their scores on this assessment correlated with those obtained on language-based semantic tasks, suggesting that a common deficit could underlie the impairment in both modalities. As previously observed in the verbal domain, performance on the NAT was poorer when control processes were taxed by dual-task situations and the inclusion of semantically related distracting objects. A number of characteristics of the patients' action sequences were specifically indicative of deregulated semantic cognition. Their everyday action sequences were highly fragmented by a tendency to abandon subtasks before their completion and engage, instead, in extended periods of aimless "toying" with objects. The patient group also exhibited recurrent perseverative behaviour. These findings parallel the performance of a recurrent connectionist model of naturalistic action developed by Botvinick and Plaut [Botvinick, M. & Plaut, D. C. (2004). Doing without schema hierarchies: A recurrent connectionist approach to normal and impaired routine sequential action. Psychological Review, 111, 395-429], after the mechanism responsible for controlling action in a temporally sensitive manner was damaged. This study provides converging evidence for a failure of control processes underlying semantic memory impairment in SA, which is reflected not only in patients' performance on language-based tasks, but also in the non-verbal domain of naturalistic object use. PMID:19500608

Corbett, Faye; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

2009-11-01

361

Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure multi-party computation setting, and prove they are equivalent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that illustrates the relationships of these privacy definitions and unifies them through one framework.

Jinfei Liu

2013-12-01

362

NVL - a knowledge representation language based on semantic networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Taxonomic hierarchical networks or semantic networks have been widely used in representing knowledge in AI applications. Semantic networks have been the preferred form of representation in AI, rather than predicate logic because of the need to represent complex structured knowledge. However, the formal semantics of these networks has not been dealt with adequately in the literature. In this thesis, semantic networks are described by means of a formal relational logic called NVL. The characteristic features of NVL are limitor lists and binary predicates. Limitor lists are similar to restricted quantifiers but are more expressive. Several special binary relations are used to express the key ideas of semantic networks. NVL is based on the principles of semantic networks and taxonomic reasoning. The unification and inference mechanisms of NVL have considerable inherent parallelism which makes the language suitable for parallel implementation. The current opinion in AI is that semantic networks represent a subset of first order logic. Rather than modify predicate logic by adding features of semantic networks, the approach has been to devise a new form of logic by considering the basic principles and epistemological primitives of semantic networks such as properties, class concepts, relations, and inheritance. The syntax and semantics of NVL are first presented. Rules in the knowledge based are represented by V relation which also plays an important role in deriving inferences. The (mathematical) correctness of NVL is proved and concepts of unification of lists and inference in NVL are introduced. Parallel algorithms for unification and inference are developed.

Hudli, A.V.

1989-01-01

363

Broadly speaking: vocabulary in semantic dementia shifts towards general, semantically diverse words.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the cardinal features of semantic dementia (SD) is a steady reduction in expressive vocabulary. We investigated the nature of this breakdown by assessing the psycholinguistic characteristics of words produced spontaneously by SD patients during an autobiographical memory interview. Speech was analysed with respect to frequency and imageability, and a recently-developed measure called semantic diversity. This measure quantifies the degree to which a word can be used in a broad range of different linguistic contexts. We used this measure in a formal exploration of the tendency for SD patients to replace specific terms with more vague and general words, on the assumption that more specific words are used in a more constrained set of contexts. Relative to healthy controls, patients were less likely to produce low-frequency, high-imageability words, and more likely to produce highly frequent, abstract words. These changes in the lexical-semantic landscape were related to semantic diversity: the highly frequent and abstract words most prevalent in the patients' speech were also the most semantically diverse. In fact, when the speech samples of healthy controls were artificially engineered such that low semantic diversity words (e.g., garage, spanner) were replaced with broader terms (e.g., place, thing), the characteristics of their speech production came to closely resemble that of SD patients. A similar simulation in which low-frequency words were replaced was less successful in replicating the patient data. These findings indicate systematic biases in the deterioration of lexical-semantic space in SD. As conceptual knowledge degrades, speech increasingly consists of general terms that can be applied in a broad range of linguistic contexts and convey less specific information. PMID:23261549

Hoffman, Paul; Meteyard, Lotte; Patterson, Karalyn

2014-06-01

364

Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program properties, or to use the analysis information for code modifications. Semanticsbased program manipulation addresses methods for program modifications and program analyses that are formally defined and therefore can be verified with respect to the programming-language semantics. This dissertation comprises four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect to parts of their input that are already known: Computations that depend only on known input are carried out during partial evaluation, whereas computations that depend on unknown input give rise to residual code. For example, partially evaluating an interpreter with respect to a program written in the interpreted language yields code that carries out the computations described by that program; partial evaluation is used to remove interpretive overhead. In effect, the partial evaluator serves as a compiler from the interpreted language into the implementation language of the interpreter. Compilation by partial evaluation is known as the first Futamura projection. The second and third Futamura projection describe the use of partial evaluation for compiler generation and compiler-generator generation, respectively; both require the partial evaluator that is employed to be self applicable. The first article in this dissertation describes how the second Futamura projection can be achieved for type-directed partial evaluation (TDPE), a relatively recent approach to partial evaluation: We derive an ML implementation of the second Futamura projection for TDPE. Due to the differences between ‘traditional’, syntax-directed partial evaluation and TDPE, this derivation involves several conceptual and technical steps. These include a suitable formulation of the second Futamura projection and techniques for making TDPE amenable to self-application. In the second article, compilation by partial evaluation plays a central role for giving a unified approach to goal-directed evaluation, a programminglanguage paradigm that is built on the notions of backtracking and of gener- ating successive results. Formulating the semantics of a small goal-directed language as a monadic semantics—a generic approach to structuring denotational semantics—allows us to relate various possible semantics to each other both conceptually and formally. We thus are able to explain goal-directed evaluation using an intuitive list-based semantics, while using a continuation semantics for semantics-based compilation through partial evaluation. The resulting code is comparable to that produced by an optimized compiler described in the literature. The third article revisits one of the success stories of partial evaluation, the generation of efficient string matchers from intuitive but inefficient implementations. The basic idea is that specializing a naive string matcher with respect to a pattern string should result in a matcher that searches a text for this pattern with running time independent of the pattern and linear in the length of the text. In order to succeed with basic partial-evaluation techniques, the naive matcher has to be modified in a non-trivial way, carrying out so-called binding-time improvements. We present a step-by-step derivation of a binding-time improved matcher consisting of one problem-dependent step followed by standard binding-time improvements. We also consider several variants of matchers that specialize well, amongst them the first such matcher presented in the literature, and we demonstrate howvariants can be derived from each other systema

Grobauer, Bernt

2001-01-01

365

Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural language semantics in linguistics and in philosophy and logic. With Montague as a central but not solo player in the story, I reflect on crucial developments in the 1960's and 70's in linguistics and philosophy, and the growth of formal semantics and formal pragmatics from there. I discuss innovations, key players, and leading ideas that shaped the development of formal semantics and its relation to syntax, to pragmatics, and to the philosophy of language in its early years, and some central aspects of its early impact on those fields.ReferencesAbbott, B. 1999. ‘The formal approach to meaning: Formal semantics and its recent developments’. Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai119, no. 1: 2–20. https://www.msu.edu/~abbottb/formal.htm.Ajdukiewicz, K. 1960. Je¸zyk i Poznanie (Language and Knowledge. Warsaw.Bach, E. 1968. ‘Nouns and Noun Phrases’. In E. Bach & R.T. Harms (eds. ‘Universals in Linguistic Theory’, 90–122. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Bach, E. 1989. Informal Lectures on Formal Semantics. New York: State University of New York Press.Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954a. ‘Logical syntax and semantics’. Language 30: 230–237.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410265Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954b. ‘Indexical Expressions’. Mind 63: 359–379.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/LXIII.251.359Bar-Hillel, Y. 1963. ‘Remarks on Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language’. In P. A. Schilpp (ed. ‘The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap’, 519–543. LaSalle, Illinois / London: Open Court / Cambridge University Press.Barker, C. & Jacobson, P. (eds.. 2007. Direct Compositionality. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Bernstein, L. 1976. The unanswered question: six talks at Harvard: The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures 1973. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Bohnert, H. & Backer, P. 1967. ‘Automatic English-to-Logic Translation in a Simplified Model: A Study in the Logic of Grammar’. IBM Research Paper RC-1744. Yorktown Heights, NY: IBM.Burris, S. 2009. ‘The Algebra of Logic tradition’. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 Edition, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Stanford: Stanford University.http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2009/entries/algebra-logic-tradition/.Carnap, R. 1928. Der logische aufbau der welt. Berlin-Schlachtensee: Weltkreisverlag.Carnap, R. 1946. ‘Modalities and quantification’. The Journal of Symbolic Logic 11.2: 33–64.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2268610Carnap, R. 1947. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.Carnap, R. 1956. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. 2nd edition with supplements. Chicago: Phoenix Books, University of Chicago Press.Carnap, R. & Smeaton, A. 1937. The logical syntax of language: International library of psychology, philosophy and scientific method. London: Routledge & K. Paul Ltd.Chierchia, G. & McConnell-Ginet, S. 1990. Meaning and Grammar. An Introduction to Semantics. Cambridge: MIT Press.Chomsky, N. 1955. ‘Logical syntax and semantics: their linguistic relevance’. Language 31: 36–45.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410891Chomsky, N. 1957. Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.Chomsky, N. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Chomsky, N. 1971. ‘Deep structure, surface structure, and semantic interpretation’. In D. Steinberg & L. Jakobovits (eds. ‘Semantics: An Interdisciplinary Reader in Philosophy, Linguistics, and Psychology’, 183–216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Chomsky, N. 1975. ‘Questions of

Barbara H. Partee

2010-12-01

366

It takes time to prime: semantic priming in the ocular lexical decision task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted in which the manual response mode typically used in lexical decision tasks (LDTs) was replaced with an eye-movement response through a sequence of 3 words. This ocular LDT combines the explicit control of task goals found in LDTs with the highly practiced ocular response used in reading text. In Experiment 1, forward saccades indicated an affirmative lexical decision (LD) on each word in the triplet. In Experiment 2, LD responses were delayed until all 3 letter strings had been read. The goal of the study was to evaluate the contribution of task goals and response mode to semantic priming. Semantic priming is very robust in tasks that involve recognition of words in isolation, such as LDT, but limited during text reading, as measured using eye movements. Gaze durations in both experiments showed robust semantic priming even though ocular response times were much shorter than manual LDs for the same words in the English Lexicon Project. Ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the priming effect was concentrated in estimates of tau (?), meaning that priming was most pronounced in the slow tail of the distribution. This pattern shows differential use of the prime information, which may be more heavily recruited in cases in which the LD is difficult, as indicated by longer response times. Compared with the manual LD responses, ocular LDs provide a more sensitive measure of this task-related influence on word recognition as measured by the LDT. PMID:25181368

Hoedemaker, Renske S; Gordon, Peter C

2014-12-01

367

Action semantics and movement characteristics engage distinct processing streams during the observation of tool use.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cortical motor system follows a modular organization in which different features of executed movements are supported by distinct streams. Accordingly, different levels of action recognition, such as movement characteristics or action semantics may be processed within distinct networks. The present study aimed to differentiate areas related to the analysis of action features involving semantic knowledge from regions concerned with the evaluation of movement characteristics determined by structural object properties. To this end, the assessment of (i) tool-associated actions in relation to semantically, but not functionally inappropriate recipients (factor "Semantics"), and the evaluation of (ii) tool-associated movements performed with awkward versus correct hand postures (factor "Hand") were experimentally manipulated in an fMRI study with an event-related 2 × 2 factorial design. The videos used as stimuli displayed actions performed with the right hand in third-person perspective. Conjunction analysis of all four experimental conditions showed that observing videos depicting tool-related actions compared to rest was associated with widespread bilateral activity within the frontal lobes, inferior and superior parietal lobules, parts of the temporal lobes, as well as the occipital lobes. Viewing actions executed with incorrect compared to correct hand postures (factor "Hand") elicited significantly more activity within right primary sensory cortex (Brodmann area 2) and superior parietal lobule. Conversely, tool-associated actions displayed after semantically incorrect compared to correct recipients elicited higher activation within a left-lateralized network comprising the ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), parts of the intraparietal sulcus and the angular gyrus (AG), as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography revealed two distinct fiber connections between AG and the frontal activation: A dorsal pathway via the superior longitudinal fascicle to the caudal part of VLPFC and a ventral pathway reaching the more rostral parts of VLPFC via the extreme capsule. The task-dependent relative modulation of activity within these brain networks composed of activated cortical areas connected by specific white matter tracts may indicate that the assessment of semantic action features relies on both dorso-ventral and ventral processing streams, whereas the analysis of hand postures with respect to objects depends on areas within the dorso-dorsal stream. PMID:23811729

Hoeren, Markus; Kaller, Christoph P; Glauche, Volkmar; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Rijntjes, Michel; Hamzei, Farsin; Weiller, Cornelius

2013-08-01

368

Semantic role labeling for protein transport predicates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic semantic role labeling (SRL is a natural language processing (NLP technique that maps sentences to semantic representations. This technique has been widely studied in the recent years, but mostly with data in newswire domains. Here, we report on a SRL model for identifying the semantic roles of biomedical predicates describing protein transport in GeneRIFs – manually curated sentences focusing on gene functions. To avoid the computational cost of syntactic parsing, and because the boundaries of our protein transport roles often did not match up with syntactic phrase boundaries, we approached this problem with a word-chunking paradigm and trained support vector machine classifiers to classify words as being at the beginning, inside or outside of a protein transport role. Results We collected a set of 837 GeneRIFs describing movements of proteins between cellular components, whose predicates were annotated for the semantic roles AGENT, PATIENT, ORIGIN and DESTINATION. We trained these models with the features of previous word-chunking models, features adapted from phrase-chunking models, and features derived from an analysis of our data. Our models were able to label protein transport semantic roles with 87.6% precision and 79.0% recall when using manually annotated protein boundaries, and 87.0% precision and 74.5% recall when using automatically identified ones. Conclusion We successfully adapted the word-chunking classification paradigm to semantic role labeling, applying it to a new domain with predicates completely absent from any previous studies. By combining the traditional word and phrasal role labeling features with biomedical features like protein boundaries and MEDPOST part of speech tags, we were able to address the challenges posed by the new domain data and subsequently build robust models that achieved F-measures as high as 83.1. This system for extracting protein transport information from GeneRIFs performs well even with proteins identified automatically, and is therefore more robust than the rule-based methods previously used to extract protein transport roles.

Martin James H

2008-06-01

369

Magmatic Differentiation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity students will examine magmatic differentiation processes using various items that I have provided. In groups they will use these random objects to design a model that can be used to demonstrate one of the magmatic differentiation processes. Each group will present their model, along with an explaination of the process, to the class. Students have one class period to prepare their models and explanations of the differentiation process assigned to them. They present these during the next class period.

Tasha Dunn

370

Opposing effects of semantic diversity in lexical and semantic relatedness decisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic ambiguity has often been divided into 2 forms: homonymy, referring to words with 2 unrelated interpretations (e.g., bark), and polysemy, referring to words associated with a number of varying but semantically linked uses (e.g., twist). Typically, polysemous words are thought of as having a fixed number of discrete definitions, or "senses," with each use of the word corresponding to one of its senses. In this study, we investigated an alternative conception of polysemy, based on the idea that polysemous variation in meaning is a continuous, graded phenomenon that occurs as a function of contextual variation in word usage. We quantified this contextual variation using semantic diversity (SemD), a corpus-based measure of the degree to which a particular word is used in a diverse set of linguistic contexts. In line with other approaches to polysemy, we found a reaction time (RT) advantage for high SemD words in lexical decision, which occurred for words of both high and low imageability. When participants made semantic relatedness decisions to word pairs, however, responses were slower to high SemD pairs, irrespective of whether these were related or unrelated. Again, this result emerged irrespective of the imageability of the word. The latter result diverges from previous findings using homonyms, in which ambiguity effects have only been found for related word pairs. We argue that participants were slower to respond to high SemD words because their high contextual variability resulted in noisy, underspecified semantic representations that were more difficult to compare with one another. We demonstrated this principle in a connectionist computational model that was trained to activate distributed semantic representations from orthographic inputs. Greater variability in the orthography-to-semantic mappings of high SemD words resulted in a lower degree of similarity for related pairs of this type. At the same time, the representations of high SemD unrelated pairs were less distinct from one another. In addition, the model demonstrated more rapid semantic activation for high SemD words, thought to underpin the processing advantage in lexical decision. These results support the view that polysemous variation in word meaning can be conceptualized in terms of graded variation in distributed semantic representations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25751041

Hoffman, Paul; Woollams, Anna M

2015-04-01

371

Opposing Effects of Semantic Diversity in Lexical and Semantic Relatedness Decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic ambiguity has often been divided into 2 forms: homonymy, referring to words with 2 unrelated interpretations (e.g., bark), and polysemy, referring to words associated with a number of varying but semantically linked uses (e.g., twist). Typically, polysemous words are thought of as having a fixed number of discrete definitions, or “senses,” with each use of the word corresponding to one of its senses. In this study, we investigated an alternative conception of polysemy, based on the idea that polysemous variation in meaning is a continuous, graded phenomenon that occurs as a function of contextual variation in word usage. We quantified this contextual variation using semantic diversity (SemD), a corpus-based measure of the degree to which a particular word is used in a diverse set of linguistic contexts. In line with other approaches to polysemy, we found a reaction time (RT) advantage for high SemD words in lexical decision, which occurred for words of both high and low imageability. When participants made semantic relatedness decisions to word pairs, however, responses were slower to high SemD pairs, irrespective of whether these were related or unrelated. Again, this result emerged irrespective of the imageability of the word. The latter result diverges from previous findings using homonyms, in which ambiguity effects have only been found for related word pairs. We argue that participants were slower to respond to high SemD words because their high contextual variability resulted in noisy, underspecified semantic representations that were more difficult to compare with one another. We demonstrated this principle in a connectionist computational model that was trained to activate distributed semantic representations from orthographic inputs. Greater variability in the orthography-to-semantic mappings of high SemD words resulted in a lower degree of similarity for related pairs of this type. At the same time, the representations of high SemD unrelated pairs were less distinct from one another. In addition, the model demonstrated more rapid semantic activation for high SemD words, thought to underpin the processing advantage in lexical decision. These results support the view that polysemous variation in word meaning can be conceptualized in terms of graded variation in distributed semantic representations. PMID:25751041

2015-01-01

372

Differential manifolds  

CERN Document Server

The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho

Kosinski, Antoni A

2013-01-01

373

Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD. Five short neuropsychological tests sensitive to semantic memory and easily applicable in routine practice were administered to 102 patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score above 19), 22 predementia AD patients and 58 healthy subjects. 'Category fluency' and 'naming of famous faces' were the most frequently impaired tests in both patient groups. The study demonstrated that impairments on semantically related tests are common in mild AD and may exist prior to the clinical diagnosis. The results imply that assessment of semantic memory is relevant in the evaluation of patients with suspected AD.

Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders

2005-01-01

374

LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-29

375

GIS information organization based on the Semantic Geospatial Web  

Science.gov (United States)

People typically use geographic names instead of coordinates to find geographic information on the web through a search engine. But the current keyword-based web search engines are poorly adapted to help people find information that relates to a particular geographic name, because they don't incorporate the geospatial semantic during the search process. The Semantic Web is a new semantic-based information-retrieval environment. We propose the information organization framework of the GIS semantic data according to the architecture of the Semantic Web, that is, the ontology, the metadata and the data source. Then we deal with the organization of the semantic data based on the three-layered framework respectively. As a focus, we present a novel method to disambiguate geographical name based on the ontology of the place.

Li, Shuxia; Su, Xuming; Li, Ke

2008-10-01

376

Algorithm to Match Ontologies on the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been recognized that semantic data and knowledge extraction will significantly improve the capability of natural language interfaces to the semantic search engine. Semantic Web technology offers a vast scale of sharing and integration of distributed data sources by combining information easily. This will enable the user to find the information easily and efficiently. In this paper, we will explore some issues of developing algorithms for the Semantic Web. The first one to build the semantic contextual meaning by scanning the text, extract knowledge and automatically infer the meaning of the information from text that contains the search words in any sentence and correlate with hierarchical classes defined in the Ontology as a result of input resources. The second to discover the hierarchical relationships among terms (i.e. discover the semantic relations across hierarchical classifications. The proposed algorithm will be relying on a number of resources including Ontology and WordNet.

Alaa Qassim Al-Namiy

2013-04-01

377

Understanding Semantic Web and Ontologies: Theory and Applications  

CERN Document Server

Semantic Web is actually an extension of the current one in that it represents information more meaningfully for humans and computers alike. It enables the description of contents and services in machine-readable form, and enables annotating, discovering, publishing, advertising and composing services to be automated. It was developed based on Ontology, which is considered as the backbone of the Semantic Web. In other words, the current Web is transformed from being machine-readable to machine-understandable. In fact, Ontology is a key technique with which to annotate semantics and provide a common, comprehensible foundation for resources on the Semantic Web. Moreover, Ontology can provide a common vocabulary, a grammar for publishing data, and can supply a semantic description of data which can be used to preserve the Ontologies and keep them ready for inference. This paper provides basic concepts of web services and the Semantic Web, defines the structure and the main applications of ontology, and provides ...

Taye, Mohammad Mustafa

2010-01-01

378

SemanticEye: a semantic web application to rationalize and enhance chemical electronic publishing.  

Science.gov (United States)

SemanticEye, an ontology with associated tools, improves the classification and open accessibility of chemical information in electronic publishing. In a manner analogous to digital music management, RDF metadata encoded as Adobe XMP can be extracted from a variety of document formats, such as PDF, and managed in an RDF repository called Sesame. Users upload electronic documents containing XMP to a central server by "dropping" them into WebDAV folders. The documents can then be navigated in a Web browser via their metadata, and multiple documents containing identical metadata can then be aggregated. SemanticEye does not actually store any documents. By including unique identifiers within the XMP, such as the DOI, associated documents can be retrieved from the Web with the help of resolving agents. The power of this metadata driven approach is illustrated by including, within the XMP, InChI identifiers for molecular structures and finding relationships between articles based on their InChIs. SemanticEye will become increasingly more comprehensive as usage becomes more widespread. Furthermore, following the Semantic Web architecture enables the reuse of open software tools, provides a "semantically intuitive" alternative to search engines, and fosters a greater sense of trust in Web-based scientific information. PMID:17125182

Casher, Omer; Rzepa, Henry S

2006-01-01

379

Lost for emotion words: what motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view 'emotion actions' as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstract verbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed. PMID:25278250

Moseley, Rachel L; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2015-01-01

380

Lost for emotion words : What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view 'emotion actions' as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstractverbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion-word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed.

Moseley, Rachel L; Shtyrov, Yury

2014-01-01

381

Experience of Developing a Meta-Semantic Search Engine  

OpenAIRE

Thinking of todays web search scenario which is mainly keyword based, leads to the need of effective and meaningful search provided by Semantic Web. Existing search engines are vulnerable to provide relevant answers to users query due to their dependency on simple data available in web pages. On other hand, semantic search engines provide efficient and relevant results as the semantic web manages information with well defined meaning using ontology. A Meta-Search engine is a...

Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti; Sharma, Manoj; Joshi, Gajanan; Pagare, Trupti; Palwe, Adarsha

2013-01-01

382

A conceptual framework for semantic web services development and deployment  

OpenAIRE

Several extensions of theWeb Services Framework have been proposed. The combination with Semantic Web technologies introduces a notion of semantics, which can enhance scalability through automation of service development and deployment. Ontology technology – the core of the Semantic Web – can be the central building block of this endeavour. We present a conceptual framework for ontology-based Web service development and deployment. We show how ontologies can integrate models, langua...

Pahl, Claus

2005-01-01

383

A conceptual architecture for semantic web services development and deployment  

OpenAIRE

Several extensions of the Web Services Framework (WSF) have been proposed. The combination with Semantic Web technologies introduces a notion of semantics, which can enhance scalability through automation. Service composition to processes is an equally important issue. Ontology technology – the core of the Semantic Web – can be the central building block of an extension endeavour. We present a conceptual architecture for ontology-based Web service development and deployment. The developme...

Pahl, Claus

2005-01-01

384

Semantic Information Retrieval Based on Fuzzy Ontology for Electronic Commerce  

OpenAIRE

Information retrieval is the important work for Electronic Commerce. Ontology-based semantic retrieval is a hotspot of current research. In order to achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper applies a fuzzy ontology framework to information retrieval system in E-Commerce. The framework includes three parts: concepts, properties of concepts and values of properties, in which property’s value can be either standard data types or linguistic values of fuzzy concepts. The semantic query expan...

Jun Zhai; Yiduo Liang; Yi Yu; Jiatao Jiang

2008-01-01

385

Semantic conflict resolution for integration of business components  

OpenAIRE

Reusing and integrating Business Components in a new Information System requires detection and resolution of semantic conflicts. Moreover, most of integration and semantic conflict resolution systems rely on ontology alignment methods based on domain ontology. This work is positioned at the intersection of two research areas: Integration of reusable B C and alignment of ontologies for semantic conflict resolution. Our contribution concerns both the proposal of a BC integrati...

Kzaz, Larbi; Elasri, Hicham; Sekkaki, Abderrahim

2011-01-01

386

Beyond Definition: Organising Semantic Information in Bilingual Dictionaries  

OpenAIRE

This paper considers the process of organising semantic information in bilingual dictionaries with diachronic coverage, from selecting the textual source-material to designing the entries. The discussion centres on practical aspects of ancient Greek lexicography. First, the traditional semantic frameworks are described. Then, more recent approaches are noted, notably those of Adrados and of Chadwick, both of which aim to integrate contextual data within a semantic framework. Since the relevan...

Fraser, Bruce L.

2008-01-01

387

VPOET: Using a Distributed Collaborative Platform for Semantic Web Applications  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes a distributed collaborative wiki-based platform that has been designed to facilitate the development of Semantic Web applications. The applications designed using this platform are able to build semantic data through the cooperation of different developers and to exploit that semantic data. The paper shows a practical case study on the application VPOET, and how an application based on Google Gadgets has been designed to test VPOET and let human users ex...

Rico, Mariano; Camacho, David; Corcho, O?scar

2008-01-01

388

Knowledge-Guided Semantic Indexing of Breast Cancer Histopathology Images  

OpenAIRE

Narrowing the semantic gap represents one of the most outstanding challenges in medical image analysis and indexing. This paper introduces a medical knowledge – guided paradigm for semantic indexing of histopathology images, applied to breast cancer grading (BCG). Our method improves pathologists' current manual procedures consistency by employing a semantic indexing technique, according to a rule-based decision system related to Nottingham BCG system. The challenge is to move from the medi...

Tutac, Adina; Racoceanu, Daniel; Putti, Thomas; Xiong, Wei; Leow, Wee-kheng; Cretu, Vladimir

2008-01-01

389

Semantic Indexing and Retrieval based on Formal Concept Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Semantic indexing and retrieval has become an important research area, as the available amount of information on the Web is growing more and more. In this paper, we introduce an original approach to semantic indexing and retrieval based on Formal Concept Analysis. The concept lattice is used as a semantic index and we propose an original algorithm for traversing the lattice and answering user queries. This framework has been used and evaluated on song datasets.

Codocedo, Victor; Lykourentzou, Ioanna; Napoli, Amedeo

2012-01-01

390

Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence  

OpenAIRE

Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solutio...

Airinei, Dinu; Berta, Dora-anca

2012-01-01

391

Transforming and Enriching Documents for the Semantic Web  

OpenAIRE

We suggest to employ techniques from Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Knowledge Representation (KR) to transform existing documents into documents amenable for the Semantic Web. Semantic Web documents have at least part of their semantics and pragmatics marked up explicitly in both a machine processable as well as human readable manner. XML and its related standards (XSLT, RDF, Topic Maps etc.) are the unifying platform for the tools and methodologies developed for diff...

Roesner, Dietmar; Kunze, Manuela; Kroetzsch, Sylke

2005-01-01

392

Shared Features Dominate Semantic Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts  

OpenAIRE

When asked to list semantic features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many semantic features are processed faster in lexical and semantic decision tasks (Pexman, Holyk, & Monfils, 2003; Pexman, Lupker, & Hino, 2002). Using both lexical and concreteness decision tasks, we provided further insight into these number-of-features (NoF) effects. We began by replicating the effect using a larger and better controlled set of it...

Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J.; Mcrae, Ken

2009-01-01

393

Knowledge Is Power: A View from the Semantic Web  

OpenAIRE

The emerging Semantic Web focuses on bringing knowledge representationlike capabilities to Web applications in a Web-friendly way. The ability to put knowledge on the Web, share it, and reuse it through standard Web mechanisms provides new and interesting challenges to artificial intelligence. In this paper, I explore the similarities and differences between the Semantic Web and traditional AI knowledge representation systems, and see if I can validate the analogy "The Semantic Web is to KR a...

Hendler, James A.

2005-01-01

394

Examining the landscape of semantic similarity based mutation  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines how the semantic locality of a search operator affects the fitness landscape of Genetic Programming (GP). We compare the fitness landscapes of GP search when standard subtree mutation and a recently proposed semantic-based mutation, Semantic Similarity-based Mutation (SSM), are used. The comparison is based on two well-studied fitness landscape measures, namely, the autocorrelation function and information content. The experiments were conducted on a family of symbolic reg...

Nguyen, Quang Uy; Nguyen, Xuan Hoai; O Neill, Michael

2011-01-01

395

The anatomy of semantic knowledge: Medial vs. lateral temporal lobe  

OpenAIRE

Semantic knowledge (e.g., long-established knowledge about objects, facts, and word meanings) is known to be severely impaired by damage to the anterolateral temporal lobe. For example, patients with semantic dementia have prominent atrophy in anterolateral temporal cortex and also have significant damage within the medial aspect of the temporal lobe. However, there is uncertainty about the contribution of medial temporal lobe damage, including perirhinal cortex damage, to impaired semantic k...

Levy, D. A.; Bayley, P. J.; Squire, L. R.

2004-01-01

396

Annotating Words Using WordNet Semantic Glosses  

OpenAIRE

An approach to the word sense disambiguation (WSD) relaying on the WordNet synsets is proposed. The method uses semantically tagged glosses to perform a process similar to the spreading activation in semantic network, creating ranking of the most probable meanings for word annotation. Preliminary evaluation shows quite promising results. Comparison with the state-of-theart WSD methods indicates that the use of WordNet relations and semantically tagged glosses should enhance ...

Duch, W?odzis?aw; Szyman?ski, Julian

2012-01-01

397

Global semantic typing for inductive and coinductive computing  

OpenAIRE

Inductive and coinductive types are commonly construed as ontological (Church-style) types, denoting canonical data-sets such as natural numbers, lists, and streams. For various purposes, notably the study of programs in the context of global semantics, it is preferable to think of types as semantical properties (Curry-style). Intrinsic theories were introduced in the late 1990s to provide a purely logical framework for reasoning about programs and their semantic types. We...

Leivant, Daniel

2013-01-01

398

A Semantic Medical Multimedia Retrieval Approach Using Ontology Information Hiding  

OpenAIRE

Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of ...

Kehua Guo; Shigeng Zhang

2013-01-01

399

Semantic Web Based Efficient Search Using Ontology and Mathematical Model  

OpenAIRE

The semantic web is the forthcoming technology in the world of search engine. It becomes mainly focused towards the search which is more meaningful rather than the syntactic search prevailing now. This proposed work concerns about the semantic search with respect to the educational domain. In this paper, we propose semantic web based efficient search using ontology and mathematical model that takes into account the misleading, unmatched kind of service information, lack of relevant domain ...

Palaniammal, K.; Vijayalakshmi, Dr S.

2014-01-01

400

Formal Description of Resources for Ontology-based Semantic Annotation  

OpenAIRE

Ontology-based semantic annotation aims at putting fragments of a text in correspondence with proper elements of an ontology such that the formal semantics encoded by the ontology can be exploited to represent text interpretation. In this paper, we formalize a resource for this goal. The main difficulty in achieving good semantic annotations consists in identifying fragments to be annotated and labels to be associated with them. To this end, our approach takes advantage of standard web ontolo...

Ma, Yue; Nazarenko, Adeline; Audibert, Laurent

2010-01-01

401

Ontology-based Semantic Interoperability among Heterogeneous CAD Systems  

OpenAIRE

Because the different CAD systems use different concepts, attributes and relations to store data model, it is difficult to implement semantic interoperability among heterogeneous CAD systems. In this study, the Feature Command Ontology Model (FCOM) which is established, includes a number of Neutral Semantic Feature Commands (NSFCs) corresponding to the basic modeling operations of CAD systems. The FCOM which has explicit ontological semantics, provides the uniform representation of heterogene...

Li-juan Sun; Bo Ding

2010-01-01

402

Development of an e-learning system incorporating semantic web  

OpenAIRE

E-Learning is efficient, task relevant and just-in-time learning grown from the learning requirements of the new and dynamically changing world. The term Semantic Web covers the steps to create a new WWW architecture that augments the content with formal semantics enabling better possibilities of navigation through the cyberspace and its contents. In this paper, we present the Semantic Web-Based model for our e-learning system taking into account the learning environment at ...

Khurram Naim Shamsi; Zafar Iqbal Khan

2012-01-01

403

Rule-Based Semantic Tagging. An Application Undergoing Dictionary Glosses  

OpenAIRE

The project presented in this article aims to formalize criteria and procedures in order to extract semantic information from parsed dictionary glosses. The actual purpose of the project is the generation of a semantic network (nearly an ontology) issued from a monolingual Italian dictionary, through unsupervised procedures. Since the project involves rule-based Parsing, Semantic Tagging and Word Sense Disambiguation techniques, its outcomes may find an interest also beyond ...

Christen, Daniel

2013-01-01

404

ERP measures of semantic richness: the case of multiple senses  

OpenAIRE

Semantic richness refers to the amount of semantic information that a lexical item possesses. An important measure of semantic richness is the number of related senses that a word has (e.g., TABLE meaning a piece of furniture, a table of contents, to lay aside for future discussion, etc.). We measured electrophysiological response to lexical items with many and few related senses in monolingual English-speaking young adults. Participants performed lexical decision on each item. Overall, high-...

VanessaTaler

2013-01-01

405

A Chart-Parsing Algorithm for Efficient Semantic Analysis  

OpenAIRE

In some contexts, well-formed natural language cannot be expected as input to information or communication systems. In these contexts, the use of grammar-independent input (sequences of uninflected semantic units like e.g. language-independent icons) can be an answer to the users' needs. A semantic analysis can be performed, based on lexical semantic knowledge: it is equivalent to a dependency analysis with no syntactic or morphological clues. However, this requires that an ...

Vaillant, Pascal

2002-01-01

406

Complexity metrics to quantify semantic accuracy in segmented Landsat images  

OpenAIRE

This paper addresses semantic accuracy in relation to images obtained with remote sensing. Semantic accuracy is defined in terms of map complexity. Complexity metrics are applied as a metric to measure complexity. The idea is that a homogeneous map of a low complexity is of a high semantic accuracy. In this study, complexity metrics like aggregation index, fragmentation index and patch size are applied on two images with different objectives, one from an agricultural area in the Netherlands, ...

Stein, A.; Beurs, K.

2005-01-01

407

Personal Semantic Web Through A Space Based Computing Environment  

CERN Document Server

The Semantic Web through technologies such to support the canonical representation information and presenting it to users in a method by which its meaning can be understood or at least communi- cated and interpreted by all parties. As the Semantic Web evolves into more of a computing platform rather than an information platform more dynamic structures, interactions and behaviours will evolve leading to systems which localise and personalise this Dynamic Semantic Web.

Oliver, Ian

2008-01-01

408

Auditing the Unified Medical Language System with Semantic Methods  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective: The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) includes a Metathesaurus (Meta), which is a compilation of medical terms drawn from over 30 controlled vocabularies, and a Semantic Net, which contains the semantic types used to categorize Meta concepts and the semantic relations to connect them. Meta has been constructed through lexical matching techniques and human review. The purpose of this study was to audit the Me...

Cimino, James J.

1998-01-01

409

Analysis of Semantic Networks using Complex Networks Concepts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of semantic networks to determine the most important terms that could be used to optimize a summarization task. In our experiments, we measure how the properties of a semantic network change, when the terms in the network are removed. Our preliminary results indicate that this approach provides good results on the semantic network analyzed in this paper.

Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel

2013-01-01

410

Serelex: Search and Visualization of Semantically Related Words  

OpenAIRE

We present a system which provides, given a query, a list of semantically related terms. The terms are ranked accordingly to an original semantic similarity measure learned from a huge corpus. The system performs comparably to dictionary-based baselines with no need of any semantic resource such as WordNet. The further study shows that users are completely satisfied with 70% of query results.

Panchenko, Alexander; Fairon, Ce?drick; Naets, Hubert; Morozova, Olga; 35th European Conference on Information Retrieval

2013-01-01

411

Information Retrieval Based on Semantic Similarity Using Information Content  

OpenAIRE

Evaluating semantic similarity of concepts is a problem that has been extensively investigated in the literature in different areas, such as artificial intelligence, cognitive science, databases and software engineering. Semantic similarity relates to computing the similarity between conceptually similar but not necessarily lexically similar terms. Currently, it is growing in importance in different settings, such as digital libraries, heterogeneous databases and in particular the Semantic We...

Kishor Wagh; Satish Kolhe

2011-01-01

412

Semantics-based Access Control Approach for Web Service  

OpenAIRE

Due to the open and distributed characteristics of web service, its access control becomes a challenging problem which has not been addressed properly. In this paper, we show how semantic web technologies can be used to build a flexible access control system for web service. We follow the Role-based Access Control model and extend it with credential attributes. The access control model is represented by a semantic ontology, and specific semantic rules are constructed to implement such as dyna...

Zhengqiu He; Lifa Wu; Huabo Li; Haiguang Lai; Zheng Hong

2011-01-01

413

Combination Strategies for Semantic Role Labeling  

CERN Document Server

This paper introduces and analyzes a battery of inference models for the problem of semantic role labeling: one based on constraint satisfaction, and several strategies that model the inference as a meta-learning problem using discriminative classifiers. These classifiers are developed with a rich set of novel features that encode proposition and sentence-level information. To our knowledge, this is the first work that: (a) performs a thorough analysis of learning-based inference models for semantic role labeling, and (b) compares several inference strategies in this context. We evaluate the proposed inference strategies in the framework of the CoNLL-2005 shared task using only automatically-generated syntactic information. The extensive experimental evaluation and analysis indicates that all the proposed inference strategies are successful -they all outperform the current best results reported in the CoNLL-2005 evaluation exercise- but each of the proposed approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. Sev...

Carreras, X; Marquez, L; Surdeanu, M; 10.1613/jair.2088

2011-01-01

414

Grounded Semantic Composition for Visual Scenes  

CERN Document Server

We present a visually-grounded language understanding model based on a study of how people verbally describe objects in scenes. The emphasis of the model is on the combination of individual word meanings to produce meanings for complex referring expressions. The model has been implemented, and it is able to understand a broad range of spatial referring expressions. We describe our implementation of word level visually-grounded semantics and their embedding in a compositional parsing framework. The implemented system selects the correct referents in response to natural language expressions for a large percentage of test cases. In an analysis of the system's successes and failures we reveal how visual context influences the semantics of utterances and propose future extensions to the model that take such context into account.

Gorniak, P; 10.1613/jair.1327

2011-01-01

415

A Compositional Semantics for Stochastic Reo Connectors  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present a compositional semantics for the channel-based coordination language Reo which enables the analysis of quality of service (QoS) properties of service compositions. For this purpose, we annotate Reo channels with stochastic delay rates and explicitly model data-arrival rates at the boundary of a connector, to capture its interaction with the services that comprise its environment. We propose Stochastic Reo automata as an extension of Reo automata, in order to compositionally derive a QoS-aware semantics for Reo. We further present a translation of Stochastic Reo automata to Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). This translation enables us to use third-party CTMC verification tools to do an end-to-end performance analysis of service compositions.

Moon, Young-Joo; Krause, Christian; Arbab, Farhad; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.7

2010-01-01

416

A Framework for Semantic Map Construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper proposes a framework for building a semantic map for indoor environment using a mobile robot. The framework includes five main modules which are: 1 Raw and spatial data acquisition module, 2Steering and exploration module, 3Information detection and extraction module, 4Semantic knowledge mapping module and 5 High level task planner interface. The framework will be implemented on the ATRV-Mini robot. A simulation and control environment has been developed for this purpose. The steering and exploration module and the tasks responsible for the spatial data acquisition using sonar sensors and constructing a sonar occupancy map have been developed. The simulation results showed that the ATRV-mini robot is capable of learning metric maps of potential navigation areas.

Basem Ibrahim

2012-09-01

417

Biomedical Literature Exploration through Latent Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast increasing amount of articles published in the biomedical field is creating difficulties in the way this wealth of information can be efficiently exploited by researchers. As a way of overcoming these limitations and potentiating a more efficient use of the literature, we propose an approach for structuring the results of a literature search based on the latent semantic information extracted from a corpus. Moreover, we show how the results of the Latent Semantic Analysis method can be adapted so as to evidence differences between results of different searches. We also propose different visualization techniques that can be applied to explore these results. Used in combination, these techniques could empower users with tools for literature guided knowledge exploration and discovery.

Sérgio MATOS

2013-08-01

418

Semantic Advertising for Web 3.0  

Science.gov (United States)

Advertising on the World Wide Web is based around automatically matching web pages with appropriate advertisements, in the form of banner ads, interactive adverts, or text links. Traditionally this has been done by manual classification of pages, or more recently using information retrieval techniques to find the most important keywords from the page, and match these to keywords being used by adverts. In this paper, we propose a new model for online advertising, based around lightweight embedded semantics. This will improve the relevancy of adverts on the World Wide Web and help to kick-start the use of RDFa as a mechanism for adding lightweight semantic attributes to the Web. Furthermore, we propose a system architecture for the proposed new model, based on our scalable ontology reasoning infrastructure TrOWL.

Thomas, Edward; Pan, Jeff Z.; Taylor, Stuart; Ren, Yuan; Jekjantuk, Nophadol; Zhao, Yuting

419

Congenital blindness improves semantic and episodic memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies reported that congenitally blind people possess superior verb-generation skills. Here we tested the impact of blindness on capacity and the fidelity of semantic memory by using a false memory paradigm. In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, participants study lists of words that are all semantically related to a lure that is not presented. Subsequently, participants frequently recall the missing lure. We found that congenitally blind participants have enhanced memory performance for recalling the presented words and reduced false memories for the lure. The dissociation of memory capacity and fidelity provides further evidence for enhanced verbal ability in the blind, supported by their broader structural and functional brain reorganisation. PMID:23416237

Pasqualotto, Achille; Lam, Jade S Y; Proulx, Michael J

2013-05-01

420

Environmental contributions to preschoolers' semantic fluency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic fluency was examined in Hebrew-speaking 5-year-old monozygotic and dizygotic twins (N = 396, 198 pairs), 22% of them with mother-reported speech-related problems. There were positive correlations of similar magnitudes among monozygotic, same-sex dizygotic, and opposite-sex dizygotic twins. Analyses showed no genetic effects, alongside significant shared (39%) and non-shared environmental (61%) effects on fluency scores. The presence of speech-related problems in one twin affected the fluency score of the co-twin. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that parental education and length of stay at daycare significantly predicted fluency scores. We suggest that semantic fluency performance is highly affected by environmental factors at age 5 although genetic effects might emerge later on. PMID:23278934

Kavé, Gitit; Shalmon, Moran; Knafo, Ariel

2013-01-01

421

XML databases and the semantic web  

CERN Document Server

Efficient access to data, sharing data, extracting information from data, and making use of the information have become urgent needs for today''s corporations. With so much data on the Web, managing it with conventional tools is becoming almost impossible. New tools and techniques are necessary to provide interoperability as well as warehousing between multiple data sources and systems, and to extract information from the databases. XML Databases and the Semantic Web focuses on critical and new Web technologies needed for organizations to carry out transactions on the Web, to understand how to use the Web effectively, and to exchange complex documents on the Web.This reference for database administrators, database designers, and Web designers working in tandem with database technologists covers three emerging technologies of significant impact for electronic business: Extensible Markup Language (XML), semi-structured databases, and the semantic Web. The first two parts of the book explore these emerging techn...

Thuraisingham, Bhavani

2002-01-01

422

The partition semantics of questions, syntactically  

CERN Document Server

Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984, 1996; Groenendijk 1999) provide a logically attractive theory of the semantics of natural language questions, commonly referred to as the partition theory. Two central notions in this theory are entailment between questions and answerhood. For example, the question "Who is going to the party?" entails the question "Is John going to the party?", and "John is going to the party" counts as an answer to both. Groenendijk and Stokhof define these two notions in terms of partitions of a set of possible worlds. We provide a syntactic characterization of entailment between questions and answerhood . We show that answers are, in some sense, exactly those formulas that are built up from instances of the question. This result lets us compare the partition theory with other approaches to interrogation -- both linguistic analyses, such as Hamblin's and Karttunen's semantics, and computational systems, such as Prolog. Our comparison separates a notion of answerhood into three aspects: equival...

Shan, C; Shan, Chung-chieh; Cate, Balder D. ten

2002-01-01

423

View Selection in Semantic Web Databases  

CERN Document Server

We consider the setting of a Semantic Web database, containing both explicit data encoded in RDF triples, and implicit data, implied by the RDF semantics. Based on a query workload, we address the problem of selecting a set of views to be materialized in the database, minimizing a combination of query processing, view storage, and view maintenance costs. Starting from an existing relational view selection method, we devise new algorithms for recommending view sets, and show that they scale significantly beyond the existing relational ones when adapted to the RDF context. To account for implicit triples in query answers, we propose a novel RDF query reformulation algorithm and an innovative way of incorporating it into view selection in order to avoid a combinatorial explosion in the complexity of the selection process. The interest of our techniques is demonstrated through a set of experiments.

Goasdoué, François; Leblay, Julien; Manolescu, Ioana

2011-01-01

424

Regular Expression Matching and Operational Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Many programming languages and tools, ranging from grep to the Java String library, contain regular expression matchers. Rather than first translating a regular expression into a deterministic finite automaton, such implementations typically match the regular expression on the fly. Thus they can be seen as virtual machines interpreting the regular expression much as if it were a program with some non-deterministic constructs such as the Kleene star. We formalize this implementation technique for regular expression matching using operational semantics. Specifically, we derive a series of abstract machines, moving from the abstract definition of matching to increasingly realistic machines. First a continuation is added to the operational semantics to describe what remains to be matched after the current expression. Next, we represent the expression as a data structure using pointers, which enables redundant searches to be eliminated via testing for pointer equality. From there, we arrive both at Thompson's lock...

Rathnayake, Asiri; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.3

2011-01-01

425

Semantics of Higher-Order Recursion Schemes  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher-order recursion schemes are equations defining recursively new operations from given ones called “terminals”. Every such recursion scheme is proved to have a least interpreted semantics in every Scott’s model of ?-calculus in which the terminals are interpreted as continuous operations. For the uninterpreted semantics based on infinite ?-terms we follow the idea of Fiore, Plotkin and Turi and work in the category of sets in context, which are presheaves on the category of finite sets. Whereas Fiore et al proved that the presheaf F ? of ?-terms is an initial H ? -monoid, we work with the presheaf R ? of rational infinite ?-terms and prove that this is an initial iterative H ? -monoid. We conclude that every guarded higher-order recursion scheme has a unique uninterpreted solution in R ? .

Adámek, Ji?í; Milius, Stefan; Velebil, Ji?í

426

Semantic growth of morphological families in English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explores the question of when and how morphological families are formed in one’s mental lexicon, by analyzing age-of-acquisition norms to morphological families (e.g., booking, bookshelf, check book and their shared morphemes (book. We demonstrate that the speed of growth and the size of the family depend on how early the shared morpheme is acquired and how many connections the family has at the time a new concept is incorporated in the family. These findings dovetail perfectly with the Semantic Growth model of connectivity in semantic networks by Steyvers and Tenenbaum (2005. We discuss implications of our findings for theories of vocabulary acquisition.

Henry Regina

2013-01-01

427

Using Semantic Wikis to Support Software Reuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been almost four decades since the idea of software reuse was proposed. Many success stories have been told, yet it is believed that software reuse is still in the development phase and has not reached its full potential. How far are we with software reuse research? What have we learned from previous software reuse efforts? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions and propose a software reuse repository system based on semantic Wikis. In addition to supporting general collaboration among users offered by regular wikis, semantic Wikis provide means of adding metadata about the concepts and relations that are contained within the Wiki. This underlying model of domain knowledge enhances the software repository navigation and search performance and result in a system that is easy to use for non-expert users while being powerful in the way in which new artifacts can be created and located.

Sajjan G. Shiva

2008-04-01

428

Web Service Matching Based on Natural Semantic Annotation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To quickly and accurately find a needed Web service in service composition, a novel service matching method is proposed based on the nature semantic annotation in this paper. The natural semantic description is added in WSDL and the expanded WSDL is called as a WSDL-NS (WSDL with Natural Semantics. The computing method of semantic similarity is improved and the matching services are found by the service similarity. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Yingming Li

2013-01-01

429

Formal Semantics of OWL-S with Rewrite Logic  

OpenAIRE

SOA is built upon and evolving from older concepts of distributed computing and modular programming, OWL-S plays a key role in describing behaviors of web services, which are the essential of the SOA software. Although OWL-S has given semantics to concepts by ontology technology, it gives no semantics to control-flow and data-flow. This paper presents a formal semantics framework for OWL-S sub-set, including its abstraction, syntax, static and dynamic seman-tics by rewrite logic. Details of a...

Camilo Rocha; Xiaojuan Wang; Ning Huang

2009-01-01

430

Combining Semantic Web Search with the Power of Inductive Reasoning.  

OpenAIRE

With the introduction of the Semantic Web as a future substitute of the Web, the key task for the Web, namely, Web Search, is evolving towards some novel form of Semantic Web search. A very promising recent approach to Semantic Web search is based on combining standard Web pages and search queries with ontological background knowledge, and using standard Web search engines as the main inference motor of Semantic Web search. In this paper, we continue this line of research. We propose to furth...

D Amato, C.; Fanizzi, N.; Fazzinga, B.; Gottlob, G.; Lukasiewicz, T.; Deshpande, A.; Hunter, A.

2010-01-01

431

A joint model for parsing syntactic and semantic dependencies  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes a system that jointly parses syntactic and semantic dependencies, presented at the CoNLL-2008 shared task (Surdeanu et al., 2008). It combines online Peceptron learning (Collins, 2002) with a parsing model based on the Eisner algorithm (Eisner, 1996), extended so as to jointly assign syntactic and semantic labels. Overall results are 78.11 global F1, 85.84 LAS, 70.35 semantic F1. Official results for the shared task (63.29 global F1; 71.95 LAS; 54.52 semant...

Lluis Martorell, Xavier; Ma?rquez Villodre, Llui?s

2008-01-01

432

Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Pages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic similarity measures play an important role in the extraction of semantic relations. Semantic similarity measures are widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Information Retrieval (IR. The work proposed here uses web based metrics to compute the semantic similarity between words or terms and also compares with the state-of-the-art. For a computer to decide the semantic similarity, it should understand the semantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it cannot understand the semantics. So always an attempt is made to represent the semantics as syntax. There are various methods proposed to find the semantic similarity between words. Some of these methods have used the precompiled databases like WordNet, and Brown Corpus. Some are based on Web Search Engine. The approach presented here is altogether different from these methods. It makes use of snippets returned by the Wikipedia or any encyclopedia such as Britannica Encyclopedia. The snippets are preprocessed for stop word removal and stemming. For suffix removal an algorithm by M. F. Porter is referred. Luhn’s Idea is used for extraction of significant words from the preprocessed snippets. Similarity measures proposed here are based on the five different association measures in Information retrieval, namely simple matching, Dice, Jaccard, Overlap, Cosine coefficient. Performance of these methods is evaluated using Miller and Charle’s benchmark dataset. It gives higher correlation value of 0.80 than some of the existing methods.

T.Sujatha

2012-07-01

433

Towards a semantic web connecting knowledge in academic research  

CERN Document Server

This book addresses the question of how knowledge is currently documented, and may soon be documented in the context of what it calls 'semantic publishing'. This takes two forms: a more narrowly and technically defined 'semantic web'; as well as a broader notion of semantic publishing. This book examines the ways in which knowledge is represented in journal articles and books. By contrast, it goes on to explore the potential impacts of semantic publishing on academic research and authorship. It sets this in the context of changing knowledge ecologies: the way research is done; the way knowledg

Cope, Bill; Magee, Liam

2011-01-01

434

Semantic Integration Process of Business Components through Ontology Alignment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ontology Alignment (OA identifies semantically matching of different entities, OA continues to attract great attention within the database, information system and artificial intelligence communities. OA used to solve the semantic heterogeneity and hide the complexity of retrieving entities of heterogeneous source. That’s why we rely on the OA for resolving semantic conflict during design phase of information system, particularly in semantic integration of Business Components (BC. Our contribution concerns a solution for the integration of BC based on the ontologies alignment in order to support information system designers.

Hicham Elasri

2013-12-01

435

Semantic Technology to Exploit Digital Content Exposed as Linked Data  

CERN Document Server

The paper illustrates the research result of the application of semantic technology to ease the use and reuse of digital contents exposed as Linked Data on the web. It focuses on the specific issue of explorative research for the resource selection: a context dependent semantic similarity assessment is proposed in order to compare datasets annotated through terminologies exposed as Linked Data (e.g. habitats, species). Semantic similarity is shown as a building block technology to sift linked data resources. From semantic similarity application, we derived a set of recommendations underlying open issues in scaling the similarity assessment up to the Web of Data.

Albertoni, Riccardo

2011-01-01

436

SEMANTIC BASED MULTIPLE WEB SEARCH ENGINE  

OpenAIRE

With the tremendous growth of information available to end users through the Web, search engines come to play ever a more critical role. Nevertheless, because of their general-purpose approach, it is always less uncommon that obtained result sets provide a burden ofuseless pages. The next-generation Web architecture, represented by the Semantic Web, provides the layered architecture possibly allowing overcoming this limitation. Several search engines have been proposed, which allow increasing...

MS.S.LATHA SHANMUGAVADIVU,; Rajaram, Dr M.

2010-01-01

437

Symbolic Representation of Algorithmic Game Semantics  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of second-order recursion free Idealized Algol with infinite data types. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones we generalize the standard notion of regular-language and automata representations to that of corresponding symbolic representations. In this way terms with infinite data types, such as integers, can be expressed as finite symbolic-automata although the standard automata inter...

Dimovski, Aleksandar S.

2012-01-01

438

Semantic Types for Class-based Objects  

OpenAIRE

We investigate semantics-based type assignment for class-based object-oriented programming. Our motivation is developing a theoretical basis for practical, expressive, type-based analysis of the functional behaviour of object-oriented programs. We focus our research using Featherweight Java, studying two notions of type assignment:- one using intersection types, the other a ‘logical’ restriction of recursive types. We extend to the object-oriented setting some existing resu...

Rowe, Reuben

2013-01-01

439

Relating Two Semantics of Locally Scoped Names  

OpenAIRE

The operational semantics of programming constructs involving locally scoped names typically makes use of stateful "dynamic allocation": a set of currently-used names forms part of the state and upon entering a scope the set is augmented by a new name bound to the scoped identifier. More abstractly, one can see this as a transformation of local scopes by expanding them outward to an implicit top-level. By contrast, in a neglected paper from 1994, Odersky gave a stateless ...

Lo?sch, Steffen; Pitts, Andrew M.

2011-01-01

440

Using Semantic Web Technology in Requirements Specifications  

OpenAIRE

In this report, we investigate how the methods developed for using in Semantic Web technology could be used in capturing, modeling, developing, checking, and validating of requirements specifications. Requirements specification is a complex and time-consuming process. The goal is to describe exactly what the user wants and needs before the next phase of the software development cycle will be started. Any failure and mistake in requirements specification is very expensive because it cau...

Kroha, Petr; Labra Gayo, Jose? Emilio

2008-01-01

441

Multimodal Semantic Analysis of Public Transport Movements  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a system for multimodal, semantic analysis of person movements that incorporates data from surveillance cameras, weather sensors, and third-party information providers. The interactive demonstration will show the automated creation of a survey of passenger transfer behavior at a public transport hub. Such information is vital for public transportation planning and the presented approach increases the cost-effectiveness and data accuracy as compared to traditional methods.

Halb, Wolfgang; Neuschmied, Helmut

442

Equilibrium Pricing of Semantically Substitutable Digital Goods  

OpenAIRE

The problem of arriving at a principled method of pricing goods and services was very satisfactorily solved for conventional goods; however, this solution is not applicable to digital goods. This paper studies pricing of a special class of digital goods, which we call {\\em semantically substitutable digital goods}. After taking into consideration idiosyncrasies of goods in this class, we define a market model for it, together with a notion of equilibrium. We prove existence ...

Jain, Kamal; Vazirani, Vijay

2010-01-01

443

Testing an associative account of semantic satiation  

OpenAIRE

How is the meaning of a word retrieved without interference from recently viewed words? The ROUSE theory of priming assumes a discounting process to reduce source confusion between subsequently presented words. As applied to semantic satiation, this theory predicted a loss of association between the lexical item and meaning. Four experiments tested this explanation in a speeded category-matching task. All experiments used lists of 20 trials that presented a cue word for 1 second followed by a...

Tian, Xing; Huber, David E.

2010-01-01

444

Extracting semantic information from art images  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a method for automatic annotation of portraits in art image databases and discusses the extraction of semantic information from portraits. The proposed method segments images into candidate regions and fits an ellipse and a bounding box to them. Their extracted features serve as input to a neural network, which is trained to distinguish between face and non-face regions. Paintings containing face regions are classified as portraits. The method evaluation is done on a set o...

Sikudova, E.; Gavrielides, M. A.

2010-01-01

445

Semantic description of signal and image databases  

OpenAIRE

Information navigation and search on the part of a user requires thorough description of the information content of signal and image datasets and archives. Large signal and image databases need comprehensive metadata to facilitate user access. There is no unique way to describe the semantics of images and signals. Therefore a conceptual model serves as an initial platform. From the conceptual model, a database design can be derived, or a definition of metadata. The different steps from model ...

Murtagh, F.; Contreras, P.; Kokuer, M.; Louys, M.

2002-01-01

446

Adding semantic annotations into (Geospatial) RESTful services  

OpenAIRE

In this paper the authors present an approach for the semantic annotation of RESTful services in the geospatial domain. Their approach automates some stages of the annotation process, by using a combination of resources and services: a cross-domain knowledge base like DBpedia, two domain ontologies like GeoNames and the WGS84 vocabulary, and suggestion and synonym services. The authors’ approach has been successfully evaluated with a set of geospatial RESTful services obtained from Pr...

Saquicela, V.; Vilches-bla?zquez, Lm; Corcho, O?scar

2012-01-01

447

Web components and the semantic web  

OpenAIRE

Component-based software engineering on the Web differs from traditional component and software engineering. We investigate Web component engineering activites that are crucial for the development,com position, and deployment of components on the Web. The current Web Services and Semantic Web initiatives strongly influence our work. Focussing on Web component composition we develop description and reasoning techniques that support a component developer in the composition activities,fo cussing...

Casey, Maire; Pahl, Claus

2003-01-01

448

Semantic roles in teaching Japanese verbal constructions  

OpenAIRE

In most of Japanese language textbooks, verbal constructions are traditionally explained without reference to any overall case assignment system or verbal prototypes. This compels the students to memorizing verbs and their case particles' sets one at a time, and then leaves them alone in making generalizations and building their own mental verb classes. While teaching Japanese verbs to students, I found out that introducing the notion of semantic roles and using it to build graphical represen...

Dalla Chiesa, Simone

2008-01-01

449

Semantic Interoperability in Multimedia Distributed Health Record.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Göteborg, 2008. [MIE 2008. International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics /21./. 25.05.2008-28.05.2008, Göteborg] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * semantic interoperability * nomenclatures Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.sfmi.se/home/page.asp?sid=63&mid=2&PageId=1826

Hanzlí?ek, Petr; Nagy, Miroslav; P?e?ková, Petra; ?íha, Antonín; Dioszegi, Mat?j; Zvárová, Jana

450

TULSI, Turin University Legal Semantic Interpreter  

OpenAIRE

lavoro descritto nei seguenti articoli: Lesmo, L., Mazzei, A. and Radicioni, D.P. Legal Modificatory Provisions and Thematic Relations. In Proceedings of ICON-2009: 7th International Conference on Natural Language Processing, Hyderabad, India, December 2009. Macmillan Publishers. Mazzei, A., Radicioni, D.P. and R. Brighi. NLP-based Extraction of Modificatory Provisions Semantics. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, ICAIL09, pages 50-57, ...

Lesmo, Leonardo; Robaldo, Livio; Mazzei, Alessandro; Radicioni, Daniele Paolo

2010-01-01

451

Fast updating algorithms for latent semantic indexing  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses a few algorithms for updating the approximate Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in the context of information retrieval by Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) methods. A unifying framework is considered which is based on Rayleigh-Ritz projection methods. First, a Rayleigh-Ritz approach for the SVD is discussed and it is then used to interpret the Zha--Simon algorithms [SIAM J. Scient. Comput. vol. 21 (1999), pp. 782-791]. This viewpoint leads to a few altern...

Vecharynski, Eugene; Saad, Yousef

2013-01-01

452

SEMANTIC TERM BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL USING ONTOLOGY  

OpenAIRE

Information Searching and retrieval is a challenging task in the traditional keyword based textual information retrieval system. In the growing information age, adding huge data every day the searching problem also augmented. Keyword based retrieval system returns bulk of junk document irrelevant to query. To address the limitations, this paper proposed query terms along with semantic terms for information retrieval using multiple ontology reference. User query sometimes reflects multiple ...

Mannar Mannan, J.; Sundarambal, Dr M.

2014-01-01

453

Deriving Semantic Objects from the Structured Web  

OpenAIRE

This thesis focuses on the extraction and analysis of Web data objects, investigated from different points of view: temporal, structural, semantic. We first survey different strategies and best practices for deriving temporal aspects of Web pages, together with a more in-depth study on Web feeds for this particular purpose. Next, in the context of dynamically-generated Web pages by content management systems, we present two keyword-based techniques that perform article extraction from such pa...

Oita, Marilena

2012-01-01

454

Weak signal identification with semantic web mining  

OpenAIRE

We investigate an automated identification of weak signals according to Ansoff to improve strategic planning and technological forecasting. Literature shows that weak signals can be found in the organization's environment and that they appear in different contexts. We use internet information to represent organization's environment and we select these websites that are related to a given hypothesis. In contrast to related research, a methodology is provided that uses latent semantic indexing ...

Thorleuchter, Dirk; Poel, Dirk Den

2013-01-01

455

Semantic Annotation and Reasoning for Sensor Data  

OpenAIRE

Developments in (wireless) sensor and actuator networks and the capabilities to manufacture low cost and energy efficient networked embedded devices have lead to considerable interest in adding real world sense to the Internet and the Web. Recent work has raised the idea towards combining the Internet of Things (i.e. real world resources) with semantic Web technologies to design future service and applications for the Web. In this paper we focus on the current developments and discussions on ...

Wei, W.; Barnaghi, P.

2009-01-01

456

Five Challenges for the Semantic Sensor Web  

OpenAIRE

The combination of sensor networks with the Web, web services and database technologies, was named some years ago as the Sensor Web or the Sensor Internet. Most efforts in this area focused on the provision of platforms that could be used to build sensor-based applications more efficiently, considering some of the most important challenges in sensor-based data management and sensor network configuration. The introduction of semantics into these platforms provides the opportunity of going a st...

Corcho, O?scar; Garci?a-castro, Rau?l

2010-01-01

457

A Semantic Layer for Embedded Sensor Networks  

OpenAIRE

Sensor Networks progressively assumed the critical role of bridges between the real world and information systems, through always more consolidated and efficient sensor technologies that enable advanced heterogeneous sensor grids. Sensor data is commonly used by advanced systems and intelligent applications in order to archive complex goals. Processes that build high-level knowledge from sensor data are commonly considered as the key core concept. This paper proposes a semantic layer that wou...

Pileggi, Salvatore F.; Carlos Fernandez-Llatas; Vicente Traver

2011-01-01

458

E-Assessment using Latent Semantic Analysis  

OpenAIRE

E-assessment is an important component of e-learning and e-qualification. Formative and summative assessment serve different purposes and both types of evaluation are critical to the pedagogical process. While students are studying, practicing, working, or revising, formative assessment provides direction, focus and guidance. Summative assessment provides the means to evaluate a learner's achievement and communicate that achievement to interested parties. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a s...

Haley, Debra; Thomas, Pete; Nuseibeh, Bashar; Taylor, Josie; Lefrere, Paul

2003-01-01

459

Developing Semantically Interoperable E-Commerce Systems  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses semantic interoperability issues in agentbased E-commerce systems. The literature reports various techniques to enable agents to understand the meanings of the messages exchanged. We will argue how these different techniques can be combined in one agent communication protocol to obtain the best of each world. The resulting communication protocol enables agents to sufficiently understand each other to participate in successful collaboration.

Diggelen, J.; Dignum, F. P. M.

2007-01-01

460

Semantic-Based Planning of Process Models  

OpenAIRE

Process modelling has proved to be a powerful instrument to describe and manage the increasingly complex processes within and across enterprises. Yet, it requires a significant amount of manual work to create, adapt and maintain process models. This workload could be reduced if the process models are automatically generated and adapted. Semantic Business Process Management in combination with planning approaches can contribute to the solution. In this paper we describe that existing planning ...

Henneberger, Matthias; Heinrich, Bernd; Lautenbacher, Florian; Bauer, Bernhard

2008-01-01

461

Automatic Semantic Domain ontology Populator (ASDP)  

OpenAIRE

Ontologies play a major role in supporting information exchange processes in various areas. At present, ontologies are applied to the World Wide Web for creation of semantic web. The main application area of ontology technology is Knowledge Management. In the present scenario, it is difficult to acquire knowledge and then to maintain knowledge in a given domain. Manual ontology population is labour intensive and time consuming. Hence there is need to devise a method to provide fully automatic...

Sharma, A. K.; Prashant Dixit

2012-01-01

462

Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. I...

Scott, Marshall M.; Luciano Joanne; Kinoshita June; Kashyap Vipul; Gao Yong; Forsberg Kerstin; Doherty Donald; Chen Helen; Bodenreider Olivier; Samwald Matthias; Bug William; Clark Tim; Ruttenberg Alan; Ogbuji Chimezie; Rees Jonathan

2007-01-01

463

Meta-Modeling Semantics of UML  

OpenAIRE

The Unified Modelling Language is emerging as a de-facto standard for modelling object-oriented systems. However, the semantics document that a part of the standard definition primarily provides a description of the language's syntax and well-formedness rules. The meaning of the language, which is mainly described in English, is too informal and unstructured to provide a foundation for developing formal analysis and development techniques. This paper outlines a formalisation...

Evans, Andy; Lano, Kevin; France, Robert; Rumpe, Bernhard

2014-01-01

464

Semantic Image Segmentation Using Region Bank  

OpenAIRE

Semantic image segmentation assigns a predefined class label to each pixel. This paper proposes a unified framework by using region bank to solve this task. Images are hierarchically segmented leading to region banks. Local features and high-level descriptors are extracted on each region of the banks. Discriminative classifiers are learned based the histograms of features descriptors computed from training region bank (TRB). Optimally merging predicted regions of query region bank (QRB) resul...

Zou, Wenbin; Kpalma, Kidiyo; Ronsin, Joseph

2012-01-01

465

Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

2013-10-06

466

Towards a Semantic Web for Culture  

OpenAIRE

Today's semantic Web deals with meaning in a very restricted sense and offers static solutions. This is adequate for many scientific, technical purposes and for business transactions requiring machine-to-machine communication, but does not answer the needs of culture. Science, technology and business are concerned primarily with the latest findings, the state of the art, i.e. the paradigm or dominant world-view of the day. In this context, history is considered non-essential because it deals ...

Veltman, Kim H. Maastricht Mcluhan Institute

2006-01-01

467

RDFScape: Semantic Web meets Systems Biology  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The recent availability of high-throughput data in molecular biology has increased the need for a formal representation of this knowledge domain. New ontologies are being developed to formalize knowledge, e.g. about the functions of proteins. As the Semantic Web is being introduced into the Life Sciences, the basis for a distributed knowledge-base that can foster biological data analysis is laid. However, there still is a dichotomy, in tools and methodologies, between the ...

Splendiani Andrea

2008-01-01

468

Syntax and Semantics of Linear Dependent Types  

OpenAIRE

A type theory is presented that combines (intuitionistic) linear types with type dependency, thus properly generalising both intuitionistic dependent type theory and full linear logic. A syntax and complete categorical semantics are developed, the latter in terms of (strict) indexed symmetric monoidal categories with comprehension. Various optional type formers are treated in a modular way. In particular, we will see that the historically much-debated multiplicative quantifi...

Va?ka?r, Matthijs

2014-01-01

469

Operational Semantics and Polymorphic Type Inference  

OpenAIRE

Three languages with polymorphic type disciplines are discussed, namely the ?-calculus with Milner's polymorphic type discipline; a language with imperative features (polymorphic references); and a skeletal module language with structures, signatures and functors. In each of the two first cases we show that the type inference system is consistent with an operational dynamic semantics. On the module level, polymorphic types correspond to signatures. There is a notion of prin...

Tofte, Mads

1988-01-01

470

Semantics and N400: insights for schizophrenia  

OpenAIRE

Thought disorder is a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia, which often leads to deficits in social functioning. Some aspects of this cognitive dysfunction are the result of abnormal characteristics in the semantic processes of patients. These abnormalities exist not only at the discourse production level, but at the discourse comprehension level as well. The recording and analysis of event-related potentials has greatly advanced the investigation of the processing of linguistic information. One...

Kumar, Namita; Debruille, J. Bruno

2004-01-01

471

On fixing semantic alignment evaluation measures  

OpenAIRE

The evaluation of ontology matching algorithms mainly consists of comparing a produced alignment with a reference one. Usually, this evaluation relies on the classical precision and recall measures. This evaluation model is not satisfactory since it does not take into account neither the closeness of correspondances, nor the semantics of alignments. A first solution consists of generalizing the precision and recall measures in order to solve the problem of rigidity of classical model. Another...

David, Je?ro?me; Euzenat, Je?ro?me

2008-01-01

472

Semantic information based speculative parallel execution  

OpenAIRE

As the number of cores within one processor will continue to increase, while per-core frequency is likely to stagnate, speculative execution in general and data value prediction in particular, will once again be a prime candidate for speeding up execution of applications with limited inherent parallelism. In order to succeed however, we need to improve the semantic information the applications will be able to provide to the hardware; in this paper we present initial results based on using for...

Vajda, Andra?s; Stenstrom, Per

2010-01-01

473

Interspecies semantic communication in two forest primates.  

OpenAIRE

West African Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) frequently form mixed-species associations. Males of both species produce acoustically distinct alarm calls to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronalus) and leopards (Panthera pardus), two of their main predators. Field playback experiments were conducted to investigate whether Diana monkeys respond to Campbell's alarm calls and whether they understand the calls' semantic content. Diana monkeys re...

Zuberbu?hler, K.

2000-01-01

474

An Improved Technique for Ranking Semantic Associations  

OpenAIRE

The primary focus of the search techniques in the first generation of the Web is accessing relevant documents from the Web. Though it satisfies user requirements, but it is insufficient as the user sometimes wishes to access actionable information involving complex relationships between two given entities. Finding such complex relationships (also known as semantic associations) is especially useful in applications such as National Security, Pharmacy, Business Intelligence etc. Therefore the n...

Narayana, S.; Varma, G. P. S.; Govardhan, A.

2013-01-01

475

Modification of semantically enriched FE mesh models  

OpenAIRE

Behaviour analysis is largely performed on the virtual model of the product before its physical manufacturing. Anyhow, the process could be further optimised especially during the product behaviour optimisation phase. This process involves repetition of four main processing steps: CAD design, mesh creation, enrichment of physical semantics and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The product behaviour analysis is performed on the first design solution as well as on the numerous successive product o...

Lou, Ruding

2011-01-01

476

LAIR: A Language for Automated Semantics-Aware Text Sanitization based on Frame Semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present \\lair{}: A domain-specific language that enables users to specify actions to be taken upon meeting specific semantic frames in a text, in particular to rephrase and redact the textual content. While \\lair{} presupposes superficial knowledge of frames and frame semantics, it requires only limited prior programming experience. It neither contain scripting or I/O primitives, nor does it contain general loop constructions and is not Turing-complete. We have implemented a \\lair{} compiler and integrated it in a pipeline for automated redaction of web pages. We detail our experience with automated redaction of web pages for subjectively undesirable content; initial experiments suggest that using a small language based on semantic recognition of undesirable terms can be highly useful as a supplement to traditional methods of text sanitization.

Hedegaard, Steffen; Houen, SØren

2009-01-01

477

Component Models for Semantic Web Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

Intelligent applications and agents on the Semantic Web typically need to be specified with, or interact with specifications written in, many different kinds of formal languages. Such languages include ontology languages, data and metadata query languages, as well as transformation languages. As learnt from years of experience in development of complex software systems, languages need to support some form of component-based development. Components enable higher software quality, better understanding and reusability of already developed artifacts. Any component approach contains an underlying component model, a description detailing what valid components are and how components can interact. With the multitude of languages developed for the Semantic Web, what are their underlying component models? Do we need to develop one for each language, or is a more general and reusable approach achievable? We present a language-driven component model specification approach. This means that a component model can be (automatically) generated from a given base language (actually, its specification, e.g. its grammar). As a consequence, we can provide components for different languages and simplify the development of software artifacts used on the Semantic Web.

Henriksson, Jakob; Aßmann, Uwe

478

Semantic Query Reformulation in Social PDMS  

CERN Document Server

We consider social peer-to-peer data management systems (PDMS), where each peer maintains both semantic mappings between its schema and some acquaintances, and social links with peer friends. In this context, reformulating a query from a peer's schema into other peer's schemas is a hard problem, as it may generate as many rewritings as the set of mappings from that peer to the outside and transitively on, by eventually traversing the entire network. However, not all the obtained rewritings are relevant to a given query. In this paper, we address this problem by inspecting semantic mappings and social links to find only relevant rewritings. We propose a new notion of 'relevance' of a query with respect to a mapping, and, based on this notion, a new semantic query reformulation approach for social PDMS, which achieves great accuracy and flexibility. To find rapidly the most interesting mappings, we combine several techniques: (i) social links are expressed as FOAF (Friend of a Friend) links to characterize peer...

Bonifati, Angela; Pacitti, Esther; Draidi, Fady

2011-01-01

479

Management Tool for Semantic Annotations in WSDL  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic Web Services add features to automate web services discovery and composition. A new standard called SAWSDL emerged recently as a W3C recommendation to add semantic annotations within web service descriptions (WSDL). In order to manipulate such information in Java program we need an XML parser. Two open-source libraries already exist (SAWSDL4J and Woden4SAWSDL) but they don't meet all our specific needs such as support for WSDL 1.1 and 2.0. This paper presents a new tool, called EasyWSDL, which is able to handle semantic annotations as well as to manage the full WSDL description thanks to a plug-in mechanism. This tool allows us to read/edit/create a WSDL description and related annotations thanks to a uniform API, in both 1.1 and 2.0 versions. This document compares these three libraries and presents its integration into Dragon the OW2 open-source SOA governance tool.

Boissel-Dallier, Nicolas; Lorré, Jean-Pierre; Benaben, Frédérick

480

Semantics of interdisciplinary data and information integration  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed an application of semantic web methods and technologies to address the integration of interdisciplinary earth-science datasets. The specific use case addresses seeking and using atmospheric chemistry and volcano geochemistry datasets. We have developed an integration framework based on semantic descriptions (ontologies) of the linking relations between the application domains. In doing this, we have extensively leveraged and existing ontology frameworks such as SWEET, VSTO and GEON as well as included extentions of them when needed. We present the components of this application, including the ontologies, the registration of datasets with ontologies at several levels of granularity, the data sources, and application results from the use case. We will also present the cur rent and near-future capabilities we are developing. This work arises from the Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project, which is an NASA/ESTO/ACCESS-funded project performed in part by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), McGuinness Associates, NASA/JPL and Virginia Polytechnic University.

McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Raskin, R.; Sinha, A. K.

2009-05-01

481

Assisting Pictogram Selection with Categorized Semantics  

Science.gov (United States)

Since participants at both end of the communication channel must share common pictogram interpretation to communicate, the pictogram selection task must consider both participants' pictogram interpretations. Pictogram interpretation, however, can be ambiguous. To assist the selection of pictograms more likely to be interpreted as intended, we propose a categorical semantic relevance measure which calculates how relevant a pictogram is to a given interpretation in terms of a given category. The proposed measure defines similarity measurement and probability of interpretation words using pictogram interpretations and frequencies gathered from a web survey. Moreover, the proposed measure is applied to categorized pictogram interpretations to enhance pictogram retrieval performance. Five pictogram categories used for categorizing pictogram interpretations are defined based on the five first-level classifications defined in the Concept Dictionary of the EDR Electronic Dictionary. Retrieval performances among not-categorized interpretations, categorized interpretations, and categorized and weighted interpretations using semantic relevance measure were compared, and the categorized semantic relevance approaches showed more stable performances than the not-categorized approach.

Cho, Heeryon; Ishida, Toru; Oyama, Satoshi; Inaba, Rieko; Takasaki, Toshiyuki

482

Semantic Enhancement for Enterprise Data Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking customer data as an example, the paper presents an approach to enhance the management of enterprise data by using Semantic Web technologies. Customer data is the most important kind of core business entity a company uses repeatedly across many business processes and systems, and customer data management (CDM) is becoming critical for enterprises because it keeps a single, complete and accurate record of customers across the enterprise. Existing CDM systems focus on integrating customer data from all customer-facing channels and front and back office systems through multiple interfaces, as well as publishing customer data to different applications. To make the effective use of the CDM system, this paper investigates semantic query and analysis over the integrated and centralized customer data, enabling automatic classification and relationship discovery. We have implemented these features over IBM Websphere Customer Center, and shown the prototype to our clients. We believe that our study and experiences are valuable for both Semantic Web community and data management community.

Ma, Li; Sun, Xingzhi; Cao, Feng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Kanellos, Nick; Wolfson, Dan; Pan, Yue

483

Frame Semantics Evolutionary Model for Emotion Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emotions play a significant role in identifying attitude, state, condition or mode of a particular circumstance. Textual data, in particular, involves emotional state and affective communication beside its informative contents. Emotion extraction from text has been potentially studied to stimulate and elicit articulation features. In this study, a machine learning emotion detection model is proposed for textual emotion recognition. A frame semantics approach is identified to extract knowledge from the text in an evolutionary process that improves the detection capabilities. Emotion detection process is controlled by a rule base; each of its entries is generated by pre-invoking event, action and resulting emotion state. Frame entities semantically collaborated to evaluate the frame emotion. Individual entities may arbitrary substituted by their synonyms or opposites if a candidate frame doesn’t match any of the knowledge set. The proposed model proves considerable capability of recognizing emotions by referencing their semantic relations. Results showed better detection accuracy for the proposed model compared with variety of emotion approaches including keyword spotting, knowledge-based ANN and supervised machine learning models. Experiments indicated encouraging results over both binary emotion and multiple labels classifiers.

Mohamed H. Haggag

2013-10-01

484

Semantic annotation for biological information retrieval system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Online literatures are increasing in a tremendous rate. Biological domain is one of the fast growing domains. Biological researchers face a problem finding what they are searching for effectively and efficiently. The aim of this research is to find documents that contain any combination of biological process and/or molecular function and/or cellular component. This research proposes a framework that helps researchers to retrieve meaningful documents related to their asserted terms based on gene ontology (GO). The system utilizes GO by semantically decomposing it into three subontologies (cellular component, biological process, and molecular function). Researcher has the flexibility to choose searching terms from any combination of the three subontologies. Document annotation is taking a place in this research to create an index of biological terms in documents to speed the searching process. Query expansion is used to infer semantically related terms to asserted terms. It increases the search meaningful results using the term synonyms and term relationships. The system uses a ranking method to order the retrieved documents based on the ranking weights. The proposed system achieves researchers' needs to find documents that fit the asserted terms semantically. PMID:25737720

Oshaiba, Mohamed Marouf Z; El Houby, Enas M F; Salah, Akram

2015-01-01

485

Register Allocation By Model Transformer Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Register allocation has long been formulated as a graph coloring problem, coloring the conflict graph with physical registers. Such a formulation does not fully capture the goal of the allocation, which is to minimize the traffic between registers and memory. Linear scan has been proposed as an alternative to graph coloring, but in essence, it can be viewed as a greedy algorithm for graph coloring: coloring the vertices not in the order of their degrees, but in the order of their occurence in the program. Thus it suffers from almost the same constraints as graph coloring. In this article, I propose a new method of register allocation based on the ideas of model transformer semantics (MTS) and static cache replacement (SCR). Model transformer semantics captures the semantics of registers and the stack. Static cache replacement relaxes the assumptions made by graph coloring and linear scan, aiming directly at reducing register-memory traffic. The method explores a much larger solution space than that of graph c...

Wang, Yin

2012-01-01

486

Semantics and N400: insights for schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thought disorder is a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia, which often leads to deficits in social functioning. Some aspects of this cognitive dysfunction are the result of abnormal characteristics in the semantic processes of patients. These abnormalities exist not only at the discourse production level, but at the discourse comprehension level as well. The recording and analysis of event-related potentials has greatly advanced the investigation of the processing of linguistic information. One particular component of event-related potentials, N400, indexes semantic processing. Whereas all meaningful words elicit an N400, the amplitude of this component is much greater in response to words that are unexpected in a given context. As such, it is thought to reflect processes involved in contextual integration, which is the key to correct comprehension. N400 has been found to be abnormal in patients with schizophrenia when compared with healthy controls and, thus, may point toward the underlying cause of semantic deficits of patients with thought disorder. PMID:15069463

Kumar, Namita; Debruille, J Bruno

2004-03-01

487

Comparison Latent Semantic and WordNet Approach for Semantic Similarity Calculation  

CERN Document Server

Information exchange among many sources in Internet is more autonomous, dynamic and free. The situation drive difference view of concepts among sources. For example, word 'bank' has meaning as economic institution for economy domain, but for ecology domain it will be defined as slope of river or lake. In this aper, we will evaluate latent semantic and WordNet approach to calculate semantic similarity. The evaluation will be run for some concepts from different domain with reference by expert or human. Result of the evaluation can provide a contribution for mapping of concept, query rewriting, interoperability, etc.

Wicaksana, I Wayan Simri

2011-01-01

488

Hypothesis of the Functional Semantic Constructions and Mathematics in the Functional Semantic Aspect  

CERN Document Server

This essay contains three parts. The first part of essay focuses on the hypothesis of the functional semantic constructions (FSC-Hypothesis). This hypothesis explains that a language, a number, a money are the functional semantic constructions. In the second part the author considers the Mathematics with respect to the FSC-Hypothesis. Author turns in the solution for the following problems: Ontology of Mathematics, Objects of Mathematics, Number, Classification of the numbers. Last part contains the critical remarks to the axiomatic allocation of the real numbers to the linear point continuum and to the countability / uncountability of the set of rational and of the set of real numbers.

Semenov, Yu G

2002-01-01