WorldWideScience

Sample records for semantic differential

  1. A Revised Semantic Differential Scale Distinguishing between Negative and Positive God Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Gibson, Harry M.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 755 school pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 years completed the Benson and Spilka semantic differential measure of God images. Factor analysis indicated the advantages of re-scoring the measure as an eight item unidimensional index, defining semantic space relating to God images ranging from negative affect to positive affect.…

  2. Workplace Information Literacy in the Scientific Field : an Empirical Analysis Using the Semantic Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlbacher, Susanne; Hammwöhner, Rainer; Wolff, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The study focuses on eliciting a semantic concept of Information Literacy by capturing the information worker s perception of the information process. It is presumed that this perception influences the formation and advancement of Information Literacy at the workplace. The approach is based on the creation of a semantic differential scale. Target group are scientists from the field of natural sciences. The survey shows that five partly correlated principal aspects play a major role: personal ...

  3. Development and psychometric testing of a semantic differential scale of sexual attitude for the older person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Shin, Sunhwa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a semantic differential scale of sexual attitudes for older people in Korea. The scale was based on items derived from a literature review and focus group interviews. A methodological study was used to test the reliability and validity of the instrument. A total of 368 older men and women were recruited to complete the semantic differential scale. Fifteen pairs of adjective ratings were extracted through factor analysis. Total variance explained was 63.40%. To test for construct validity, group comparisons were implemented. The total score of sexual attitudes showed significant differences depending on gender and availability of sexual activity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.96. The findings of this study demonstrate that the semantic differential scale of sexual attitude is a reliable and valid instrument. PMID:26275235

  4. The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

  5. Use of the Semantic Differential in Bilingualism Research and Its Relevance to Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, David; Bynner, John

    1981-01-01

    Study investigated bilingual subjects' perceptions of connotative differences between concepts in English and French using a form of the semantic differential in which the scales were derived from Cattell's 16 personality factors. Results show no significant differences in affective meaning between concepts within or across languages but…

  6. Structured Cueing on a Semantic Fluency Task Differentiates Patients with Temporal Versus Frontal Lobe Seizure Onset

    OpenAIRE

    Drane, Daniel L.; Lee, Gregory P.; Cech, Helen; Huthwaite, Justin S.; Ojemann, George A.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Loring, David W.; Kimford J. Meador

    2006-01-01

    Patients with frontal lobe dysfunction (e.g., Huntington’s Disease) reportedly benefit more from cueing on measures of semantic fluency than do patients with damage to temporal lobe structures (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease). This differential benefit from cueing suggests that different neurocognitive functions are impaired in these two groups. Patients with frontal lobe dysfunction are presumed to have difficulty with the executive aspects of this generative fluency task while patients with temp...

  7. Reward is assessed in three dimensions that correspond to the semantic differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John G; Baddeley, Roland J

    2013-01-01

    If choices are to be made between alternatives like should I go for a walk or grab a coffee, a 'common currency' is needed to compare them. This quantity, often known as reward in psychology and utility in economics, is usually conceptualised as a single dimension. Here we propose that to make a comparison between different options it is important to know not only the average reward, but also both the risk and level of certainty (or control) associated with an option. Almost all objects can be the subject of choice, so if these dimensions are required in order to make a decision, they should be part of the meaning of those objects. We propose that this ubiquity is unique, so if we take an average over many concepts and domains these three dimensions (reward, risk, and uncertainty) should emerge as the three most important dimensions in the "meaning" of objects. We investigated this possibility by relating the three dimensions of reward to an old, robust and extensively studied factor analytic instrument known as the semantic differential. Across a very wide range of situations, concepts and cultures, factor analysis shows that 50% of the variance in rating scales is accounted for by just three dimensions, with these dimensions being Evaluation, Potency, and Activity [1]. Using a statistical analysis of internet blog entries and a betting experiment, we show that these three factors of the semantic differential are strongly correlated with the reward history associated with a given concept: Evaluation measures relative reward; Potency measures absolute risk; and Activity measures the uncertainty or lack of control associated with a concept. We argue that the 50% of meaning captured by the semantic differential is simply a summary of the reward history that allows decisions to be made between widely different options. PMID:23418445

  8. Departmentality :   The functional differentiation of systems & the decapitation of the body semantics - or: how to ground Luhmann's theory of functional differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2008-01-01

      Niklas Luhmann's system theory outlines a methodology that focuses empirical problems in depth. This is possible by means of an abductive use of an overwhelmingly accessibility to theoretical observations. However, this theory is itself a result of historical developments. It origins in a path of self-descriptive communications studied by Luhmann as semantic transformations. The paper goes back to Immanuel Kant's theory of systems and traces its origins on the basis of an evolution of a subdifferentiated legal system. Especially the semantic differentiation of forms is followed and takes a focus on semantic forms in chancellor H.-F. d'Aguesseau's and Fredrick the Great's self-description of power. The overall aim is to study the legacy and the strength of functional differentiation in state formation. How did the separated powers of functional differentiation emerge and how did it describe itself as difference to a reason of state?

  9. Noetics in pastoral counselling: The making of a semantic differential analysis in pastoral care and counselling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniël J., Louw.

    Full Text Available Praxis in pastoral care and counselling entails more than merely practice and practicalities (communication skills). Praxis refers to the intentionality within human action and behaviour. Praxis exhibits the realm of intentionality and meaning as displayed within and by human attitudes. It is hypoth [...] esised that due to the noetic dimension in human actions, the making of a pastoral diagnosis (a qualitative assessment of the impact of Christian spirituality and the meaning on the system of existential, relational networking) should deal with the realm of significant and purposeful intentionality. The latter is already implied in the phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl's eidetic observation or inspection (phenomenological consciousness). In order to incorporate noetics in pastoral care and counselling, a pastoral semantic differential analysis (PSDA) within the making of a pastoral diagnosis was proposed. The PSDA was linked to the need for a qualitative approach regarding the impact of God-images on religious association and existential life experiences.

  10. Developmental Changes in Differential Incentive Effects on Semantic Elaboration in Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Robert S.; Witryol, Sam L.

    1979-01-01

    Incentive motivation effects on stimulus encoding of elementary school students was investigated by pairing words associated with two levels of semantic elaboration with two levels of monetary rewards and testing through recall. (CM)

  11. Assessment of the Relatedness of Equivalent Stimuli through a Semantic Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoloti, Renato; de Rose, Julio C.

    2009-01-01

    If stimulus equivalence is a model of meaning, abstract stimuli should acquire the meaning of meaningful stimuli equivalent to them. In Experiment 1, college students matched faces expressing emotions to arbitrary pictures, forming three classes of equivalent stimuli, each comprising an emotional expression and three arbitrary pictures. Semantic

  12. Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

  13. Differential effects of viewing positions on standard versus semantic Stroop interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Ludovic; Augustinova, Maria

    2014-04-01

    From their finding that the substantial magnitude of the Stroop interference that occurs when a participant's initial fixation is directed at the optimal viewing position is eliminated when the initial fixation is directed at the end of a word, Perret and Ducrot (2010) concluded that initial fixation at the latter position likely prevents reading. In the present study, we further examined this interpretation. To this end, the two conflict dimensions (semantic vs. response) that were confounded in the original work were separated within a semantically based Stroop paradigm (Neely & Kahan, 2001) that was administered with vocal (instead of manual) responses. In line with past findings showing greater interference in the vocal task, the reported results indicated that standard Stroop interference was reduced, but not eliminated, thus making the initial interpretation in terms of reading suppression unlikely. This conclusion is further strengthened by the presence of isolated semantic interference, the magnitude of which remained significant and was unaffected by viewing position. In sum, these results show that initial fixation of the end of a word simply reduces (nonsemantic) response competition. PMID:24002970

  14. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  15. Análise da Validade e Precisão de Instrumento de Diferencial Semântico / Analysis of Validity and Precision of a Semantic Differential Instrument

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Henrique de, Almeida; Renato, Bortoloti; Paulo Roberto dos Santos, Ferreira; Patricia Waltz, Schelini; Julio César Coelho de, Rose.

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou evidências de validade e precisão de um instrumento de diferencial semântico que tem sido utilizado para medir a transferência de significados entre estímulos equivalentes. Um total de 196 estudantes universitários avaliou fotografias de faces expressando emoções e também figu [...] ras abstratas, utilizando um instrumento composto por 13 escalas bipolares ancoradas por adjetivos opostos. A análise fatorial dos dados coletados forneceu indicações da validade do instrumento e os coeficientes alfa obtidos indicam que os dois fatores extraídos nesta análise possuem níveis de precisão aceitáveis, embora um dos fatores deva ser revisto. Discute-se que o modelo de equivalência de estímulos, entendido como um modelo experimental de relações simbólicas, pode se beneficiar de instrumentos capazes de fornecer medidas válidas de transferência de significado. Abstract in english This study assessed evidence of validity and precision of a semantic differential test that has been used to measure the transfer of meaning among equivalent stimuli. Participants were 196 college students who evaluated pictures of faces expressing emotions and also abstract pictures using an instru [...] ment comprised by 13 bipolar scales anchored by opposite adjectives. The factor analysis of the data evidenced the validity of the instrument. Values of alpha coefficients indicated that the factors extracted by this analysis have acceptable levels of precision, although one of the factors might be revised. It is discussed that the stimulus equivalence paradigm, an experimental model for symbolic relations, can benefit from instruments that provide valid measures of meaning transfer.

  16. [Proposal for a modified method of semantic differential diagnosis in testing for stereotyping of the mentally ill patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, O

    2000-01-01

    In the paper, a proposal of using the semantic differential (by Osgood) for the research on social perception of mentally ill is presented. It allows for investigation of the basic attributes of the stereotype of psychiatric patient: social character, evaluative aspect, simplification, over-generalization of the opinion and its stiffness. The article presents the pilot results coming from the research in a group of students of psychology (first year of studying), who had no lectures in psychiatry by that time (N = 149). The results lead to the conclusion that the picture of mentally ill has social character, that is--some of its attributes are common for a majority of responders (over 77%). They also confirm (with a high certainty--coming to 79%) that most of mentally ill persons (64-80%) are unpredictable, lost, difficult to understand, introvert, unconscious, not self-possessed, excitable, threatening, aggressive and violent. The results show that in the portrait of mentally ill negative attributes are in majority. This portrait--so one-sided and negative--can be one of the basic predictores of social rejection of mentally ill persons. PMID:11202021

  17. EL SEMANTICO DIFERENCIAL COMO PROPUESTA METODOLOGICA PARA CARACTERIZAR EL LIDERAZGO EN UNA ORGANIZACIÓN / THE DIFFERENTIAL SEMANTICS AS METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL TO CHARACTERIZE THE LEADERSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GIOVANNY, PEREZ ORTEGA; MARTÍN DARIO, ARANGO SERNA; JHON WILLIAM, BRANCH BEDOYA.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El liderazgo es un fenómeno esencial en la administración de cualquier tipo de organización, se refiere a un patrón de conducta según como lo perciben los demás, y se desarrolla a partir de experiencias, educación, capacitación y condiciones naturales. La primera parte de este artículo se dedica a r [...] ealizar una definición del liderazgo para luego clasificarlo en tres grupos: Liderazgo Transaccional, Liderazgo Transformacional y las teorías emergentes. A continuación se explican los pasos que componen la metodología propuesta para caracterizar el liderazgo en una organización la cual esta basada en la técnica de Semántica Diferencial de Osgood en la cual se construye una escala bipolar tipo diferencial semántico. Finalmente se muestran los resultados alcanzados de la aplicación de la metodología en las ONG en Antioquia, para lo cual se realiza una definición acerca de las ONG y las características percibidas de los líderes en esta clase de organizaciones en Antioquia. Abstract in english Leadership is a basic aspect f management for any type of organization, it refers to a behavioral pattern according to the perception of the other, and it is developed from experiences, education, capacity building and natural conditions. The first part of this paper focuses on defining leadership, [...] classifying it in three groups: transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and emergent theories. Later, there is a description of the steps that constitute a methodology proposed to characterize leadership in organizations. This methodology is grounded in the Osgood Differentiation Semantics, in which a bipolar scale of semantical differentiation type is constructed. Finally, results from the application of this methodology in NGO (Non-Governmental Organizations) in Antioquia are shown. A definition of NGOs is carried out, as well as a description of the perceived characteristics of NGO leaders in Antioquia.

  18. Visual Product Evaluation: Using the Semantic Differential to Investigate the Influence of Basic Vase Geometry on Users’ Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Maier, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Products evoke emotions in people. Emotions can influence purchase decisions and product evaluations. It is widely acknowledged that better product performance and higher user satisfaction can be reached through aesthetic design. However, when designing a new product, most of the attention is generally paid to enhance its functionality and usability and much less consideration is given to the emotional needs of users. This paper explores a methodology based on Emotional Design theory in order to discover implicit emotional needs of users toward product design and how they are related to very simple product features. Various forms of vases are used as a product case. Additionally, a compact list of product-specific semantic descriptors is proposed and used. Survey, interview techniques and statistical methods were performed in this paper, where significant correlations between semantic descriptors were found. A formal link between specific product features and how the products are perceived is introduced and the results were used to build prototype vases. A simple validation on aesthetic value was performed with the results confirming the general trend of the possibility to define perception from a simple set of geometric features.

  19. Dynamic semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Dekker, Paul JE

    2012-01-01

    The first publication to include a condensed, yet complete treatment of anaphora and modality, this volume's integrated theory combines classical formal semantics and modern dynamic semantics without altering the fundamental linguistic paradigm.

  20. Generative Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  1. Semantic Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Toribio, Josefa

    2002-01-01

    In this paper I attempt to develop a notion of responsibility (semantic responsibility) that is to the notion of belief what epistemic responsibility is to the notion of justification. 'Being semantically responsible' is shown to involve the fulfilment of cognitive duties which allow the agent to engage in the kind of reason-laden discourses which render her beliefs appropriately sensitive to correction. The concept of semantic responsibility suggests that the notion of beli...

  2. Database Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, the first step to connect relational databases with systems consequence (Kent: "System Consequence" 2009), is concerned with the semantics of relational databases. It aims to to study system consequence in the logical/semantic system of relational databases. The paper, which was inspired by and which extends a recent set of papers on the theory of relational database systems (Spivak: "Functorial Data Migration" 2012), is linked with work on the Information Flow F...

  3. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives a...

  4. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017575313451Dekker, Paul. 2004. ‘Grounding Dynamic Semantics’. In Anne Bezuidenhout & Marga Reimer (eds. ‘Descriptions and Beyond: An Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays on Definite and Indefinite Descriptions and other Related Phenomena’, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Dekker, Paul. 2007. ‘Optimal Inquisitive Discourse’. In Maria Aloni, Alastair Butler & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Questions in Dynamic Semantics’, CRiSPI 17, pp. 83–101. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Frege, Gottlob. 1892. ‘Über Sinn und Bedeutung’. Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik NF 100: pp. 25–50.Ginzburg, Jonathan. 1995. ‘Resolving Questions, I & II’. Linguistics and Philosophy 18, no. 5,6: pp. 459–527 and 567–609.Ginzburg, Jonathan. To appear. The Interactive Stance: Meaning for Conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen. 1999. ‘The Logic of Interrogation’. In T. Matthews & D. Strolovitch (eds. ‘Proceedings of SALT IX’, Also appeared in Aloni, M., Butler, A., and Dekker, P., 2007, Questions in Dynamic Semantics, CRiSPI, Elsevier.: CLC Publications.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Roelofsen, Floris. 2009. ‘Inquisitive Semantics and Pragmatics’. In Jesus M. Larrazabal & Larraitz Zubeldia (eds. ‘Meaning, Content, and Argument: Proceedings of the ILCLI International Workshop on Semantics, Pragmatics, and Rhetoric’, Bilbao: University of the Basque Country Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Stokhof, Martin. 1991. ‘Dynamic Predicate Logic’. Linguistics and Philosophy 14, no. 1: pp. 39–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628304Hulstijn, Joris. 1997. ‘Structured Information States. Raising and Resolving Issues’. In Anton Benz & Gerhard Jäger (eds. ‘Proceedings of MunDial97’, pp. 99–117. University of Munich.Jäger, Gerhard. 1996. ‘Only Updates. On the Dynamics of the Focus Particle only’. In Martin Stokhof & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Tenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, pp. 387–405. Amsterdam: ILLC, University of Amsterdam.Lascarides, Alex & Asher, Nicholas. 2009. ‘The Interpreta

  5. Making secure Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Adis Medi?; Adis Golubovi?

    2010-01-01

    this paper first describes ways of semantic web security implementation through layers. These layers are presented as a backbone for semantic web architecture and are represented in XML security, RDF security and in an idea of semantic web security standardization.

  6. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such

  7. Semantic Annotation: The Mainstay of Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Slimani, Thabet

    2013-01-01

    Given that semantic Web realization is based on the critical mass of metadata accessibility and the representation of data with formal knowledge, it needs to generate metadata that is specific, easy to understand and well-defined. However, semantic annotation of the web documents is the successful way to make the Semantic Web vision a reality. This paper introduces the Semantic Web and its vision (stack layers) with regard to some concept definitions that helps the understan...

  8. Evaluating Feature-Category Relations Using Semantic Fluency Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, P.; Morais, J.; Kolinsky, R.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between semantic features and semantic categories has been raised by Warrington and colleagues, who claimed that sensory and functional-associative features are differentially important in determining the meaning of living and nonliving things (Warrington & McCarthy, 1983, 1987; Warrington & Shallice, 1984). In the…

  9. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  10. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Splendiani Andrea; Burger Albert; Paschke Adrian; Romano Paolo; Marshall M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more be...

  11. Syntax versus Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Reinhard; Keller, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    We report on the idea to use colours to distinguish syntax and semantics as an educational tool in logic classes. This distinction gives also reason to reflect on some philosophical issues concerning semantics.

  12. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-12-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word's meaning (e.g., the verb's inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn't readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  13. The Semantics of Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Sablayrolles, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic study of motion complexes (ie. of a motion verb followed by a spatial preposition). We focus on the spatial and the temporal intrinsic semantic properties of the motion verbs, on the one hand, and of the spatial prepositions, on the other hand. Then, we address the problem of combining these basic semantics in order to formally and automatically derive the spatiotemporal semantics of a motion complex from the spatiotemporal properties of i...

  14. The Semantics of Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Sablayrolles, P

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic study of motion complexes (ie. of a motion verb followed by a spatial preposition). We focus on the spatial and the temporal intrinsic semantic properties of the motion verbs, on the one hand, and of the spatial prepositions, on the other hand. Then, we address the problem of combining these basic semantics in order to formally and automatically derive the spatiotemporal semantics of a motion complex from the spatiotemporal properties of its components.

  15. Measuring semantic complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Zadrozny, W

    1995-01-01

    We define {\\em semantic complexity} using a new concept of {\\em meaning automata}. We measure the semantic complexity of understanding of prepositional phrases, of an "in depth understanding system", and of a natural language interface to an on-line calendar. We argue that it is possible to measure some semantic complexities of natural language processing systems before building them, and that systems that exhibit relatively complex behavior can be built from semantically simple components.

  16. The Social Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Breslin, John G

    2009-01-01

    Presenting a short overview of both the Social Web and the Semantic Web, this title describes some popular social media and social networking applications, lists their strengths and limitations, and explains some applications of Semantic Web technology to address their shortcomings by enhancing them with semantics

  17. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics. PMID:26103601

  18. Semantics for Locking Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Michael; Macedonio, Damiano; Merro, Massimo; Spoto, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    To prevent concurrency errors, programmers need to obey a locking discipline. Annotations that specify that discipline, such as Java's @GuardedBy, are already widely used. Unfortunately, their semantics is expressed informally and is consequently ambiguous. This article highlights such ambiguities and formalizes the semantics of @GuardedBy in two alternative ways, building on an operational semantics for a small concurrent fragment of a Java-like language. It also identifies...

  19. Super Rough Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this research a new algebraic semantics of rough set theory including additional meta aspects is proposed. The semantics is based on enhancing the standard rough set theory with notions of 'relative ability of subsets of approximation spaces to approximate'. The eventual algebraic semantics is developed via many deep results in convexity in ordered structures. A new variation of rough set theory, namely 'ill-posed rough set theory' in which it may suffice to know some of ...

  20. Semantic Service Oriented Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna; Deriaz, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new prototype of a semantic Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) called Spec Services. Instead of publishing their API through a protocol like SOAP, as Web Services do, services can register to a service manager a powerful syntactic description or even semantic description of their capabilities. The client entity will then send a syntactic or semantic description of its requirements to the service manager, which will try to find an appropriate formerly registered service...

  1. Towards semantic web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Berendt, Bettina; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd

    2002-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. The idea is to improve, on the one hand, the results of Web Mining by exploiting the new semantic structures in the Web; and to make use of Web Mining, on overview of where the two areas meet today, and sketches ways of how a closer integration could be profitable.

  2. Characterizing semantic web services

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano, Marcelo; Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Estevez, Elsa Clara

    2004-01-01

    Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which data contained in the web documents are machine-understandable. On the other hand, Web Services provide a new model of the web in which sites exchange dynamic information on demand. Combination of both introduces a new concept named Semantic Web Services in which semantic information is added to the different activities involved in Web Services, such as discovering, publication, composition, etc. In this paper, we analyze several ...

  3. Benchmarking Semantic Web technology

    OpenAIRE

    García-Castro, Raúl

    2008-01-01

    Semantic Web technologies need to interchange ontologies for further use. Due to the heterogeneity in the knowledge representation formalisms of the different existing technologies, interoperability is a problem in the SemanticWeb and the limits of the interoperability of current technologies are yet unknown. A massive improvement of the interoperability of current SemanticWeb technologies, or of any other characteristic of these technologies, requires continuous evaluations that should be de...

  4. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  5. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  6. Frame-Semantic Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Dipanjan; Chen, Desai; Martins, André F. T.; Schneider, Nathan; Smith, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Frame semantics is a linguistic theory that has been instantiated for English in the FrameNet lexicon. We solve the problem of frame-semantic parsing using a two-stage statistical model that takes lexical targets (i.e., content words and phrases) in their sentential contexts and predicts frame-semantic structures. Given a target in context, the first stage disambiguates it to a semantic frame. This model uses latent variables and semi-supervised learning to improve frame disambiguation for ta...

  7. Semantic MediaWiki.

    OpenAIRE

    Krötzsch, M; Vrandecic, D; Völkel, M; Cruz, IF (Isabel); Decker, S; Allemang, D; Preist, C; Schwabe, D (Daniel); Mika, P (Peter); Uschold, M; Aroyo, L.

    2006-01-01

    Semantic MediaWiki is an extension of MediaWiki - a widely used wild-engine that also powers Wikipedia. Its aim is to make semantic technologies available to a broad community by smoothly integrating them with the established usage of MediaWiki. The software is already used on a number of productive installations world-wide, but the main target remains to establish "Semantic Wikipedia" as an early adopter of semantic technologies on the web. Thus usability and scalability are as important as ...

  8. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  9. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  10. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  11. Affective Dimension of University Professors about their Teaching: An Exploration through the Semantic Differential Technique / Dimensión afectiva de los profesores universitarios sobre la enseñanza: Una exploratoración através de la técnica del diferencial semántico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antoni, Badia Garganté; Julio, Meneses; Carles, Monereo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este estudio es incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las emociones de los profesores sobre su enseñanza, como un componente de la identidad docente. En la primera parte, presentamos una revisión comprensiva sobre la literatura acerca del tipo de emociones de los profes [...] ores y la enseñanza. En la segunda parte presentamos los resultados de un estudio de validez con una escala de diferencial semántico desarrollada para explorar las emociones de profesores universitarios sobre su enseñanza. Esta escala fue diligenciada por una muestra de 198 profesores universitarios y consistió en una lista de pares de adjetivos bipolares que resumen una gran cantidad de clasificaciones affectivas sobre la enseñanza en educación superior. El análisis factorial expoloratorio revela una estructura de tres factores de emociones sobre la enseñanza en educación superior: motivación para la enseñanza, auto-evaluación docente, y desempeño en la enseñanza. El cruzamiento de la escala con la aproximación docente de Trigwell y Prosser (2004) se analiza y se discute. Los resultados sugieren nuevas líneas de investigación acerca de las emociones de los profesores en educación superior, proponiendo estudios futuros para reunión una mayor evidencia de validez sobre las dimensiones afectivas en la enseñanza. Abstract in english The main objective of this study is to increase our knowledge regarding professors' emotions about their teaching, as a component of teacher identity. In the first part, we present a comprehensive review of the literature about the types of teachers' emotions and teaching. In the second part we pres [...] ent the results of a validity study with a semantic differential scale developed to explore the emotions of university professors about their teaching. This scale was fulfilled by a sample of198 university teachers and comprises a list of pairs of bi-polar adjectives that summarize a broad range of affective classifications about teaching in higher education. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three -factor structure of emotions about teaching in higher education: Motivation for teaching, Evaluation of oneself as a teacher, and Teaching performance. The cross-referencing of the scale to Trigwell and Prosser's (2004) teachers' approaches to teaching is analysed and discussed. Our results suggest new lines of research about teachers' emotions in higher education, proposing further studies to collect more validity evidences about the affective dimensions of teaching.

  12. Semdrops: A Social Semantic Tagging Approach for Emerging Semantic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Diego; Diaz, Alicia; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Molli, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract--This paper proposes a collective intelligence strategy for emerging semantic data. It presents a combination of social web practices with semantic web technologies to enrich existing web resources with semantic data. The paper introduces a social semantic tagging approach called Semdrops. Semdrops de?nes a conceptual model which is an extension of the Gruber's tag model where the tag concept is extended to semantic tag. Semdrops is implemented as a Firefox add-on tool that turns the...

  13. Organizational Semantic Web based Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Necula, Sabina-Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to treat organizational semantic web based portals. The first part of the paper focuses on concepts regarding semantic web based portals. After discussing some concepts we treat the basic functionalities that a semantic web based portal must have and we finish by presenting these functionalities by actual examples. We present semantic web based portals after studying the necessary implementations from literature and practice. We develop some examples that use semantic web ...

  14. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

  15. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  16. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  17. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  18. Semantic transfer in Verbmobil

    OpenAIRE

    Copestake, Ann

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a detailed discussion of semantic transfer in the context of the Verbmobil Machine Translation project. The use of semantic transfer as a translation mechanism is introduced and justified by comparison with alternative approaches. Some criteria for evaluation of transfer frameworks are discussed and a comparison is made of three different approaches to the representation of translation rules or equivalences. This is followed by a discussion of control of application of transfer ...

  19. Semantic based DNS Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages semantic and natural language processing tools in order to analyze large volumes of DNS data. The main research novelty consists in detecting malicious and dangerous domain names by evaluating the semantic similarity with already known names. This process can provide valuable information for...

  20. Semantic Game Worlds:

    OpenAIRE

    Tutenel, T.

    2012-01-01

    The visual quality of game worlds increased massively in the last three decades. However, the closer game worlds depict reality, the more noticeable it is for gamers when objects do not behave accordingly. An important problem is that the data of a game world is often scattered across different components of the game engine. What lacks is a common semantic representation that can act as the glue between these components. In this thesis we define semantic game worlds as game worlds that ar...

  1. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the Worl...

  2. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  3. A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Denhière, Guy; Lemaire, Benoît; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is des...

  4. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  5. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming).

  6. Defaults, preorder semantics and circumscription

    OpenAIRE

    Schlechta, Karl

    1992-01-01

    We examine questions related to translating defaults into circumscription. Imielinski has examined the concept of preorder semantics as an abstraction from specific systems of circumscription. We give precise definitions, characterize preorder semantics syntactically and examine the translatability of one default into preorder semantics. Finally, we give a rather bleak outlook on the translation of defaults into circumscription.

  7. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  8. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  9. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  10. A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory

    CERN Document Server

    Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

  11. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  12. Semantic-based Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Dorna, Michael; Emele, Martin

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a new semantic-based transfer approach developed and applied within the Verbmobil Machine Translation project. We give an overview of the declarative transfer formalism together with its procedural realization. Our approach is discussed and compared with several other approaches from the MT literature. The results presented in this article have been implemented and integrated into the Verbmobil system.

  13. Semantic physical science

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Rust Peter; Rzepa Henry S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’). We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles.

  14. Universal Semantics in Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenying Wang

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which applications are also briefly looked into.

  15. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  16. TRUSTING CROWDSOURCED GEOSPATIAL SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goodhue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature’s intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  17. Semantic and Lexical Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    Helping students understand coherence in terms of the lexical ties and semantic relations possible between clauses and sentences formalizes an area of writing instruction that has been somewhat vague before and makes the process of creating a coherent paragraph less mysterious. Many students do not have the intuitive knowledge base for absorbing…

  18. When the zebra loses its stripes but is still in the savannah: Results from a semantic priming paradigm in semantic dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Merck, Catherine; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Laisney, Mickaël; Vichard, Hélène; Belliard, Serge

    2013-01-01

    : Studies using semantic priming paradigms to measure the integrity of the features underlying concepts in semantic dementia (SD) reported differential impairment, in that functional features appeared to be more robust to brain damage than other features, such as perceptual ones. However, these prior studies were single case reports and the inclusion of too many heterogeneous features under the "functional features" heading casts doubts on their apparent preservation. To verify the robustness...

  19. From Data to Semantic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Floridi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  20. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  1. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Šimko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Many applications depend on the effective acquisition of semantic metadata, and this state-of-the-art volume provides extensive coverage of the field of semantics acquisition games (SAGs). SAGs are a part of the crowdsourcing approach family and the authors analyze their role as tools for acquisition of resource metadata and domain models. Three case studies of SAG-based semantics acquisition methods are shown, along with other existing SAGs: 1. the Little Search Game - a search query formulation game using negative search, serving for acquisition of lightweight semantics. 2. the PexAce - a ca

  2. Where Are the Semantics in the Semantic Web?

    OpenAIRE

    Uschold, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The most widely accepted defining feature of the semantic web is machine-usable content. By this definition, the semantic web is already manifest in shopping agents that automatically access and use web content to find the lowest air fares or book prices. However, where are the semantics? Most people regard the semantic web as a vision, not a reality -- so shopping agents should not "count." To use web content, machines need to know what to do when they encounter it, which, in turn, requires ...

  3. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.

  4. High density ERP indices of conscious and unconscious semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, María; Madrid, Eduardo; Lupiáñez, Juan; Tudela, Pío

    2003-10-01

    The existence of differential brain mechanisms of conscious and unconscious processing is a matter of debate nowadays. The present experiment explores whether conscious and unconscious semantic priming in a lexical decision task at a long prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) correlate with overlapping or different event related potential (ERP) effects. Results show that the N400 effect, which appeared when words were consciously perceived, completely disappeared when primes were masked at a level where the ability of participants to detect the prime was near chance. Instead, a rather different set of ERP effects was found to index unconscious semantic priming. This suggests that the processes at the basis of conscious and unconscious semantic analyses can under some circumstances be rather different. Moreover, our results support the notion that conscious and unconscious processes are at least partially separable in the brain. PMID:14561458

  5. Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Marko A.; Bollen, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meani...

  6. Bialgebraic Semantics for Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Bonchi, Filippo; Zanasi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Bialgebrae provide an abstract framework encompassing the semantics of different kinds of computational models. In this paper we propose a bialgebraic approach to the semantics of logic programming. Our methodology is to study logic programs as reactive systems and exploit abstract techniques developed in that setting. First we use saturation to model the operational semantics of logic programs as coalgebrae on presheaves. Then, we make explicit the underlying algebraic stru...

  7. Computing Semantic Relatedness using DBPedia

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, José Paulo; Rodrigues, Vânia; Queirós, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Extracting the semantic relatedness of terms is an important topic in several areas, including data mining, information retrieval and web recommendation. This paper presents an approach for computing the semantic relatedness of terms using the knowledge base of DBpedia - a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia. Several approaches to extract semantic relatedness from Wikipedia using bag-of-words vector models are already available in the literature. The research pre...

  8. A Timed Semantics for SDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Sharp, Robin

    1996-01-01

    An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics allows true concurrency. We show how it can be used to address issues such as the verification oftemporal properties, process scheduling, and the nature of viewed (shared) variables.

  9. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  10. Semantic modelling and lexical knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ortiz, Antonio

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper I describe the conceptual level of representation of a database, currently in development, which aims at fulfilling the Functional-Lexematic model. I will concentrate on the semantic component, as it is central for the theory of Functional Grammar as well as for the database overall structure. A brief introduction to database architecture and more specifically, semantic modelling, is provided. The focus is on semantic modelling as a useful tool to represent lexical inform...

  11. Towards a Semantic Grid Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Goble, Carole

    2005-01-01

    The Semantic Grid is an extension of the current Grid in which information and services are given well defined and explicitly represented meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. In the last few years, several projects have embraced this vision and there are already successful pioneering applications that combine the strengths of the Grid and of semantic technologies. However, the Semantic Grid currently lacks a reference architecture, or a systematic approach for...

  12. From data to semantic information

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Floridi

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definiti...

  13. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  14. Semantic Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Etter

    2011-01-01

    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

  15. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  16. Imaging semantics and syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Stefano F

    2012-06-01

    This is a highly selective review of functional imaging papers, which have attempted to isolate the neural substrates of semantic and syntactic processing in the human brain. The main emphasis is historical, with a special consideration of the mutual relationship between the traditional, lesion-based approach to the neurology of language and the contributions of the tremendous development of imaging techniques of the last decades. PMID:22019859

  17. Semantic Exploration of DNS

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme; Wagner, Cynthia; Engel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DNS structure discloses useful information about the organization and the operation of an enterprise network, which can be used for designing attacks as well as monitoring domains supporting malicious activities. Thus, this paper introduces a new method for exploring the DNS domains. Although our previous work described a tool to generate existing DNS names accurately in order to probe a domain automatically, the approach is extended by leveraging semantic analysis of domain names. In par...

  18. Semantic Social Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Erétéo, Guillaume; Gandon, Fabien; Corby, Olivier; Buffa, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) tries to understand and exploit the key features of social networks in order to manage their life cycle and predict their evolution. Increasingly popular web 2.0 sites are forming huge social network. Classical methods from social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to such online networks. In this paper, we propose leveraging semantic web technologies to merge and exploit the best features of each domain. We present how to facilitate and e...

  19. Semantic trajectory compression

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, F.; Richter, K F; Laube, P

    2009-01-01

    In the light of rapidly growing repositories capturing the movement tra jectories of people in spacetime, the need for tra jectory compression becomes obvious. This paper argues for semantic trajectory compression (STC) as a means of substantially compressing the movement trajectories in an urban environment with acceptable information loss. STC exploits that human urban movement and its large–scale use (LBS, navigation) is embedded in some geographic context, typically de?ned by tran...

  20. Questionnaire on focus semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Renans, Agata; Zimmermann, Malte; Greif, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This is the 15th issue of the working paper series Interdisciplinary Studies on Information Structure (ISIS) of the Sonderforschungsbereich (SFB) 632. This online version contains the Questionnaire on Focus Semantics contributed by Agata Renans, Malte Zimmermann and Markus Greif, members of Project D2 investigating information structural phenomena from a typological perspective. The present issue provides a tool for collecting and analyzing natural data with respect to relevant linguistic que...

  1. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  2. Complex Semantic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

  3. Dissociating the effects of semantic grouping and rehearsal strategies on event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleepen, T M J; Markus, C R; Jonkman, L M

    2014-12-01

    The application of elaborative encoding strategies during learning, such as grouping items on similar semantic categories, increases the likelihood of later recall. Previous studies have suggested that stimuli that encourage semantic grouping strategies had modulating effects on specific ERP components. However, these studies did not differentiate between ERP activation patterns evoked by elaborative working memory strategies like semantic grouping and more simple strategies like rote rehearsal. Identification of neurocognitive correlates underlying successful use of elaborative strategies is important to understand better why certain populations, like children or elderly people, have problems applying such strategies. To compare ERP activation during the application of elaborative versus more simple strategies subjects had to encode either four semantically related or unrelated pictures by respectively applying a semantic category grouping or a simple rehearsal strategy. Another goal was to investigate if maintenance of semantically grouped vs. ungrouped pictures modulated ERP-slow waves differently. At the behavioral level there was only a semantic grouping benefit in terms of faster responding on correct rejections (i.e. when the memory probe stimulus was not part of the memory set). At the neural level, during encoding semantic grouping only had a modest specific modulatory effect on a fronto-central Late Positive Component (LPC), emerging around 650 ms. Other ERP components (i.e. P200, N400 and a second Late Positive Component) that had been earlier related to semantic grouping encoding processes now showed stronger modulation by rehearsal than by semantic grouping. During maintenance semantic grouping had specific modulatory effects on left and right frontal slow wave activity. These results stress the importance of careful control of strategy use when investigating the neural correlates of elaborative encoding. PMID:25242500

  4. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel L. Moseley; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learn...

  5. Neural Dynamics Associated with Semantic and Episodic Memory for Faces: Evidence from Multiple Frequency Bands

    OpenAIRE

    Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Kutas, Marta; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Prior semantic knowledge facilitates episodic recognition memory for faces. To examine the neural manifestation of the interplay between semantic and episodic memory, we investigated neuroelectric dynamics during the creation (study) and the retrieval (test) of episodic memories for famous and nonfamous faces. Episodic memory effects were evident in several EEG frequency bands: theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (9–13 Hz), and gamma (40–100 Hz). Activity in these bands was differentially modulated by pree...

  6. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  7. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  8. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one based on denotational semantics and we identify the need for extending the semantic universe with low constructs whose sole purpose is to facilitate the proof. For dealing with partial correctness it suffices to consider approximations that are less defined than the desired fixed points; for dealing with total correctness we introduce functions that are more defined than the fixed points

  9. Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Woods

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychologiser la sémantique de la fictionLes théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique.Semantic theorists of fiction typically look for an account of our semantic relations to the fictional within general-purpose theories of reference, privileging an explanation of the semantic over the psychological. In this paper, we counsel a reverse dependency. In sorting out our psychological relations to the fictional, there is useful guidance about how to proceed with the semantics of fiction. A sketch of the semantics follows.

  10. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  11. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself, but by the specific way that the materials are used in the product. Selection of materials is therefore often done by looking at similar products. The product as well as its constitutive materials possesses a number of technical properties like strength, stiffness and hardness. Furthermore the product possesses a number of semantic properties associated with the meaning we read from the form, colour, texture and sound of the product. The purpose of working with these properties can be to make the use of the product more self-evident, to form or enhance the cultural meaning of the product and to give the product a distinct character. For the technical properties there exists a well developed and commonly accepted terminology that can be utilised at product search and material selection (Ashby 1996). This is not the case for the semantic properties which are important for the outcome reflecting the product design processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material search also require a clear terminology. It is not our aim to identify a new terminology but rather to identify the terminology already in use. The paper also describes different research methods for identifying such a terminology.

  12. Universal semantic communication

    CERN Document Server

    Juba, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Is meaningful communication possible between two intelligent parties who share no common language or background? In this work, a theoretical framework is proposed in which it is possible to address when and to what extent such semantic communication is possible: such problems can be rigorously addressed by explicitly focusing on the goals of the communication. Under this framework, it is possible to show that for many goals, communication without any common language or background is possible using universal protocols. This work should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate-level knowled

  13. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

  14. High density ERP indices of conscious and unconscious semantic priming.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ruz; Madrid, E; Lupiáñez, J; Tudela, P

    2003-01-01

    The existence of differential brain mechanisms of conscious and unconscious processing is a matter of debate nowadays. The present experiment explores whether conscious and unconscious semantic priming in a lexical decision task at a long prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) correlate with overlapping or different event related potential (ERP) effects. Results show that the N400 effect, which appeared when words were consciously perceived, completely disappeared when primes were maske...

  15. Semantic WEB Services Using Clustering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jayeeta Majumder,; Saikat Khanra

    2014-01-01

    Semantic Web Services, like conventional web services, are the server end of a client–server system for machine-to-machine interaction via the World Wide Web. Semantic services are a component of the semantic web because they use markup which makes data machine-readable in a detailed and sophisticated way (as compared with human-readable HTML which is usually not easily "understood" by computer programs). Semantic similarity measures are specific types of Semantic measures: ma...

  16. Search Relevance based on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bicer, Veli

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we explore the challenge of search relevance in the context of semantic search. Specifically, the notion of semantic relevance can be distinguished from the other types of relevance in Information Retrieval (IR) in terms of employing an underlying semantic model. We propose the emerging Semantic Web data on the Web which is represented in RDF graph structures as an important candidate to become such a semantic model in a search process.

  17. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops and adapts constantely. Recently both media and migrations have accelerated considerably in speed. In Europe and thus in Denmark homogenous populations have developed into multicultural ones; bringing people together with very different religions, new habits and other ways of expressing themselves. Language has not kept pace with this development. From obvious reasons in that millions of people have to adapt to this new situation with lightning speed. That seems not to be possible. We have to use words, metaphors and comparisons containing adverse connotations, and this situation creates ways of using unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble thatcould be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools to keep debates on the straight and narrow.

  18. A Semantic Approach for Recommendations generation: some Cultural Heritage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio De Tommasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available EnThe growing availability of data in the information systems has raised the challenging problem of distinguishing between the resources that belong to the same information context. Starting from the hypothesis that the information system is based on Semantic Web technologies, is it possible to use these technologies to make an information system more adaptive to user requirements in order to enable personalization and differentiation mechanisms in the information delivery process?This paper proposes an approach to building recommendations by using Semantic Web technologies, in order to give the users a different access to the information. The outcome is a semantic recommender engine, capable of retrieving and ranking semantically annotated resources, by using a set of domain ontologies and a semantic matching algorithm. We are showing some applications of this model in the Cultural Heritage domain in which the presented approach seems to be particularly effective, due to the richness of semantic structures and models existing for such domain.ItLa crescente quantità di dati disponibili da parte dei sistemi informativi ha sollevato il complesso problema della distinzione tra risorse appartenenti allo stesso contesto informativo. Partendo dall'ipotesi che il sistema informativo si basi sulle tecnologie proprie del Web Semantico, è possibile utilizzare tali tecnologie per rendere il sistema adattivo ai requisiti dell'utente, abilitando, in questo modo, meccanismi di personalizzazione e differenziazione?Questo articolo propone un approccio per la generazione di recommendation,  utilizzando le tecnologie del Web Semantico, al fine di fornire, ai singoli utenti, accessi differenziati alle informazioni. Il risultato è un motore di generazione di recommendation semantiche, in grado di recuperare e classificare risorse annotate semanticamente, avvalendosi di un set di ontologie di dominio e di un algoritmo di matching semantico. Saranno infine descritte alcune applicazioni di tale modello nel dominio del Cultural Heritage. In tale dominio, infatti, grazie all'enorme mole di ontologie, modelli e strutture semantiche esistenti, l'approccio presentato sembra essere particolarmente efficace.

  19. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrate its potential by two applications. As a first application, we localize lane structures by the semantic descriptors and their relations in a Bayesian framework. As the second application, which is in the context of vision based grasping, we show how the semantic relations can be associated to actions that allow for grasping without using any object knowledge.

  20. Semantic Search Engine: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Anusree.ramachandran; Sujatha, R.

    2011-01-01

    The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search ...

  1. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  2. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  3. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  4. UML 2 Semantics Symposium: Formal Semantics for UML

    OpenAIRE

    Broy, Manfred; Crane, Michelle L.; Dingel, Juergen; Hartman, Alan; Rumpe, Bernhar; Selic, Brau

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium, held in conjunction with MoDELS 2006, was to present the current state of research of the UML 2 Semantics Project. Equally important to receiving feedback from an audience of experts was the opportunity to invite researchers in the field to discuss their own work related to a formal semantics for the Unified Modeling Language. This symposium is a follow-on to our first workshop, held in conjunction with ECMDA 2005.

  5. Spacetimes with Semantics (II), Scaling of agency, semantics, and tenancy

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Using Promise Theory as a calculus, I review how to define agency in a scalable way, for the purpose of understanding semantic spacetimes. By following simple scaling rules, replacing individual agents with `super-agents' (sub-spaces), it is shown how agency can be scaled both dynamically and semantically. The notion of occupancy and tenancy, or how space is used and filled in different ways, is also defined, showing how spacetime can be shared between independent parti...

  6. Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Samper

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS. The algorithm uses the description of the service capabilities to match the semantic values. The traditional matching has been improved using ontologies which constitute a step further in the matching algorithms. To implement the algorithm, an agent FIPA compliant architecture has been designed and developed. The results obtained are positive. The semantic web services framework developed in combination with the use of the matchmaking algorithm, which allows finding services based on their similarities.

  7. Semantic domains in computational linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzo, Alfio

    2009-01-01

    An ideal text for researchers and graduate students, this comprehensive volume covers semantic domains and domain models, as well as ways of applying the technique to text categorization, word sense disambiguation, and cross-language text categorization.

  8. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I; Frank, Anette; Reyle, Uwe

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative representations of the sentence which are then filtered by subsequent discourse and world knowledge. The advantage of UDRSs is not only that they allow for monotonic incremental interpretation but also that they are equipped with truth conditions and a proof theory that a...

  9. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The advantages of the formlism are shown with respect to a grammar for a fragment of German that deals with (i) quantifier scope ambiguities triggered by scrambling and/or movement and (ii) ambiguities that arise from the collective/distributive distinction of plural NPs. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative...

  10. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  11. Semantic Changes in Apparent Time

    OpenAIRE

    Magué, Jean-Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Semantic changes have been scientifically studied for more than 150 years (Nerlich 1992). All along this history, successive generations of scholars have adopted at least three different theoretical frameworks (Magué 2005). Chronologically, the first trend focused on the identification of the different kinds of semantic changes a lexeme can undergo. This taxonomist trend culminates with Ullman (1962). The second trend adopts a typologist point of view and is characterized both by the advocacy...

  12. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Light, M

    1996-01-01

    Most natural language processing tasks require lexical semantic information. Automated acquisition of this information would thus increase the robustness and portability of NLP systems. This paper describes an acquisition method which makes use of fixed correspondences between derivational affixes and lexical semantic information. One advantage of this method, and of other methods that rely only on surface characteristics of language, is that the necessary input is currently available.

  13. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  14. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  15. Semantic priming in number naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynvoet, Bert; Brysbaert, Marc; Fias, Wim

    2002-10-01

    The issue of semantic and non-semantic conversion routes for numerals is still debated in numerical cognition. We report two number-naming experiments in which the target numerals were preceded by another numeral (prime). The primes and targets could be presented either in arabic (digit) notation or in verbal (alphabetical) notation. The results reveal a semantically related distance effect: Latencies are fastest when the prime has the same value as the target and increase when the distance between prime and target increases. We argue that the present results are congruent with the idea that the numerals make access to an ordered semantic number line common to all notations, as the results are the same for within-notation priming (arabic-arabic or verbal-verbal) and between-notations priming (arabic-verbal or verbal-arabic). The present results also point to a rapid involvement of semantics in the naming of numerals, also when the numerals are words. As such, they are in line with recent claims of rapid semantic mediation in word naming. PMID:12420988

  16. Semantic Approach for Query Explication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

  17. Service composition for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Medjahed, Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Service Composition for the Semantic Web presents an in-depth analysis of aspects related to semantic-enabled Web service modeling and composition. It also covers challenges and solutions to composing Web services on the semantic Web, and proposing a semantic framework for organizing and describing Web services. Service Composition for the Semantic Web describes composability and matching models to check whether semantic Web services can be combined together to avoid unexpected failures at run time, and a set of algorithms that automatically generate detailed descriptions of composite services

  18. Canadian semantic web technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Weichang

    2010-01-01

    Introduces the most recent advanced working theories, prototypes and applicationsProvides a special focus on applications of semantic web technology on electronic healthProvides contents on semantic web technologies for both researchers and practitioners

  19. Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Marko A

    2007-01-01

    Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meaningful ways. However, new models have emerged that explicitly encode procedural information within the semantic network substrate. With these new technologies, the Semantic Web has evolved from a data modeling medium to a computational medium. This article provides a classification of existing computational modeling efforts and the requirements of supporting technologies that will aid in the further growth of this burgeoning domain.

  20. SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide W...

  1. SomeRDFS in the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Adjiman, Philippe; Goasdoué, François; Rousset, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    The Semantic Web envisions a world-wide distributed architecture where computational resources will easily inter-operate to coordinate complex tasks such as query answering. Semantic marking up of web resources using ontologies is expected to provide the necessary glue for making this vision work. Using ontology languages, (communities of) users will build their own ontologies in order to describe their own data. Adding semantic mappings between those ontologies, in order to semantically rela...

  2. Intuitions and competence in formal semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Stokhof

    2011-01-01

    In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Gi...

  3. Semantic photo synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Brostow, G. J.; Shotton, J.; Kwatra, V.; Cipolla, R.

    2007-02-01

    Composite images are synthesized from existing photographs by artists who make concept art, e.g. storyboards for movies or architectural planning. Current techniques allow an artist to fabricate such an image by digitally splicing parts of stock photographs. While these images serve mainly to "quickly" convey how a scene should look, their production is laborious. We propose a technique that allows a person to design a new photograph with substantially less effort. This paper presents a method that generates a composite image when a user types in nouns, such as "boat" and "sand." The artist can optionally design an intended image by specifying other constraints. Our algorithm formulates the constraints as queries to search an automatically annotated image database. The desired photograph, not a collage, is then synthesized using graph-cut optimization, optionally allowing for further user interaction to edit or choose among alternative generated photos. Our results demonstrate our contributions of (1) a method of creating specific images with minimal human effort, and (2) a combined algorithm for automatically building an image library with semantic annotations from any photo collection.

  4. Web to Semantic Web & Role of Ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this research paper we are briefly presenting current major web problems and introducing semantic web technologies with the claim of solving existing web's problems. Furthermore we are describing Ontology as the main building block of semantic web and focusing on its contributions to semantic web progress and current limitations.

  5. Semantic HMC for Big Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Thomas; Peixoto, Rafael; Cruz, Christophe; Bertaux, Aurlie; Silva, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing Big Data can help corporations to im-prove their efficiency. In this work we present a new vision to derive Value from Big Data using a Semantic Hierarchical Multi-label Classification called Semantic HMC based in a non-supervised Ontology learning process. We also proposea Semantic HMC process, using scalable Machine-Learning techniques and Rule-based reasoning.

  6. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab Abd al-Hamed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

  7. Semantic networks: visualizations of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, R T; Barnden, J A

    1997-08-01

    The history of semantic networks is almost as long as that of their parent discipline, artificial intelligence. They have formed the basis of many fascinating, yet controversial, discussions in conferences and in the literature, ranging from metaphysics through to complexity theory in computer science. Many excellent surveys of the field have been written, and yet it is our belief that none of them has examined the important link between their use as a formal scheme for knowledge representation and their more heuristic use as an informal tool for thinking. In our consideration of semantic networks as computerized tools, we will discuss three levels of abstraction that we believe can help us understand how semantic networks are used. I. PMID:21223898

  8. Agency and the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This text looks at the construction of the Semantic Web, which will enable computers to automatically and independently consume Web-based information. With numerous programming examples, it is ideal for undergraduates and graduates in mathematics, computer science and logic and researchers interested in Multi-Agent Systems and the Semantic Web. - ;This highly topical text considers the construction of the next generation of the Web, called the Semantic Web. This will enable computers to automatically consume Web-based information, overcoming the human-centric focus of the Web as it stands at present, and expediting the construction of a whole new class of knowledge-based applications that will intelligently utilise Web content. The text is structured into three main sections on knowledge representation techniques, reasoning with multi-agent systems, and knowledge services. For each of these topics, the text provides an overview of the state-of-the-art techniques and the popular standards that have been define...

  9. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    CERN Document Server

    Poesio, M

    1995-01-01

    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language is specified as the translation language of a grammar covering sentences that display three classes of semantic ambiguity: lexical ambiguity, scopal ambiguity, and referential ambiguity. The expressions of this language denote sets of senses. A formalization of defeasible reasoning with underspecified representations is presented, based on Default Logic. Some issues to be confronted by such a formalization are discussed.

  10. Business Intelligence using Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yasodha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers becomes an essential thing in our day-to-day life. Currently, computers can change from single, isolated devices into entry points to exchange the information called World Wide Web(WWW. Humans are capable of using the web to carry our the task. However, a computer cannot accomplish the same task without the human direction, because web pages are designed to be read by the people, not by the machines. Usually, humans interact with the web to gather information or to improve their business intelligence. The information is accessed by giving a related keyword to search. This keyword is used by the server to provide the relevant information about the given keyword. The server provides only limited information for the given keyword. But there exists a lot of information regarding the keyword but it is not provided to the user due to the lack of word in the given keyword. So the keyword searching becomes intangible to fulfill the requirements of the user in some situation. This kind of searching is made with the presence of humans. To overcome this problem and to reduce the human effort, we propose a new method in this paper. This new method is termed as “SEMANTIC WEB”. The Semantic Web is an extension of the WWW. This is used to carry out the task directly by the computers instead of humans. The computer generates the Machine-Processable Information. The Semantic Web provides the automated schemes for gaining more relevant information by analyzing the kind of user behavior who currently use the web. With the help of Semantic Web, the user can access the web and gather more information with less effort. Semantic web is used to provide information by the web itself. This paper is used to explain the use and applications of the Semantic Web in a precise way.

  11. Different brain activities predict retrieval success during emotional and semantic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Brandeis, Daniel; Perrig, Walter J

    2011-12-01

    There is an increasing line of evidence supporting the idea that the formation of lasting memories involves neural activity preceding stimulus presentation. Following this line, we presented words in an incidental learning setting and manipulated the prestimulus state by asking the participants to perform either an emotional (neutral or emotional) or a semantic (animate or inanimate) decision task. Later, we tested the retrieval of each previously presented word with a recognition memory test. For both conditions, the subsequent memory effect (SME) was defined as ERP difference between subsequently remembered and forgotten words. Comparing the prestimulus SME between and within the two conditions yielded topographic differences in the time interval from -1300 to -700 msec before stimulus onset. This indicates that the activity of brain areas involved in incidental encoding of semantic information varied in the spatial distribution of ERPs, depending on the emotional and semantic requirements of the task. These findings provide evidence that there is a difference in semantic and emotional preparatory processes, which modulates successful encoding into episodic memory. This difference suggests that there are multiple task-specific functional neural systems that support memory formation. These systems differ in location and/or relative contribution of some of the brain structures that generate the measured scalp electric fields. Consequently, the cognitive processes that enable memory formation depend on the differential semantic nature of the study task and reflect differences in the preparatory processing of the multiple semantic components of a word's meaning. PMID:21812556

  12. Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sakthivel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Web Services are mounting as an inventive mechanism for rendering services to subjective devices over the WWW. As a consequence of the rapid growth of Web Services applications and the plenty of Service Providers, the consumer is facing with the inevitability of selecting the “right” Service Provider. In such a scenario the Quality of Service (QoS serves as a target to differentiate Service Providers. To select the best Web Services / Service Providers, Ranking and Optimization of Web Service Compositions are challenging areas of research with significant implications for the realization of the “Web of Services” revelation. The “Semantic Web Services” use formal semantic descriptions of Web Service functionality and interface to enable automated reasoning over Web Service Compositions. This study from its experimental results revealed that the existing Semantic Web Services faces a few challenging issues such as poor prediction of best Web Services and optimized Service Providers, which leads to QoS degradation of Semantic Web. To address and overcome these identified issues, this research work is calculating the semantic similarities, utilization of various Web Services and Service Providers. After measuring these parameters, all the Web Services are ranked based on their Utilization. Finally, our proposed technique, selected best Web Services based on their ranking and placed in Web Services Composition. From the experimental results, it is established that our proposed mechanism improves the performance of Semantic Web in terms of Execution Time, Processor Utilization and Memory Management.

  13. Linguistic Extraction for Semantic Annotation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D?dek, J.; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin : Springer, 2008 - (Badica, C.; Mangioni, G.; Carchiolo, V.; Burdescu, D.), s. 85-94 ISBN 978-3-540-85256-8. - (Studies in Computational Intelligence. 162). [IDC 2008. International Symposium on Intelligent and Distributed Computing /2./. Catania (IT), 18.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA AV ?R 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic information extraction * linguistics * semantic computing * aggregation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. Semantics as Based on Inference.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2006 - (van Benthem, J.; Heinzmann, G.; Rebuschi, M.; Visser, H.), s. 25-36 ISBN 1-4020-5011-9. - (Logic, Epistemology , and the Unity of Science. 3). [Philosophical Insights into Logic and Mathematics: The History and Outcome of Alternative Semantics and Syntax. Nancy (FR), 30.09.2002-04.10.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA0009001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : formal semantics * inferentialism * logical calculi Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Order effects in dynamic semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2014-01-01

    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from the crucial non-commutativity of mental operations upon the belief state of a cognitive agent. PMID:24259268

  16. Web Semantization – Design and Principles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D?dek, Jan; Eckhardt, Alan; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin : Springer, 2010 - (Snášel, V.; Szczepaniak, P.; Abraham, A.; Kacprzyk, J.), s. 3-18 ISBN 978-3-642-10686-6. - (Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. 67). [AWIC 2009. Atlantic Web Intelligence Conference /6./. Prague (CZ), 09.09.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA ?R GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic web * semantic annotation * web information extraction * user preferences Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  17. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  18. Multimedia Semantics Metadata, Analysis and Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Troncy, Raphael; Schenk, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the latest research results in the multimedia and semantic web communities, bridging the "Semantic Gap" This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science,

  19. Extracting Generalized Semantic Roles from Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Jafarinejad; Mehrnoush Shamsfard

    2012-01-01

    One of the oldest constructs of linguistic theory is semantic role. Automatic extraction of semantic roles in a sentence is a movement towards semantic processing of texts which has been the focus of attention in recent years. Extraction of semantic roles from a text contains some essential parts. Recognition of verb(s) of the sentence, recognition of noun phrases and their heads, and labeling the role of each phrase in the sentence as a semantic argument of verb are general parts of a system...

  20. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corporaIn view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  1. Semantic grid model, methodology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hua-jun

    2008-01-01

    Semantic Grid: Model, Methodology, and Applications introduces to the science, core technologies, and killer applications. First, scientific issues of semantic grid systems are covered, followed by two basic technical issues, data-level semantic mapping, and service-level semantic interoperating. Two killer applications are then introduced to show how to build a semantic grid for specific application domains. Although this book is organized in a step by step manner, each chapter is independent. Detailed application scenarios are also presented. In 1990, Prof. Wu invented the first KB-system tool, ZIPE, based on C on a SUN platform. He proposed the first coupling knowledge representing model, Couplingua, which embodies Rule, Frame, Semantic Network and Nerve Cell Network, and supports symbol computing and data processing computing. His current focus is on semantic web, grid & ubiquitous computing, and their applications in the life sciences.

  2. Learning Dependency-Based Compositional Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Percy; Klein, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Suppose we want to build a system that answers a natural language question by representing its semantics as a logical form and computing the answer given a structured database of facts. The core part of such a system is the semantic parser that maps questions to logical forms. Semantic parsers are typically trained from examples of questions annotated with their target logical forms, but this type of annotation is expensive. Our goal is to learn a semantic parser from question-answer pairs instead, where the logical form is modeled as a latent variable. Motivated by this challenging learning problem, we develop a new semantic formalism, dependency-based compositional semantics (DCS), which has favorable linguistic, statistical, and computational properties. We define a log-linear distribution over DCS logical forms and estimate the parameters using a simple procedure that alternates between beam search and numerical optimization. On two standard semantic parsing benchmarks, our system outperforms all existing...

  3. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate distributed code using the original Statemate semantics. The new, distributed semantics has the advantages that, first, it enables the generation of efficient distributed code, second, it preserves many aspects of the original semantics for those parts of a model that are not distributed, and third, the changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation for embedded control applications.

  4. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  5. Semantic Features of the Object

    OpenAIRE

    Grici?t?, Salom?ja

    2012-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the features of the object in traditional and semantic syntax. A special attention is payed to the processes and the ways of expressing the object in each of them, namely, in material, mental, verbal, relational, existential and happening processes. The examples were taken from the novel "The Great Gatsby" by F. Scott Fitzgerald.

  6. Semantics Based on Conceptual Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärdenfors, Peter

    The overall goal is to show that conceptual spaces are more promising than other ways of modelling the semantics of natural language. In particular, I will show how they can be used to model actions and events. I will also outline how conceptual spaces provide a cognitive grounding for word classes, including nouns, adjectives, prepositions and verbs.

  7. Semantics as Based on Inference.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2006 - (van Benthem, J.; Heinzmann, G.; Rebuschi, M.; Visser, H.), s. 25-36 ISBN 1-4020-5011-9. - (Logic, Epistemology , and the Unity of Science. 3) R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA0009001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : formal semantics * inferentialism * logical calculi Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. Generative Semantics and Dialect Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, James W.

    An extrinsic relationship between generative semantics and dialect geography should be exploited because contemporary transformational grammarians have too easily ignored the work of the dialectologist and have been too readily satisfied with what might be called armchair evidence. The work of the dialect geographers needs to be taken into…

  9. The semantic conception of proof

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Nik

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the informal semantic conception of proof and axiomatize the proof relation and the provability operator. A self referential propositional calculus which admits provable liar type sentences is introduced and proven consistent. We also investigate the problem of interpreting arbitrary formal systems in systems which include a provability operator.

  10. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pun?ochá?, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 3 (2015), s. 323-355. ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  11. The Myth of Semantic Structure.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Heusenstamm : Ontos Verlag, 2010 - (Stalmaszczyk, P.), s. 183-197 ISBN 978-3-86838-070-5 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : semantic structure * lofical form Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  12. The Scandal of Semantic Platonism.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Vladimír

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2012 - (Maclaurin, J.), s. 191-200 ISBN 978-94-007-3983-3. - (Studies in History and Philosophy of Science . 28) R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : semantics * Platonism, * constructions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  13. The Method of Automatic Acquisition of Semantic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niguang Tian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a semantic relation database, and uses the semantic relation database automatic acquisition of syntactic patterns and new relationships, and syntactic patterns to obtain a method of semantic relations.

  14. Semantic annotation of French corpora: Animacy and verb semantic classes

    OpenAIRE

    Thuilier, Juliette; Danlos, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first corpus of French annotated for animacy and for verb semantic classes. The resource consists of 1,346 sentences extracted from three different corpora: the French Treebank (Abeillé and Barrier, 2004), the Est-Républicain corpus (CNRTL) and the ESTER corpus (ELRA). It is a set of parsed sentences, containing a verbal head subcategorizing two complements, with annotations on the verb and on both complements, in the TIGER XML format (Mengel and Lezius, 2000). The resou...

  15. An overview of semantic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2010-08-01

    We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and approaches are considered, ranging from low-level semantic compression for text and database compaction, to high-level semantic analysis of images or video in which objects of interest have been detected, segmented, and represented compactly to facilitate indexing. In particular, we overview previous work in semantic pattern recognition, and how this has been applied to object-based compression. Discussion centers on lossless versus lossy transformations, quality of service in lossy compression, and computational efficiency.

  16. Towards a Programmable Semantic Extract-Transform-Load Framework for Semantic Data Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Rudra; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    In order to create better decisions for business analytics, organizations increasingly use external data, structured, semistructured and unstructured, in addition to the (mostly structured) internal data. Current Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) tools are not suitable for this "open world scenario" because they do not consider semantic issues in the integration process. Also, current ETL tools neither support processing semantic-aware data nor create a Semantic Data Warehouse (DW) as a semantic repo...

  17. Semantic hyperpriming in schizophrenic patients: increased facilitation or impaired inhibition in semantic association processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Lecardeur, Laurent; Giffard, Bénédicte; Laisney, Mickael; Brazo, Perrine; Delamillieure, Pascal; Eustache, Francis; Dollfus, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing semantic priming in schizophrenic patients have reported conflicting results. In the present study, we explored semantic priming in a sample of schizophrenic patients with mild thought disorders. We wondered if distinct cognitive processes, such as facilitation and/or inhibition, underlie semantic hyperpriming and are variously impaired in schizophrenic patients. Using a lexical decision task, we evaluated semantic priming in 15 schizophrenic patients (DSM-IV) with ...

  18. Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Gupta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word“Semantic” refers to “meaning” – a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and resultoriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding informationon the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision oflinking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream,hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines toyield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework thenaïve approach of searching information on the syntactic web is cliché. This paper proposes an optimisedsemantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with aproposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to accessand time saving.

  19. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xia

    2013-01-01

    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  20. How Does Ontology Contribute in Semantic Web Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates and briefly describes the major currently existing problems with World Wide Web .i.e., Information filtration and Security became the main reasons of semantic web's invention. The semantic web claims of providing the semantic based solutions towards current web problems. Semantic web have introduced and relies on a main building block "Ontology" to provide the information in machine processable semantic models and produce semantically modelled knowled...

  1. A Necessary Condition for Semantic Interoperability in the Large

    OpenAIRE

    Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Aberer, Karl

    2004-01-01

    With new standards like RDF or OWL paving the way for the much anticipated semantic web, a new breed of large scale semantic systems is about to appear. Even if research on semantic reconciliation methods is abundant, it is not clear how interoperable very large scale semantic systems can be. This paper represents a first effort towards analytically analyzing semantic interoperability in the large: By adapting a recent graph-theoretic framework, we examine the dynamics of large scale semantic...

  2. Semantic Web Framework for Development of Very Large Ontologies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergey, Yablonsky.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of the Semantic Web framework for very large ontologies. The Semantic Web is often associated with specific XML-based standards for semantics, such as RDF and OWL. Application of lexical ontologies such as WordNet and others for different tasks on the Semantic W [...] eb requires their representation in RDF and/or OWL formats with possibility of the different ontology mappings, semantic workflows, services and other semantic technologies.

  3. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  4. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  5. Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Significant research activities have recently been directed towards the Semantic Web as a potential future substitute of the current World Wide Web. Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data. An important role in research towards the Semantic Web is played by formalisms and technologies for handling uncertainty and/or vagueness. In this paper, I first provide some motivating examples for handling uncerta...

  6. A DSL for Explicit Semantic Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Bart; Denil, Joachim; Boulanger, Frédéric; Hardebolle, Cécile; Jacquet, Christophe; Vangheluwe, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the domain of heterogeneous model composition, semantic adaptation is the "glue" that is necessary to assemble heterogeneous models so that the resulting composed model has well-defined semantics. In this paper, we present an execution model for a semantic adaptation interface between heterogeneous models. We introduce a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) for specifying such an interface explicitly using rules, and a transformation toward the ModHel'X framework. The DSL enables the modeller to...

  7. Semantic Interoperation for GeoScience Models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, integrated models involving components from different disciplines have become the developing trend of GeoScience modelling. However, a common lack of semantic representation produces hurdles for model sharing, reusing and interoperation. SOA and Web Service provide a more interoperable architecture for GeoScience Modelling with distributed components, however, is still limited to semantic interoperability. This paper theoretically discussed the motivation of using Semantic We...

  8. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish, Naveen; Industrial Experiences

    2005-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building systems based on Semantic-Web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic-Web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing (IT) endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific inf...

  9. Names, types, and static semantic analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Heberle, Andreas; Glesner, Sabine; Loewe, Welf

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new approach for the specification and generation of the semantic analysis for typed programming languages. We specify context-sensitive syntactic properties of a language by a system of semantic rules. For various imperative programming language concepts, we discuss the required semantic rules. In particular, we show how overloading of programmer-defined identifiers can be handled. We propose an algorithm to solve these constraint systems efficiently, ...

  10. Metadata for semantic and social applications

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Metadata is a key aspect of our evolving infrastructure for information management, social computing, and scientific collaboration. DC-2008 will focus on metadata challenges, solutions, and innovation in initiatives and activities underlying semantic and social applications. Metadata is part of the fabric of social computing, which includes the use of wikis, blogs, and tagging for collaboration and participation. Metadata also underlies the development of semantic applications, and the Semant...

  11. An Update Semantics for Defeasible Obligations

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Torre, Leendert; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The deontic logic DUS is a Deontic Update Semantics for prescriptive obligations based on the update semantics of Veltman. In DUS the definition of logical validity of obligations is not based on static truth values but on dynamic action transitions. In this paper prescriptive defeasible obligations are formalized in update semantics and the diagnostic problem of defeasible deontic logic is discussed. Assume a defeasible obligation `normally A ought to be (done)' together wi...

  12. Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    MANNING, JEREMY R.; Kahana, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organized, and retrieved. One pervasive finding is that when a pair of semantically related words (e.g. “cat” and “dog”) is embedded in the studied list, the related words are often recalled successively. This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering (Bousfield and Sedgewick, 1944...

  13. Composition in distributional models of semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jeffrey John

    2011-01-01

    Distributional models of semantics have proven themselves invaluable both in cognitive modelling of semantic phenomena and also in practical applications. For example, they have been used to model judgments of semantic similarity (McDonald, 2000) and association (Denhire and Lemaire, 2004; Griffiths et al., 2007) and have been shown to achieve human level performance on synonymy tests (Landuaer and Dumais, 1997; Griffiths et al., 2007) such as those included in the Test of Engl...

  14. Semantic Web Requirements through Web Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Semantic web has become a topic of active research in several fields of computer science and has applied in a wide range of domains such as bioinformatics, life sciences, and knowledge management. The two fast-developing research areas semantic web and web mining can complement each other and their different techniques can be used jointly or separately to solve the issues in both areas. In addition, since shifting from current web to semantic web mainly depe...

  15. Mining Biomedical Texts to Generate Semantic Annotations

    OpenAIRE

    Khelif, Khaled; Dieng-Kuntz, Rose; Barbry, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on text mining in the biomedical domain for the generation of semantic annotations based on a formal model which is ontology. We start by exposing the generic methodology for the generation of annotations from texts. Then, we present a state of the art on different knowledge extraction techniques used on biomedical texts. We propose our approach based on Semantic Web Technologies and Natural Language Processing (NLP): it relies on formal ontologies to generate semantic ann...

  16. Semantic Plagiarism Detection System Using Ontology Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Shenoy K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism detection can play an important role in detecting stealing of original ideas in papers, journals and internet web sites. Checking these manually is simply impossible nowadays due to existence of large digital repository. Ontology is a way of describing documents semantics. Ontology mapping can resolve semantic heterogeneity in documents. Our paper proposes an automatic system for semantic plagiarism detection based on ontology mapping.

  17. Automatic Ontology Matching Using Application Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Avigdor; Modica, Giovanni; Jamil, Hasan; Eyal, Ami

    2005-01-01

    We propose the use of application semantics to enhance the process of semantic reconciliation. Application semantics involves those elements of business reasoning that affect the way concepts are presented to users: their layout, and so on. In particular, we pursue in this article the notion of precedence, in which temporal constraints determine the order in which concepts are presented to the user. Existing matching algorithms use either syntactic means (such as term matching and domain matc...

  18. The evolution of semantic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-05-01

    Semantic or cultural systems are sets of concepts connected by meaningful relationships, and they exhibit properties similar to those of populations of biological organisms. Drawing upon ideas from evolutionary biology and methods from information technology, this article explores the potential for research and engineering on the evolution of semantic systems. Such work in cultural genetics requires two things: (1) a rigorous but evolving taxonomic system to categorize cultural artifacts, elements, and clusters, and (2) a set of hypotheses about the processes that cause evolutionary change. This article illustrates systematic approaches to cultural taxonomy with data on the popular ideology of the space program, science fiction motion pictures, nanotechnology books, and nanotechnology research grants. It offers hypotheses derived from evolutionary and population biology that might be useful in explaining cultural evolution. PMID:15194612

  19. Social Semantic Digital Library: The Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Projes Roy,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of classic and digital libraries into digital libraries is now passe. With evolution of technologies, classic libraries have upgraded themselves and have emerged as library and information centres. This paper discusses the integration of computer technologies with library and information science, and how semantics can be customised for library operations, and what can be the measures for converting routine tasks to semantic tasks. The paper concludes that making social semantic digital library is not at and the only thing required is to reduce the gap between library and Semantic Web communities.

  20. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ganapathi Babu; A.Komali; V.Mythry; A.S.K Ratnam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

  1. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  2. Analysis and Interpretation of Semantic HTML Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng; Guo, Feifei; Xu, Fan; Chen, Xiuguo

    Table is an effective manifestation of structural knowledge, on which the semantic analysis is a very important part in semantic document analysis. To interpret the structure and the semantic relations of the HTML documents, definitions of normalized table and tabular coordinate system are proposed according to database relation theory. This paper classifies cells into normalized cells and visual cells, indicates that row or column and its combined cell are the primary semantic expression forms of table and nested tables are the further expansion of a certain table cell. Finally, a table analyzing algorithm is given based on tabular coordinate system. Practice shows that the algorithm is simple, fast and having certain practical significance.

  3. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Jarmasz, Mario; Szpakowicz, Stan

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced b...

  4. Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Systems in this research paper.

  5. Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Syste...

  6. Semantic construction from parse forests

    OpenAIRE

    Schiehlen, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes a system which uses packed parser output directly to build semantic representations. More specifically, the system takes as input Packed Shared Forests in the sense of Tomita [Tomita, 1985] and produces packed Underspecified Discourse Representation Structures. The algorithm visits every node in the Parse Forest only a bounded number of times, so that a significant increase in efficiency is registered for ambiguous sentences.

  7. Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business

    OpenAIRE

    Juha Puustjarvi

    2010-01-01

    E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. X...

  8. Semantic Interoperability and Health Records

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Hugo; Machado, José; Neves, José; Abelha, António

    2010-01-01

    Systems Interoperability and Electronic Health Records are responsible for an exponential number of visits in electronic repository, either in terms of medical professionals or related staff. This is paramount for a better and sustainable quality-of-care in clinical assistance and of great potential to medical research. Following these lines of though, we present an agency for the diffusion, integration and archiving of medical information, and show how semantic web can enforce the use of ele...

  9. Semantics for Possibilistic Disjunctive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves, Juan Carlos; Osorio, Mauricio; Cortés, Ulises

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a possibilistic disjunctive logic programming approach for modeling uncertain, incomplete and inconsistent information is defined. This approach introduces the use of possibilistic disjunctive clauses which are able to capture incomplete information and incomplete states of a knowledge base at the same time. By considering a possibilistic logic program as a possibilistic logic theory, a construction of a possibilistic logic programming semantic based on answ...

  10. Semantic Enhancement of Lecture Material

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolay, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Today's lectures are often talks following a straight line of slides. In many lectures the process of content teaching is not as efficient as it could be. Technologies, such as smart-phones and wireless communication, enable a new level of interaction between lecturer, content and audience. We describe how current lecture material can be semantically enhanced, to interactively assist the audience during and after a lecture.

  11. Order effects in dynamic semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2013-01-01

    In their target article, \\citet{WangBusemeyer13} [A quantum question order model supported by empirical tests of an a priori and precise prediction. \\emph{Topics in Cognitive Science}] discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different varia...

  12. Semantically Enhanced Software Documentation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Klieber, Werner; Granitzer, Michael; Gaisbauer, Mansuet; Tochtermann, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    High-quality software documentation is a substantial issue for understanding software systems. Shorter time-to-market software cycles increase the importance of automatism for keeping the documentation up to date. In this paper, we describe the automatic support of the software documentation process using semantic technologies. We introduce a software documentation ontology as an underlying knowledge base. The defined ontology is populated automatically by analysing source code, sof...

  13. Ontologies for the semantic web

    OpenAIRE

    Vallés, María Clara; Fillottrani, Pablo Rubén

    2008-01-01

    The Semantic Web attempts to reach a state in the future where everything on the Web will no longer be only machine-readable, but also machine-understandable. An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization. A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose. Every knowledge base, knowledge-based system, or knowledge-level agent is committed to some conceptualization, explicitly or implicitly. By defining shared and comm...

  14. From Distributional to Semantic Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, James Richard

    2004-01-01

    Lexical-semantic resources, including thesauri and WORDNET, have been successfully incorporated into a wide range of applications in Natural Language Processing. However they are very difficult and expensive to create and maintain, and their usefulness has been severely hampered by their limited coverage, bias and inconsistency. Automated and semi-automated methods for developing such resources are therefore crucial for further resource development and improved application perf...

  15. Integrating dynamic resources in corporate semantic web: an approach to enterprise application integration using semantic web services

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Moussa; Gandon, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing semantic web server architecture used by the ACACIA team to implement corporate memories. We rely on CORESE, a semantic web search engine, to provide web applications based on the semantic web services it can identify. Thus, CORESE is used as a semantic UDDI registry and allows us to automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules and an extensi...

  16. Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Puustjarvi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

  17. Towards a Programmable Semantic Extract-Transform-Load Framework for Semantic Data Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Rudra; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In order to create better decisions for business analytics, organizations increasingly use external data, structured, semistructured and unstructured, in addition to the (mostly structured) internal data. Current Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) tools are not suitable for this "open world scenario" because they do not consider semantic issues in the integration process. Also, current ETL tools neither support processing semantic-aware data nor create a Semantic Data Warehouse (DW) as a semantic repository of semantically integrated data. This paper describes SETL: a (Python based) programmable Semantic ETL framework. SETL builds on Semantic Web (SW) standards and tools and supports developers by offerring a number of powerful modules, classes and methods for (dimensional and semantic) DW constructs and tasks. Thus it supports semantic-aware data sources, semantic integration, and creating a semantic DW, composed of an ontology and its instances. A comprehensive experimental evaluation comparing SETL to a solution made with traditional tools (requiring much more hand coding) on a concrete use case, shows that SETL provides better performance, knowledge base quality and porgrammer productivity.

  18. Improving the quality and reliability of traffic differentiation in IP networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Pedro; de Carvalho, Paulo; Freitas, Vasco

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a modular scheduling architecture for multi-QoS metric differentiation in class-based IP networks. The rationale of the supported differentiation modules is presented, highlighting the distinct differentiation semantics that might be used to control the delay, loss and rate metrics associated with the traffic classes. The devised modules resort to several relative and hybrid differentiation models to bound QoS metrics on high priority classes. In the proposed scheduling...

  19. HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ON SEMANTIC WEB :(SEMANTIC HIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khozoie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information technology have changed information media by networking and internet .using technology inhealth as same as another part improve efficieincy and effectivness. currently the medical document isReality-based medicine, so that is the most important ,richest and the most realistic source of medical andhealth information.Health information management systems that require systems to the storage, retrieval,storage and elimination of health records (by law, and adjust to the rules of professional. these processare difficult and time consumig for human. In the meantime semantic HIM seem best solution.KEYWORDS

  20. Modelling Semantic Association and Conceptual Inheritance for Semantic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillant, P

    2001-01-01

    Allowing users to interact through language borders is an interesting challenge for information technology. For the purpose of a computer assisted language learning system, we have chosen icons for representing meaning on the input interface, since icons do not depend on a particular language. However, a key limitation of this type of communication is the expression of articulated ideas instead of isolated concepts. We propose a method to interpret sequences of icons as complex messages by reconstructing the relations between concepts, so as to build conceptual graphs able to represent meaning and to be used for natural language sentence generation. This method is based on an electronic dictionary containing semantic information.

  1. Is There a Critical Period for Semantics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabakova, Roumyana

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on the second language acquisition of meaning with a view of establishing whether there is a critical period for the acquisition of compositional semantics. It is claimed that the functional lexicon presents the most formidable challenge, while syntax and phrasal semantics pose less difficulty to learners.…

  2. Some Novel Techniques in Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2003-01-01

    Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction to the main ideas of the MSOS framework.

  3. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  4. Semantic search integration to climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Shrestha, Biva [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present how research projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using Semantic Search capabilities to help scientists perform their research. We will discuss how the Mercury metadata search system, with the help of the semantic search capability, is being used to find, retrieve, and link climate change data. DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2014.6867639

  5. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  6. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  7. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  8. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  9. Essay Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tristan

    2003-01-01

    Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is an automated, statistical technique for comparing the semantic similarity of words or documents. In this article, I examine the application of LSA to automated essay scoring. I compare LSA methods to earlier statistical methods for assessing essay quality, and critically review contemporary essay-scoring systems…

  10. Semantic processing in "associative" false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Yang, Y; Reyna, V F; Howe, M L; Mills, B A

    2008-12-01

    We studied the semantic properties of a class of illusions, of which the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm is the most prominent example, in which subjects falsely remember words that are associates of studied words. We analyzed DRM materials for 16 dimensions of semantic content and assessed the ability of these dimensions to predict interlist variability in false memory. For the more general class of illusions, we analyzed pairs of presented and unpresented words that varied in associative strength for the presence of these same 16 semantic properties. DRM materials proved to be exceptionally rich in meaning, as indexed by these semantic properties. Variability in false recall, false recognition, and backward associative strength loaded on a single semantic factor (familiarity/meaningfulness), whereas variability in true recall loaded on a quite different factor (imagery/concreteness). For word association generally, 15 semantic properties varied reliably with forward or backward association between words. Implications for semantic versus associative processing in this class of illusions, for dual-process theories, and for semantic properties of word associations are discussed. PMID:19001566

  11. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  12. On Special Semantic Meaning of Securities English

    OpenAIRE

    Guineng Mei

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that securities English has its own semantic meaning especially nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs have their unique semantic meaning that can’t be owned by their common words and that it is imperative this linguistic features be grasped in order that this kind of English should be faithfully and correctly understood and translated and proficiently applied.

  13. Measuring Individual Emotional Reactions and Semantic Spaces.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Ji?í

    Praha : EFPA/UPA, 2007 - (Polišenská, V.; Šolc, M.; Kotrlová, J.). s. 163 ISBN 978-80-7064-017-3. [European Congress of Psychology /10./. 03.07.2007-06.07.2007, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : semantic proximity * Word Association Test * Semantic Selection Test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  14. The Semantic Structure of a Set of Scales Developed for Use with Large City Pupils. A Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrer, James E.; Farber, Irvin J.

    In a previous Semantic Differential study, Ayrer and Farber (1972) reported the results of a factor analysis which utilized a matrix sampling approach. Some problems were encountered (negative eigen-values). The current study did not involve matrix sampling, but the same basic results were obtained. This suggests matrix sampling may be an…

  15. Model Design of Semantic Website Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Semantic web is an extension of the current World Wide Web. This paper proposes a new model of constructing semantic website, and takes the construction of semantic website in the field of tourism in Africa as an example, and describes an approach to build the semantic website. It is a common approach and can be applied to the construction of other semantic websites. First, analyze user’s requirements, and then build domain ontology based on them requirements, design interactive interface, and analyze the information entered by user. Then, retrieve and reason the ontology by Jena, and provide the required information and links. The proposed method takes full account of the demand of user’s interaction, facilitates obtaining the required information on the website. The example shows that the proposed model is effective.

  16. Distributional Measures of Semantic Distance: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Saif M

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mimic human notions of semantic distance has widespread applications. Some measures rely only on raw text (distributional measures) and some rely on knowledge sources such as WordNet. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare WordNet-based measures with human judgment, the use of distributional measures as proxies to estimate semantic distance has received little attention. Even though they have traditionally performed poorly when compared to WordNet-based measures, they lay claim to certain uniquely attractive features, such as their applicability in resource-poor languages and their ability to mimic both semantic similarity and semantic relatedness. Therefore, this paper presents a detailed study of distributional measures. Particular attention is paid to flesh out the strengths and limitations of both WordNet-based and distributional measures, and how distributional measures of distance can be brought more in line with human notions of semantic distance. We conclude with a br...

  17. Role of Ontology in Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Giri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of computers is changing from single isolated devices to entry points into a worldwide network of information exchange. Therefore, support in the exchange of data, information, and knowledge is becoming the key issue in computer technology today. The increasing volume of data available on the Web makes information retrieval a tedious and difficult task. Researchers are now exploring the possibility of creating a semantic Web, in which meaning is made explicit, allowing machines to process and integrate Web resources intelligently. The vision of the semantic Web introduces the next generation of the Web byestablishing a layer of machine-understandable data. The success of the semantic Web crucially depends on the easy creation, integration and use of semantic data, which will depend on building an ontology. This paper states the role of ontology in supporting information exchange process, particulary with semantic web.

  18. Blood differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...

  19. Shared Features Dominate Semantic Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    When asked to list semantic features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many semantic features are processed faster in lexical and semantic decision tasks [Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Hino, Y. (2002). "The impact of feedback semantics in visual word recognition:…

  20. Semantic web revolutionizing knowledge discovery in the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Covers topics ranging from database, ontology, visualization, to semantic web services and workflowsFeatures the intersection of Semantic Web and Life SciencesGives examples/scenarios illustrating different Semantic Web applications in the life science domainDiscusses the limitations and obstacles that need to be overcome for Semantic Web to better meet the current and future needs of life science researchers

  1. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  2. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-s...

  3. A Semantic Without Syntax 1

    OpenAIRE

    Didehvar, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Here, by introducing a version of "Unexpected hanging paradox" we try to open a new way and a new explanation for paradoxes, similar to liar paradox. Also, we will show that we have a semantic situation which no syntactical logical system could support that. In the end, we propose a claim as a question. Based on this claim, having an axiomatic system for computability theory is not possible. In fact we will show that the method applied here could yields us as a generalized r...

  4. A Semantic Without Syntax 1

    CERN Document Server

    Didehvar, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Here, by introducing a version of "Unexpected hanging paradox" we try to open a new way and a new explanation for paradoxes, similar to liar paradox. Also, we will show that we have a semantic situation which no syntactical logical system could support that. In the end, we propose a claim as a question. Based on this claim, having an axiomatic system for computability theory is not possible. In fact we will show that the method applied here could yields us as a generalized result, some Theories like Physic is not axiomatizable.

  5. Semantics Web and Ontology Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Musumbu, Kaninda

    2013-01-01

    The Semantics Web is a vision for the future of the Web in which informati on is given explicit meaning, making it easier for machines to automatically pro cess and integrate information available on the Web. An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledg e. Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowled ge, like medicine, tool manufacturing, real es...

  6. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic web technologies, including ontologies and a semantic mediator. The semantically-enhanced SPEGG allowed a client to submit a single query (e.g. ';hills') and to retrieve data from two separate gazetteers with different vocabularies (e.g. where one refers to ';summits' another refers to ';hills'). Supporting the SPEGG was a SPARQL server that held the ontologies and processed queries on them. Earth Science surveys and forecast always have a place on Earth. Being able to share the information about a place and solve inconsistencies about that place from different sources will enable geoscientists to better do their research. In the advent of mobile geo computing and location based services (LBS), brokering gazetteers will provide geoscientists with access to gazetteer services rich with information and functionality beyond that offered by current generic gazetteers.

  7. Semantics of (Resilient) X10

    OpenAIRE

    Crafa, Silvia; Cunningham, David; Saraswat, Vijay; Shinnar, Avraham; Tardieu, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We present a formal small-step structural operational semantics for a large fragment of X10, unifying past work. The fragment covers multiple places, mutable objects on the heap, sequencing, \\code{try/catch}, \\code{async}, \\code{finish}, and \\code{at} constructs. This model accurately captures the behavior of a large class of concurrent, multi-place X10 programs. Further, we introduce a formal model of resilience in X10. During execution of an X10 program, a place may fail f...

  8. Getting connected: Both associative and semantic links structure semantic memory for newly learned persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined whether semantic memory for newly learned people is structured by visual co-occurrence, shared semantics, or both. Participants were trained with pairs of simultaneously presented (i.e., co-occurring) preexperimentally unfamiliar faces, which either did or did not share additionally provided semantic information (occupation, place of living, etc.). Semantic information could also be shared between faces that did not co-occur. A subsequent priming experiment revealed faster responses for both co-occurrence/no shared semantics and no co-occurrence/shared semantics conditions, than for an unrelated condition. Strikingly, priming was strongest in the co-occurrence/shared semantics condition, suggesting additive effects of these factors. Additional analysis of event-related brain potentials yielded priming in the N400 component only for combined effects of visual co-occurrence and shared semantics, with more positive amplitudes in this than in the unrelated condition. Overall, these findings suggest that both semantic relatedness and visual co-occurrence are important when novel information is integrated into person-related semantic memory. PMID:25607929

  9. Social semantics the search for meaning on the web

    CERN Document Server

    Halpin, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Statistical Semantics for the Semantic Web provides a unique introduction to identity and reference theories of the World Wide Web, through the academic lens of philosophy of language and data-driven statistical models. The Semantic Web is a natural evolution of the Web, and this book covers the URL-based Web architecture and Semantic Web in detail.Statistical Semantics for the Semantic Web discusses how the largest problem facing the Semantic Web is the problem of identity and reference, and how these are the results of a larger general theory of meaning. This book hypothesizes that statistic

  10. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  11. The Syntactic and Semantic Processing of Mass and Count Nouns: An ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chiarelli, Valentina; El Yagoubi, Radouane; Mondini, Sara; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Semenza, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The present study addressed the question of whether count and mass nouns are differentially processed in the brain. In two different ERP (Event-Related Potentials) tasks we explored the semantic and syntactic levels of such distinction. Mass and count nouns typically differ in concreteness, hence the effect of this important variable was factorially examined in each task. Thus the stimuli presented were: count concrete, count abstract, mass concrete or mass abstract. The first experiment (con...

  12. Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kiefer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation towards semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited.

  13. A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a ...

  14. SCALESEM : Evaluation of Semantic Graph based on Model Checking

    OpenAIRE

    Gueffaz, Mahdi; Rampacek, Sylvain; Nicolle, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Semantic interoperability problems have found their solutions using languages and techniques from the Semantic Web. The proliferation of ontologies and meta-information has improved the understanding of information and the relevance of search engine responses. However, the construction of semantic graphs is a source of numerous errors of interpretation or modelling and scalability remains a major problem. The processing of large semantic graphs is a limit to the use of semantics in current in...

  15. Using semantic resources to improve a syntactic dependency parser

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, G

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic syntactic parsing has made rapid progress, but is reaching a performance ceiling. More semantic resources need to be included. We exploit a number of semantic resources to improve parsing accuracy of a dependency parser. We compare semantic lexica on this task, then we extend the back-off chain by punishing underspecified decisions. Further, a simple distributional semantics approach is tested. Selectional restrictions are employed to boost interpretations that are semantically ...

  16. Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Wang; Jia Jia; Yongxin Wang; Lianhong Cai

    2011-01-01

    Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is fir...

  17. Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Giorgio A. Ascoli

    2010-01-01

    Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construc...

  18. Generating Exploratory Search Interfaces for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Tvarožek, Michal; Bieliková, Mária

    2010-01-01

    At present, the promise of the Semantic Web has yet to be realized, partly because there are few real-world applications that allow end-users to access, view and process Semantic Web information. We aim to facilitate Semantic Web adoption by providing users with advanced exploratory search capability over Semantic Web data by providing a faceted exploratory search interface for arbitrary Semantic Web repositories. Our approach takes advantage of metadata describing the structure of the respec...

  19. Semantic Web search based on ontological conjunctive queries.

    OpenAIRE

    Fazzinga, B; Gianforme, G; Gottlob, G.; T. Lukasiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data, and will possibly consist of (some form of) the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Semantic Web search, called Serene, which allows for a semantic processing of Web search queries, and for evaluating complex Web search queries that involve reasoning over the Web. More specifically, we first add ontological structure and semantics to Web ...

  20. Code generation from UML models with semantic variation points

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvel, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    UML semantic variation points provide intentional degrees of freedom for the interpretation of the metamodel semantics. The interest of semantic variation points is that UML now becomes a family of languages sharing lot of commonalities and some variabilities that one can customize for a given application domain. In this paper, we propose to reify the various semantic variation points of UML 2.0 statecharts into models of their own to avoid hardcoding the semantic choices in the tools. We do ...

  1. Semantically aided interpretation and querying of Jefferson Project data using the SemantEco framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; Pinheiro, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We will describe the benefits we realized using semantic technologies to address the often challenging and resource intensive task of ontology alignment in service of data integration. Ontology alignment became relatively simple as we reused our existing semantic data integration framework, SemantEco. We work in the context of the Jefferson Project (JP), an effort to monitor and predict the health of Lake George in NY by deploying a large-scale sensor network in the lake, and analyzing the high-resolution sensor data. SemantEco is an open-source framework for building semantically-aware applications to assist users, particularly non-experts, in exploration and interpretation of integrated scientific data. SemantEco applications are composed of a set of modules that incorporate new datasets, extend the semantic capabilities of the system to integrate and reason about data, and provide facets for extending or controlling semantic queries. Whereas earlier SemantEco work focused on integration of water, air, and species data from government sources, we focus on redeploying it to provide a provenance-aware, semantic query and interpretation interface for JP's sensor data. By employing a minor alignment between SemantEco's ontology and the Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology used to model the JP's sensor deployments, we were able to bring SemantEco's capabilities to bear on the JP sensor data and metadata. This alignment enabled SemantEco to perform the following tasks: (1) select JP datasets related to water quality; (2) understand how the JP's notion of water quality relates to water quality concepts in previous work; and (3) reuse existing SemantEco interactive data facets, e.g. maps and time series visualizations, and modules, e.g. the regulation module that interprets water quality data through the lens of various federal and state regulations. Semantic technologies, both as the engine driving SemantEco and the means of modeling the JP data, enabled us to rapidly align the two ontologies without needing the projects to change models and allowed us to adopt the existing software development effort invested in SemantEco as a portal for exploring Lake George's water quality data. We plan to extend the registration of modules and facets to handle climate data, hydrology data, and food web data.

  2. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; MØrup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures, which we suggest might function as cognitive components for perceiving the underlying structure in lyrics.

  3. ISBD and the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Willer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of integration between ISBD and the semantic web have been examined through the work of the IFLA Study Groups, created with the task to investigate the possibilities for representing ISBD in web technologies and services. One of the main study groups is represented by the ISBD/XML Study Group, formed in 2008.The paper describes the activities developing a representation of International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD in Resource Description Framework (RDF: the research, technical, and administrative activities undertaken to make bibliographic metadata authorized by the IFLA standard available to the Semantic Web as trustworthy information.The paper discusses the ongoing representation of elements in RDF in the ISBD namespace, the treatment of aggregated statements composed of multiple elements, and the development of a Dublin Core Application Profile for ISBD. An introduction to recent initiatives within IFLA to develop representation of its models and standards in RDF, as well as an administrative and technical infrastructure to support such initiatives will be given as a background to the work on ISBD.Some European libraries such as the British Library and the Mannheim University Library, are experimenting means to transform their catalogues into tools interoperating with the web. RDF seems to be the most suitable tool for the universal bibliographic control within the libraries of the future.

  4. Extracting Generalized Semantic Roles from Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Jafarinejad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest constructs of linguistic theory is semantic role. Automatic extraction of semantic roles in a sentence is a movement towards semantic processing of texts which has been the focus of attention in recent years. Extraction of semantic roles from a text contains some essential parts. Recognition of verb(s of the sentence, recognition of noun phrases and their heads, and labeling the role of each phrase in the sentence as a semantic argument of verb are general parts of a system that does this task. There is a wide variety of definitions for semantic roles from verb specific roles to some general roles known as thematic roles, This paper focuses on a generalization of thematic roles called proto-roles or generalized semantic roles which includes two roles; actor and undergoer. In this paper we extract proto-roles in a Persian sentence exploiting POS tags. We use Peykareh as our input corpus and apply a rule based approach to extract actor and undergoer of verb(s.

  5. Semantic Conflicts Reconciliation as a Viable Solution for Semantic Heterogeneity Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa S. Ismail

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Achieving semantic interoperability is a current challenge in the field of data integration in order to bridge semantic conflicts occurring when the participating sources and receivers use different or implicit data assumptions. Providing a framework that automatically detects and resolves semantic conflicts is considered as a daunting task for many reasons, it should preserve the local autonomy of the integrated sources, as well as provides a standard query language for accessing the integrated data on a global basis. Many existing traditional and ontology-based approaches have tried to achieve semantic interoperability, but they have certain drawbacks that make them inappropriate for integrating data from a large number of participating sources. We propose semantic conflicts reconciliation (SCR framework, it is ontology-based system in which all data semantics explicitly described in the knowledge representation phase and automatically taken into account through the interpretation mediation service phase, so conflicts detected and resolved automatically at the query time

  6. The Semantic eScience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF

  7. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, Petr; Mou?ek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological...

  8. Semantic Web Languages and Semantic Web Services as Application Areas for Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Polleres, Axel

    2005-01-01

    In the Semantic Web and Semantic Web Services areas there are still unclear issues concerning an appropriate language. Answer Set Programming and ASP engines can be particularly interesting for Ontological Reasoning, especially in the light of ongoing discussions of non-Monotonic extensions for Ontology Languages. Previously, the main concern of discussions was around OWL and Description Logics. Recently many extensions and suggestions for Rule Languages and Semantic Web Languages pop up, par...

  9. On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Keimel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    G. Plotkin and the author have worked out the equivalence between state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics in a domain theoretical setting for programs combining nondeterminism and probability. Works of C. Morgan and co-authors, Keimel, Rosenbusch and Streicher, already go in the same direction using only discrete state spaces. It is the aim of this paper to exhibit a general framework in which one can hope that state transformer semantics and predicat...

  10. Semantic Integration Workshop at the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, AnHai; Halevy, Alon Y.; Noy, Natalya F.

    2004-01-01

    In numerous distributed environments, including today's World Wide Web, enterprise data management systems, large science projects, and the emerging semantic web, applications will inevitably use the information described by multiple ontologies and schemas. We organized the Workshop on Semantic Integration at the Second International Semantic Web Conference to bring together different communities working on the issues of enabling integration among different resources. The workshop generated a...

  11. Failing to get the gist: reduced false recognition of semantic associates in semantic dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, JS; Verfaellie, M; Hodges, JR; Lee, AC; Graham, KS; Koutstaal, W; Schacter, DL; Budson, AE

    2005-01-01

    In 2 experiments involving patients with semantic dementia, the authors investigated the impact of semantic memory loss on both true and false recognition. Experiment 1 involved recognition memory for categories of everyday objects that shared a predominantly semantic relationship. The patients showed preserved item-specific recollection for the pictorial stimuli but, compared with control participants, exhibited significantly reduced utilization of gist information regarding the categories o...

  12. Semantic Typicality Effects in Acquired Dyslexia: Evidence for Semantic Impairment in Deep Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ellyn A; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Acquired deep dyslexia is characterized by impairment in grapheme-phoneme conversion and production of semantic errors in oral reading. Several theories have attempted to explain the production of semantic errors in deep dyslexia, some proposing that they arise from impairments in both grapheme-phoneme and lexical-semantic processing, and others proposing that such errors stem from a deficit in phonological production. Whereas both views have gained some acceptance, the limited evidence available does not clearly eliminate the possibility that semantic errors arise from a lexical-semantic input processing deficit. AIMS: To investigate semantic processing in deep dyslexia, this study examined the typicality effect in deep dyslexic individuals, phonological dyslexic individuals, and controls using an online category verification paradigm. This task requires explicit semantic access without speech production, focusing observation on semantic processing from written or spoken input. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: To examine the locus of semantic impairment, the task was administered in visual and auditory modalities with reaction time as the primary dependent measure. Nine controls, six phonological dyslexic participants, and five deep dyslexic participants completed the study. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Controls and phonological dyslexic participants demonstrated a typicality effect in both modalities, while deep dyslexic participants did not demonstrate a typicality effect in either modality. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that deep dyslexia is associated with a semantic processing deficit. Although this does not rule out the possibility of concomitant deficits in other modules of lexical-semantic processing, this finding suggests a direction for treatment of deep dyslexia focused on semantic processing. PMID:20657815

  13. The lexical semantics of derived statives

    OpenAIRE

    Koontz-Garboden, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the semantics of derived statives, deverbal adjectives that fail to entail there to have been a preceding (temporal) event of the kind named by the verb they are derived from, e.g. darkened in a darkened portion of skin. Building on Gawron’s (The lexical semantics of extent verbs, San Diego State University, ms, 2009) recent observations regarding the semantics of extent uses of change of state verbs (e.g., Kim’s skin darkens between the knee and th...

  14. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  15. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    G.Sudeepthi; G. Anuradha; M.Surendra Prasad Babu

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are pla...

  16. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.; Haag, S.; Kuhn, M.; Satagopam, V.P.; Schneider, R.; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail a...

  17. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  18. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  19. Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

  20. Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, S

    2009-01-01

    Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

  1. Change management for semantic web services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2011-01-01

    Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

  2. Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pabitha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced to provide accurate results.

  3. Lexical-semantic processing in the semantic priming paradigm in aphasic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the explicit lexical-semantic processing deficits which characterize aphasia may be observed in the absence of implicit semantic impairment. The aim of this article was to critically review the international literature on lexical-semantic processing in aphasia, as tested through the semantic priming paradigm. Specifically, this review focused on aphasia and lexical-semantic processing, the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the semantic paradigms used, and recent evidence from neuroimaging studies on lexical-semantic processing. Furthermore, evidence on dissociations between implicit and explicit lexical-semantic processing reported in the literature will be discussed and interpreted by referring to functional neuroimaging evidence from healthy populations. There is evidence that semantic priming effects can be found both in fluent and in non-fluent aphasias, and that these effects are related to an extensive network which includes the temporal lobe, the pre-frontal cortex, the left frontal gyrus, the left temporal gyrus and the cingulated cortex.

  4. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent and manipulate the messages that may be sent by an active intruder. We define constraint differentiation in a general way, independent of the technical and conceptual details of the underlying constrain...

  5. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Comesaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

  6. The neural underpinnings of semantic ambiguity and anaphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Veena D; Phillips, Natalie A; Einagel, Stephanie; Baum, Shari R

    2010-01-22

    We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to investigate how definite NP anaphors are integrated into semantically ambiguous contexts. Although sentences such as Every kid climbed a tree lack any syntactic or lexical ambiguity, these structures exhibit two possible meanings, where either many trees or only one tree was climbed. This semantic ambiguity is the result of quantifier scope ambiguity. Previous behavioural studies have shown that a plural definite NP continuation is preferred (as reflected in a continuation sentence, e.g., The trees were in the park) over singular NPs (e.g., The tree was in the park). This study aimed to identify the neurophysiological pattern associated with the integration of the continuation sentences, as well as the time course of this process. We examined ERPs elicited by the noun and verb in continuation sentences following ambiguous and unambiguous context sentences. A sustained negative shift was most evident at the Verb position in sentences exhibiting scope ambiguity. Furthermore, this waveform did not differentiate itself until 900 ms after the presentation of the Noun, suggesting that the parser waits to assign meaning in contexts exhibiting quantifier scope ambiguity, such that such contexts are left as underspecified representations. PMID:19837047

  7. Differential manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kosinski, Antoni A

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho

  8. Learning Semantic String Transformations from Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rishabh

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of performing semantic transformations on strings, which may represent a variety of data types (or their combination) such as a column in a relational table, time, date, currency, etc. Unlike syntactic transformations, which are based on regular expressions and which interpret a string as a sequence of characters, semantic transformations additionally require exploiting the semantics of the data type represented by the string, which may be encoded as a database of relational tables. Manually performing such transformations on a large collection of strings is error prone and cumbersome, while programmatic solutions are beyond the skill-set of end-users. We present a programming by example technology that allows end-users to automate such repetitive tasks. We describe an expressive transformation language for semantic manipulation that combines table lookup operations and syntactic manipulations. We then present a synthesis algorithm that can learn all transformations in the language that...

  9. Fuzzy knowledge management for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zongmin; Yan, Li; Cheng, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    This book goes to great depth concerning the fast growing topic of technologies and approaches of fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web. The topics of this book include fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontologies, queries of fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontology knowledge bases, extraction of fuzzy description logics and ontologies from fuzzy data models, storage of fuzzy ontology knowledge bases in fuzzy databases, fuzzy Semantic Web ontology mapping, and fuzzy rules and their interchange in the Semantic Web. The book aims to provide a single record of current research in the fuzzy knowledge representation and reasoning for the Semantic Web. The objective of the book is to provide the state of the art information to researchers, practitioners and graduate students of the Web intelligence and at the same time serve the knowledge and data engineering professional faced with non-traditional applications that make the application of conventional approaches difficult or impossible.

  10. The Doxastic Interpretation of Team Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Galliani, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    We advance a doxastic interpretation for many of the logical connectives considered in Dependence Logic and in its extensions, and we argue that Team Semantics is a natural framework for reasoning about beliefs and belief updates.

  11. Next Generation Semantic Web and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyarashmi Panigrahi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, computers are changing from single, isolated devices into entry points to a worldwide network of information exchange and business transactions called the World Wide Web (WWW. However, the success of the WWW has made it increasingly difficult to find, access, present and maintain the information required by a wide variety of users. In response to this problem, many new research initiatives and commercial enterprises have been set up to enrich the available information with machine-process able semantics. This Semantic Web will provide intelligent access to heterogeneous, distributed information, enabling software products (agents to mediate between user needs and the information sources available. In this paper we describe some areas for application of this new technology. We focus on on-going work in the fields of knowledge management and electronic commerce. We also take a perspective on the semantic web-enabled web services which will help to bring the semantic web to its full potential.

  12. SEMANTIC GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR TAGBASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Durao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag basedrecommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases.Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevantrecommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show acomprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The studybesides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentageof the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much asit does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with suchnumber of expansions, the recommendations change considerably

  13. Distributional Measures as Proxies for Semantic Relatedness

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Saif M

    2012-01-01

    The automatic ranking of word pairs as per their semantic relatedness and ability to mimic human notions of semantic relatedness has widespread applications. Measures that rely on raw data (distributional measures) and those that use knowledge-rich ontologies both exist. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare ontological measures with human judgment, the distributional measures have primarily been evaluated by indirect means. This paper is a detailed study of some of the major distributional measures; it lists their respective merits and limitations. New measures that overcome these drawbacks, that are more in line with the human notions of semantic relatedness, are suggested. The paper concludes with an exhaustive comparison of the distributional and ontology-based measures. Along the way, significant research problems are identified. Work on these problems may lead to a better understanding of how semantic relatedness is to be measured.

  14. Semantic Aspect Retrieval for Encyclopedia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chao, Han; Yicheng, Liu; Yu, Hao; Xiaoyan, Zhu.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Web 2.0, more and more people contribute their knowledge to the Internet. Many general and domain-specific online encyclopedia resources become available, and they are valuable for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, such as summarization and question-answeri [...] ng. We propose a novel encyclopedia-specific method to retrieve passages which are semantically related to a short query (usually comprises of only one word/phrase) from a given article in the encyclopedia. The method captures the expression word features and categorical word features in the surrounding snippets of the aspect words by setting up massive hybrid language models. These local models outperform the global models such as LSA and ESA in our task.

  15. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

    2012-01-01

    We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

  16. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the ?-calculus with explicit substitution.

  17. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  18. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-based MT. We see our approach as closely aligned with knowledge-based MT approaches (KBMT), and as a separate component that could be incorporated into existing systems. Examples and experimental results will show that, using this scheme, inexact matches can achieve correct lexical selection.

  19. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases. PMID:25859194

  20. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip David Fletcher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (‘looming’ or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioural rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n=10; behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=16, progressive non-fluent aphasia, n=12; amnestic Alzheimer’s disease, n=10 and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioural response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  1. Semantic Framework for Mapping Object-Oriented Model to Semantic Web Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jezek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a~Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  2. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mou?ek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  3. Data Quality Principles in the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf, Ahmad; SENART, ALINE

    2013-01-01

    The increasing size and availability of web data make data quality a core challenge in many applications. Principles of data quality are recognized as essential to ensure that data fit for their intended use in operations, decision-making, and planning. However, with the rise of the Semantic Web, new data quality issues appear and require deeper consideration. In this paper, we propose to extend the data quality principles to the context of Semantic Web. Based on our extensi...

  4. Lightweight Semantic Annotation of Geospatial RESTful Services

    OpenAIRE

    Saquicela, V.; Vilches-Blázquez, LM.; Corcho, Óscar

    2011-01-01

    RESTful services are increasingly gaining traction over WS-* ones. As with WS-* services, their semantic annotation can provide benefits in tasks related to their discovery, composition and mediation. In this paper we present an approach to automate the semantic annotation of RESTful services using a cross-domain ontology like DBpedia, domain ontologies like GeoNames, and additional external resources (suggestion and synonym services). We also present a preliminary evaluation in the geospatia...

  5. On the relations between monadic semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computational metalanguage with general recursive types and multiple notions of effects, through which a variety of concrete denotational semantics can be conveniently factored, by suitably interpreting the effects as monads. We then propose a methodology for relating two such interpretations of the metalanguage, with the aim of showing that the semantics they induce agree for complete programs. As a prototypical instance of such a relation, we use the framework to show agree...

  6. Semantic technologies for distributed information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In this book we show how semantic technologies ? and in particular the use of ontologies ? can be employed to address a number of typical challenges in distributed information systems: First, we illustrate how ontologies enable the integration of information across heterogeneous nodes. Second, we show how ontology evolution allows dealing with the dynamics in the information in a consistent manner. Third, we present a model for ontologybased coordination using semantic overlay networks.

  7. Semantic Aggregator of Public Professional Events

    OpenAIRE

    Lama Assum; Rawan Babaier; Nour Alkhatib; Lilac Al-Safadi

    2012-01-01

    The data on the web has been created by a large number of people and is hosted in a large number of independent resources across the globe. Therefore, there is a need to develop data aggregators to help the process of knowledge-based integration. The data without central coordination resulted in heterogeneity. The integration of data on the Internet continues to be a challenge for searching and discovery efforts. Semantic aggregators are agents for data integration using semantic web te...

  8. Two-Level Semantics and Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1988-01-01

    A two-level denotational metalanguage that is suitable for defining the semantics of Pascal-like languages is presented. The two levels allow for an explicit distinction between computations taking place at compile-time and computations taking place at run-time. While this distinction is perhaps not absolutely necessary for describing the input-output semantics of programming languages, it is necessary when issues such as data flow analysis and code generation are considered. For an example stac...

  9. Using semantic cues to learn syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Naseem, Tahira; Barzilay, Regina

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for dependency grammar induction that utilizes sparse annotations of semantic relations. This induction set-up is attractive because such annotations provide useful clues about the underlying syntactic structure, and they are readily available in many domains (e.g., info-boxes and HTML markup). Our method is based on the intuition that syntactic realizations of the same semantic predicate exhibit some degree of consistency. We incorporate this intuition in a directed...

  10. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara H Partee

    2010-01-01

    Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural langu...

  11. Semantic Solutions to Program Analysis Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Problems in program analysis can be solved by developing novel program semantics and deriving abstractions conventionally. For over thirty years, higher-order program analysis has been sold as a hard problem. Its solutions have required ingenuity and complex models of approximation. We claim that this difficulty is due to premature focus on abstraction and propose a new approach that emphasizes semantics. Its simplicity enables new analyses that are beyond the current state of the art.

  12. On social semantics in information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Waltinger, Ulli

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we analyze the performance of social semantics in textual information retrieval. By means of collaboratively constructed knowledge derived from web-based social networks, inducing both common-sense and domain-specific knowledge as constructed by a multitude of users, we will establish an improvement in performance of selected tasks within different areas of information retrieval. This work connects the concepts and the methods of social networks and the semantic web to support ...

  13. Unsupervised Semantic Parsing of Video Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Sener, Ozan; Zamir, Amir; Savarese, Silvio; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Human communication typically has an underlying structure. This is reflected in the fact that in many user generated videos, a starting point, ending, and certain objective steps between these two can be identified. In this paper, we propose a method for parsing a video into such semantic steps in an unsupervised way. The proposed method is capable of providing a semantic "storyline" of the video composed of its objective steps. We accomplish this using both visual and langu...

  14. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks o...

  15. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by e...

  16. From surface dependencies towards deeper semantic representations

    OpenAIRE

    Versley, Yannick; Zinsmeister, Heike

    2008-01-01

    In the past, a divide could be seen between ’deep’ parsers on the one hand, which construct a semantic representation out of their input, but usually have significant coverage problems, and more robust parsers on the other hand, which are usually based on a (statistical) model derived from a treebank and have larger coverage, but leave the problem of semantic interpretation to the user. More recently, approaches have emerged that combine the robustness of datadriven (statistical) models with ...

  17. Semantics of probabilistic processes an operational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the semantic foundations of concurrent systems with nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. Particular attention is given to clarifying the relationship between testing and simulation semantics and characterising bisimulations from metric, logical, and algorithmic perspectives. Besides presenting recent research outcomes in probabilistic concurrency theory, the book exemplifies the use of many mathematical techniques to solve problems in computer science, which is intended to be accessible to postgraduate students in Computer Science and Mathematics. It can also be us

  18. Lightweight semantic prototyper for conceptual modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sedrakyan, Gayane; Snoeck, Monique

    2014-01-01

    While much research work was devoted to conceptual model quality validation techniques, most of the existing tools in this domain focus on syntactic quality. Tool support for checking semantic quality (correspondence between the conceptual model and requirements of a domain to be engineered) is largely lacking. This work introduces a lightweight model-driven semantic prototyper to test/validate conceptual models. The goal of the tool is twofold: (1) to assist business analysts in validating s...

  19. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    OpenAIRE

    My Abdellah Kassimi; Omar El beqqali

    2012-01-01

    The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of ...

  20. Evaluating word semantic properties using Sketch Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykova, Velislava; Simkova, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes approach to use statistically-based tools incorporated into Sketch Engine system for electronic text corpora processing to mining big textual data for search and extract word semantic properties. It presents and compares series of word search experiments using different statistical approaches and evaluates results for Bulgarian language EUROPARL 7 Corpus search to extract word semantic properties. Finally, the methodology is extended for multilingual application using Slovak language EUROPARL 7 Corpus.

  1. Bayesian natural language semantics and pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2015-01-01

    The contributions in this volume focus on the Bayesian interpretation of natural languages, which is widely used in areas of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and computational linguistics. This is the first volume to take up topics in Bayesian Natural Language Interpretation and make proposals based on information theory, probability theory, and related fields. The methodologies offered here extend to the target semantic and pragmatic analyses of computational natural language interpretation. Bayesian approaches to natural language semantics and pragmatics are based on methods from

  2. Semantic Analysis of Women Beauty Product Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    El Hainun

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement is a kind of communication processes between consumer and producer. The most important thing in communication process is the understanding about meaning that is discussed to avoid missunderstanding between hearer and speaker. The study about meaning is semantics, and through this thesis entitled “Semantic Analysis of Woman Beauty Products Advertisements”, the writer is going to explore the meaning in used that appears in the object of the analysis. The data are collected from wo...

  3. APPLICATION BASED SEMANTIC WEB MINING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Mahindra Pratap Singh Dohare

    2011-01-01

    The Web is a huge read-write information space where many items such as documents, images or other multimedia can be accessed. In this context, several information technologies have been developed to help users to satisfy their searching needs on the Web, and the most used are search engines. Search engines allow users to find Web resources formulating queries (a set of terms) and reviewing a list of answers. The Semantic Web improves the Web infrastructure with formal semantics and interlink...

  4. Crips, fuzzy, and probabilistic faceted semantic search

    OpenAIRE

    Holi, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents contributions to the development of the faceted semantic search (FSS) paradigm. First, two fundamental solutions to FSS, which have been widely used since their development are presented. The first is the projection of search facets from annotation ontologies using logical rules. The second is the logic rule-based generation of recommendation links for search items based on the semantic relations of these items. After presenting these solutions, the rest of the...

  5. A Semantics-based visualization building process

    OpenAIRE

    Larrea, Martín Leonardo; Martig, Sergio R.; Castro, Silvia Mabel

    2010-01-01

    A successful visualization allows the user to gain insight into the data in an effective way. Even with today’s visualization systems that give the user a considerable control over the visualization process, it can be difficult to produce an effective visualization. This paper is a step forward to achieve a visualization system that assists the user in the configuration and preparation of the visualization by considering both the semantic of the data and the semantic of the stages, through al...

  6. Personalization of tourist application using semantic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The main research question this thesis tried to answer was: Using semantic technologies and information collected from a user's social network profile, is it possible to generate a reliable model of that user's interests?" Some research has been done using semantic technologies to create user models, and social networks have been used to collect information about the user's interests in order to apply that information to recommender systems. This project however ...

  7. Measuring Semantic Similarity by Latent Relational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces Latent Relational Analysis (LRA), a method for measuring semantic similarity. LRA measures similarity in the semantic relations between two pairs of words. When two pairs have a high degree of relational similarity, they are analogous. For example, the pair cat:meow is analogous to the pair dog:bark. There is evidence from cognitive science that relational similarity is fundamental to many cognitive and linguistic tasks (e.g., analogical reasoning). In ...

  8. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  9. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ksystra, Katerina; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

    2011-01-01

    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Soci...

  10. Semantic web services for web databases

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzzani, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web Services for Web Databases introduces an end-to-end framework for querying Web databases using novel Web service querying techniques. This includes a detailed framework for the query infrastructure for Web databases and services. Case studies are covered in the last section of this book. Semantic Web Services For Web Databases is designed for practitioners and researchers focused on service-oriented computing and Web databases.

  11. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for...

  12. The Semantic Grid: Past, Present and Future.

    OpenAIRE

    Roure, DD; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Euzenat, J

    2005-01-01

    Grid computing offers significant enhancements to our capabilities for computation, information processing and collaboration, and has exciting ambitions in many fields of endeavour. This talk will explain why the full richness of the Grid vision, with its application in e-Science, e-Research or e-Business, requires the combination of Semantic Web and Grid - giving us the "Semantic Grid", an extension of the current Grid in which information and services are given well-defined meaning, better ...

  13. Semantic Identification: Balancing between Complexity and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Falelakis M.; Diou C.; Delopoulos A

    2006-01-01

    An efficient scheme for identifying semantic entities within data sets such as multimedia documents, scenes, signals, and so forth, is proposed in this work. Expression of semantic entities in terms of syntactic properties is modelled with appropriately defined finite automata, which also model the identification procedure. Based on the structure and properties of these automata, formal definitions of attained validity and certainty and also required complexity are defined as metrics of iden...

  14. Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2012-01-01

    Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search...

  15. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are...

  16. Recovery geospatial objects using semantic similarity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neili Machado-García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology based on the semantic processing of geographic objects for the classification of soils according to the New Version of Genetic Classification of soils of Cuba. The method consists of five stages: conceptualization, synthesis, queries processing, retrieval and management. The result is a system of geospatial information management applying semantic similarity measure of Resnik. As a case study considering the region of San Jose de las Lajas located in the province of Mayabeque.

  17. Distributional Measures as Proxies for Semantic Relatedness

    OpenAIRE

    Saif M. Mohammad; Hirst, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    The automatic ranking of word pairs as per their semantic relatedness and ability to mimic human notions of semantic relatedness has widespread applications. Measures that rely on raw data (distributional measures) and those that use knowledge-rich ontologies both exist. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare ontological measures with human judgment, the distributional measures have primarily been evaluated by indirect means. This paper is a detailed study...

  18. Distributional Measures of Semantic Distance: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Saif M. Mohammad; Hirst, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mimic human notions of semantic distance has widespread applications. Some measures rely only on raw text (distributional measures) and some rely on knowledge sources such as WordNet. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare WordNet-based measures with human judgment, the use of distributional measures as proxies to estimate semantic distance has received little attention. Even though they have traditionally performed poorly when compared to W...

  19. Model Mapping Approach Based on Ontology Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Jinkui Hou; Yuyan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The mapping relations between different models are the foundation for model transformation in model-driven software development. On the basis of ontology semantics, model mappings between different levels are classified by using structural semantics of modeling languages. The general definition process for mapping relations is explored, and the principles of structure mapping are proposed subsequently. The approach is further illustrated by the mapping relations from class model of object ori...

  20. Argumentation Semantics for Prioritised Default Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Anthony P.; Modgil, Sanjay; Rodrigues, Odinaldo

    2015-01-01

    We endow prioritised default logic (PDL) with argumentation semantics using the ASPIC+ framework for structured argumentation, and prove that the conclusions of the justified arguments are exactly the prioritised default extensions. Argumentation semantics for PDL will allow for the application of argument game proof theories to the process of inference in PDL, making the reasons for accepting a conclusion transparent and the inference process more intuitive. This also opens...

  1. Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene. PMID:17405446

  2. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  3. Comparison and Evaluation of Semantic Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the performance of five semantic search engines that are available on the web, using 45 criteria, in the form of a researcher-made checklist. Criteria provided in the checklist included both common and semantic features. Common criteria or features are those applicable to all search engines and semantic ones are those only applicable to semantic search engines. Findings show that the selected search engines do not have suitable performance and expected efficiency. DuckDuckGo, has the most points, considering regular features. Cluuz is in the second place with 20 points and Hakia with 18 points was in the third place. Lexxe and Factbites, with scores of 15 and 10 were placed in the next categories in order of their points. In semantic features, DuckDuckGo, with 10/65 points was in the first place. Hakia with 9/99 points was in the second place, and then the search engines Cluuz with 8/66 Points, Lexxe with 8/65 points and Factbites with 7/32 points were allocated to the next levels. The research results also indicated that on the whole, considering ordinary and semantic features, DuckDuckGo with 31/65 points, Cluuz with 28/66, Hakia with 27/99 points, Lexxe with 23/65 points and Factbites with 17/32 points, got the highest scores out of it.

  4. Semantic Retrieval Approach for Web Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany M. Harb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of explosive growth of resources in the internet, the information retrieval technology has become particularly important. However the current retrieval methods are essentially based on the full text matching of keywords approach lacking of semantic information and can’t understand the user's query intent very well. These methods return a large number of irrelevant information, and are unable to meet the user's request. Systems have been established so far failed to overcome fully the limitations of search based on keywords. Such systems are built from variations of classic models that represent information by keywords. Using Semantic Web is a way to increase the precision of information retrieval systems. In this paper, we propose the semantic information retrieval approach to extract the information from the web documents in certain domain (jaundice diseases by collecting the domain relevant documents using focused crawler based on domain ontology, and using similar semantic content that is matched with a given user’s query. Semantic retrieval approach aims to discover semantically similar terms in documents and query terms using WordNet.

  5. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content providers can access Reflect programmatically using SOAP, REST (HTTP post), and JavaScript. Usage of Reflect has grown rapidly within the life sciences, and while currently only genes, protein and small molecule names are tagged, we plan to soon expand the scope to include a much broader range of terms (e.g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, ‘semantics is in the eye of the end-user’, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic web technologies.

  6. How Does Ontology Contribute in Semantic Web Development?

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates and briefly describes the major currently existing problems with World Wide Web .i.e., Information filtration and Security became the main reasons of semantic web's invention. The semantic web claims of providing the semantic based solutions towards current web problems. Semantic web have introduced and relies on a main building block "Ontology" to provide the information in machine processable semantic models and produce semantically modelled knowledge representation systems. This paper also describes the role, construction process and the contributions of ontology in providing some in time proposed and implemented solutions. Furthermore paper concludes with the currently existing limitations in Ontology and the areas which need improvements.

  7. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  8. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Town Christopher D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap" is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains. The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies, providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies, and discovery servers (semantic search engines interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info" uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet". Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

  9. From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions to content enrichment. Work starts from harvesting multimedia annotations in class-room recordings, and proceeds to deriving a dense educational semantic net between eLearning Objects decorated with extended LOM relations. Special focus is drawn on the processing of recorded speech and on an Ontological Evaluation Layer that autonomously derives meaningful inter-object relations. Further on, a semantic representation of hyperlinks is developed and elaborated to the concept of semantic link contexts, an approach to manage a coherent rhetori...

  10. WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Meštrovi?

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.

  11. Differential games

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2006-01-01

    This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest

  12. Differential Krull dimension in differential polynomial extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the differential Krull dimension of differential polynomials over a differential ring. We prove a differential analogue of Jaffard's Special Chain Theorem and show that differential polynomial extensions of certain classes of differential rings have no anomaly of differential Krull dimension.

  13. The semantic advantage in object memorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Wick, Farahnaz; Pomplun, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies (Hwang et al., 2011) indicate that our strategies for memorizing objects in naturalistic scenes can be predicted by the semantic relationships between objects in that scene. That is, we tend to make saccades to objects that are most semantically related to the object in the current fixation. A possible explanation is that consecutive inspection of semantically similar objects facilitates object memorization. Previous work in our lab has shown that indeed, characteristic objects from a specific context have a close semantic relationship that facilitates recognition. The observed high recognition rate was not induced by gist-based errors, as performance did not decline even when false recognition rates were significantly reduced. When and how does this 'semantic advantage' arise during processing? We investigated this question using a rapid serial visual presentation task, which mimics sequential eye movements. A series of eight grayscale object images on a white background were shown for 250 ms each. Subsequently, participants saw another image and indicated whether it had been in the series (same/different judgment). The object sets were randomly chosen or taken from specific contexts such as airport, park or bedroom. In three experiments, we measured recognition accuracy as we varied target position (excluding first and last image in the series) and primed participants with context labels either before or after a trial. The context labels provided for random trials were randomly chosen and misleading. Results show that the semantic advantage starts after viewing approximately three objects in the context trials when compared to random trials. Priming with context labels (either before or after the trial) diminishes this advantage and in general hurts performance. These results reveal that object memory benefits from the semantic structure established by an efficient, unconscious mechanism that is impeded by conscious category processing. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326631

  14. Arabic Semantic Web Applications – A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya M. Al-Zoghby

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Language is the mother tongue for 23 countries and more than 350 million persons. It is the language of the Holy Quran; therefore, many non-Arabic Islamic countries, like Pakistan, teach Arabic as a second language. Nevertheless, it is observable that the Arabic content on the Web is less than what should be. The evolution of the Semantic Web (SW added a new dimension to this problem. This paper is an attempt to figure out the problem, its causes, and to open avenues to think about the solutions. The survey presented in this paper concerned with the SW applications regarding the Arabic Language in the domains of Ontology construction and utilization, Arabic WordNet (AWN exploiting and enrichment, Arabic Named Entities Extraction, Holy Quran and Islamic Knowledge semantic representation, and Arabic Semantic Search Engines. In fact, the study revealed serious deficiencies in dealing semantically with the Arabic Language. That is mainly owing to the rarity of tools that can support the Arabic script. Furthermore, the Arabic resources, if available, are not free. Moreover, there are many technical problems in the semantic dealing with the Arabic context. Therefore, most of the developed applications are not sufficiently proficient. However, due to the significance of the Arabic Language, it is inevitable to overcome these deficiencies in order to put the Arabic Language in the category of the machine-semantically-interpretable languages, rather than just the textually processable ones. This way, we can exploit the power of the Semantic Web features in extracting the essence of the knowledge residing in the Arabic web documents and going beyond dealing with its rigid texts. 

  15. Differential function

    OpenAIRE

    Cobacho Tornel, Maria Belén

    2012-01-01

    This video shows how to use the differential function to approximate the variation of a cost function. Este vídeo (en inglés) muestra el uso de la función diferencial en el cálculo aproximado de la variación de una función de costes.

  16. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Amiya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a systematic and comprehensive account of the theory of differentiable manifolds and provides the necessary background for the use of fundamental differential topology tools. The text includes, in particular, the earlier works of Stephen Smale, for which he was awarded the Fields Medal. Explicitly, the topics covered are Thom transversality, Morse theory, theory of handle presentation, h-cobordism theorem, and the generalised Poincaré conjecture. The material is the outcome of lectures and seminars on various aspects of differentiable manifolds and differential topology given over the years at the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, and at other universities throughout India. The book will appeal to graduate students and researchers interested in these topics. An elementary knowledge of linear algebra, general topology, multivariate calculus, analysis, and algebraic topology is recommended.

  17. Semantics for Biological Data Resource: Cell Image Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 165 NIST Semantics for Biological Data Resource: Cell Image Database (Web, free access)   This Database is a prototype to test concepts for semantic searching of cell image data based on experimental details.

  18. Automatic Construction of Semantic Dictionary for Question Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyin Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An automatic method for building a semantic dictionary from existing questions in a pattern-based question answering system is proposed for question categorization. This dictionary consists of two main parts: Semantic Domain Terms (SDT, which is a domain specific term list, and Semantic Labeled Terms (SLT, which contain common terms tagged with semantic labels. The semantic dictionary is built using the proposed method on a set of 2509 questions with semantic patterns in our system. 3390 questions without semantic patterns are used as ground truth to test its performance. Experimental results show that the precision of question classification is improved by 7.5% in average after using the constructed semantic dictionary compared with the baseline method.

  19. John Mair on Semantic Paradoxes: Alethic and Correspondence Paradoxes II.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 2 (2012), s. 154-183. ISSN 1214-8407 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : John Mair * Swyneshedian semantics * semantic paradoxes * network evaluation * scholastic logic Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  20. John Mair on Semantic Paradoxes: Alethic and Correspondence Paradoxes I.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 1 (2012), s. 58-84. ISSN 1214-8407 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : John Mair * Swyneshedian semantics * semantic paradoxes * network evaluation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Age-related vulnerability in the neural systems supporting semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Chandrasekaran, Keerthi; Powers, John; Smith, Edward E; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to form abstract representations of objects in semantic memory is crucial to language and thought. The utility of this information relies both on the representations of sensory-motor feature knowledge stored in long-term memory and the executive processes required to retrieve, manipulate, and evaluate this semantic knowledge in a task-relevant manner. These complementary components of semantic memory can be differentially impacted by aging. We investigated semantic processing in normal aging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young and older adults were asked to judge whether two printed object names match on a particular feature (for example, whether a tomato and strawberry have the same color). The task thus required both retrieval of relevant visual feature knowledge of object concepts and evaluating this information. Objects were drawn from either natural kinds or manufactured objects, and were queried on either color or shape in a factorial design. Behaviorally, all subjects performed well, but older adults could be divided into those whose performance matched that of young adults (better performers) and those whose performance was worse (poorer performers). All subjects activated several cortical regions while performing this task, including bilateral inferior and lateral temporal cortex and left frontal and prefrontal cortex. Better performing older adults showed increased overall activity in bilateral premotor cortex and left lateral occipital cortex compared to young adults, and increased activity in these brain regions relative to poorer performing older adults who also showed gray matter atrophy in premotor cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of domain-general executive processing brain regions to semantic memory, and illustrate differences in how these regions are recruited in healthy older adults. PMID:24062684

  2. Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahn, R.; Garrard, P.

    2006-01-01

    The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used a semantic verification task and resting 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of mild to moderate AD patients to investigate this issue. The four task conditions required semantic knowledge of (1) visual, (2) functional properties of living objects, and (3) visual or (4) functional properties of nonliving objects. Visual property verification of living objects was significantly correlated with left posterior fusiform gyrus metabolism (Brodmann's area [BA] 37/19). Effects of visual and functional property verification for nonliving objects largely overlapped in the left anterior temporal (BA 38/20) and bilateral premotor areas (BA 6), with the visual condition extending more into left lateral precentral areas. There were no associations with functional property verification for living concepts. Our results provide strong support for anatomically separable representations of living and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas.

  3. Age-related vulnerability in the neural systems supporting semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Peelle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to form abstract representations of objects in semantic memory is crucial to language and thought. The utility of this information relies both on the representations of sensory-motor feature knowledge stored in long-term memory and the executive processes required to retrieve, manipulate, and evaluate this semantic knowledge in a task-relevant manner. These complementary components of semantic memory can be differentially impacted by aging. We investigated semantic processing in normal aging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young and older adults were asked to judge whether two printed object names match on a particular feature (for example, whether a tomato and strawberry have the same color. The task thus required both retrieval of relevant visual feature knowledge of object concepts and evaluating this information. Objects were drawn from either natural kinds or manufactured objects, and were queried on either color or shape in a factorial design. Behaviorally, all subjects performed well, but older adults could be divided into those whose performance matched that of young adults (better performers and those whose performance was worse (poorer performers. All subjects activated several cortical regions while performing this task, including bilateral inferior and lateral temporal cortex and left frontal and prefrontal cortex. Better performing older adults showed increased overall activity in bilateral premotor cortex and left lateral occipital cortex compared to young adults, and increased activity in these brain regions relative to poorer performing older adults who also showed gray matter atrophy in premotor cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of domain-general executive processing brain regions to semantic memory, and illustrate differences in how these regions are recruited in healthy older adults.

  4. A Secured and Semantically Addressed E-Mail Service

    OpenAIRE

    OSOFISAN; Adenike O; AMADI, J.C.; ETENG; Idongesit.E

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of semantic addresses to send emails in a corporate environment. Semantic Email Addressing (SEA) allows emails to be sent to a semantically speci?ed recipient or group of recipients, which may be dynamically changingovertime. In order to describe the concept of SEA and its advantages, it is compared with the concept of mailing lists. Two solutions to send semantically addressed emails are presented, on one hand a client sided solution has been elaborated where ...

  5. REVERSAL OF THE CONCRETENESS EFFECT IN SEMANTIC DEMENTIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, Michael F.; Vesely, Luisa; Price, Catherine; Anderson, Chivon; Richmond, Lauren; Farag, Christine; Avants, Brian; Grossman, Murray

    2009-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) have a striking impairment in semantic memory, but the basis for this deficit is unclear. We examined semantic memory for concrete and abstract verbs with a two-alternative, forced-choice measure of lexical semantic associative knowledge. Patients with SD had significantly greater difficulty with concrete verbs (z = ?3.33) than abstract verbs (z = ?2.05), a “reversal of the concreteness effect” that was present in a majority of individual patients. The sub...

  6. Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders; Stokholm, Jette; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2005-01-01

    The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD. Five short neuropsychological tests sensitive to semantic memory and easily applicable in routine practice were administered to 102 patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score above 19), ...

  7. Dependency-based Semantic Analysis of Natural-language Text

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Semantic roles, logical relations such as Agent or Instrument that hold between events and their participants and circumstances, need to be determined automatically by several types of applications in natural language processing. This process is referred to as semantic role labeling. This dissertation describes how to construct statistical models for semantic role labeling of English text, and how role semantics is related to surface syntax. It is generally agreed that the problem of s...

  8. Semi-Supervised Learning to Identify UMLS Semantic Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuan; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    The UMLS Semantic Network is constructed by experts and requires periodic expert review to update. We propose and implement a semi-supervised approach for automatically identifying UMLS semantic relations from narrative text in PubMed. Our method analyzes biomedical narrative text to collect semantic entity pairs, and extracts multiple semantic, syntactic and orthographic features for the collected pairs. We experiment with seeded k-means clustering with various distance metrics. We create an...

  9. Automatic Discovery of Semantic Relations Based on Association Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangfeng Luo; Kai Yan; Xue Chen

    2008-01-01

    Automatic discovery of semantic relations between resources is a key issue in Web-based intelligent applications such as document understanding and Web services. This paper explores how to automatically discover the latent semantic relations and their properties based on the existing association rules. Through building semantic matrix by the association rules, four semantic relations can be extracted using union and intersection in set theory. By building a cyclic graph model, the transitive ...

  10. Automatic and Intelligent Decision Making In Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Shrutika Kulkarni; Pradeep Chouskey; Gajendra Vaiker

    2012-01-01

    Concepts like "semantic computing" and "semantic search" refer to computational techniques that use knowledge representation and deep linkage into the referents of information tokens in language dictionaries, thesauri and ontology’s) and in data resources (libraries, databases and web-based repositories). Perhaps the best-known sense is in the "semantic web", it is also reviews the technologies that make up the SW with the implications of these technologies Semantic Intelligence, Defined Sema...

  11. Semantic priming, schizophrenia and the ketamine model of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanovic, A.

    2009-01-01

    The central aim of the studies presented in my thesis was to investigate the modulation of semantic memory function and its neural correlates in relation to schizophrenia. Semantic information is stored information that is impersonal, and includes knowledge of words and their meaning, and general knowledge about the world. Semantic memory deficits are thought to underlie core symptoms of schizophrenia, including delusions, thought disorder and alogia. The semantic priming (S...

  12. A platform for the development of Semantic Web portals

    OpenAIRE

    López-Cima, A.; Corcho, Óscar; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2006-01-01

    A Semantic Web portal is a Web application that offers information and services related to a specific domain, and that has been developed with Semantic Web technology. For the time being, the main difference with respect to a traditional Web portal is based on technological aspects: traditional Web portals are based on standard Web technology (HTML, XML, servlets, JSPs, etc.); semantic portals are based on that technology plus the use of Semantic Web languages like RDF, R...

  13. Semantic Web Search based on Ontology Modeling using Protege Reasoner

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar, Monica; K, Saravanaguru RA.

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web works on the existing Web which presents the meaning of information as well-defined vocabularies understood by the people. Semantic Search, at the same time, works on improving the accuracy if a search by understanding the intent of the search and providing contextually relevant results. This paper describes a semantic approach toward web search through a PHP application. The goal was to parse through a user's browsing history and return semantically relevan...

  14. Urban Design Logical Scheming Based on Semantic Network Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Dong; Guangtian Zou; Lin Qi

    2013-01-01

    Urban design logical scheming is a research based on the semantic network method, supplementing and perfecting the semantic network method. After the introduction of the semantic network logical scheming method, some experimental studies had been done from the aspects of logical judgment, logical screening and logical solving to text the validity and feasibility of semantic network scheming method applied in urban designing. Thereinto, logical judgment was mainly used to evaluate the accuracy...

  15. Linear logic-based semantics construction for LTAG

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Anette; Genabith, Josef van

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we review existing appoaches to semantics construction in LTAG (Lexicalised Tree Adjoining Grammar) which are all based on the notion of derivation (tree)s. We argue that derivation structures in LTAG are not appropriate to guide semantic composition, due to a non-isomorphism, in LTAG, between the syntactic operation of adjunction on the one hand, and the semantic operations of complementation and modification, on the other. Linear Logic based “glue” semantics, by now the classi...

  16. Efficient Construction of Underspecified Semantics under Massive Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Doerre, Jochen

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the problem of determining a compact underspecified semantical representation for sentences that may be highly ambiguous. Due to combinatorial explosion, the naive method of building semantics for the different syntactic readings independently is prohibitive. We present a method that takes as input a syntactic parse forest with associated constraint-based semantic construction rules and directly builds a packed semantic structure. The algorithm is fully implem...

  17. Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Malik; Udayan Ghose

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new ...

  18. Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Ansari, Aftab 2012. Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools: Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 67. Semantic Web is one important and relevant research area in computer science. A growing research attention to this field can be explained by the opportunities the Semantic Web could provide by representing and reasoning about semantic information. The objective of this thesis is to study the technologies for...

  19. Semantic Integration Process of Business Components through Ontology Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Hicham Elasri; Abderrahim Sekkaki

    2013-01-01

    Ontology Alignment (OA) identifies semantically matching of different entities, OA continues to attract great attention within the database, information system and artificial intelligence communities. OA used to solve the semantic heterogeneity and hide the complexity of retrieving entities of heterogeneous source. That’s why we rely on the OA for resolving semantic conflict during design phase of information system, particularly in semantic integration of Business Components (BC). Our ...

  20. Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu AIRINEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

  1. Building a semantic search engine with games and crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Semantic search engines aim at improving conventional search with semantic information, or meta-data, on the data searched for and/or on the searchers. So far, approaches to semantic search exploit characteristics of the searchers like age, education, or spoken language for selecting and/or ranking search results. Such data allow to build up a semantic search engine as an extension of a conventional search engine. The crawlers of well established search engines like Google, Yahoo! or Bing ...

  2. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980. ‘Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds. ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

  3. Revisiting intracellular calcium signaling semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiech, Jacques; Audran, Emilie; Fève, Marie; Ranjeva, Raoul; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2011-12-01

    Cells use intracellular free calcium concentration changes for signaling. Signal encoding occurs through both spatial and temporal modulation of the free calcium concentration. The encoded message is detected by an ensemble of intracellular sensors forming the family of calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) which must faithfully translate the message using a new syntax that is recognized by the cell. The cell is home to a significant although limited number of genes coding for proteins involved in the signal encoding and decoding processes. In a cell, only a subset of this ensemble of genes is expressed, leading to a genetic regulation of the calcium signal pathways. Calmodulin (CaM), the most ubiquitous expressed intracellular calcium-binding protein, plays a major role in calcium signal translation. Similar to a hub, it is central to a large and finely tuned network, receiving information, integrating it and dispatching the cognate response. In this review, we examine the different steps starting with an external stimulus up to a cellular response, with special emphasis on CaM and the mechanism by which it decodes calcium signals and translates it into exquisitely coordinated cellular events. By this means, we will revisit the calcium signaling semantics, hoping that we will ease communication between scientists dealing with calcium signals in different biological systems and different domains. PMID:21620928

  4. Optimal foraging in semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T; Jones, Michael N; Todd, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared structure of the search problems-searching in patchy environments-and recent evidence supporting a domain-general cognitive search process. To investigate these questions directly, we asked participants to recover from memory as many animal names as they could in 3 min. Memory search was modeled over a representation of the semantic search space generated from the BEAGLE memory model of Jones and Mewhort (2007), via a search process similar to models of associative memory search (e.g., Raaijmakers & Shiffrin, 1981). We found evidence for local structure (i.e., patches) in memory search and patch depletion preceding dynamic local-to-global transitions between patches. Dynamic models also significantly outperformed nondynamic models. The timing of dynamic local-to-global transitions was consistent with optimal search policies in space, specifically the marginal value theorem (Charnov, 1976), and participants who were more consistent with this policy recalled more items. PMID:22329683

  5. Harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Simko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The eective information processing (e.g. search, organi-zation of the heterogeneous information spaces requiresmetadata layer above the resources. However, the acqui-sition of resource metadata and domain models are chal-lenging tasks. Here, the crowdsourcing has emerged asan alternative to expert-based and automated semanticsacquisition approaches. One of its branches are the gameswith a purpose (GWAPs which encapsulate the seman-tics acquisition tasks into the game processes. We analyzeexisting GWAPs and propose their classication. Fur-thermore we devised our own GWAP-based approaches.For acquisition of lightweight term relationship network,we devised a search query formulation game, usable alsofor specic domain models. For acquisition of (personalimage tags, we devised a card game, where players mem-orize positions of concealed cards and identify identicalpairs. For validation of music metadata, we devised amulti-choice question-based game, where players identifytag sets that are characteristic to music tracks they hear.We also looked at the GWAPs from their design per-spectives. We present a design oriented classication sys-tem for GWAPs, adress several design issues recurring inGWAPs and present new design patterns to solve them.

  6. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

  7. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  8. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  9. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel, Vanderveken.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psycholog [...] ical modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka), human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  10. Discrete Characterization of Domain Using Semantic Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Madan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lots of approaches have been developed to understand the software source code and majority of them are focused on program structural information which results in the loss of domain semantic crucial information contained in the text or symbols of source code. To understand software as a whole, we need to enrich these approaches with conceptual insights gained from the domain semantics. This paper proposes the mapping of domain to the code using the information retrieval techniques to use linguistic information, such as identifier names and comments in source code. Concept of Semantic Clustering has been introduced in this paper and an algorithm has been provided to group source artifacts based on how the synonymy and polysemy is related. Based on semantic similarity automatic labeling of the program code is done after detecting the clusters, and is visually explore in 3-Dimension for discrete characterization. This approach works at the source code textual level which makes it language independent. The approach correlates the semantics with structural information applies at different levels of Abstraction (e.g. packages, classes, methods.

  11. Luciano Floridi's theory of semantic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Peroži?

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Luciano Floridi is an Italian philosopher with an Anglo-Saxon career, who started a new philosophical discipline, the philosophy of information (Floridi 2002. As opposed to most authors who deal with this subject, Floridi, in his rich opus, treats information as a broader concept. However, this paper will treat information neither as a social and ethical phenomenon, nor as information and communication technologies. The aim of the paper is to examine information as a subject of philosophical investigation. The paper gives an overview of and a comment on the theory of semantic information that Floridi presented in two core articles: Semantic Conceptions of Information (2011 and Outline of a Theory of Strongly Semantic Information (2004. The first text gives an overview of ideas that form a framework for the philosophical analysis of information and presents the main theses of Floridi’s theory of semantic information. The second text is a step away from the philosophical towards the scientific theory by using situational logic as a basis for quantification (measurement of two dimensions of semantic information: inaccuracy and vacuity.

  12. Deriving Logical Consequences Using Ontological Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S. Langde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web technology enables us to specify metadata about things in the world and help us to relate this metadata using ontology databases and language. The core of the Semantic Web is Ontology, which is used to explicitly represent our conceptualizations. This paper is an efforts to improve the relevancy of results in a search system for a particular domain by exploiting the domain knowledge captured in an OWL ontology using the protégé tool. We make ontological database from static relational database using protégé. The key ingredients that make up an ontology are a vocabulary of basic terms, semantic interconnections, simple rules of inference and some logic for a particular topic. We extract semantic meaning from query entered by the user using tool and then we map this meaning into ontological database. To achieve semantic search, a search engine is needed which can interpret the meaning of a user's query and the relations among the concepts that a document contains with respect to a particular domain. Protégé is an extensible and customizable tool for constructing ontologies and for developing applications that use these ontologies. After that we display this data on user screen. The output of this project is to provide appropriate result to user for enter his queries.

  13. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdellah Kassimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  14. The Verbmobil semantic formalism (Version 1.3)

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Johan; Mastenbroek, Elsbeth; McGlashan, Scott; Millies, Sebastian; Pinkal, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the semantic formalism developed at Saarbrücken University as part of the Verbmobil project. The formalism is based upon DRT with additional functionality to meet the requirements on semantic construction arising from spoken dialogue translation. We define the syntax of the formalism and illustrate the semantic composition process in detail.

  15. Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

  16. Semantic Associations in Business English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the semantic associations of words found in the business lexical environment by using a one-million word corpus of both spoken and written Business English. The key method of analysis is that of semantic prosody or semantic association; the notion that words associate with collocates that are themselves related, often either…

  17. THE CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF SEMANTIC STRUCTURE. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURLING, ROBBINS; FRIEDRICH, PAUL

    SEVERAL EXPLORATIONS WERE MADE INTO THE STRUCTURE OF MEANING IN BURMESE AND RUSSIAN. VARIOUS KINDS OF LINGUISTIC INFORMATION WERE ISOLATED BY TEXTUAL STUDY AND INTERVIEWS WITH NATIVE SPEAKERS. DISCUSSION COVERED SUCH THEORETICAL QUESTIONS AS (1) SYNCHRONY AND DIACHRONY, (2) SEMANTICS AND GRAMMAR, (3) SEMANTICS AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE, (4) SEMANTICS

  18. An Educational Tool for Browsing the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Kim, Younghwan; Park, Seongbin

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web where information is represented in a machine processable way. It is not separate from the current Web and one of the confusions that novice users might have is where the Semantic Web is. In fact, users can easily encounter RDF documents that are components of the Semantic Web while they navigate…

  19. Multiuse of Oceanographic Data on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Feng; Campbell, Jon; Griffiths, Gwyn

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Ocean is an initiative to build a semantic web infrastructure to enable marine scientists to collaboratively publish their resources on the semantic web to assist multi use of the ocean data. We borrow concepts and technologies in the semantic web and adopt the Agile Knowledge Engineering (AKE) methodology to enable collaborative knowledge engineering in ocean resource management.

  20. RDF/S)XML Linguistic Annotation of Semantic Web Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado de Cea, G.; Álvarez de Mon Rego, I.; Pareja-Lora, A.; Plaza Arteche, R.

    2002-01-01

    Although with the Semantic Web initiative much research on web pages semantic annotation has already done by AI researchers, linguistic text annotation, including the semantic one, was originally developed in Corpus Linguistics and its results have been somehow neglected by AI. ...

  1. Ontology-Based Exception Handling for Semantic Business Process Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Zhao; Linlin Zhang; Shi Ying

    2012-01-01

    Along with the widespread acceptance of business process management (BPM) and Semantic Web services composition technologies, Semantic Web service oriented programming is becoming an efficient way to develop modern business applications. As Semantic Web services are inherently unreliable, how to develop reliable service oriented applications is a significant and challenging problem, especially in complex, untamed and dynamic services environment. However, current business process programming ...

  2. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  3. When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

  4. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 X 20 emotion, face, and hand related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora; HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  5. Latent Semantics of Action Verbs Reflect Phonetic Parameters of Intensity and Emotional Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  6. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  7. Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Haytham T. Al-Feel; Magdy Koutb; Hoda Suoror

    2008-01-01

    Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there is no ag...

  8. Relational Semantics for Databases and Predicate Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The relational data model requires a theory of relations in which tuples are not only many-sorted, but can also have indexes that are not necessarily numerical. In this paper we develop such a theory and define operations on relations that are adequate for database use. The operations are similar to those of Codd's relational algebra, but differ in being based on a mathematically adequate theory of relations. The semantics of predicate calculus, being oriented toward the concept of satisfiability, is not suitable for relational databases. We develop an alternative semantics that assigns relations as meaning to formulas with free variables. This semantics makes the classical predicate calculus suitable as a query language for relational databases.

  9. The Semantic Richness of Abstract Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Recchia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NF, contextual dispersion (CD, and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept’s physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations.

  10. Refining the Semantics of Social Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Marazopoulou, Katerina; Jensen, David

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of network data, researchers are increasingly focusing on questions investigating phenomena occurring on networks. This often includes analysis of peer-effects, i.e., how the connections of an individual affect that individual's behavior. This type of influence is not limited to direct connections of an individual (such as friends), but also to individuals that are connected through longer paths (for example, friends of friends, or friends of friends of friends). In this work, we identify an ambiguity in the definition of what constitutes the extended neighborhood of an individual. This ambiguity gives rise to different semantics and supports different types of underlying phenomena. We present experimental results, both on synthetic and real networks, that quantify differences among the sets of extended neighbors under different semantics. Finally, we provide experimental evidence that demonstrates how the use of different semantics affects model selection.

  11. HYPERTEXT ENTITIES’ SEMANTIC WEB-ORIENTED REENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin TOMOZEI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s aim is to define the concept of Hypertext Semantic Web-Oriented Reengineering (HSR as a process of distributed applications development which takes into consideration the semantic aspect in information retrieval and communication. It is virtually possible to apply the reengineering on web applications concerned being about the efficiency of the ideas of data structures and implementation than to mainly being troubled with the language or syntactic point of view. This research also brings some examples of distributed applications types, some small segments of them being mainly explained as well, in order to make our theory strongly connected with the practical work from software companies. It is very important that semantic approaches to be implemented while developing software applications, mostly when reengineering is integrated in the development process, as a step for the evolution to the next generation of web.

  12. Automated resolution of semantic heterogeneity in multidatabases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, M.W. [IBM Federal Systems Company, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hurson, A.R.; Pakzad, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A multidatabase system provides intergrated access to heterogeneous, autonomous local databases in a distributed system. An important problem in current multidatabase systems is identification of semantically similar data in different local databases. The Summary Schemas Model (SSM) is proposed as an extension to multidatabase systems to aid in semantic identification. The SSM uses a global data structure to abstract the information available in a multidatabase system. This abstracted form allows users to use their own terms. The system uses the global data structure to match the user`s terms to the semantically closest available system terms. A simulation of the SSM is presented to compare imprecise-query processing with corresponding query-processing costs in a standard multidatabase system. The costs and benefits of the SSM are discussed, and future research directions are presented. 57 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Semantic Web Approach towards E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Kiran Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Technologies enable machines to interpret data published in a machine-interpretable form on the web. The existing e-commerce web data can be understandable to humans to read but machines cannot process it due to lack of semantics. To gain the advantage of using online shopping, consumer needs to search different e-commerce websites for a better price of product. Hence searching plays a crucial role in e-commerce to overcome information asymmetry and price dispersion. In this paper, we explained the basics of e-commerce with advantage, disadvantages and where the semantic web technologies can be applied is given for the benefit of consumer.

  14. Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI to semantically find plagiarism.

  15. A Semantic Layer for Embedded Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor Networks progressively assumed the critical role of bridges between the real world and information systems, through always more consolidated and efficient sensor technologies that enable advanced heterogeneous sensor grids. Sensor data is commonly used by advanced systems and intelligent applications in order to archive complex goals. Processes that build high-level knowledge from sensor data are commonly considered as the key core concept. This paper proposes a semantic layer that would optimally support the knowledge building in sensor systems as well as it enables semantic interaction model at different levels (module, subsystem, system. The semantic layer proposed in the paper is currently used by several architectures and applications in the context of different domains.

  16. Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search

    CERN Document Server

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2012-01-01

    Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search is based on "joint meaning" understood as a joint construal of the creators of the contents and the user of the contents using the faced taxonomy with the Semantic Web. A proof-of concept prototype shows how the proposed methodological approach can also be applied to existing presentation components, built with different languages and/or component technologies.

  17. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kalil A; Rosa, Nelson S; Cunha, Paulo R F

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  18. Processing correlates of lexical semantic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Silvia; Poeppel, David

    2003-08-01

    This paper explores how verb meanings that differ in semantic complexity are processed and represented. In particular, we compare eventive verbs, which denote causally structured events, with stative verbs, which denote facts without causal structure. We predicted that the conceptually more complex eventive verbs should take longer to process than stative verbs. Two experiments, a lexical decision task and a self-paced reading study, confirmed this prediction. The findings suggest that (a) semantic complexity is reflected in processing time, (b) processing verb meanings involves activating properties of the event structure beyond participants' roles, and (c) more generally, lexical event structures, which subsume thematic roles, may mediate between syntactic knowledge and semantic interpretation. PMID:12893127

  19. User Search Personalization in Semantic Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Venkata Ramana , Dr.K.Venugopala Rao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behaviour (usage data in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In the first part of our Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the second part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank, a Page Rank style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query.

  20. Abstraction and underspecification in semantic transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Abb, Bernd; Buschbeck-Wolf, Bianka; Tschernitschek, Christel

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the semantic transfer approach MinT (Minimal Transfer) that has been developed in the speech-to-speech MT system VERBMOBIL. As a unification-based and lexicalist semantic transfer model, it relies on some central ideas of the MRS-based transfer approach outlined in [Copestake et al., 1995]. It differs, however, from the latter in certain aspects: in MinT, the idea of abstraction and underspecification is worked out in much more detail and has been applied to a variety of...

  1. Mathematical aspects of logic programming semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Covering the authors' own state-of-the-art research results, Mathematical Aspects of Logic Programming Semantics presents a rigorous, modern account of the mathematical methods and tools required for the semantic analysis of logic programs. It significantly extends the tools and methods from traditional order theory to include nonconventional methods from mathematical analysis that depend on topology, domain theory, generalized distance functions, and associated fixed-point theory.The book covers topics spanning the period from the early days of logic programming to current times. It discusses

  2. Semantic mashups intelligent reuse of web resources

    CERN Document Server

    Endres-Niggemeyer, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mashups are mostly lightweight Web applications that offer new functionalities by combining, aggregating and transforming resources and services available on the Web. Popular examples include a map in their main offer, for instance for real estate, hotel recommendations, or navigation tools.  Mashups may contain and mix client-side and server-side activity. Obviously, understanding the incoming resources (services, statistical figures, text, videos, etc.) is a precondition for optimally combining them, so that there is always some undercover semantics being used.  By using semantic annotations

  3. Semantic technologies for e-government

    CERN Document Server

    Vitvar, Tomas; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    E-government faces huge challenges in achieving interoperability and integration, taking into account differences in laws, regulations, services, administrative processes and languages across regions and countries. On the other hand, issues like service, data and process integration have been researched by the Semantic Web community for several years now, and in the last two to three years we have witnessed the first applications of semantic technologies in real, operational e-government systems in both Europe and the US which address exactly these challenges. With this book, the editors prese

  4. Timed Automata Semantics for Analyzing Creol

    CERN Document Server

    Jaghoori, Mohammad Mahdi; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.8

    2010-01-01

    We give a real-time semantics for the concurrent, object-oriented modeling language Creol, by mapping Creol processes to a network of timed automata. We can use our semantics to verify real time properties of Creol objects, in particular to see whether processes can be scheduled correctly and meet their end-to-end deadlines. Real-time Creol can be useful for analyzing, for instance, abstract models of multi-core embedded systems. We show how analysis can be done in Uppaal.

  5. Semantic Visualization and Navigation in Textual Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Kboubi, Férihane; BenAhmed, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of related work on the information visualization domain and study the real integration of the cartography paradigms in actual information search systems. Based on this study, we propose a semantic visualization and navigation approach which offer to users three search modes: precise search, connotative search and thematic search. The objective is to propose to the users of an information search system, new interaction paradigms which support the semantic aspect of the considered information space and guide users in their searches by assisting them to locate their interest center and to improve serendipity.

  6. Semantic technologies and e-business

    OpenAIRE

    Bedini, Ivan; Gardarin, Georges; Nguyen, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we study what semantic technologies can bring to the e-business domain and how they can be applied to it. After an overview of the goals to be achieved by e-business applications we detail a large panel of existing e-business standards, with a specific focus on B2B (Business to Business) and their current modus operandi. Furthermore we also present some of the most relevant e-business ontologies. We then argue that the use of semantic technologies will simplify the automatic ...

  7. Web Information Extraction Systems for Web Semantization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D?dek, Jan

    Se?a : Pont, 2009 - (Vojtáš, P.), s. 1-6 ISBN 978-80-970179-2-7. [ITAT 2009. Conference on Theory and Practice of Information Theory. Krá?ova stud?a (SK), 25.09.2009-29.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA ?R GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : web information extraction * web semantization * semantic web * information systems Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  8. Knowledge Representation in the Social Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Weller, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to sum up the vital and highly topical research issue of knowledge representation on the Web and to discuss novel solutions by combining benefits of folksonomies and Web 2.0 approaches with ontologies and semantic technologies. The book contains an overview of knowledge representation approaches in past, present and future, introduction to ontologies, Web indexing and in first case the novel approaches of developing ontologies. combines aspects of knowledge representation for both the Semantic Web (ontologies) and the Web 2.0 (folksonomies). Currently there is

  9. Semantic Web and Model-Driven Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Parreiras, Fernando S

    2012-01-01

    The next enterprise computing era will rely on the synergy between both technologies: semantic web and model-driven software development (MDSD). The semantic web organizes system knowledge in conceptual domains according to its meaning. It addresses various enterprise computing needs by identifying, abstracting and rationalizing commonalities, and checking for inconsistencies across system specifications. On the other side, model-driven software development is closing the gap among business requirements, designs and executables by using domain-specific languages with custom-built syntax and se

  10. Model Mapping Approach Based on Ontology Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkui Hou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The mapping relations between different models are the foundation for model transformation in model-driven software development. On the basis of ontology semantics, model mappings between different levels are classified by using structural semantics of modeling languages. The general definition process for mapping relations is explored, and the principles of structure mapping are proposed subsequently. The approach is further illustrated by the mapping relations from class model of object oriented modeling language to the C programming codes. The application research shows that the approach provides a theoretical guidance for the realization of model mapping, and thus can make an effective support to model-driven software development

  11. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, FG

    2012-01-01

    Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and differential

  12. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Guggenheimer, Heinrich W

    1977-01-01

    This is a text of local differential geometry considered as an application of advanced calculus and linear algebra. The discussion is designed for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate study, and presumes of readers only a fair knowledge of matrix algebra and of advanced calculus of functions of several real variables. The author, who is a Professor of Mathematics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York, begins with a discussion of plane geometry and then treats the local theory of Lie groups and transformation groups, solid differential geometry, and Riemannian geometry, leading to a

  13. Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, S.; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    With the growing amount of health information and frequent outbreaks of diseases, the retrieval of health information is given more concern. Machine understanding of spatial information can improve the interpretation of health data semantics. Most of the current research focused on the non-spatial semantics of health data, using ontologies and rules. Utilizing the spatial component of health data can assist in the understanding of health phenomena. This research proposes a semantic health information query architecture that allows the incorporation of both non-spatial semantics and geospatial semantics in health information integration and retrieval.

  14. Semantic Event Mining Based on Hierarchical Structure for Soccer Video

    OpenAIRE

    Xiukun Wang; Pixi Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A three-layer framework of Semantic event Mining for soccer video was proposed, namely shot semantic layer, scene semantic layer and semantic event layer from bottom to top. The function of shot semantic layer is the classification of physical shots. As a result, the streaming video data composed of original physical shots are translated into a character sequence, in which each character means a kind of shot type, such as global shot (A), player’s gathering shot (G), a player shot (P), a refe...

  15. VPOET: Using a Distributed Collaborative Platform for Semantic Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rico, Mariano; Corcho, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative wiki-based platform that has been designed to facilitate the development of Semantic Web applications. The applications designed using this platform are able to build semantic data through the cooperation of different developers and to exploit that semantic data. The paper shows a practical case study on the application VPOET, and how an application based on Google Gadgets has been designed to test VPOET and let human users exploit the semantic data created. This practical example can be used to show how different Semantic Web technologies can be integrated into a particular Web application, and how the knowledge can be cooperatively improved.

  16. Fast Distributed Dynamics of Semantic Networks via Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Facundo; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano; Slezak, Diego Fernández

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of semantic organization using social media, a collective expression of human thought. We propose a novel, time-dependent semantic similarity measure (TSS), based on the social network Twitter. We show that TSS is consistent with static measures of similarity but provides high temporal resolution for the identification of real-world events and induced changes in the distributed structure of semantic relationships across the entire lexicon. Using TSS, we measured the evolution of a concept and its movement along the semantic neighborhood, driven by specific news/events. Finally, we showed that particular events may trigger a temporary reorganization of elements in the semantic network. PMID:26074953

  17. Tracing the time course of emotion perception: the impact of stimulus physics and semantics on gesture processing

    OpenAIRE

    Flaisch, Tobias; Schupp, Harald T.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous event-related brain potential (ERP) studies reveal the differential processing of emotional and neutral stimuli. Yet, it is an ongoing debate to what extent the ERP components found in previous research are sensitive to physical stimulus characteristics or emotional meaning. This study manipulated emotional meaning and stimulus orientation to disentangle the impact of stimulus physics and semantics on emotional stimulus processing. Negative communicative hand gestures of Insult were ...

  18. A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hassanzadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning.The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changingits contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of thecornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is calledSemantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality,scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages.Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systemsmust be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges inthis domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervisedlearning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learninghave been utilized. In this paper we present an inclusive layered classification of Semantic Annotationchallenges and discuss the most important issues in this field. Also, we review and analyze machinelearning applications for solving semantic annotation problems. For this goal, the article tries to closelystudy and categorize related researches for better understanding and to reach a framework that can mapmachine learning techniques into the Semantic Annotation challenges and requirements.

  19. High performance semantic factoring of giga-scale semantic graph databases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    al-Saffar, Sinan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Adolf, Bob (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Haglin, David (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mackey, Greg Edward; Goodman, Eric L.; Joslyn, Cliff A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Feo, John (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mizell, David (Cray, Inc.)

    2010-10-01

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to bring high performance computational resources to bear on their analysis, interpretation, and visualization, especially with respect to their innate semantic structure. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multithreaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional clusters, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture, and present the results of our deploying that for the analysis of the Billion Triple dataset with respect to its semantic factors, including basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths.

  20. High Performance Semantic Factoring of Giga-Scale Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; Al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Goodman, Eric L.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2010-10-04

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to bring high performance computational resources to bear on their analysis, interpretation, and visualization, especially with respect to their innate semantic structure. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multithreaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional clusters, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture, and present the results of our deploying that for the analysis of the Billion Triple dataset with respect to its semantic factors.

  1. The large-scale structure of semantic networks statistical analyses and a model for semantic growth

    CERN Document Server

    Steyvers, M; Tenenbaum, Mark Steyvers & Joshua B.

    2001-01-01

    We present statistical analyses of the large-scale structure of three types of semantic networks: word associations, WordNet, and Roget's thesaurus. We show that they have a small-world structure, characterized by sparse connectivity, short average path-lengths between words, and strong local clustering. In addition, the distributions of the number of connections follow power laws that indicate a scale-free pattern of connectivity, with most nodes having relatively few connections joined together through a small number of hubs with many connections. These regularities have also been found in certain other complex natural networks, such as the world wide web, but they are not consistent with many conventional models of semantic organization, based on inheritance hierarchies, arbitrarily structured networks, or high-dimensional vector spaces. We propose that these structures reflect the mechanisms by which semantic networks grow. We describe a simple model for semantic growth, in which each new word or concept ...

  2. Grammar-Based Random Walkers in Semantic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Marko A

    2008-01-01

    Semantic networks qualify the meaning of an edge relating any two vertices. Determining which vertices are most "central" in a semantic network is difficult because one relationship type may be deemed subjectively more important than another. For this reason, research into semantic network metrics has focused primarily on context-based rankings (i.e. user prescribed contexts). Moreover, many of the current semantic network metrics rank semantic associations (i.e. directed paths between two vertices) and not the vertices themselves. This article presents a framework for calculating semantically meaningful primary eigenvector-based metrics such as eigenvector centrality and PageRank in semantic networks using a modified version of the random walker model of Markov chain analysis. Random walkers, in the context of this article, are constrained by a grammar, where the grammar is a user defined data structure that determines the meaning of the final vertex ranking. The ideas in this article are presented within th...

  3. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hochstadt, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Modern approach to differential equations presents subject in terms of ideas and concepts rather than special cases and tricks which traditional courses emphasized. No prerequisites needed other than a good calculus course. Certain concepts from linear algebra used throughout. Problem section at end of each chapter.

  4. Semantics, Sensors, and the Social Web: The Live Social Semantics Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; Van den Broeck, Wouter; Barrat, Alain; Alani, Harith

    2010-01-01

    The Live Social Semantics is an innovative application that encourages and guides social networking between researchers at conferences and similar events. The application integrates data from the Semantic Web, online social networks, and a face-to-face contact sensing platform. It helps researchers to find like-minded and influential researchers, to identify and meet people in their community of practice, and to capture and later retrace their real-world networking activities. The application...

  5. Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham T. Al-Feel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there is no agreement for one of these visions nor is there a clear picture for the relation between different layers inside this architecture and the associated technologies. The objectives of this study were to: (i Identify the weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures and (ii Reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses. Approach: This research uses the Qualitative Analysis Approach of Taylor and Renner, presents the four versions of the Semantic Web architecture, describing the function(s and status of each layer and associated technologies, evaluates them using Gerber evaluation method and determines other design principles needed to modify and adapt this architecture as a step toward an agreement for one Semantic Web architecture. Results: The design of a new model for the Semantic Web architecture depends on the idea of previous versions. Conclusion: As a step toward a unified architecture for the Semantic Web, our study of the Semantic Web architecture highlighted some weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures, modify, adapt and reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses.

  6. LAIR: A Language for Automated Semantics-Aware Text Sanitization based on Frame Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Houen, Søren; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2009-01-01

    We present \\lair{}: A domain-specific language that enables users to specify actions to be taken upon meeting specific semantic frames in a text, in particular to rephrase and redact the textual content. While \\lair{} presupposes superficial knowledge of frames and frame semantics, it requires only limited prior programming experience. It neither contain scripting or I/O primitives, nor does it contain general loop constructions and is not Turing-complete. We have implemented a \\lair{} compiler ...

  7. Fuzzy Semantic Retrieval for Traffic Information Based on Fuzzy Ontology and RDF on the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 7.8 ? 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Information retrieval is the essential task for Traffic Information Service System in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS.  There a lot of fuzzy traffic information derived from human factor. To achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper proposes an approach using Resource Description Framework (RDF and fuzzy ontology. First, we apply RDF data model to represent traffic information on the Semantic Web. Then we present fuzzy linguistic variable ontology models and its formal representation with RDF. Introducing new data type referred as fuzzy linguistic variables to RDF data model, the semantic query expansions in SeRQL query language are constructed by order relation, equivalence relation, inclusion relation and complement relation between fuzzy concepts defined in linguistic variable ontologies. Examples show that the extended query can return all results which satisfy research requirement at semantic level without upgrading current main search algorithm, and this research facilitates the semantic retrieval of traffic information through fuzzy concepts for ITS on the Semantic Web.

  8. Remote semantic memory in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and herpes encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Michael D; Bright, Peter; Fulker, Helena; Hinton, Nicola; Morrison, Amy; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2009-03-01

    Performance of patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and herpes encephalitis was compared on a retrograde amnesia (RA) test, asking subjects to recall and recognize the definitions of words that had come into the language at different time periods. Performance was also compared on a related test in which participants were asked to produce the words to definitions they were given in free recall and cued recall versions. It was hypothesized that, if the temporal gradient in remote memory results from a shift of information from episodic to semantic memory, then there should be a temporal gradient on these tasks, possibly steeper (i.e., greater relative sparing of early memories) in the patients in the Korsakoff group than in the herpes encephalitis group, who have widespread temporal lobe damage. Furthermore, in comparing semantic and episodic remote memory tests, consolidation theory would predict uniform temporal gradients across such tasks, whereas multiple trace theory would predict a differential pattern. The results showed that patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and patients with herpes encephalitis were significantly impaired across all time periods on the vocabulary tests, with only minimal evidence of temporal gradients, relative to healthy participants, and there was no evidence of a differential pattern of impairment between the two patient groups. Comparison with performance on measures of episodic retrograde amnesia, in which there was a differential pattern of temporal gradient, suggests that the relative preservation of early episodic remote memories in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome does not result from an episodic-to-semantic shift in the quality with which memories are stored. These findings are discussed in relation to existing theories of RA and to the patients' underlying patterns of neuropathology. PMID:19254087

  9. Semantic Architecture for Web application Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razzaq

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth of web applications has facilitated the humanity almost in all aspects of life especially e-health, e-business and e-communication but this application are exposed for web attacks, unauthorized access, evil intentions and treacherous engagements. Various strategies have been formulated over a period of time in the form of intrusion detection system, encryption devices, and firewalls but still proved to be ineffective. In this paper, we have proposed a system having semantic architecture that is capable of performing detection semantically in the context of HTTP protocol, the data, and the target application. The knowledgebase of the system is the ontological representation of communication protocol, attacks data and the application profile that can be refined and expanded over time. Unlike traditional signature base approach, the semantic architecture analysis the HTTP request with the help of semantic rules and inferred knowledge after reasoning of knowledgebase through Inference engine. Non signature based approach of the system enhance the capability of the system to detect the unknown attacks with low false positive rate. The system is evaluated by comparing with existing open source solutions and showing significant improvement in term of detection ability with low alarm rate

  10. Selforganisation in a Storage for Semantic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tolksdorf

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scalable distributed semantic storage infrastructures are hard to realize. We propose the usage of principles of selforganization for the storage and retrieval of RDF triples. We use a biology-inspired algorithm for clustering of triples based on a purely syntactical similarity measure.

  11. Semantic Shot Classification in Sports Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ling-Yu; Xu, Min; Tian, Qi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a unified framework for semantic shot classification in sports videos. Unlike previous approaches, which focus on clustering by aggregating shots with similar low-level features, the proposed scheme makes use of domain knowledge of a specific sport to perform a top-down video shot classification, including identification of video shot classes for each sport, and supervised learning and classification of the given sports video with low-level and middle-level features extracted from the sports video. It is observed that for each sport we can predefine a small number of semantic shot classes, about 5~10, which covers 90~95% of sports broadcasting video. With the supervised learning method, we can map the low-level features to middle-level semantic video shot attributes such as dominant object motion (a player), camera motion patterns, and court shape, etc. On the basis of the appropriate fusion of those middle-level shot classes, we classify video shots into the predefined video shot classes, each of which has a clear semantic meaning. The proposed method has been tested over 4 types of sports videos: tennis, basketball, volleyball and soccer. Good classification accuracy of 85~95% has been achieved. With correctly classified sports video shots, further structural and temporal analysis, such as event detection, video skimming, table of content, etc, will be greatly facilitated.

  12. Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Semantic Field Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.

  13. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Reduction semantics is a popular format for small-step operational seman- tics of deterministic programming languages with computational eects. Each reduction semantics gives rise to a reduction-based normalization function where the reduction sequence is enumerated. Refocusing is a practical way to transform a reduction-based normalization function into a reduction-free one where the reduction sequence is not enumerated. This reduction-free normalization function takes the form of an abstract ma- chine that navigates from one redex site to the next without systematically detouring via the root of the term to enumerate the reduction sequence, in contrast to the reduction-based normalization function. We have discovered that refocusing does not apply as readily for re- duction semantics that use an outermost reduction strategy and have overlapping rules where a contractum can be a proper subpart of a redex. In this article, we consider such an outermost reduction semantics with backward-overlapping rules, and we investigate how to apply refocusing to still obtain a reduction-free normalization function in the form of an abstract machine.

  14. Auto-Generated Semantic Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rodney; Hupf, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Auto-Generated Semantic Processing (AGSP) Services is a suite of software tools for automated generation of other computer programs, denoted cross-platform semantic adapters, that support interoperability of computer-based communication systems that utilize a variety of both new and legacy communication software running in a variety of operating- system/computer-hardware combinations. AGSP has numerous potential uses in military, space-exploration, and other government applications as well as in commercial telecommunications. The cross-platform semantic adapters take advantage of common features of computer- based communication systems to enforce semantics, messaging protocols, and standards of processing of streams of binary data to ensure integrity of data and consistency of meaning among interoperating systems. The auto-generation aspect of AGSP Services reduces development time and effort by emphasizing specification and minimizing implementation: In effect, the design, building, and debugging of software for effecting conversions among complex communication protocols, custom device mappings, and unique data-manipulation algorithms is replaced with metadata specifications that map to an abstract platform-independent communications model. AGSP Services is modular and has been shown to be easily integrable into new and legacy NASA flight and ground communication systems.

  15. Validity Semantics in Educational and Psychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathcoat, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The semantics, or meaning, of validity is a fluid concept in educational and psychological testing. Contemporary controversies surrounding this concept appear to stem from the proper location of validity. Under one view, validity is a property of score-based inferences and entailed uses of test scores. This view is challenged by the…

  16. Leveraging the Semantic Web for Adaptive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravcik, Milos; Gasevic, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    In the area of technology-enhanced learning reusability and interoperability issues essentially influence the productivity and efficiency of learning and authoring solutions. There are two basic approaches how to overcome these problems--one attempts to do it via standards and the other by means of the Semantic Web. In practice, these approaches…

  17. Cases, Simulacra, and Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, P.; Tscholl, M.

    2013-01-01

    "Ensemble" is an interdisciplinary research and development project exploring the potential role of emerging Semantic Web technologies in case-based learning across learning environments in higher education. Empirical findings have challenged the claim that cases "bring reality into the classroom" and that this, in turn, might provide the basis…

  18. Students as Designers of Semantic Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Fran; Jordan, Katy

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws upon the experience of an interdisciplinary research group in engaging undergraduate university students in the design and development of semantic web technologies. A flexible approach to participatory design challenged conventional distinctions between "designer" and "user" and allowed students to play a role in developing…

  19. An Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, Thomas K; Foltz, Peter W.; Laham, Darrell

    1998-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the theory and implementation of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a theory and method for extracting and representing the contextual-usage meaning of words by statistical computations applied to a large corpus of text. Gives an overview of applications and modeling of human knowledge to which LSA has been applied. (SR)

  20. Semantic knowledge representation for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.

  1. 10232 Report -- The Semantics of Information

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Keye R.; Mislove, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The Dagstuhl Seminar 10232, "Semantics of Information" was devoted to talks by researchers in a wide range of disciplines: mathematics, computer science, systems biology, physics, and economic gam theory, all of which explored the relationship of computer science and its theory to their area.

  2. A Resolution Calculus for Dynamic Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Monz, C; Monz, Christof; Rijke, Maarten de

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies resolution theorem proving to natural language semantics. The aim is to circumvent the computational complexity triggered by natural language ambiguities like pronoun binding, by interleaving pronoun binding with resolution deduction. Therefore disambiguation is only applied to expression that actually occur during derivations.

  3. Semantic Metrics for Object Oriented Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, Lethe

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to research a new suite of object-oriented (OO) software metrics, called semantic metrics, that have the potential to help software engineers identify fragile, low quality code sections much earlier in the development cycle than is possible with traditional OO metrics. With earlier and better Fault detection, software maintenance will be less time consuming and expensive, and software reusability will be improved. Because it is less costly to correct faults found earlier than to correct faults found later in the software lifecycle, the overall cost of software development will be reduced. Semantic metrics can be derived from the knowledge base of a program understanding system. A program understanding system is designed to understand a software module. Once understanding is complete, the knowledge-base contains digested information about the software module. Various semantic metrics can be collected on the knowledge base. This new kind of metric measures domain complexity, or the relationship of the software to its application domain, rather than implementation complexity, which is what traditional software metrics measure. A semantic metric will thus map much more closely to qualities humans are interested in, such as cohesion and maintainability, than is possible using traditional metrics, that are calculated using only syntactic aspects of software.

  4. The geometric semantics of algebraic quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Morales, John Alexander; Zilber, Boris

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we will present an ongoing project that aims to use model theory as a suitable mathematical setting for studying the formalism of quantum mechanics. We argue that this approach provides a geometric semantics for such a formalism by means of establishing a (non-commutative) duality between certain algebraic and geometric objects. PMID:26124252

  5. Semantic Generalization in Implicit Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether…

  6. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components are crucial to be formalized by the semantic web ontologies for adaptive web. We use examples from an eLearning domain to illustrate the principles which are broadly applicable to any information domain on the web.

  7. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, and show how it can be applied for efficient verification of open (incomplete) programs. The focus is on an Algol-like programming language which contains the core ingredients of imperative and functional languages, especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones, we generalize the standard notions of regular-language and automata representations of game semantics to that of corresponding symbolic representations. In this way programs with infinite data types, such as integers, can be expressed as finite-state symbolic-automata although the standard automata representation is infinite-state, i.e. the standard regular-language representation has infinite summations. Moreover, in this way significant reductions of the state space of game semantics models are obtained. This enables efficient verification of programs by our prototype tool based on symbolic game models, which is illustrated with several examples.

  8. Building the Italian Syntactic-semantic Treebank

    OpenAIRE

    Montemagni, S.; Barsotti, Francesco; Battista, Marco; Calzolari, Nicoletta; Corazzari, Ornella; Lenci, Alessandro; Zampolli, A.; Fanciulli, Francesca; Masstani, Maria; Raffaelli, Remo; Basili, Roberto; Pazienza, Maria Teresa; Saracino, Dario; Zanzotto, Fabio; Mana, Nadia

    2003-01-01

    The paper reports on the design and construction of a multi-layered corpus of Italian, annotated at the syntactic and lexico-semantic levels, whose development is supported by dedicated software augmented with an intelligent interface. The issue of evaluating this type of resource is also addressed.

  9. Enhancing scientific information systems with semantic annotations

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, Eric; Savonnet, Marinette

    2013-01-01

    Scientific Information Systems aim to produce or improve knowledge on a subject through activities of research and development. The management of scientific dat a requires some essential properties. We propose SemLab an architecture that sup ports interoperability, data quality and extensibility through a unique paradigm: semantic annotation. We present two app lications that validate our architecture.

  10. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by existential closure. Quantifiers can then be interpreted in situ. The resulting framework combines the strengths of event semantics and type-shifting accounts of quantifiers and thus does not force the semanticist to posit either a default underlying word order or a syntactic LF-style level. It is therefore well suited for applications to languages where word order is free and quantifier scope is determined by surface order. As an additional benefit, the system leads to a straightforward account of negation, which has also been claimed to be problematic for event-based frameworks.ReferencesBarker, Chris. 2002. ‘Continuations and the nature of quantification’. Natural Language Semantics 10: 211–242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022183511876Barker, Chris & Shan, Chung-chieh. 2008. ‘Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding’. Semantics and Pragmatics 1: 1–46.Beaver, David & Condoravdi, Cleo. 2007. ‘On the logic of verbal modification’. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, 3–9. Amsterdam, Netherlands: University of Amsterdam.Beghelli, Filippo & Stowell, Tim. 1997. ‘Distributivity and negation: The syntax of each and every’. In Anna Szabolcsi (ed. ‘Ways of scope taking’, 71–107. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Brasoveanu, Adrian. 2010. ‘Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6042, 203–212. Berlin, Germany: Springer.Carlson, Gregory N. 1977. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.Carlson, Gregory N. 1984. ‘Thematic roles and their role in semantic interpretation’. Linguistics 22: 259–279.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ling.1984.22.3.259Champollion, Lucas. 2010. Parts of a whole: Distributivity as a bridge between aspect and measurement. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Champollion, Lucas, Tauberer, Josh & Romero, Maribel. 2007. ‘The Penn Lambda Calculator: Pedagogical software for natural language semantics’. In Tracy Holloway King & Emily Bender (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks(GEAF 2007 Workshop’, Stanford, CA: CSLI Online Publications.Condoravdi, Cleo. 2002. ‘Punctual until as a scalar NPI’. In Sharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson (eds. ‘The nature of the word’, 631–654. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Csirmaz, Aniko. 2006. ‘Aspect, Negation and Quantifiers’. In Liliane Haegeman, Joan Maling, James McCloskey & Katalin E. Kiss (eds. ‘Event Structure And The Left Periphery’, Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, vol. 68, 225–253. SpringerNetherlands.Davidson, Donald. 1967. ‘The logical form of action sentences’. In Nicholas Rescher (ed. ‘The logic of decision and action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.de Swart, Henriëtte. 1996. ‘Meaning and use of not . . . until’. Journal of Semantics 13: 221–263.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/13.3.221de Swart, Henriëtte & Molendijk, Arie. 1999. ‘Negation and the temporal structure of narrative discourse’. Journal of Semantics 16: 1–42.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/16.1.1Dowty, David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel.Eckardt, Regine. 2010. ‘A Logic for Easy Linking Semantics’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language and Meaning’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vo

  11. APPLICATION BASED SEMANTIC WEB MINING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahindra Pratap Singh Dohare

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Web is a huge read-write information space where many items such as documents, images or other multimedia can be accessed. In this context, several information technologies have been developed to help users to satisfy their searching needs on the Web, and the most used are search engines. Search engines allow users to find Web resources formulating queries (a set of terms and reviewing a list of answers. The Semantic Web improves the Web infrastructure with formal semantics and interlinked data, enabling flexible, reusable, and open knowledge management systems. The move towards open and interlinked data on the Web and the Semantic Web results in more open systems. In contrast to traditional database-driven applications, open systems liberate the data that they operate on: sources are decentralized, data can be semi-structured with arbitrary vocabulary and contributions can be published anywhere. This thesis offers algorithms and components that simplify and support knowledge management based on Semantic Web technology. We address four areas of Semantic Web application development: programmatic access: how to program against the flexible graph-based model; data navigation: how to navigate arbitrary information spaces; data entry: how to guide users through collaborative recommendation; and data discovery: how to locate relevant data sources. Our hypothesis is that the issues of programmatic access, data navigation, data entry, and data discovery can be addressed, with acceptable results, through the sole introspection of instance data at runtime, without relying on fixed schema structures at design time. In all four areas we devise solutions that are domain independent, rely only on instance data and dynamically adjust to the available data.

  12. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Margalef-Roig, J

    1992-01-01

    ...there are reasons enough to warrant a coherent treatment of the main body of differential topology in the realm of Banach manifolds, which is at the same time correct and complete. This book fills the gap: whenever possible the manifolds treated are Banach manifolds with corners. Corners add to the complications and the authors have carefully fathomed the validity of all main results at corners. Even in finite dimensions some results at corners are more complete and better thought out here than elsewhere in the literature. The proofs are correct and with all details. I see this book as a reliable monograph of a well-defined subject; the possibility to fall back to it adds to the feeling of security when climbing in the more dangerous realms of infinite dimensional differential geometry. Peter W. Michor

  13. It takes time to prime: semantic priming in the ocular lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedemaker, Renske S; Gordon, Peter C

    2014-12-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted in which the manual response mode typically used in lexical decision tasks (LDTs) was replaced with an eye-movement response through a sequence of 3 words. This ocular LDT combines the explicit control of task goals found in LDTs with the highly practiced ocular response used in reading text. In Experiment 1, forward saccades indicated an affirmative lexical decision (LD) on each word in the triplet. In Experiment 2, LD responses were delayed until all 3 letter strings had been read. The goal of the study was to evaluate the contribution of task goals and response mode to semantic priming. Semantic priming is very robust in tasks that involve recognition of words in isolation, such as LDT, but limited during text reading, as measured using eye movements. Gaze durations in both experiments showed robust semantic priming even though ocular response times were much shorter than manual LDs for the same words in the English Lexicon Project. Ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the priming effect was concentrated in estimates of tau (?), meaning that priming was most pronounced in the slow tail of the distribution. This pattern shows differential use of the prime information, which may be more heavily recruited in cases in which the LD is difficult, as indicated by longer response times. Compared with the manual LD responses, ocular LDs provide a more sensitive measure of this task-related influence on word recognition as measured by the LDT. PMID:25181368

  14. Setting semantics: conceptual set can determine the physical properties that capture attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Kendall, William; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2014-08-01

    The ability of a stimulus to capture visuospatial attention depends on the interplay between its bottom-up saliency and its relationship to an observer's top-down control set, such that stimuli capture attention if they match the predefined properties that distinguish a searched-for target from distractors (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 18, 1030-1044 1992). Despite decades of research on this phenomenon, however, the vast majority has focused exclusively on matches based on low-level physical properties. Yet if contingent capture is indeed a "top-down" influence on attention, then semantic content should be accessible and able to determine which physical features capture attention. Here we tested this prediction by examining whether a semantically defined target could create a control set for particular features. To do this, we had participants search to identify a target that was differentiated from distractors by its meaning (e.g., the word "red" among color words all written in black). Before the target array, a cue was presented, and it was varied whether the cue appeared in the physical color implied by the target word. Across three experiments, we found that cues that embodied the meaning of the word produced greater cuing than cues that did not. This suggests that top-down control sets activate content that is semantically associated with the target-defining property, and this content in turn has the ability to exogenously orient attention. PMID:24824982

  15. Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is first adopted to quantitatively describe texture semantics. Then texture features of textile images are extracted using Gabor decomposition. Finally, the mapping model between texture features and texture semantics in the semantic space is built using three different methods: linear regression, k-nearest neighbor (KNN and multi-layered perceptron (MLP. The performance of the proposed mapping model is evaluated with a dataset of 1352 textile images. The results confirm that the mapping model is effective and especially KNN and MLP reach the good performance. We further apply the mapping model to two applications: automatic textile image annotation with texture semantics and textile image search based on texture semantics. The subjective experimental results are consistent with human perception, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed mapping model. The proposed model and its applications can be applied to various automation systems in commercial textile industry.

  16. Potential Sources of Differential Item Functioning in the Adaptation of Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, Paula; Lopez-Jauregui, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    This report shows a classification of differential item functioning (DIF) sources that have an effect on the adaptation of tests. This classification is based on linguistic and cultural criteria. Four general DIF sources are distinguished: cultural relevance, translation problems, morph syntactical differences, and semantic differences. The…

  17. No semantic illusions in the "Semantic P600" phenomenon: ERP evidence from Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wing-Yee; Phillips, Colin

    2013-04-19

    Recent observations of unexpected ERP responses to grammatically well-formed role-reversed sentences (the "Semantic P600" phenomenon) have been taken to bear directly on questions about the architecture of the language processing system. This paper evaluates two central pieces of evidence for accounts that propose a syntax-independent semantic composition mechanism, namely the presence of P600 effects and the absence of N400 effects in role-reversed sentences. Experiment 1 examined the relative contribution of the presence of an animacy violation and the semantic relations between words ('combinability') to the ERP responses to role-reversed sentences. Experiment 2 examined the ERP responses to role-reversed sentences that are fully animacy-congruous. Results from the two experiments showed that animacy-violated sentences with no plausible non-surface interpretation elicited the same P600 effect as both types of role-reversed sentences; additionally, semantically anomalous target words elicited no N400 effects when they were strongly semantically related to the preceding words, regardless of the presence of animacy violations. Taken together, these findings suggest that the presence of P600s to role-reversed sentences can be attributed to the implausibility of the sentence meaning, and the absence of N400 effects is due to a combination of weak contextual constraints and strong lexical association. The presence of a plausible non-surface interpretation and animacy violations made no unique contribution to the ERP response profiles. Hence, existing ERP findings are compatible with the long-held assumption that online semantic composition is dependent on surface syntax and do not constitute evidence for a syntax-independent semantic composition mechanism. PMID:23422676

  18. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    2001-01-01

    Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program properties, or to use the analysis information for code modifications. Semanticsbased program manipulation addresses methods for program modifications and program analyses that are formally defined and therefore can be verified with respect to the programming-language semantics. This dissertation comprises four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect to parts of their input that are already known: Computations that depend only on known input are carried out during partial evaluation, whereas computations that depend on unknown input give rise to residual code. For example, partially evaluating an interpreter with respect to a program written in the interpreted language yields code that carries out the computations described by that program; partial evaluation is used to remove interpretive overhead. In effect, the partial evaluator serves as a compiler from the interpreted language into the implementation language of the interpreter. Compilation by partial evaluation is known as the first Futamura projection. The second and third Futamura projection describe the use of partial evaluation for compiler generation and compiler-generator generation, respectively; both require the partial evaluator that is employed to be self applicable. The first article in this dissertation describes how the second Futamura projection can be achieved for type-directed partial evaluation (TDPE), a relatively recent approach to partial evaluation: We derive an ML implementation of the second Futamura projection for TDPE. Due to the differences between ‘traditional’, syntax-directed partial evaluation and TDPE, this derivation involves several conceptual and technical steps. These include a suitable formulation of the second Futamura projection and techniques for making TDPE amenable to self-application. In the second article, compilation by partial evaluation plays a central role for giving a unified approach to goal-directed evaluation, a programminglanguage paradigm that is built on the notions of backtracking and of gener- ating successive results. Formulating the semantics of a small goal-directed language as a monadic semantics—a generic approach to structuring denotational semantics—allows us to relate various possible semantics to each other both conceptually and formally. We thus are able to explain goal-directed evaluation using an intuitive list-based semantics, while using a continuation semantics for semantics-based compilation through partial evaluation. The resulting code is comparable to that produced by an optimized compiler described in the literature. The third article revisits one of the success stories of partial evaluation, the generation of efficient string matchers from intuitive but inefficient implementations. The basic idea is that specializing a naive string matcher with respect to a pattern string should result in a matcher that searches a text for this pattern with running time independent of the pattern and linear in the length of the text. In order to succeed with basic partial-evaluation techniques, the naive matcher has to be modified in a non-trivial way, carrying out so-called binding-time improvements. We present a step-by-step derivation of a binding-time improved matcher consisting of one problem-dependent step followed by standard binding-time improvements. We also consider several variants of matchers that specialize well, amongst them the first such matcher presented in the literature, and we demonstrate howvariants can be derived from each other systema

  19. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural language semantics in linguistics and in philosophy and logic. With Montague as a central but not solo player in the story, I reflect on crucial developments in the 1960's and 70's in linguistics and philosophy, and the growth of formal semantics and formal pragmatics from there. I discuss innovations, key players, and leading ideas that shaped the development of formal semantics and its relation to syntax, to pragmatics, and to the philosophy of language in its early years, and some central aspects of its early impact on those fields.ReferencesAbbott, B. 1999. ‘The formal approach to meaning: Formal semantics and its recent developments’. Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai119, no. 1: 2–20. https://www.msu.edu/~abbottb/formal.htm.Ajdukiewicz, K. 1960. Je¸zyk i Poznanie (Language and Knowledge. Warsaw.Bach, E. 1968. ‘Nouns and Noun Phrases’. In E. Bach & R.T. Harms (eds. ‘Universals in Linguistic Theory’, 90–122. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Bach, E. 1989. Informal Lectures on Formal Semantics. New York: State University of New York Press.Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954a. ‘Logical syntax and semantics’. Language 30: 230–237.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410265Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954b. ‘Indexical Expressions’. Mind 63: 359–379.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/LXIII.251.359Bar-Hillel, Y. 1963. ‘Remarks on Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language’. In P. A. Schilpp (ed. ‘The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap’, 519–543. LaSalle, Illinois / London: Open Court / Cambridge University Press.Barker, C. & Jacobson, P. (eds.. 2007. Direct Compositionality. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Bernstein, L. 1976. The unanswered question: six talks at Harvard: The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures 1973. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Bohnert, H. & Backer, P. 1967. ‘Automatic English-to-Logic Translation in a Simplified Model: A Study in the Logic of Grammar’. IBM Research Paper RC-1744. Yorktown Heights, NY: IBM.Burris, S. 2009. ‘The Algebra of Logic tradition’. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 Edition, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Stanford: Stanford University.http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2009/entries/algebra-logic-tradition/.Carnap, R. 1928. Der logische aufbau der welt. Berlin-Schlachtensee: Weltkreisverlag.Carnap, R. 1946. ‘Modalities and quantification’. The Journal of Symbolic Logic 11.2: 33–64.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2268610Carnap, R. 1947. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.Carnap, R. 1956. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. 2nd edition with supplements. Chicago: Phoenix Books, University of Chicago Press.Carnap, R. & Smeaton, A. 1937. The logical syntax of language: International library of psychology, philosophy and scientific method. London: Routledge & K. Paul Ltd.Chierchia, G. & McConnell-Ginet, S. 1990. Meaning and Grammar. An Introduction to Semantics. Cambridge: MIT Press.Chomsky, N. 1955. ‘Logical syntax and semantics: their linguistic relevance’. Language 31: 36–45.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410891Chomsky, N. 1957. Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.Chomsky, N. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Chomsky, N. 1971. ‘Deep structure, surface structure, and semantic interpretation’. In D. Steinberg & L. Jakobovits (eds. ‘Semantics: An Interdisciplinary Reader in Philosophy, Linguistics, and Psychology’, 183–216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Chomsky, N. 1975. ‘Questions of

  20. Lost for emotion words: what motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseley, R. L.; Shtyrov, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view 'emotion actions' as critical for learning the semantic relationship between a word and the emotion it describes, such that emotion words typically activate the cortical motor systems involved in expressing emotion actions such as facial expressions. As ASC are also characterised by motor deficits and atypical brain structure and function in these regions, motor structures would also be expected to show reduced activation during emotion-semantic processing. Here we used event-related fMRI to compare passive processing of emotion words in comparison to abstractverbs and animal names in typically-developing controls and individuals with ASC. Relatively reduced brain activation in ASC for emotion words, but not matched control words, was found in motor areas and cingulate cortex specifically. The degree of activation evoked by emotion words in the motor system was also associated with the extent of autistic traits as revealed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient. We suggest that hypoactivation of motor and limbic regions for emotion word processing may underlie difficulties in processing emotional language in ASC. The role that sensorimotor systems and their connections might play in the affective and social-communication difficulties in ASC is discussed.

  1. Opposing Effects of Semantic Diversity in Lexical and Semantic Relatedness Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ambiguity has often been divided into 2 forms: homonymy, referring to words with 2 unrelated interpretations (e.g., bark), and polysemy, referring to words associated with a number of varying but semantically linked uses (e.g., twist). Typically, polysemous words are thought of as having a fixed number of discrete definitions, or “senses,” with each use of the word corresponding to one of its senses. In this study, we investigated an alternative conception of polysemy, based on the idea that polysemous variation in meaning is a continuous, graded phenomenon that occurs as a function of contextual variation in word usage. We quantified this contextual variation using semantic diversity (SemD), a corpus-based measure of the degree to which a particular word is used in a diverse set of linguistic contexts. In line with other approaches to polysemy, we found a reaction time (RT) advantage for high SemD words in lexical decision, which occurred for words of both high and low imageability. When participants made semantic relatedness decisions to word pairs, however, responses were slower to high SemD pairs, irrespective of whether these were related or unrelated. Again, this result emerged irrespective of the imageability of the word. The latter result diverges from previous findings using homonyms, in which ambiguity effects have only been found for related word pairs. We argue that participants were slower to respond to high SemD words because their high contextual variability resulted in noisy, underspecified semantic representations that were more difficult to compare with one another. We demonstrated this principle in a connectionist computational model that was trained to activate distributed semantic representations from orthographic inputs. Greater variability in the orthography-to-semantic mappings of high SemD words resulted in a lower degree of similarity for related pairs of this type. At the same time, the representations of high SemD unrelated pairs were less distinct from one another. In addition, the model demonstrated more rapid semantic activation for high SemD words, thought to underpin the processing advantage in lexical decision. These results support the view that polysemous variation in word meaning can be conceptualized in terms of graded variation in distributed semantic representations. PMID:25751041

  2. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  3. THE ADVENT OF SEMANTIC WEB IN TOURISM INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris N. Kanellopoulos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry depends on complex value creation chains involving a large number of participants that change frequently and rapidly. In addition, the products of tourism industry are complex and they will perish if they are not sold in time. For these reasons, the ideal tourism information systems require a lot of flexibility of underlying systems. Moreover, they comprise accurate access to any tourism service that provide, and they are usable by corporate and private customers alike. The management and interoperation of semantically diverse tourism information systems are facilitated by Semantic Web technology that provides methods and standards, which allow accurate access to information as well as flexibility to comply with needs of tourism information system users and administrators. This paper considers state-of-the art issues (ontologies, semantic modelling and querying, semantic portals and semantic-based e-markets concerning the exploitation of the semantic web technologies and applications in tourism information systems.

  4. A new standardization of semantic verbal fluency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarino, Barbara; Crespi, Marta; Launi, Michela; Casarotti, Alessandra

    2014-09-01

    Semantic verbal fluency test is frequently used in clinical practice to assess lexical retrieval and production in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Semantic category is a crucial variable to consider in patients with language disorders. Norms for this task were collected from a population of 290 Italian healthy participants with age ranging from 18 to 98 years. The aim was to provide normative data both for the global score and for each semantic category (animals, fruits, brands of cars). Multiple regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly correlated with the global score and with single semantic categories. In particular, increasing age negatively affected performance, whereas the performance increased with a higher education. Statistically significant differences between men and women were found only for brands of cars. The availability of equivalent scores for the single semantic categories will prove useful in clinical practice since it allows the comparison of single semantic categories in patients with language disorders. PMID:24705901

  5. Semantic feature degradation and naming performance. Evidence from neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catricalà, Eleonora; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Plebani, Valentina; Perani, Daniela; Garrard, Peter; Cappa, Stefano F

    2015-08-01

    The failure to name an object in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in the semantic variant of the primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA) has been generally attributed to semantic memory loss, with a progressive degradation of semantic features. Not all features, however, may have the same relevance in picture naming. We analyzed the relationship between picture naming performance and the loss of semantic features in patients with AD with or without naming impairment, with sv-PPA and in matched controls, assessing the role of distinctiveness, semantic relevance and feature type (sensorial versus non-sensorial) with a sentence verification task. The results showed that distinctive features with high values of semantic relevance were lost only in all patients with naming impairment. The performance on the sensorial distinctive features with high relevance was the best predictor of naming performance only in sv-PPA, while no difference between sensorial and non-sensorial features was found in AD patients. PMID:26072002

  6. Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD. Five short neuropsychological tests sensitive to semantic memory and easily applicable in routine practice were administered to 102 patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score above 19), 22 predementia AD patients and 58 healthy subjects. 'Category fluency' and 'naming of famous faces' were the most frequently impaired tests in both patient groups. The study demonstrated that impairments on semantically related tests are common in mild AD and may exist prior to the clinical diagnosis. The results imply that assessment of semantic memory is relevant in the evaluation of patients with suspected AD.

  7. Affixation in semantic space: Modeling morpheme meanings with compositional distributional semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Marco; Baroni, Marco

    2015-07-01

    The present work proposes a computational model of morpheme combination at the meaning level. The model moves from the tenets of distributional semantics, and assumes that word meanings can be effectively represented by vectors recording their co-occurrence with other words in a large text corpus. Given this assumption, affixes are modeled as functions (matrices) mapping stems onto derived forms. Derived-form meanings can be thought of as the result of a combinatorial procedure that transforms the stem vector on the basis of the affix matrix (e.g., the meaning of nameless is obtained by multiplying the vector of name with the matrix of -less). We show that this architecture accounts for the remarkable human capacity of generating new words that denote novel meanings, correctly predicting semantic intuitions about novel derived forms. Moreover, the proposed compositional approach, once paired with a whole-word route, provides a new interpretative framework for semantic transparency, which is here partially explained in terms of ease of the combinatorial procedure and strength of the transformation brought about by the affix. Model-based predictions are in line with the modulation of semantic transparency on explicit intuitions about existing words, response times in lexical decision, and morphological priming. In conclusion, we introduce a computational model to account for morpheme combination at the meaning level. The model is data-driven, theoretically sound, and empirically supported, and it makes predictions that open new research avenues in the domain of semantic processing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26120909

  8. Semantically-based crossover in genetic programming : application to real-valued symbolic regression

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quang Uy; Nguyen, Xuan Hoai; O'Neill, Michael; McKay, Bob (Bob I.); Galván-López, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effects of semantically-based crossover operators in Genetic Programming, applied to real-valued symbolic regression problems. We propose two new relations derived from the semantic distance between subtrees, known as Semantic Equivalence and Semantic Similarity. These relations are used to guide variants of the crossover operator, resulting in two new crossover operators – Semantics Aware Crossover (SAC) and Semantic Similarity-based Crossover (SSC). SAC, was introduced an...

  9. Shared Features Dominate Semantic Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    When asked to list semantic features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many semantic features are processed faster in lexical and semantic decision tasks (Pexman, Holyk, & Monfils, 2003; Pexman, Lupker, & Hino, 2002). Using both lexical and concreteness decision tasks, we provided further insight into these number-of-features (NoF) effects. We began by replicating the effect using a larger and better controlled set of it...

  10. Specific ontologies for semantic indexing from natural language properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhom, Sahbi; Khemiri, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a specific ontologies based on the extraction of semantic information in text documents. Document here concerns the context of the valorization of Tunisian patrimony. As approach, we propose to represent semantic properties in document contents from heterogeneous information (multimedia) concerning by the patrimony objects. For indexing and information retrieval (IR), we develop processes based on the noun phrase (NP) properties and their semantic representations. Th...

  11. Semantic Information Retrieval Based on Fuzzy Ontology for Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Zhai; Yiduo Liang; Yi Yu; Jiatao Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Information retrieval is the important work for Electronic Commerce. Ontology-based semantic retrieval is a hotspot of current research. In order to achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper applies a fuzzy ontology framework to information retrieval system in E-Commerce. The framework includes three parts: concepts, properties of concepts and values of properties, in which property’s value can be either standard data types or linguistic values of fuzzy concepts. The semantic query expansi...

  12. A conceptual architecture for semantic web services development and deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pahl, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Several extensions of the Web Services Framework (WSF) have been proposed. The combination with Semantic Web technologies introduces a notion of semantics, which can enhance scalability through automation. Service composition to processes is an equally important issue. Ontology technology – the core of the Semantic Web – can be the central building block of an extension endeavour. We present a conceptual architecture for ontology-based Web service development and deployment. The development o...

  13. E-Science: The Grid and the Semantic Web.

    OpenAIRE

    Roure, DD; Hendler, JA

    2004-01-01

    The application of e-science to grid computing and advanced Semantic Web technology was described. The service-oriented approach known as the Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) was developed as Web Services enhancement to meet grid application requirements. The Semantic Web offered tools which supported instant messaging and visualization to enhance group peripheral awareness, planning and task support. The e-science vision proved as interface between humans and the Grid while, the Semant...

  14. A Derivational Approach to the Operational Semantics of Functional Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata

    2006-01-01

    We study the connections between different forms of operational semantics for functional programming languages and we present systematic methods of interderiving reduction semantics, abstract machines and higher-order evaluators. We first consider two methods based on program transformations: a syntactic correspondence relating reduction semantics and abstract machines, and a functional correspondence relating abstract machines and higher-order evaluators. We show that an extension of the syntac...

  15. Exploring and linking biomedical resources through multidimensional semantic spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Berlanga Rafael; Jiménez-Ruiz Ernesto; Nebot Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The semantic integration of biomedical resources is still a challenging issue which is required for effective information processing and data analysis. The availability of comprehensive knowledge resources such as biomedical ontologies and integrated thesauri greatly facilitates this integration effort by means of semantic annotation, which allows disparate data formats and contents to be expressed under a common semantic space. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional...

  16. Personal Semantic Web Through A Space Based Computing Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The Semantic Web through technologies such to support the canonical representation information and presenting it to users in a method by which its meaning can be understood or at least communi- cated and interpreted by all parties. As the Semantic Web evolves into more of a computing platform rather than an information platform more dynamic structures, interactions and behaviours will evolve leading to systems which localise and personalise this Dynamic Semantic Web.

  17. A Semantic Medical Multimedia Retrieval Approach Using Ontology Information Hiding

    OpenAIRE

    Kehua Guo; Shigeng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of ...

  18. Information Retrieval Based on Semantic Similarity Using Information Content

    OpenAIRE

    Kishor Wagh; Satish Kolhe

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating semantic similarity of concepts is a problem that has been extensively investigated in the literature in different areas, such as artificial intelligence, cognitive science, databases and software engineering. Semantic similarity relates to computing the similarity between conceptually similar but not necessarily lexically similar terms. Currently, it is growing in importance in different settings, such as digital libraries, heterogeneous databases and in particular the Semantic We...

  19. Semantic Technology to Exploit Digital Content Exposed as Linked Data

    OpenAIRE

    Albertoni, Riccardo; De Martino, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates the research result of the application of semantic technology to ease the use and reuse of digital contents exposed as Linked Data on the web. It focuses on the specific issue of explorative research for the resource selection: a context dependent semantic similarity assessment is proposed in order to compare datasets annotated through terminologies exposed as Linked Data (e.g. habitats, species). Semantic similarity is shown as a building block technol...

  20. Semantic Information Retrieval Using Ontology In University Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Swathi Rajasurya; Tamizhamudhu Muralidharan; Sandhiya Devi; S. Swamynathan

    2012-01-01

    Today's conventional search engines hardly do provide the essential content relevant to the user's search query. This is because the context and semantics of the request made by the user is not analyzed to the full extent. So here the need for a semantic web search arises. SWS is upcoming in the area of web search which combines Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence. The objective of the work done here is to design, develop and implement a semantic search e...