WorldWideScience

Sample records for semantic differential

  1. Developing a semantic web model for medical differential diagnosis recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Osama; Benlamri, Rachid

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we describe a novel model for differential diagnosis designed to make recommendations by utilizing semantic web technologies. The model is a response to a number of requirements, ranging from incorporating essential clinical diagnostic semantics to the integration of data mining for the process of identifying candidate diseases that best explain a set of clinical features. We introduce two major components, which we find essential to the construction of an integral differential diagnosis recommendation model: the evidence-based recommender component and the proximity-based recommender component. Both approaches are driven by disease diagnosis ontologies designed specifically to enable the process of generating diagnostic recommendations. These ontologies are the disease symptom ontology and the patient ontology. The evidence-based diagnosis process develops dynamic rules based on standardized clinical pathways. The proximity-based component employs data mining to provide clinicians with diagnosis predictions, as well as generates new diagnosis rules from provided training datasets. This article describes the integration between these two components along with the developed diagnosis ontologies to form a novel medical differential diagnosis recommendation model. This article also provides test cases from the implementation of the overall model, which shows quite promising diagnostic recommendation results. PMID:25178271

  2. A Revised Semantic Differential Scale Distinguishing between Negative and Positive God Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Gibson, Harry M.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 755 school pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 years completed the Benson and Spilka semantic differential measure of God images. Factor analysis indicated the advantages of re-scoring the measure as an eight item unidimensional index, defining semantic space relating to God images ranging from negative affect to positive affect.…

  3. Three-Mode Models and Individual Differences in Semantic Differential Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Kroonenberg, Pieter M.

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrated how individual differences in semantic differential data can be modeled and assessed using three-mode models by studying the characterization of Chopin's "Preludes" by 38 Japanese college students. (SLD)

  4. Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Endriss, Cornelia; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Skopeteas, Stavros

    2007-01-01

    The guidelines for semantics comprise a number of layers related to quantificational structures as well as some crucial semantic properties of NPs with respect to information structure: definiteness, countability, and animacy.

  5. Workplace Information Literacy in the Scientific Field : an Empirical Analysis Using the Semantic Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mu?hlbacher, Susanne; Hammwo?hner, Rainer; Wolff, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The study focuses on eliciting a semantic concept of Information Literacy by capturing the information worker s perception of the information process. It is presumed that this perception influences the formation and advancement of Information Literacy at the workplace. The approach is based on the creation of a semantic differential scale. Target group are scientists from the field of natural sciences. The survey shows that five partly correlated principal aspects play a major role: personal ...

  6. The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

  7. Semantic relations differentially impact associative recognition memory: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriukova, Olga; Bridger, Emma; Mecklinger, Axel

    2013-10-01

    Though associative recognition memory is thought to rely primarily on recollection, recent research indicates that familiarity might also make a substantial contribution when to-be-learned items are integrated into a coherent structure by means of an existing semantic relation. It remains unclear how different types of semantic relations, such as categorical (e.g., dancer-singer) and thematic (e.g., dancer-stage) relations might affect associative recognition, however. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we addressed this question by manipulating the type of semantic link between paired words in an associative recognition memory experiment. An early midfrontal old/new effect, typically linked to familiarity, was observed across the relation types. In contrast, a robust left parietal old/new effect was found in the categorical condition only, suggesting a clear contribution of recollection to associative recognition for this kind of pairs. One interpretation of this pattern is that familiarity was sufficiently diagnostic for associative recognition of thematic relations, which could result from the integrative nature of the thematic relatedness compared to the similarity-based nature of categorical pairs. The present study suggests that the extent to which recollection and familiarity are involved in associative recognition is at least in part determined by the properties of semantic relations between the paired associates. PMID:23942226

  8. The Case for the Semantic Differential in Organizational and Business Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Attitude measurement has been and continues to be a central component in the field of social psychology. The semantic differential technique has proven to be a well-respected measuring device of attitudes since the 1960s, particularly in the social sciences. Given the importance of attitudes in the business world with reference to preferences in…

  9. Informatics in radiology: radiology gamuts ontology: differential diagnosis for the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budovec, Joseph J; Lam, Cesar A; Kahn, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an effort to add semantics, or "meaning," to empower automated searching and processing of Web-based information. The overarching goal of the Semantic Web is to enable users to more easily find, share, and combine information. Critical to this vision are knowledge models called ontologies, which define a set of concepts and formalize the relations between them. Ontologies have been developed to manage and exploit the large and rapidly growing volume of information in biomedical domains. In diagnostic radiology, lists of differential diagnoses of imaging observations, called gamuts, provide an important source of knowledge. The Radiology Gamuts Ontology (RGO) is a formal knowledge model of differential diagnoses in radiology that includes 1674 differential diagnoses, 19,017 terms, and 52,976 links between terms. Its knowledge is used to provide an interactive, freely available online reference of radiology gamuts ( www.gamuts.net ). A Web service allows its content to be discovered and consumed by other information systems. The RGO integrates radiologic knowledge with other biomedical ontologies as part of the Semantic Web. PMID:24428295

  10. Departmentality :   The functional differentiation of systems & the decapitation of the body semantics - or: how to ground Luhmann's theory of functional differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2008-01-01

      Niklas Luhmann's system theory outlines a methodology that focuses empirical problems in depth. This is possible by means of an abductive use of an overwhelmingly accessibility to theoretical observations. However, this theory is itself a result of historical developments. It origins in a path of self-descriptive communications studied by Luhmann as semantic transformations. The paper goes back to Immanuel Kant's theory of systems and traces its origins on the basis of an evolution of a subdifferentiated legal system. Especially the semantic differentiation of forms is followed and takes a focus on semantic forms in chancellor H.-F. d'Aguesseau's and Fredrick the Great's self-description of power. The overall aim is to study the legacy and the strength of functional differentiation in state formation. How did the separated powers of functional differentiation emerge and how did it describe itself as difference to a reason of state?

  11. Utility of a computerized, paced semantic verbal fluency paradigm in differentiating schizophrenia and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Mohammed K; Halahalli, Harsha N; Kumar, Kiran; Jain, Sanjeev; John, John P

    2014-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms designed to study word generation traditionally utilize a computerized paced version of the verbal fluency task (VFT) comprising 'blocks' of word generation and a baseline word repetition task. The utility of the above paced VFT paradigm in differentiating neuropsychiatric patients from healthy subjects has not been systematically examined. We administered a computerized, paced version of the semantic VFT comprising word generation and word repetition blocks to 24 schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy subjects, both before and during fMRI acquisition. The performance of patients with schizophrenia was significantly inferior to that of healthy control subjects in both the 'pre-scan' and 'intra-scan' sessions of the computerized paced semantic VFT. Specifically, schizophrenia patients generated significantly fewer total responses (VFTR) as well as correct responses (VFCR), but a larger number of 'no response' trials. However, there were no significant group differences in perseverative responses in the pre-scan session or 'intra-scan' sessions. The above computerized task has been reported by us previously to generate a behavioral performance index with hemodynamic correlates (John et al., 2011). Thus, our findings support the use of computerized paced VFT comprising word generation and word repetition blocks in both clinical and research settings. PMID:24524705

  12. Generation Y, wine and alcohol. A semantic differential approach to consumption analysis in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Nicola; Fabbrizzi, Sara; Alampi Sottini, Veronica; Sacchelli, Sandro; Bernetti, Iacopo; Menghini, Silvio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study is the elicitation of the consumer's semantic perception of different alcoholic beverages in order to provide information for the definition of communication strategies for both the private sector (and specifically the wine industry) and the public decision maker. Such information can be seen as the basis of a wider social marketing construct aimed at the promotion of responsible drinking among young consumers. The semantic differential approach was used in this study. The data collection was based on a survey to 430 consumers between 18 and 35years old in Tuscany, Italy. The database was organized in a three-way structure, indexing the data in a multiway matrix. The data were processed using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Moreover, homogeneous clusters of consumers were identified using a Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) approach. The results of the study highlight that beer and spirits are mainly perceived as "Young", "Social", "Euphoric", "Happy", "Appealing" and "Trendy" beverages, while wine is associated mostly with terms such as "Pleasure", "Quality" and "Comfortable". Furthermore, the cluster analysis allowed for the identification of three groups of individuals with different approaches to alcohol drinking. The results of the study supply a useful information framework for the elaboration of specific communication strategies that, based on the drinking habits of young consumers and their perception of different beverages, can use a language that is very close to the consumer typologies. Such information can be helpful for both private and public communication strategies. PMID:24370355

  13. Noetics in pastoral counselling: The making of a semantic differential analysis in pastoral care and counselling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniël J., Louw.

    Full Text Available Praxis in pastoral care and counselling entails more than merely practice and practicalities (communication skills). Praxis refers to the intentionality within human action and behaviour. Praxis exhibits the realm of intentionality and meaning as displayed within and by human attitudes. It is hypoth [...] esised that due to the noetic dimension in human actions, the making of a pastoral diagnosis (a qualitative assessment of the impact of Christian spirituality and the meaning on the system of existential, relational networking) should deal with the realm of significant and purposeful intentionality. The latter is already implied in the phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl's eidetic observation or inspection (phenomenological consciousness). In order to incorporate noetics in pastoral care and counselling, a pastoral semantic differential analysis (PSDA) within the making of a pastoral diagnosis was proposed. The PSDA was linked to the need for a qualitative approach regarding the impact of God-images on religious association and existential life experiences.

  14. Noetics in pastoral counselling: The making of a semantic differential analysis in pastoral care and counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël J. Louw

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Praxis in pastoral care and counselling entails more than merely practice and practicalities (communication skills. Praxis refers to the intentionality within human action and behaviour. Praxis exhibits the realm of intentionality and meaning as displayed within and by human attitudes. It is hypothesised that due to the noetic dimension in human actions, the making of a pastoral diagnosis (a qualitative assessment of the impact of Christian spirituality and the meaning on the system of existential, relational networking should deal with the realm of significant and purposeful intentionality. The latter is already implied in the phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl’s eidetic observation or inspection (phenomenological consciousness. In order to incorporate noetics in pastoral care and counselling, a pastoral semantic differential analysis (PSDA within the making of a pastoral diagnosis was proposed. The PSDA was linked to the need for a qualitative approach regarding the impact of Godimages on religious association and existential life experiences.

  15. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (? = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1 are significantly down regulated. All down regulated genes in this panel were highly up regulated in most other types of cancers. These panels of proteins may represent signature biomarkers for lung cancer and will aid in lung cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring as well as in the prediction of responses to therapeutics.

  16. Assessment of the Relatedness of Equivalent Stimuli through a Semantic Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoloti, Renato; de Rose, Julio C.

    2009-01-01

    If stimulus equivalence is a model of meaning, abstract stimuli should acquire the meaning of meaningful stimuli equivalent to them. In Experiment 1, college students matched faces expressing emotions to arbitrary pictures, forming three classes of equivalent stimuli, each comprising an emotional expression and three arbitrary pictures. Semantic

  17. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  18. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ksjeongl@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo [Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-ro, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  19. Basic semantics of product sounds:

    OpenAIRE

    O?zcan Vieira, E.; Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two experiments, we determined eight factors that underlie the semantic associations of product sounds (attention, roughness, smoothness, temporal constancy, (un)familiarity, unpleasantness, machinery, a...

  20. Differential prefrontal–temporal neural correlates of semantic processing in children

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.

    2005-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain–behavior correlations in a group of 16 children (9-to 12-year-olds). Activation was measured during a semantic judgment task presented in either the visual or auditory modality that required the individual to determine whether a final word was related in meaning to one of two previous words (e.g., found–tank–lost). The main finding was that higher performers (i.e., accuracy) were associated with more activation in p...

  1. [Proposal for a modified method of semantic differential diagnosis in testing for stereotyping of the mentally ill patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, O

    2000-01-01

    In the paper, a proposal of using the semantic differential (by Osgood) for the research on social perception of mentally ill is presented. It allows for investigation of the basic attributes of the stereotype of psychiatric patient: social character, evaluative aspect, simplification, over-generalization of the opinion and its stiffness. The article presents the pilot results coming from the research in a group of students of psychology (first year of studying), who had no lectures in psychiatry by that time (N = 149). The results lead to the conclusion that the picture of mentally ill has social character, that is--some of its attributes are common for a majority of responders (over 77%). They also confirm (with a high certainty--coming to 79%) that most of mentally ill persons (64-80%) are unpredictable, lost, difficult to understand, introvert, unconscious, not self-possessed, excitable, threatening, aggressive and violent. The results show that in the portrait of mentally ill negative attributes are in majority. This portrait--so one-sided and negative--can be one of the basic predictores of social rejection of mentally ill persons. PMID:11202021

  2. Análise da Validade e Precisão de Instrumento de Diferencial Semântico / Analysis of Validity and Precision of a Semantic Differential Instrument

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Henrique de, Almeida; Renato, Bortoloti; Paulo Roberto dos Santos, Ferreira; Patricia Waltz, Schelini; Julio César Coelho de, Rose.

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou evidências de validade e precisão de um instrumento de diferencial semântico que tem sido utilizado para medir a transferência de significados entre estímulos equivalentes. Um total de 196 estudantes universitários avaliou fotografias de faces expressando emoções e também figu [...] ras abstratas, utilizando um instrumento composto por 13 escalas bipolares ancoradas por adjetivos opostos. A análise fatorial dos dados coletados forneceu indicações da validade do instrumento e os coeficientes alfa obtidos indicam que os dois fatores extraídos nesta análise possuem níveis de precisão aceitáveis, embora um dos fatores deva ser revisto. Discute-se que o modelo de equivalência de estímulos, entendido como um modelo experimental de relações simbólicas, pode se beneficiar de instrumentos capazes de fornecer medidas válidas de transferência de significado. Abstract in english This study assessed evidence of validity and precision of a semantic differential test that has been used to measure the transfer of meaning among equivalent stimuli. Participants were 196 college students who evaluated pictures of faces expressing emotions and also abstract pictures using an instru [...] ment comprised by 13 bipolar scales anchored by opposite adjectives. The factor analysis of the data evidenced the validity of the instrument. Values of alpha coefficients indicated that the factors extracted by this analysis have acceptable levels of precision, although one of the factors might be revised. It is discussed that the stimulus equivalence paradigm, an experimental model for symbolic relations, can benefit from instruments that provide valid measures of meaning transfer.

  3. Research on the scenic meaning of rooftop greening with semantic differential measure and join-count statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Koshimiz, H. [Meiji Univ., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture

    2006-07-01

    Clarification of the scenic improvement effects of rooftop greening are necessary in order to promote rooftop greening as one form of urban greenery. A study was conducted in order to establish a method for quantitatively clarifying the effects of rooftop greening in improving scenery. An evaluation experiment was conducted using photographs of actual rooftop greening. This paper discussed the methods and results of this study. The study extracted factors influencing scenery using the repertory grid technique, which investigates the style in which the theme is explored. An evaluation experiment was then conducted based on the semantic differential measure, which is a psychological estimation method, using the factors as the evaluation yardstick. In order to understand the relationship between the psychological evaluation and the scenery components, a multiple regression analysis and a factor analysis were also conducted. In addition, photographs of the scenery were made into a mesh form. The layout of greenery was quantitatively analysed using join-count statistics, which can calculate the degree to which two kinds of things are mixed within a space. It was concluded that the scenery of rooftop greening varies according to the distance between the viewers and the rooftop greening, the layout of the greenery, and the form of rooftop greening and that these factors need to be taken into account when planning rooftop greening. In addition, it was concluded that the importance of the medium distance view in external scenery lies in the degree to which the greenery is mixed, and that the degree of this mixing can be effectively gauged with join-count statistics. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Semantic Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John

    2013-01-01

    We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such...

  5. EL SEMANTICO DIFERENCIAL COMO PROPUESTA METODOLOGICA PARA CARACTERIZAR EL LIDERAZGO EN UNA ORGANIZACIÓN / THE DIFFERENTIAL SEMANTICS AS METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL TO CHARACTERIZE THE LEADERSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GIOVANNY, PEREZ ORTEGA; MARTÍN DARIO, ARANGO SERNA; JHON WILLIAM, BRANCH BEDOYA.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El liderazgo es un fenómeno esencial en la administración de cualquier tipo de organización, se refiere a un patrón de conducta según como lo perciben los demás, y se desarrolla a partir de experiencias, educación, capacitación y condiciones naturales. La primera parte de este artículo se dedica a r [...] ealizar una definición del liderazgo para luego clasificarlo en tres grupos: Liderazgo Transaccional, Liderazgo Transformacional y las teorías emergentes. A continuación se explican los pasos que componen la metodología propuesta para caracterizar el liderazgo en una organización la cual esta basada en la técnica de Semántica Diferencial de Osgood en la cual se construye una escala bipolar tipo diferencial semántico. Finalmente se muestran los resultados alcanzados de la aplicación de la metodología en las ONG en Antioquia, para lo cual se realiza una definición acerca de las ONG y las características percibidas de los líderes en esta clase de organizaciones en Antioquia. Abstract in english Leadership is a basic aspect f management for any type of organization, it refers to a behavioral pattern according to the perception of the other, and it is developed from experiences, education, capacity building and natural conditions. The first part of this paper focuses on defining leadership, [...] classifying it in three groups: transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and emergent theories. Later, there is a description of the steps that constitute a methodology proposed to characterize leadership in organizations. This methodology is grounded in the Osgood Differentiation Semantics, in which a bipolar scale of semantical differentiation type is constructed. Finally, results from the application of this methodology in NGO (Non-Governmental Organizations) in Antioquia are shown. A definition of NGOs is carried out, as well as a description of the perceived characteristics of NGO leaders in Antioquia.

  6. Visual Product Evaluation: Using the Semantic Differential to Investigate the Influence of Basic Vase Geometry on Users’ Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Maier, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Products evoke emotions in people. Emotions can influence purchase decisions and product evaluations. It is widely acknowledged that better product performance and higher user satisfaction can be reached through aesthetic design. However, when designing a new product, most of the attention is generally paid to enhance its functionality and usability and much less consideration is given to the emotional needs of users. This paper explores a methodology based on Emotional Design theory in order to discover implicit emotional needs of users toward product design and how they are related to very simple product features. Various forms of vases are used as a product case. Additionally, a compact list of product-specific semantic descriptors is proposed and used. Survey, interview techniques and statistical methods were performed in this paper, where significant correlations between semantic descriptors were found. A formal link between specific product features and how the products are perceived is introduced and the results were used to build prototype vases. A simple validation on aesthetic value was performed with the results confirming the general trend of the possibility to define perception from a simple set of geometric features.

  7. Differentiating semantic categories during the acquisition of novel words: correspondence analysis applied to event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargier, Raphaël; Ploux, Sabine; Cheylus, Anne; Reboul, Anne; Paulignan, Yves; Nazir, Tatjana A

    2014-11-01

    Growing evidence suggests that semantic knowledge is represented in distributed neural networks that include modality-specific structures. Here, we examined the processes underlying the acquisition of words from different semantic categories to determine whether the emergence of visual- and action-based categories could be tracked back to their acquisition. For this, we applied correspondence analysis (CA) to ERPs recorded at various moments during acquisition. CA is a multivariate statistical technique typically used to reveal distance relationships between words of a corpus. Applied to ERPs, it allows isolating factors that best explain variations in the data across time and electrodes. Participants were asked to learn new action and visual words by associating novel pseudowords with the execution of hand movements or the observation of visual images. Words were probed before and after training on two consecutive days. To capture processes that unfold during lexical access, CA was applied on the 100-400 msec post-word onset interval. CA isolated two factors that organized the data as a function of test sessions and word categories. Conventional ERP analyses further revealed a category-specific increase in the negativity of the ERPs to action and visual words at the frontal and occipital electrodes, respectively. The distinct neural processes underlying action and visual words can thus be tracked back to the acquisition of word-referent relationships and may have its origin in association learning. Given current evidence for the flexibility of language-induced sensory-motor activity, we argue that these associative links may serve functions beyond word understanding, that is, the elaboration of situation models. PMID:24893746

  8. Automatic processing of taxonomic and thematic relations in semantic priming - Differentiation by early N400 and late frontal negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfei; Ye, Chun; Liang, Xiuling; Cao, Bihua; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2014-09-16

    Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical (plant-pine) or taxonomic categories (animal-plant). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categories, which performs external or complementary roles in the same scenario or event (bee-honey). The goal of this study was to explore the processing of hierarchical categories and thematic categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. The Evoked response potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the time course of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 300ms as participants performed a lexical decision task. Six experimental conditions were compared: hierarchical relations (offspring-grandson), internal features (gold-golden), productive relations (bee-honey), script relations (room-tenant), unrelated (star-spoon), and non-word trials (star-derf). We found faster reaction times for related prime-target pairs than unrelated pairs except for productive relations. The ERP data showed that an early N400 effect (200-400ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, a frontal negativity (400-550ms) elicited by productive relations was smaller (more positive) than other related words. We suggest that the smaller frontal negativity in the processing of productive relations indicates their increased salience in knowledge structure compared to less prominent hierarchical relations. Indeed, the allocation of attentional resources and subsequent recruitment of additional memory processing might be two of the hallmarks of thematic relations. PMID:25234647

  9. Mechanized semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this lecture is to show how modern theorem provers---in this case, the Coq proof assistant---can be used to mechanize the specification of programming languages and their semantics, and to reason over individual programs and over generic program transformations, as typically found in compilers. The topics covered include: operational semantics (small-step, big-step, definitional interpreters); a simple form of denotational semantics; axiomatic semantics and Hoare logic; generation of verification conditions, with application to program proof; compilation to virtual machine code and its proof of correctness; an example of an optimizing program transformation (dead code elimination) and its proof of correctness.

  10. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017575313451Dekker, Paul. 2004. ‘Grounding Dynamic Semantics’. In Anne Bezuidenhout & Marga Reimer (eds. ‘Descriptions and Beyond: An Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays on Definite and Indefinite Descriptions and other Related Phenomena’, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Dekker, Paul. 2007. ‘Optimal Inquisitive Discourse’. In Maria Aloni, Alastair Butler & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Questions in Dynamic Semantics’, CRiSPI 17, pp. 83–101. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Frege, Gottlob. 1892. ‘Über Sinn und Bedeutung’. Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik NF 100: pp. 25–50.Ginzburg, Jonathan. 1995. ‘Resolving Questions, I & II’. Linguistics and Philosophy 18, no. 5,6: pp. 459–527 and 567–609.Ginzburg, Jonathan. To appear. The Interactive Stance: Meaning for Conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen. 1999. ‘The Logic of Interrogation’. In T. Matthews & D. Strolovitch (eds. ‘Proceedings of SALT IX’, Also appeared in Aloni, M., Butler, A., and Dekker, P., 2007, Questions in Dynamic Semantics, CRiSPI, Elsevier.: CLC Publications.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Roelofsen, Floris. 2009. ‘Inquisitive Semantics and Pragmatics’. In Jesus M. Larrazabal & Larraitz Zubeldia (eds. ‘Meaning, Content, and Argument: Proceedings of the ILCLI International Workshop on Semantics, Pragmatics, and Rhetoric’, Bilbao: University of the Basque Country Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Stokhof, Martin. 1991. ‘Dynamic Predicate Logic’. Linguistics and Philosophy 14, no. 1: pp. 39–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628304Hulstijn, Joris. 1997. ‘Structured Information States. Raising and Resolving Issues’. In Anton Benz & Gerhard Jäger (eds. ‘Proceedings of MunDial97’, pp. 99–117. University of Munich.Jäger, Gerhard. 1996. ‘Only Updates. On the Dynamics of the Focus Particle only’. In Martin Stokhof & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Tenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, pp. 387–405. Amsterdam: ILLC, University of Amsterdam.Lascarides, Alex & Asher, Nicholas. 2009. ‘The Interpreta

  11. Generative Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bagha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Generative semantics is (or perhaps was a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of the program are a matter of some controversy and have been extensively debated. Generative semanticists took Chomsky's concept of deep structure and ran with it, assuming (contrary to later work by Chomsky and Ray Jackendoff that deep structures were the sole input to semantic interpretation. This assumption, combined with a tendency to consider a wider rang of empirical evidence than Chomskyan linguists, lead generative semanticists to develop considerably more abstract and complex theories of deep structure than those advocated by Chomsky and his students. Throughout the late 1960s and 1970s, there were heated debates between generative semanticists and more orthodox Chomskyans. The generative semanticists lost the debate, in so far as their research program ground to a halt by the 1980s. However, this was in part because the interests of key generative semanticists such as George Lakoff had gradually shifted away from the narrow study of syntax and semantics. A number of ideas from later work in generative semantics have been incorporated into cognitive linguistics (and indeed into main stream Chomskyan linguistics, often without citation

  12. Language networks associated with computerized semantic indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic approach to measuring the strength of semantic relatedness between words based on latent semantic analysis of word co-occurrences in a subset of a large online encyclopedia. We computed semantic clustering indices and compared them to brain network connectivity measures obtained with task-free fMRI in a sample consisting of healthy participants and those differentially affected by cognitive impairment. We found that semantic clustering indices were associated with brain network connectivity in distinct areas including fronto-temporal, fronto-parietal and fusiform gyrus regions. This study shows that computerized semantic indices complement traditional assessments of verbal fluency to provide a more complete account of the relationship between brain and verbal behavior involved organization and retrieval of lexical information from memory. PMID:25315785

  13. Making secure Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Adis Medi?; Adis Golubovi?

    2010-01-01

    this paper first describes ways of semantic web security implementation through layers. These layers are presented as a backbone for semantic web architecture and are represented in XML security, RDF security and in an idea of semantic web security standardization.

  14. Semantic Annotation: The Mainstay of Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Slimani, Thabet

    2013-01-01

    Given that semantic Web realization is based on the critical mass of metadata accessibility and the representation of data with formal knowledge, it needs to generate metadata that is specific, easy to understand and well-defined. However, semantic annotation of the web documents is the successful way to make the Semantic Web vision a reality. This paper introduces the Semantic Web and its vision (stack layers) with regard to some concept definitions that helps the understan...

  15. Building Semantic Hierarchies Faithful to Image Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Bannour, Hichem; Hudelot, Ce?line

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new image-semantic measure, named "Semantico-Visual Relatedness of Concepts" (SVRC), to estimate the semantic similarity between concepts. The proposed measure incorporates visual, conceptual and contextual information to provide a measure which is more meaningful and more representative of image semantics. We also propose a new methodology to automatically build a semantic hierarchy suitable for the purpose of image annotation and/or classification. The building is base...

  16. Jigsaw Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts s...

  17. Reasoning in Semantic Wikis.

    OpenAIRE

    Krötzsch, M; Schaffert, S.; Vrandecic, D; Antoniou, G (Grigoris); Aßmann, U; Baroglio, C; Decker, S (Stefan); Henze, N.; Patranjan, P-L; Tolksdorf, R

    2007-01-01

    Semantic wikis combine the collaborative environment of a classical wiki with features of semantic technologies. Semantic data is used to structure information in the wiki, to improve information access by intelligent search and navigation, and to enable knowledge exchange across applications. Though semantic wikis hardly support complex semantic knowledge and inferencing, we argue that this is not due to a lack of practical use cases. We discuss various tasks for which advanced reasoning is ...

  18. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  19. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  20. The Semantics of Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Sablayrolles, P

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic study of motion complexes (ie. of a motion verb followed by a spatial preposition). We focus on the spatial and the temporal intrinsic semantic properties of the motion verbs, on the one hand, and of the spatial prepositions, on the other hand. Then, we address the problem of combining these basic semantics in order to formally and automatically derive the spatiotemporal semantics of a motion complex from the spatiotemporal properties of its components.

  1. Improving Semantic Schema Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sheikhnajdy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Schema matching is a critical step in many applications, such as data warehouse loading, Online Analytical Process (OLAP, Data mining, semantic web and schema integration. This task is defined for finding the semantic correspondences between elements of two schemas. Recently, schema matching has found considerable interest in both research and practice. In this paper, some approaches for supporting semantic schema matching compared and then we suggest three solutions for improving semantic schema matching problem.

  2. Improving Semantic Schema Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Sheikhnajdy; Mehran Mohsenzadeh; , Mashalah Abbasi Dezfuli

    2011-01-01

    Schema matching is a critical step in many applications, such as data warehouse loading, Online Analytical Process (OLAP), Data mining, semantic web and schema integration. This task is defined for finding the semantic correspondences between elements of two schemas. Recently, schema matching has found considerable interest in both research and practice. In this paper, some approaches for supporting semantic schema matching compared and then we suggest three solutions for improving semantic s...

  3. The Social Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Breslin, John G

    2009-01-01

    Presenting a short overview of both the Social Web and the Semantic Web, this title describes some popular social media and social networking applications, lists their strengths and limitations, and explains some applications of Semantic Web technology to address their shortcomings by enhancing them with semantics

  4. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal semantics from another.

  5. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  6. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  7. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  8. Towards semantic web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Berendt, Bettina; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd

    2002-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. The idea is to improve, on the one hand, the results of Web Mining by exploiting the new semantic structures in the Web; and to make use of Web Mining, on overview of where the two areas meet today, and sketches ways of how a closer integration could be profitable.

  9. Characterizing semantic web services

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano, Marcelo; Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Estevez, Elsa Clara

    2004-01-01

    Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which data contained in the web documents are machine-understandable. On the other hand, Web Services provide a new model of the web in which sites exchange dynamic information on demand. Combination of both introduces a new concept named Semantic Web Services in which semantic information is added to the different activities involved in Web Services, such as discovering, publication, composition, etc. In this paper, we analyze several ...

  10. Semantic Audio Track Mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Uhle, C; Herre, J.; Ridderbusch, F.; Popp, H

    2011-01-01

    An audio mixer for mixing a plurality of audio tracks to a mixture signal comprises a semantic command interpreter (30; 35) for receiving a semantic mixing command and for deriving a plurality of mixing parameters for the plurality of audio tracks from the semantic mixing command; an audio track processor (70; 75) for processing the plurality of audio tracks in accordance with the plurality of mixing parameters; and an audio track combiner (76) for combining the plurality of audio tracks proc...

  11. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  12. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  13. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  14. Categorizing words through semantic memory navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge-Holthoefer, J.; Arenas, A.

    2010-03-01

    Semantic memory is the cognitive system devoted to storage and retrieval of conceptual knowledge. Empirical data indicate that semantic memory is organized in a network structure. Everyday experience shows that word search and retrieval processes provide fluent and coherent speech, i.e. are efficient. This implies either that semantic memory encodes, besides thousands of words, different kind of links for different relationships (introducing greater complexity and storage costs), or that the structure evolves facilitating the differentiation between long-lasting semantic relations from incidental, phenomenological ones. Assuming the latter possibility, we explore a mechanism to disentangle the underlying semantic backbone which comprises conceptual structure (extraction of categorical relations between pairs of words), from the rest of information present in the structure. To this end, we first present and characterize an empirical data set modeled as a network, then we simulate a stochastic cognitive navigation on this topology. We schematize this latter process as uncorrelated random walks from node to node, which converge to a feature vectors network. By doing so we both introduce a novel mechanism for information retrieval, and point at the problem of category formation in close connection to linguistic and non-linguistic experience.

  15. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  16. Semdrops: A Social Semantic Tagging Approach for Emerging Semantic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Diego; Diaz, Alicia; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Molli, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract--This paper proposes a collective intelligence strategy for emerging semantic data. It presents a combination of social web practices with semantic web technologies to enrich existing web resources with semantic data. The paper introduces a social semantic tagging approach called Semdrops. Semdrops de?nes a conceptual model which is an extension of the Gruber's tag model where the tag concept is extended to semantic tag. Semdrops is implemented as a Firefox add-on tool that turns the...

  17. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  18. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  19. Organizational Semantic Web based Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina-Cristiana NECULA

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to treat organizational semantic web based portals. The first part of the paper focuses on concepts regarding semantic web based portals. After discussing some concepts we treat the basic functionalities that a semantic web based portal must have and we finish by presenting these functionalities by actual examples. We present semantic web based portals after studying the necessary implementations from literature and practice. We develop some examples that use semantic web ...

  20. Three Semantics for Modular Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tasharrofi, Shahab; Ternovska, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we further develop the framework of Modular Systems that lays model-theoretic foundations for combining different declarative languages, agents and solvers. We introduce a multi-language logic of modular systems. We define two novel semantics, a structural operational semantics, and an inference-based semantics. We prove the new semantics are equivalent to the original model-theoretic semantics and describe future research directions.

  1. Defining an Enhanced RTL Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shuqing; Daniel D. Gajski

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we formally define an enhanced RTL semantics. This is intended to elevate the RTL design abstraction level and help bridge the HDL semantic gap among synthesis, simulation and formal verification tools. We define the enhanced semantics based on a new RTL++ language that supports pipelined operations using a new pipelined register variable concept. The execution semantics of RTL++ is specified in a structural operational semantics style aimed to form the basis for related simulat...

  2. Affective Dimension of University Professors about their Teaching: An Exploration through the Semantic Differential Technique / Dimensión afectiva de los profesores universitarios sobre la enseñanza: Una exploratoración através de la técnica del diferencial semántico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antoni, Badia Garganté; Julio, Meneses; Carles, Monereo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este estudio es incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las emociones de los profesores sobre su enseñanza, como un componente de la identidad docente. En la primera parte, presentamos una revisión comprensiva sobre la literatura acerca del tipo de emociones de los profes [...] ores y la enseñanza. En la segunda parte presentamos los resultados de un estudio de validez con una escala de diferencial semántico desarrollada para explorar las emociones de profesores universitarios sobre su enseñanza. Esta escala fue diligenciada por una muestra de 198 profesores universitarios y consistió en una lista de pares de adjetivos bipolares que resumen una gran cantidad de clasificaciones affectivas sobre la enseñanza en educación superior. El análisis factorial expoloratorio revela una estructura de tres factores de emociones sobre la enseñanza en educación superior: motivación para la enseñanza, auto-evaluación docente, y desempeño en la enseñanza. El cruzamiento de la escala con la aproximación docente de Trigwell y Prosser (2004) se analiza y se discute. Los resultados sugieren nuevas líneas de investigación acerca de las emociones de los profesores en educación superior, proponiendo estudios futuros para reunión una mayor evidencia de validez sobre las dimensiones afectivas en la enseñanza. Abstract in english The main objective of this study is to increase our knowledge regarding professors' emotions about their teaching, as a component of teacher identity. In the first part, we present a comprehensive review of the literature about the types of teachers' emotions and teaching. In the second part we pres [...] ent the results of a validity study with a semantic differential scale developed to explore the emotions of university professors about their teaching. This scale was fulfilled by a sample of198 university teachers and comprises a list of pairs of bi-polar adjectives that summarize a broad range of affective classifications about teaching in higher education. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three -factor structure of emotions about teaching in higher education: Motivation for teaching, Evaluation of oneself as a teacher, and Teaching performance. The cross-referencing of the scale to Trigwell and Prosser's (2004) teachers' approaches to teaching is analysed and discussed. Our results suggest new lines of research about teachers' emotions in higher education, proposing further studies to collect more validity evidences about the affective dimensions of teaching.

  3. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  4. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  5. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

  6. Semantic Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Mehra,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With changing technology, the Internet has taken a pivotal role in all kinds of applications in our daily lives. To handle flood of information on the Internet, smarter Web technology is also required. This requirement has led to the advent of newer, smarter and better Web technology called 'Semantic Web'. Semantic Web is the next step in Web evolution. High usability of Semantic Web has found significant applications in the field of life sciences, crime investigation, scientific research, literary analysis, social networking, electronic commerce, knowledge management, digital libraries, defence, e-government, energy sector, financial services, healthcare, oil and gas industry, publishing, website back-ends, multimedia, etc. This paper discusses the most prominent areas for application of Semantic Web technology.

  7. The semantic similarity ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Ballatore; Michela Bertolotto; Wilson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for...

  8. Semantic Game Worlds:

    OpenAIRE

    Tutenel, T.

    2012-01-01

    The visual quality of game worlds increased massively in the last three decades. However, the closer game worlds depict reality, the more noticeable it is for gamers when objects do not behave accordingly. An important problem is that the data of a game world is often scattered across different components of the game engine. What lacks is a common semantic representation that can act as the glue between these components. In this thesis we define semantic game worlds as game worlds that ar...

  9. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis is a novel statistical technique for the analysis of two-mode and co-occurrence data, which has applications in information retrieval and filtering, natural language processing, machine learning from text, and in related areas. Compared to standard Latent Semantic Analysis which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of co-occurrence tables, the proposed method is based on a mixture decomposition derived f...

  10. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the Worl...

  11. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  12. Exploiting Semantic Indexing Images for Emergence Recommendation Semantics System

    OpenAIRE

    Zomahoun, Damien; Houngue, Pe?lagie; Ye?tongnon, Kokou

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to the efforts of the Semantic Web Community (W3C), images can be semantically indexed with metadata. The explicit representation of image contents is made possible by using ontologies that provide a common and shared understanding of a domain at both human users and application levels. The approach that we are proposing in this paper is a semantic indexing of images based on conceptual method. To make efficient the semantic indexing, we also propose a recommender system. User profiles...

  13. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  14. A Semantic Approach to Summarization

    OpenAIRE

    Bhartiya, Divyanshu; Singh, Ashudeep

    2014-01-01

    Sentence extraction based summarization methods has some limitations as it doesn't go into the semantics of the document. Also, it lacks the capability of sentence generation which is intuitive to humans. Here we present a novel method to summarize text documents taking the process to semantic levels with the use of WordNet and other resources, and using a technique for sentence generation. We involve semantic role labeling to get the semantic representation of text and use ...

  15. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming).

  16. Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.

    The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

  17. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  18. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  19. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  20. Semantic access dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, E K; Shallice, T

    1979-03-01

    An analytical investigation of the residual reading capacities of a single patient with dyslexia without dysgraphia is reported. Both his ability to name and to comprehend letters and words were severely impaired. The major finding of this investigation was AR's striking capacity for categorizing words he could not read. In addition there was evidence of semantic priming effects. Thus AR was frequently able to achieve partial comprehension of words he could not read. The orthodox interpretation of the dyslexia without dysgraphia in terms of a disconnection syndrome is shown to be inappropriate, at least for the present case, where the deficit appears to be within the semantic domain; it is argued that this type of dyslexia is due to an impairment in accessing semantic information. PMID:427532

  1. A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory

    CERN Document Server

    Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

  2. Semantic Social Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Erétéo, Guillaume; Corby, Olivier; Buffa, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) tries to understand and exploit the key features of social networks in order to manage their life cycle and predict their evolution. Increasingly popular web 2.0 sites are forming huge social network. Classical methods from social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to such online networks. In this paper, we propose leveraging semantic web technologies to merge and exploit the best features of each domain. We present how to facilitate and enhance the analysis of online social networks, exploiting the power of semantic social network analysis.

  3. Semantic e-Science

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Huajun; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2010-01-01

    The Semantic Web has been a very important development in how knowledge is disseminated and manipulated on the Web, but it has been of particular importance to the flow of scientific knowledge, and will continue to shape how data is stored and accessed in a broad range of disciplines, including life sciences, earth science, materials science, and the social sciences. Many books and papers have been published on the semantic web (particularly by Springer), but nothing to date has specifically illustrated how applications can be used to acquire, integrate, and deliver knowledge in so many scient

  4. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  5. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  6. Centering in Dynamic Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Hardt, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Centering theory posits a discourse center, a distinguished discourse entity that is the topic of a discourse. A simplified version of this theory is developed in a Dynamic Semantics framework. In the resulting system, the mechanism of center shift allows a simple, elegant analysis of a variety of phenomena involving sloppy identity in ellipsis and ``paycheck pronouns''.

  7. Semantic Sort: A Supervised Approach to Personalized Semantic Relatedness

    OpenAIRE

    El-yaniv, Ran; Yanay, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose and study a novel supervised approach to learning statistical semantic relatedness models from subjectively annotated training examples. The proposed semantic model consists of parameterized co-occurrence statistics associated with textual units of a large background knowledge corpus. We present an efficient algorithm for learning such semantic models from a training sample of relatedness preferences. Our method is corpus independent and can essentially rely on an...

  8. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Šimko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Many applications depend on the effective acquisition of semantic metadata, and this state-of-the-art volume provides extensive coverage of the field of semantics acquisition games (SAGs). SAGs are a part of the crowdsourcing approach family and the authors analyze their role as tools for acquisition of resource metadata and domain models. Three case studies of SAG-based semantics acquisition methods are shown, along with other existing SAGs: 1. the Little Search Game - a search query formulation game using negative search, serving for acquisition of lightweight semantics. 2. the PexAce - a ca

  9. Where Are the Semantics in the Semantic Web?

    OpenAIRE

    Uschold, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The most widely accepted defining feature of the semantic web is machine-usable content. By this definition, the semantic web is already manifest in shopping agents that automatically access and use web content to find the lowest air fares or book prices. However, where are the semantics? Most people regard the semantic web as a vision, not a reality -- so shopping agents should not "count." To use web content, machines need to know what to do when they encounter it, which, in turn, requires ...

  10. Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Marko A.; Bollen, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meani...

  11. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  12. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Madlener; Sjaak Smetsers; Marko van Eekelen

    2011-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. T...

  13. Computing semantic relatedness using DBPedia

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Jose? Paulo; Rodrigues, Va?nia; Queiro?s, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Extracting the semantic relatedness of terms is an important topic in several areas, including data mining, information retrieval and web recommendation. This paper presents an approach for computing the semantic relatedness of terms using the knowledge base of DBpedia - a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia. Several approaches to extract semantic relatedness from Wikipedia using bag-of-words vector models are already available in the literature. The research pre...

  14. Semantic Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Etter

    2011-01-01

    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

  15. A SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MEASURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulahi Boubacar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Similarity measures are the most important tools in information retrieval and natural language processing. Sentence similarities are of capital importance in online translation. Words-to-document similarity is the key factor to compute query relevance. Text similarities play a big role in data mining. A lot of similarity measures have been used in different domains. Most of the measures are corpus dependent or language dependent. When some measures are good to compute word-to-document matching, they are unable to compute document-to-document similarity and vice versa. In this paper we present a method that can be used to compute any kind of semantic similarity. The method is neither corpus dependent nor language dependent, and gives a way to compare more accurately semantic relatedness.

  16. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  17. Metaphor and Lexical Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Glanzberg

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This paper shows that several sorts of expressions cannot be interpreted metaphorically, including determiners, tenses, etc. Generally, functional categories cannot be interpreted metaphorically, while lexical categories can. This reveals a semantic property of functional categories, and it shows that metaphor can be used as a probe for investigating them. It also reveals an important linguistic constraint on metaphor. The paper argues this constraint applies to the interface betwee...

  18. Semantic Exploration of DNS

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Samuel; Franc?ois, Je?ro?me; Wagner, Cynthia; Engel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DNS structure discloses useful information about the organization and the operation of an enterprise network, which can be used for designing attacks as well as monitoring domains supporting malicious activities. Thus, this paper introduces a new method for exploring the DNS domains. Although our previous work described a tool to generate existing DNS names accurately in order to probe a domain automatically, the approach is extended by leveraging semantic analysis of domain names. In par...

  19. Neurally Implementable Semantic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Garrett N.; Collins, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We propose general principles for semantic networks allowing them to be implemented as dynamical neural networks. Major features of our scheme include: (a) the interpretation that each node in a network stands for a bound integration of the meanings of all nodes and external events the node links with; (b) the systematic use of nodes that stand for categories or types, with separate nodes for instances of these types; (c) an implementation of relationships that does not use ...

  20. Questionnaire on focus semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Renans, Agata; Zimmermann, Malte; Greif, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This is the 15th issue of the working paper series Interdisciplinary Studies on Information Structure (ISIS) of the Sonderforschungsbereich (SFB) 632. This online version contains the Questionnaire on Focus Semantics contributed by Agata Renans, Malte Zimmermann and Markus Greif, members of Project D2 investigating information structural phenomena from a typological perspective. The present issue provides a tool for collecting and analyzing natural data with respect to relevant linguistic que...

  1. Towards the Semantic Desktop

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, Øyvind

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation we describe some key aspects of the social semantic desktop vision, the main results of research by computer scientists in this area so far. We discuss how this may change the way people manage and share their information, and we discuss how this may change the role of academic librarians.
    The trends seem to point towards that computers will be more personal and personalised. People will wish to use different platforms, different applications, and in particular, th...

  2. Semantically predictable constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    In traditional Construction Grammar (CxG) semantic nonpredictability is a requirement for a linguistic unit to qualify as a construction (Fillmore et al. 1988; Goldberg 1995); some recent descriptions within CxG, however, take the view, based on psycholinguistic research, that some semantically predictable units are best understood as grammatical constructions (e.g. Goldberg 2006). My purpose in this paper is to provide evidence from the domain of diachronic linguistics for the view that some predictable units are entrenched in language in a way that makes them functionally and structurally equal to nonpredictable units. Two Medieval Greek future periphrases are used as evidence, thélo (‘want’) + infinitive and méllo (‘I am about to’) + infinitive, which differ with regard to predictability, since thélo depends on the infinitive for the future meaning to be activated, whereas méllo has future meaning in and of itself. Nevertheless, the two periphrases perform parallel functions in Greek grammar. Besides the obvious formal similarities (auxiliary + infinitive), both have future meaning, both undergo semantic bleaching and both develop impersonal constructions with modal meaning.

  3. Complex Semantic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

  4. Semantic Processing and Thought Disorder in Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Insights from fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Borofsky, L.A.; McNealy, K.; Siddarth, P.; Wu, K.N.; Dapretto, M.; Caplan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Impairments in language processing and thought disorder are core symptoms of schizophrenia. Here we used fMRI to investigate functional abnormalities in the neural networks subserving sentence-level language processing in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). Fourteen children with COS (mean age: 13.34; IQ: 95) and 14 healthy controls (HC; mean age: 12.37; IQ: 104) underwent fMRI while performing a semantic judgment task previously shown to differentially engage semantic and syntactic processe...

  5. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    OpenAIRE

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-cohen, Simon; Pulvermu?ller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for l...

  6. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself, but by the specific way that the materials are used in the product. Selection of materials is therefore often done by looking at similar products. The product as well as its constitutive materials possesses a number of technical properties like strength, stiffness and hardness. Furthermore the product possesses a number of semantic properties associated with the meaning we read from the form, colour, texture and sound of the product. The purpose of working with these properties can be to make the use of the product more self-evident, to form or enhance the cultural meaning of the product and to give the product a distinct character. For the technical properties there exists a well developed and commonly accepted terminology that can be utilised at product search and material selection (Ashby 1996). This is not the case for the semantic properties which are important for the outcome reflecting the product design processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material search also require a clear terminology. It is not our aim to identify a new terminology but rather to identify the terminology already in use. The paper also describes different research methods for identifying such a terminology.

  7. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  8. Building a biomedical semantic network in Wikipedia with Semantic Wiki Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Benjamin M; Clarke, Erik L; Loguercio, Salvatore; Su, Andrew I

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is increasingly used as a platform for collaborative data curation, but its current technical implementation has significant limitations that hinder its use in biocuration applications. Specifically, while editors can easily link between two articles in Wikipedia to indicate a relationship, there is no way to indicate the nature of that relationship in a way that is computationally accessible to the system or to external developers. For example, in addition to noting a relationship between a gene and a disease, it would be useful to differentiate the cases where genetic mutation or altered expression causes the disease. Here, we introduce a straightforward method that allows Wikipedia editors to embed computable semantic relations directly in the context of current Wikipedia articles. In addition, we demonstrate two novel applications enabled by the presence of these new relationships. The first is a dynamically generated information box that can be rendered on all semantically enhanced Wikipedia articles. The second is a prototype gene annotation system that draws its content from the gene-centric articles on Wikipedia and exposes the new semantic relationships to enable previously impossible, user-defined queries. DATABASE URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki. PMID:22434829

  9. Universal semantic communication

    CERN Document Server

    Juba, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Is meaningful communication possible between two intelligent parties who share no common language or background? In this work, a theoretical framework is proposed in which it is possible to address when and to what extent such semantic communication is possible: such problems can be rigorously addressed by explicitly focusing on the goals of the communication. Under this framework, it is possible to show that for many goals, communication without any common language or background is possible using universal protocols. This work should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate-level knowled

  10. "Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

  11. Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho / Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing / Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana de Lima, Lopes; Luiz Antonio, Nogueira-Martins; Alexsandro Luiz de, Andrade; Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de, Barros.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e [...] o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de val [...] idación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and ca [...] lculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulting measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

  12. Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Lima Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito.OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de validación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama.OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and calculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulting measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

  13. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  14. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

  15. Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Kristoffer HØgsbro

    1992-01-01

    Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

  16. Neuromagnetic brain responses to words from semantic sub- and supercategories

    OpenAIRE

    Rockstroh Brigitte; Assadollahi Ramin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background We explored spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activity evoked by written words from super-ordinate and sub-ordinate semantic categories and hoped to find a differential cortical and/or temporal distribution of the brain response depending on the level of the categories. Twenty-three subjects saw 360 words belonging to six sub-ordinate categories (mammals, birds, fish, fruit, flowers, trees) within two super-ordinate categories (fauna, flora). Visually evoked magnetic fi...

  17. Semantic WEB Services Using Clustering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jayeeta Majumder,; Saikat Khanra

    2014-01-01

    Semantic Web Services, like conventional web services, are the server end of a client–server system for machine-to-machine interaction via the World Wide Web. Semantic services are a component of the semantic web because they use markup which makes data machine-readable in a detailed and sophisticated way (as compared with human-readable HTML which is usually not easily "understood" by computer programs). Semantic similarity measures are specific types of Semantic measures: ma...

  18. Theoretical Formulas of Semantic Measure: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kalthoum Rezgui; Hédia Mhiri; Khaled Ghédira

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, several semantic similarity and relatedness measures have been developed and applied in many domains including linguistics, biomedical informatics, GeoInformatics, and Semantic Web. This paper discusses different semantic measures which compute similarity and relatedness scores between concepts based on a knowledge representation model offered by ontologies and semantic networks. The benchmarks and approaches used for the evaluation of semantic similarity methods are also des...

  19. Semantics of Complex Sentences in Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Shin'ichiro

    1994-01-01

    The important part of semantics of complex sentence is captured as relations among semantic roles in subordinate and main clause respectively. However if there can be relations between every pair of semantic roles, the amount of computation to identify the relations that hold in the given sentence is extremely large. In this paper, for semantics of Japanese complex sentence, we introduce new pragmatic roles called `observer' and `motivated' respectively to bridge semantic ro...

  20. Qualifying Semantic graphs using Model Checking

    OpenAIRE

    Gueffaz, Mahdi; Rampacek, Sylvain; Nicolle, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Semantic interoperability problems have found their solutions using languages and techniques from the Semantic Web. The proliferation of ontologies and meta-information has improved the understanding of information and the relevance of search engine responses. However, the construction of semantic graphs is a source of numerous errors of interpretation or modeling and scalability remains a major problem. The processing of large semantic graphs is a limit to the use of semantics in current inf...

  1. Automatic Discovery of Word Semantic Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Gael; Moraliyski, Rumen; Cordeiro, Joao; Doucet, Antoine; Ahonen-Myka, Helena

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an unsupervised methodology to automatically discover pairs of semantically related words by highlighting their local environment and evaluating their semantic similarity in local and global semantic spaces. This proposal di®ers from previous research as it tries to take the best of two different methodologies i.e. semantic space models and information extraction models. It can be applied to extract close semantic relations, it limits the search space and...

  2. Search Relevance based on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bicer, Veli

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we explore the challenge of search relevance in the context of semantic search. Specifically, the notion of semantic relevance can be distinguished from the other types of relevance in Information Retrieval (IR) in terms of employing an underlying semantic model. We propose the emerging Semantic Web data on the Web which is represented in RDF graph structures as an important candidate to become such a semantic model in a search process.

  3. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops and adapts constantely. Recently both media and migrations have accelerated considerably in speed. In Europe and thus in Denmark homogenous populations have developed into multicultural ones; bringing people together with very different religions, new habits and other ways of expressing themselves. Language has not kept pace with this development. From obvious reasons in that millions of people have to adapt to this new situation with lightning speed. That seems not to be possible. We have to use words, metaphors and comparisons containing adverse connotations, and this situation creates ways of using unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble thatcould be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools to keep debates on the straight and narrow.

  4. Distinct loci of lexical and semantic access deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2015-06-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category negatively affects language production and comprehension. By most accounts, semantic interference arises when accessing lexical representations in naming (e.g., Damian, Vigliocco, & Levelt, 2001) and semantic representations in comprehension (e.g., Forde & Humphreys, 1997). Further, damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), a region implicated in cognitive control, results in increasing semantic interference when items repeat across cycles in both language production and comprehension (Jefferies, Baker, Doran, & Lambon Ralph, 2007). This generates the prediction that the LIFG via white matter connections supports resolution of semantic interference arising from different loci (lexical vs semantic) in the temporal lobe. However, it remains unclear whether the cognitive and neural mechanisms that resolve semantic interference are the same across tasks. Thus, we examined which gray matter structures [using whole brain and region of interest (ROI) approaches] and white matter connections (using deterministic tractography) when damaged impact semantic interference and its increase across cycles when repeatedly producing and understanding words in 15 speakers with varying lexical-semantic deficits from left hemisphere stroke. We found that damage to distinct brain regions, the posterior versus anterior temporal lobe, was associated with semantic interference (collapsed across cycles) in naming and comprehension, respectively. Further, those with LIFG damage compared to those without exhibited marginally larger increases in semantic interference across cycles in naming but not comprehension. Lastly, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, connecting the LIFG with posterior temporal lobe, related to semantic interference in naming, whereas the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), connecting posterior with anterior temporal regions related to semantic interference in comprehension. These neuroanatomical-behavioral findings have implications for models of the lexical-semantic language network by demonstrating that semantic interference in language production and comprehension involves different representations which differentially recruit a cognitive control mechanism for interference resolution. PMID:25880795

  5. Comparative semantic profiles in semantic dementia and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Libon, David J.; Rascovsky, Katya; Powers, John; Irwin, David J.; Boller, Ashley; Weinberg, Danielle; Mcmillan, Corey T.; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, also known as semantic dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease have deficits in semantic memory. However, few comparative studies have been performed to determine whether these patient groups have distinct semantic memory impairments. We asked 15 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and 57 patients with Alzheimer’s disease to judge semantic category membership of coloured photos and printed words that are m...

  6. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrate its potential by two applications. As a first application, we localize lane structures by the semantic descriptors and their relations in a Bayesian framework. As the second application, which is in the context of vision based grasping, we show how the semantic relations can be associated to actions that allow for grasping without using any object knowledge.

  7. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  8. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2

    2011-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  9. The Semantics of Graph Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Plump

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available GP (for Graph Programs is a rule-based, nondeterministic programming language for solving graph problems at a high level of abstraction, freeing programmers from handling low-level data structures. The core of GP consists of four constructs: single-step application of a set of conditional graph-transformation rules, sequential composition, branching and iteration. We present a formal semantics for GP in the style of structural operational semantics. A special feature of our semantics is the use of finitely failing programs to define GP's powerful branching and iteration commands.

  10. Semantic Search Engine: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Anusree.ramachandran; Sujatha, R.

    2011-01-01

    The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search ...

  11. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  12. Operational semantics for signal handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Strygin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

  13. Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

  14. Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Samper

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS. The algorithm uses the description of the service capabilities to match the semantic values. The traditional matching has been improved using ontologies which constitute a step further in the matching algorithms. To implement the algorithm, an agent FIPA compliant architecture has been designed and developed. The results obtained are positive. The semantic web services framework developed in combination with the use of the matchmaking algorithm, which allows finding services based on their similarities.

  15. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The advantages of the formlism are shown with respect to a grammar for a fragment of German that deals with (i) quantifier scope ambiguities triggered by scrambling and/or movement and (ii) ambiguities that arise from the collective/distributive distinction of plural NPs. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative...

  16. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  17. Semantic domains in computational linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzo, Alfio

    2009-01-01

    An ideal text for researchers and graduate students, this comprehensive volume covers semantic domains and domain models, as well as ways of applying the technique to text categorization, word sense disambiguation, and cross-language text categorization.

  18. Metaphor and Lexical Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Glanzberg

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper shows that several sorts of expressions cannot be interpreted metaphorically, including determiners, tenses, etc. Generally, functional categories cannot be interpreted metaphorically, while lexical categories can. This reveals a semantic property of functional categories, and it shows that metaphor can be used as a probe for investigating them. It also reveals an important linguistic constraint on metaphor. The paper argues this constraint applies to the interface between the cognitive systems for language and metaphor. However, the constraint does not completely prevent structural elements of language from being available to the metaphor system. The paper shows that linguistic structure within the lexicon, specifically, aspectual structure, is available to the metaphor system.

  19. Diagnostics of Semantic Word Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Isheden, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    In collaboration with Gavagai, a company that develops automated and scalable methods for retrieving actionable intelligence from dynamic data, I have been studying semantic word spaces and topology. In this bachelor’s thesis, with help from computational topology, I introduce new ways to describe properties of these semantic word spaces, so called barcodes. I develop a measure to describe barcodes of betti number zero, prove its validity and discuss its implications.

  20. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  1. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia Pesquita; Daniel Faria; Falca?o, Andre? O.; Lord, P.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies hav...

  2. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  3. Semantic Tagging on Historical Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Haslhofer, Bernhard; Robitza, Werner; Lagoze, Carl; Guimbretiere, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Tags assigned by users to shared content can be ambiguous. As a possible solution, we propose semantic tagging as a collaborative process in which a user selects and associates Web resources drawn from a knowledge context. We applied this general technique in the specific context of online historical maps and allowed users to annotate and tag them. To study the effects of semantic tagging on tag production, the types and categories of obtained tags, and user task load, we co...

  4. The Semantics of Graph Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Detlef Plump; Sandra Steinert

    2010-01-01

    GP (for Graph Programs) is a rule-based, nondeterministic programming language for solving graph problems at a high level of abstraction, freeing programmers from handling low-level data structures. The core of GP consists of four constructs: single-step application of a set of conditional graph-transformation rules, sequential composition, branching and iteration. We present a formal semantics for GP in the style of structural operational semantics. A special feature of our...

  5. Towards a Mathematical Operational Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Gordon; Turi, Daniele

    2003-01-01

    We present a categorical theory of ‘well-behaved’ operational semantics which aims at complementing the established theory of domains and denotational semantics to form a coherent whole. It is shown that, if the operational rules of a programming language can be modelled as a natural transformation of a suitable general form, depending on functorial notions of syntax and behaviour, then one gets the following for free: an operational model satisfying the rules and a cano...

  6. Unsupervised induction of semantic roles

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Joel

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a considerable amount of work has been devoted to the task of automatic frame-semantic analysis. Given the relative maturity of syntactic parsing technology, which is an important prerequisite, frame-semantic analysis represents a realistic next step towards broad-coverage natural language understanding and has been shown to benefit a range of natural language processing applications such as information extraction and question answering. Due to the complexit...

  7. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Poesio, Massimo

    1995-01-01

    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language...

  8. Qubit semantics and quantum trees

    OpenAIRE

    DALLA CHIARA, MARIA LUISA; GIUNTINI, ROBERTO; LEPORATI, ALBERTO; LEPORINI, ROBERTO

    2002-01-01

    In the qubit semantics the \\emph{meaning} of any sentence $\\alpha$ is represented by a \\emph{quregister}: a unit vector of the $n$--fold tensor product $\\otimes^n \\C^2$, where $n$ depends on the number of occurrences of atomic sentences in $\\alpha$. The logic characterized by this semantics, called {\\it quantum computational logic} (QCL), is {\\it unsharp}, because the non-contradiction principle is violated. We show that QCL does not admit any logical truth. In this framewor...

  9. Semantic Approach for Query Explication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

  10. Theorem proving support in programming language semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertot, Yves

    2007-01-01

    We describe several views of the semantics of a simple programming language as formal documents in the calculus of inductive constructions that can be verified by the Coq proof system. Covered aspects are natural semantics, denotational semantics, axiomatic semantics, and abstract interpretation. Descriptions as recursive functions are also provided whenever suitable, thus yielding a a verification condition generator and a static analyser that can be run inside the theorem prover for use in reflective proofs. Extraction of an interpreter from the denotational semantics is also described. All different aspects are formally proved sound with respect to the natural semantics specification.

  11. Theoretical Formulas of Semantic Measure: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalthoum Rezgui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several semantic similarity and relatedness measures have been developed and applied in many domains including linguistics, biomedical informatics, GeoInformatics, and Semantic Web. This paper discusses different semantic measures which compute similarity and relatedness scores between concepts based on a knowledge representation model offered by ontologies and semantic networks. The benchmarks and approaches used for the evaluation of semantic similarity methods are also described. The aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive view of these measures which helps researchers to choose the best semantic similarity or relatedness metric for their needs.

  12. Service composition for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Medjahed, Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Service Composition for the Semantic Web presents an in-depth analysis of aspects related to semantic-enabled Web service modeling and composition. It also covers challenges and solutions to composing Web services on the semantic Web, and proposing a semantic framework for organizing and describing Web services. Service Composition for the Semantic Web describes composability and matching models to check whether semantic Web services can be combined together to avoid unexpected failures at run time, and a set of algorithms that automatically generate detailed descriptions of composite services

  13. “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Matthew A Lambon Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this ...

  14. The importance of multiple assessments of object knowledge in semantic dementia: The case of the familiar objects task

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysikou, Evangelia G.; Giovannetti, Tania; Wambach, Denene M.; Lyon, Abigail C.; Grossman, Murray; Libon, David J

    2010-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by a dramatic loss of conceptual knowledge about the meaning of words and the identity of objects. Previous research has suggested that SD patients’ knowledge is differentially influenced by the disease and may decline at different degrees depending on a patient’s everyday familiarity with certain items. However, no study has examined (a) semantic knowledge deterioration and (b) the potential significance of autobiographical experience for the maintenan...

  15. Identifying Bengali Multiword Expressions using Semantic Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Das, Dipankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sivaji

    2014-01-01

    One of the key issues in both natural language understanding and generation is the appropriate processing of Multiword Expressions (MWEs). MWEs pose a huge problem to the precise language processing due to their idiosyncratic nature and diversity in lexical, syntactical and semantic properties. The semantics of a MWE cannot be expressed after combining the semantics of its constituents. Therefore, the formalism of semantic clustering is often viewed as an instrument for extr...

  16. ENGLISH TO SANSKRIT MACHINE TRANSLATION SEMANTIC MAPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAISHALI M. BARKADE,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we propose to develop a converter which converts English Statement to Sanskrit statement Using Rule based approach of Machine Translation .The proposed method has following features: The Proposed modules are as follows:MODULE 1: LEXICAL PARSERMODULE 2: SEMANTIC MAPPERMODULE 3: ITRANSLATORMODULE 4: COMPOSERHere we would concentrate only on the Second module that is Semantic Mapper. To map the English semantic word with Sanskrit semantic word

  17. SomeRDFS in the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Adjiman, Philippe; Goasdoué, François; Rousset, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    The Semantic Web envisions a world-wide distributed architecture where computational resources will easily inter-operate to coordinate complex tasks such as query answering. Semantic marking up of web resources using ontologies is expected to provide the necessary glue for making this vision work. Using ontology languages, (communities of) users will build their own ontologies in order to describe their own data. Adding semantic mappings between those ontologies, in order to semantically rela...

  18. The stable-abducible argumentation semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Mauricio; Nieves Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Carballido, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    We look at a general way of inducing semantics in argumentation theory by means of a mapping defined on the family of 2-valued models of a normal program, which is constructed in terms of the argumentation framework. In this way we define a new argumentation semantics called stable abducible which lies in between the stable and the preferred semantics. The relevance of this new semantics is that it is nonempty for any argumentation framework, and coincides with the stable argumentation ...

  19. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-01-01

    In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Gi...

  20. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2009-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs. Participants made an on-line semantic relatedness judgment in response to sequentially presented pictures. We found that when pictures are presented ...

  1. Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Aceto , Luca; Soboci?ski, Pawe?

    2010-01-01

    Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic sys...

  2. Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Dorman; Tobias Heindel

    2011-01-01

    Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS) for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS). The paper intro...

  3. Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting

    OpenAIRE

    Heindel, T.; A. Dorman; König, B.

    2012-01-01

    Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics (LTS). While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS) for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS). The paper introduces an SOS styl...

  4. Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.32

    2010-01-01

    Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic systems and systems biology.

  5. Web-Based Measure of Semantic Relatedness

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia, Jorge; Mena, E.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic relatedness measures quantify the degree in which some words or concepts are related, considering not only similarity but any possible semantic relationship among them. Relatedness computation is of great interest in different areas, such as Natural Language Processing, Information Retrieval, or the Semantic Web. Different methods have been proposed in the past; however, current relatedness measures lack some desirable properties for a new generation of Semantic Web applications: ...

  6. The semantic web: research and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Pérez, Asunción; Euzenat, Jérôme

    2005-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2005, heldin Heraklion, Crete, Greece in May/June 2005. The 48 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 148 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on semantic Web services, languages, ontologies, reasoning and querying, search and information retrieval, user and communities, natural language for the semantic Web, annotation tools, and semantic W...

  7. Inductive reasoning and semantic web search.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amato, C.; Esposito, F.; Fanizzi, N; Fazzinga, B; Gottlob, G; T. Lukasiewicz; Shin, SY; Ossowski, S.; SCHUMACHER, M; Palakal, MJ; Hung, C-C

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research activities are recently directed towards the Semantic Web as a future form of the Web. Consequently, Web search as the key technology of the Web is evolving towards some novel form of Semantic Web search. A very promising recent approach to such Semantic Web search is based on combining standard Web search with ontological background knowledge and using standard Web search engines as the main inference motor of Semantic Web search. In this paper, we propose to further enhan...

  8. Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Estaji; Fakhteh Nakhavali

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female) terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical mea...

  9. Studying of Semantic Similarity Methods in Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Vahideh Reshadat; Mohammad-Reza Feizi-Derakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Humans are able to easily judge if a pair of concepts are related in some way. Understanding of how humans are able to perform this task is not easy. Semantic similarity denotes computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not necessarily lexically similar. Semantic similarity between concepts plays an important role in Semantic Web, knowledge sharing, Web mining, semantic sense understanding and text summarization. This also is an impor...

  10. SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide W...

  11. Semantic Publishing: issues, solutions and new trends in scholarly publishing within the Semantic Web era

    OpenAIRE

    Peroni, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    This work is concerned with the increasing relationships between two distinct multidisciplinary research fields, Semantic Web technologies and scholarly publishing, that in this context converge into one precise research topic: Semantic Publishing. In the spirit of the original aim of Semantic Publishing, i.e. the improvement of scientific communication by means of semantic technologies, this thesis proposes theories, formalisms and applications for opening up semantic publishing to an effect...

  12. Concept-based query transformation based on semantic centrality in semantic peer-to-peer environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jason; Zimmermann, Antoine; Euzenat, Je?ro?me

    2007-01-01

    Query transformation is a serious hurdle on semantic peer-to-peer environment. The problem is that the transformed queries might lose some information from the original one, as continuously traveling p2p networks. We mainly consider two factors; i) number of transformations and// ii) quality of ontology alignment. In this paper, we propose semantic centrality (SC) measurement meaning the power of semantic bridging on semantic p2p environment. Thereby, we want to build semantically cohesive us...

  13. When the zebra loses its stripes: Semantic priming in early Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Laisney, Mickae?l; Giffard, Be?ne?dicte; Belliard, Serge; La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Be?atrice; Eustache, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) or semantic dementia (SD) both exhibit deficits on explicit tasks of semantic memory. Semantic priming (SP) paradigms provide a very pure and precise implicit measurement of semantic memory impairment, and a previous study of AD (Giffard et al., 2002) using one such paradigm revealed that AD patients in the initial stages of semantic deterioration presented an abnormally large priming effect (hyperpriming) in a category-coordinate condition, c...

  14. Using multi-categorization semantic analysis and personalization for semantic search

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yinglong; Shi, Moyi

    2014-01-01

    Semantic search technology has received more attention in the last years. Compared with the keyword based search, semantic search is used to excavate the latent semantics information and help users find the information items that they want indeed. In this paper, we present a novel approach for semantic search which combines Multi-Categorization Semantic Analysis with personalization technology. The MCSA approach can classify documents into multiple categories, which is disti...

  15. Semantic Features in Argument Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izchak M. Schlesinger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems that has to be dealt with by theorists of early language acquisition theory is the mismatch between semantic constructs, like Agent, and syntactic ones, like subject. It is proposed that the linguistic system is based on semantic features that are more fine-grained than thematic roles, and that selection of subject and direct object can be accounted for by merely four semantic features. These features are conceived of as properties of participants in the lexical entries of verbs, and in this respect, too, they are unlike thematic roles, which are ascribed to NPs in sentences. Thematic roles play a part only in the realization of certain other arguments, notably, the oblique object. It is shown that this different treatment of direct and oblique objects permits a parsimonious explanation of certain linguistic regularities that have posed problems for other theories. Early language acquisition can be explained in terms of the acquisition of these semantic features, and this account thus supersedes the semantic assimilation hypothesis proposed previously to deal with the lack of congruence between thematic roles and syntactic categories.

  16. Web to Semantic Web & Role of Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    In this research paper we are briefly presenting current major web problems and introducing semantic web technologies with the claim of solving existing web's problems. Furthermore we are describing Ontology as the main building block of semantic web and focusing on its contributions to semantic web progress and current limitations.

  17. Semantic Relatedness for Evaluation of Course Equivalencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Beibei

    2012-01-01

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the…

  18. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  19. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab Abd al-Hamed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

  20. Semantic HMC for Big Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Thomas; Peixoto, Rafael; Cruz, Christophe; Bertaux, Aurlie; Silva, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing Big Data can help corporations to im-prove their efficiency. In this work we present a new vision to derive Value from Big Data using a Semantic Hierarchical Multi-label Classification called Semantic HMC based in a non-supervised Ontology learning process. We also proposea Semantic HMC process, using scalable Machine-Learning techniques and Rule-based reasoning.

  1. Studying of Semantic Similarity Methods in Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Reshadat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to easily judge if a pair of concepts are related in some way. Understanding of how humans are able to perform this task is not easy. Semantic similarity denotes computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not necessarily lexically similar. Semantic similarity between concepts plays an important role in Semantic Web, knowledge sharing, Web mining, semantic sense understanding and text summarization. This also is an important problem in Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval Researches. These techniques are becoming important components of most of the Information Retrieval (IR, Information Extraction (IE and other intelligent knowledge based systems. Therefore it has received considerable attention in the literature. Ontology has a good hierarchical structure of concepts. In the ontology, semantic information can be realized through the semantic relationship of concepts. Ontology-based semantic similarity techniques can estimate the semantic similarity between two hierarchically expressed concepts in a given ontology or taxonomy. Semantic similarity is usually computed by mapping concepts to ontology and by examining their relationships in it. The most popular semantic similarity methods are implemented and evaluated using WordNet and MeSH. Several algorithmic approaches for computing semantic similarity have been proposed. This paper discusses the various approaches used for identifying semantically similar concepts in ontology.

  2. Semantics for Possibilistic Disjunctive Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, Juan Carlos; Cortés, Ulises

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a possibilistic disjunctive logic programming approach for modeling uncertain, incomplete and inconsistent information is defined. This approach introduces the use of possibilistic disjunctive clauses which are able to capture incomplete information and incomplete states of a knowledge base at the same time. By considering a possibilistic logic program as a possibilistic logic theory, a construction of a possibilistic logic programming semantic based on answer sets and the proof theory of possibilistic logic is defined. It shows that this possibilistic semantics for disjunctive logic programs can be characterized by a fixed-point operator. It is also shown that the suggested possibilistic semantics can be computed by a resolution algorithm and the consideration of optimal refutations from a possibilistic logic theory. In order to manage inconsistent possibilistic logic programs, a preference criterion between inconsistent possibilistic models is defined; in addition, the approach of cuts for re...

  3. Using context to build semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwantes, Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a model of knowledge representation for words. It works by applying dimension reduction to local co-occurrence data from a large collection of documents after performing singular value decomposition on it. When the reduction is applied, the system forms condensed representations for the words that incorporate higher order associations. The higher order associations are primarily responsible for any semantic similarity between words in LSA. In this article, a memory model is described that creates semantic representations for words that are similar in form to those created by LSA. However, instead of applying dimension reduction, the model builds the representations by using a retrieval mechanism from a well-known account of episodic memory. PMID:16447385

  4. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die tekskorpusmetode kan nie gebruik word vir minderheidstale waarin tekste ontbreek nie. Om in die behoefte te voorsien, het die skrywer 'n lys van 1 600 semantiese domeine opgestel wat hy suksesvol gebruik het om woorde te versamel. In 'n werksessie-omgewing kan 'n groep sprekers tot soveel as 17 000 woorde in tien dae versamel. Hierdie metode lei tot 'n geklassifiseerde woordelys wat doeltreffend uitgebrei kan word tot 'n volledige woordeboek. Die metode werk omdat die mentale leksikon 'n groot web is wat rondom sleutelbegrippe gestruktureer is. 'n Semantiese domein kan gedefinieer word as 'n belangrike kon-sep saam met die woorde wat direk daarmee verband hou vanweë leksikale verwantskappe. 'n Persoon kan die mentale web gebruik om vinnig van woord tot woord binne 'n domein te spring. Die skrywer is besig om vir elke domein 'n profiel te ontwikkel om te help met die versameling van woorde en met die beskrywing van hul semantiek. 'n Ondersoek van semantiek binne die konteks van 'n domein lewer baie insigte. Die metode laat die totstandbrenging van sowel alfabeties as semanties gerangskikte woordeboeke toe. Die lys domeine is bedoel om univer-seel in omvang en toepassing te wees. Moontlik as gevolg van universalia van menslike ervaring en universalia van taalkundige vermoë, is daar treffende ooreenkomste tussen verskillende lyste semantiese domeine wat ontwikkel is vir tale oor die hele wêreld. Die gebruik van 'n gestandaardi-seerde lys domeine om veelsoortige woordeboeke te klassifiseer, skep moontlikhede vir kruislin-guistiese navorsing oor semantiese en leksikale universalia. Sleutelwoorde: SEMANTIESE DOMEINE, SEMANTIESE VELDE, SEMANTIESE KATE-GORIEË, LEKSIKALE VERWANTSKAPPE, SEMANTIESE PRIMITIEWES, DOMEINPROFIELE, MENTALE LEKSIKON, SEMANTIESE UNIVERSALIA, MINDERHEIDSTALE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE

  5. Agency and the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This text looks at the construction of the Semantic Web, which will enable computers to automatically and independently consume Web-based information. With numerous programming examples, it is ideal for undergraduates and graduates in mathematics, computer science and logic and researchers interested in Multi-Agent Systems and the Semantic Web. - ;This highly topical text considers the construction of the next generation of the Web, called the Semantic Web. This will enable computers to automatically consume Web-based information, overcoming the human-centric focus of the Web as it stands at present, and expediting the construction of a whole new class of knowledge-based applications that will intelligently utilise Web content. The text is structured into three main sections on knowledge representation techniques, reasoning with multi-agent systems, and knowledge services. For each of these topics, the text provides an overview of the state-of-the-art techniques and the popular standards that have been define...

  6. Functional differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Gerald Jay

    2013-01-01

    Physics is naturally expressed in mathematical language. Students new to the subject must simultaneously learn an idiomatic mathematical language and the content that is expressed in that language. It is as if they were asked to read Les Misérables while struggling with French grammar. This book offers an innovative way to learn the differential geometry needed as a foundation for a deep understanding of general relativity or quantum field theory as taught at the college level.The approach taken by the authors (and used in their classes at MIT for many years) differs from the conventional one in several ways, including an emphasis on the development of the covariant derivative and an avoidance of the use of traditional index notation for tensors in favor of a semantically richer language of vector fields and differential forms. But the biggest single difference is the authors' integration of computer programming into their explanations. By programming a computer to interpret a formula, the student soon learn...

  7. An evaluative baseline for geo-semantic relatedness and similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Ballatore, Andrea; Bertolotto, Michela; Wilson, David C.

    2014-01-01

    In geographic information science and semantics, the computation of semantic similarity is widely recognised as key to supporting a vast number of tasks in information integration and retrieval. By contrast, the role of geo-semantic relatedness has been largely ignored. In natural language processing, semantic relatedness is often confused with the more specific semantic similarity. In this article, we discuss a notion of geo-semantic relatedness based on Lehrer's semantic f...

  8. A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Hassanzadeh; MohammadReza Keyvanpour,

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic An...

  9. Web Semantization – Design and Principles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D?dek, Jan; Eckhardt, Alan; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin : Springer, 2010 - (Snášel, V.; Szczepaniak, P.; Abraham, A.; Kacprzyk, J.), s. 3-18 ISBN 978-3-642-10686-6. - (Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. 67). [AWIC 2009. Atlantic Web Intelligence Conference /6./. Prague (CZ), 09.09.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA ?R GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic web * semantic annotation * web information extraction * user preferences Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  10. Linguistic Extraction for Semantic Annotation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D?dek, J.; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin : Springer, 2008 - (Badica, C.; Mangioni, G.; Carchiolo, V.; Burdescu, D.), s. 85-94 ISBN 978-3-540-85256-8. - (Studies in Computational Intelligence. 162). [IDC 2008. International Symposium on Intelligent and Distributed Computing /2./. Catania (IT), 18.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA AV ?R 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic information extraction * linguistics * semantic computing * aggregation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  11. From CSP to Game Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, Samson

    In this short essay, we describe in informal terms how game semantics can be seen to arise as a perturbation of process calculi such as CSP, by making an explicit distinction between the rôles of the System and the Environment. Drawing out the consequences of this distinction uncovers a wealth of mathematical structure, with Game intuitions entering in a natural and compelling fashion. This leads ultimately to the elaboration of mathematically well-structured and behaviourally expressive semantic universes for computation. These provide a basis for fully abstract models of a wide range of programming languages, and lead on to algorithmic methods, with applications to compositional model-checking and program analysis.

  12. Order effects in dynamic semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2014-01-01

    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from the crucial non-commutativity of mental operations upon the belief state of a cognitive agent. PMID:24259268

  13. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  14. Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sakthivel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Web Services are mounting as an inventive mechanism for rendering services to subjective devices over the WWW. As a consequence of the rapid growth of Web Services applications and the plenty of Service Providers, the consumer is facing with the inevitability of selecting the “right” Service Provider. In such a scenario the Quality of Service (QoS serves as a target to differentiate Service Providers. To select the best Web Services / Service Providers, Ranking and Optimization of Web Service Compositions are challenging areas of research with significant implications for the realization of the “Web of Services” revelation. The “Semantic Web Services” use formal semantic descriptions of Web Service functionality and interface to enable automated reasoning over Web Service Compositions. This study from its experimental results revealed that the existing Semantic Web Services faces a few challenging issues such as poor prediction of best Web Services and optimized Service Providers, which leads to QoS degradation of Semantic Web. To address and overcome these identified issues, this research work is calculating the semantic similarities, utilization of various Web Services and Service Providers. After measuring these parameters, all the Web Services are ranked based on their Utilization. Finally, our proposed technique, selected best Web Services based on their ranking and placed in Web Services Composition. From the experimental results, it is established that our proposed mechanism improves the performance of Semantic Web in terms of Execution Time, Processor Utilization and Memory Management.

  15. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  16. Multimedia Semantics Metadata, Analysis and Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Troncy, Raphael; Schenk, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the latest research results in the multimedia and semantic web communities, bridging the "Semantic Gap" This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science,

  17. Semantic representation and naming in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Karla K; Friedman, Rena M; Reilly, Renée M; Newman, Robyn M

    2002-04-01

    Children's semantic representations and semantic naming errors were the focus of this study. In Experiment 1, 25 normally developing children (mean age = 5 years 4 months) named, drew, and defined 20 age-appropriate objects. The results suggested that functional and physical properties are core aspects of object representations in the semantic lexicon and that these representations are often organized and accessed according to a taxonomic hierarchy. Results of a new procedure, comparative picture naming/picture drawing, suggested that the degree of knowledge in the semantic lexicon makes words more or less vulnerable to retrieval failure. Most semantic naming errors were associated with limited semantic knowledge, manifested as either lexical gaps or fragile representations. Comparison of definitions for correctly named and semantically misnamed objects provided converging evidence for this conclusion. In Experiment 2, involving 16 normally developing children (mean age = 5 years 5 months), the comparative picture naming/picture drawing results were replicated with a stimulus set that allowed a priori matching of the visual complexity of items drawn from correct and semantic error pools. Discussion focuses on the dynamic nature of semantic representations and the relation between semantic representation and naming during a period of slow mapping. The value of comparative picture naming/picture drawing as a new method for exploring children's semantic representations is emphasized. PMID:12003515

  18. Semantic grid model, methodology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hua-jun

    2008-01-01

    Semantic Grid: Model, Methodology, and Applications introduces to the science, core technologies, and killer applications. First, scientific issues of semantic grid systems are covered, followed by two basic technical issues, data-level semantic mapping, and service-level semantic interoperating. Two killer applications are then introduced to show how to build a semantic grid for specific application domains. Although this book is organized in a step by step manner, each chapter is independent. Detailed application scenarios are also presented. In 1990, Prof. Wu invented the first KB-system tool, ZIPE, based on C on a SUN platform. He proposed the first coupling knowledge representing model, Couplingua, which embodies Rule, Frame, Semantic Network and Nerve Cell Network, and supports symbol computing and data processing computing. His current focus is on semantic web, grid & ubiquitous computing, and their applications in the life sciences.

  19. Semantics of Complex Sentences in Japanese

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, H; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Shin'ichiro

    1994-01-01

    The important part of semantics of complex sentence is captured as relations among semantic roles in subordinate and main clause respectively. However if there can be relations between every pair of semantic roles, the amount of computation to identify the relations that hold in the given sentence is extremely large. In this paper, for semantics of Japanese complex sentence, we introduce new pragmatic roles called `observer' and `motivated' respectively to bridge semantic roles of subordinate and those of main clauses. By these new roles constraints on the relations among semantic/pragmatic roles are known to be almost local within subordinate or main clause. In other words, as for the semantics of the whole complex sentence, the only role we should deal with is a motivated.

  20. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate distributed code using the original Statemate semantics. The new, distributed semantics has the advantages that, first, it enables the generation of efficient distributed code, second, it preserves many aspects of the original semantics for those parts of a model that are not distributed, and third, the changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation for embedded control applications.

  1. Semantic Similarity Calculation of Chinese Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Pan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a two layers computing method to calculate semantic similarity of Chinese word. Firstly, using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA subject model to generate subject spatial domain. Then mapping word into topic space and forming topic distribution which is used to calculate semantic similarity of word(the first layer computing. Finally, using semantic dictionary "HowNet" to deeply excavate semantic similarity of word (the second layer computing. This method not only overcomes the problem that it’s not specific enough merely using LDA to calculate semantic similarity of word, but also solves the problems such as new words (haven’t been added in dictionary and without considering specific context when calculating semantic similarity based on semantic dictionary "HowNet". By experimental comparison, this thesis proves feasibility,availability and advantages of the calculation method.

  2. Using a Diathesis Model for Semantic Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Atserias, J; Civit, M; Rigau, G; Atserias, Jordi; Castellon, Irene; Civit, Montse; Rigau, German

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a semantic parsing approach for unrestricted texts. Semantic parsing is one of the major bottlenecks of Natural Language Understanding (NLU) systems and usually requires building expensive resources not easily portable to other domains. Our approach obtains a case-role analysis, in which the semantic roles of the verb are identified. In order to cover all the possible syntactic realisations of a verb, our system combines their argument structure with a set of general semantic labelled diatheses models. Combining them, the system builds a set of syntactic-semantic patterns with their own role-case representation. Once the patterns are build, we use an approximate tree pattern-matching algorithm to identify the most reliable pattern for a sentence. The pattern matching is performed between the syntactic-semantic patterns and the feature-structure tree representing the morphological, syntactical and semantic information of the analysed sentence. For sentences assigned to the correct model, th...

  3. The Myth of Semantic Structure.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Heusenstamm : Ontos Verlag, 2010 - (Stalmaszczyk, P.), s. 183-197 ISBN 978-3-86838-070-5 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : semantic structure * lofical form Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. Entanglement as a Semantic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Ledda, Antonio; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    The characteristic holistic features of the quantum theoretic formalism and the intriguing notion of entanglement can be applied to a field that is far from microphysics: logical semantics. Quantum computational logics are new forms of quantum logic that have been suggested by the theory of quantum logical gates in quantum computation. In the standard semantics of these logics, sentences denote quantum information quantities: systems of qubits ( quregisters) or, more generally, mixtures of quregisters ( qumixes), while logical connectives are interpreted as special quantum logical gates (which have a characteristic reversible and dynamic behavior). In this framework, states of knowledge may be entangled, in such a way that our information about the whole determines our information about the parts; and the procedure cannot be, generally, inverted. In spite of its appealing properties, the standard version of the quantum computational semantics is strongly “Hilbert-space dependent”. This certainly represents a shortcoming for all applications, where real and complex numbers do not generally play any significant role (as happens, for instance, in the case of natural and of artistic languages). We propose an abstract version of quantum computational semantics, where abstract qumixes, quregisters and registers are identified with some special objects (not necessarily living in a Hilbert space), while gates are reversible functions that transform qumixes into qumixes. In this framework, one can give an abstract definition of the notions of superposition and of entangled pieces of information, quite independently of any numerical values. We investigate three different forms of abstract holistic quantum computational logic.

  5. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  6. Generative Semantics and Dialect Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, James W.

    An extrinsic relationship between generative semantics and dialect geography should be exploited because contemporary transformational grammarians have too easily ignored the work of the dialectologist and have been too readily satisfied with what might be called armchair evidence. The work of the dialect geographers needs to be taken into…

  7. The Scandal of Semantic Platonism.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Vladimír

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2012 - (Maclaurin, J.), s. 191-200 ISBN 978-94-007-3983-3. - (Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. 28) R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : semantic s * Platonism, * constructions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. The Logos of Semantic Structure.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duží, M.; Jespersen, Bjorn; Materna, Pavel

    Heusenstamm : Ontos Verlag, 2010 - (Stalmaszczyk, P.), s. 85-101 ISBN 978-3-86838-070-5 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA401/07/0451 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : semantic structure * logos Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  10. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse its transition function with its driver loop, obtaining the functional implementation of a big-step abstract machine; (2) we adjust this big-step abstract machine so that it is in defunctionalized form, obtaining the functional implementation of a second big-step abstract machine; (3) we refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation of a denotational semantics in continuation style. We then compare this valuation function with that of Clinger's original denotational semantics of Scheme.

  11. Semantics of Programming Languages: A Tool-Oriented Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Heering, Jan; Klint, Paul

    1999-01-01

    By paying more attention to semantics-based tool generation, programming language semantics can significantly increase its impact. Ultimately, this may lead to ``Language Design Assistants'' incorporating substantial amounts of semantic knowledge.

  12. Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation

    OpenAIRE

    Pabitha, P.; Vignesh Nandha Kumar, K. R.; Pandurangan, N.; Vijayakumar, R.; Rajaram, M.

    2011-01-01

    Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced...

  13. Age effects on semantic coherence: Latent semantic analysis applied to letter fluency data

    OpenAIRE

    Marklund, Petter; Sikstro?m, Sverker; Ba?a?th, Ramus

    2009-01-01

    We investigated age-related changes in the semantic distance between successively generated words in two letter fluency tasks differing with respect to demands placed on executive control. The semantic distance was measured by Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). The results show that older people have a larger semantic distance between successively generated items than young people, and that this effect is particularly pronounced in the more demanding fluency task. Taken together, our findings su...

  14. Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Gupta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word“Semantic” refers to “meaning” – a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and resultoriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding informationon the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision oflinking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream,hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines toyield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework thenaïve approach of searching information on the syntactic web is cliché. This paper proposes an optimisedsemantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with aproposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to accessand time saving.

  15. Semantic memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, I; Riesch, G; Sartori, G; Birbaumer, N

    1996-10-01

    The present study investigated semantic memory and the presence of category-specific impairments in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Patients in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) and matched control subjects served as comparison groups. Semantic memory was assessed by a range of verbal and visual tasks and by direct and indirect memory tests. The DAT patients showed severe deficits on all semantic knowledge tasks. Performance was poorer on animate relative to inanimate items, on naming with and without cues, and on semantic knowledge probes, indicating a category-specific knowledge loss on these tasks. Indirect memory tests yielded significantly better preservation of knowledge compared to the traditional semantic memory tasks. Analyses of the nature of the semantic breakdown in DAT suggested combined storage and access deficits and a disturbance of the structural description and phonological output systems. PMID:8941851

  16. A Necessary Condition for Semantic Interoperability in the Large

    OpenAIRE

    Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Aberer, Karl

    2004-01-01

    With new standards like RDF or OWL paving the way for the much anticipated semantic web, a new breed of large scale semantic systems is about to appear. Even if research on semantic reconciliation methods is abundant, it is not clear how interoperable very large scale semantic systems can be. This paper represents a first effort towards analytically analyzing semantic interoperability in the large: By adapting a recent graph-theoretic framework, we examine the dynamics of large scale semantic...

  17. Semantic Web Framework for Development of Very Large Ontologies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergey, Yablonsky.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of the Semantic Web framework for very large ontologies. The Semantic Web is often associated with specific XML-based standards for semantics, such as RDF and OWL. Application of lexical ontologies such as WordNet and others for different tasks on the Semantic W [...] eb requires their representation in RDF and/or OWL formats with possibility of the different ontology mappings, semantic workflows, services and other semantic technologies.

  18. WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Meštrovi?; Sanda Martin?i?-Ipši?; Mirko ?ubrilo

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Proc...

  19. How Does Ontology Contribute in Semantic Web Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates and briefly describes the major currently existing problems with World Wide Web .i.e., Information filtration and Security became the main reasons of semantic web's invention. The semantic web claims of providing the semantic based solutions towards current web problems. Semantic web have introduced and relies on a main building block "Ontology" to provide the information in machine processable semantic models and produce semantically modelled knowled...

  20. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  1. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  2. Ambiguity and Relatedness Effects in Semantic Tasks: Are They Due to Semantic Coding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasushi; Pexman, Penny M.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    According to parallel distributed processing (PDP) models of visual word recognition, the speed of semantic coding is modulated by the nature of the orthographic-to-semantic mappings. Consistent with this idea, an ambiguity disadvantage and a relatedness-of-meaning (ROM) advantage have been reported in some word recognition tasks in which semantic

  3. Semantic Jira - Semantic Expert Finder in the Bug Tracking Tool Jira

    OpenAIRE

    Heyn, Velten; Paschke, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The semantic expert recommender extension for the Jira bug tracking system semantically searches for similar tickets in Jira and recommends experts and links to existing organizational (Wiki) knowledge for each ticket. This helps to avoid redundant work and supports the search and collaboration with experts in the project management and maintenance phase based on semantically enriched tickets in Jira.

  4. Reflect: A practical approach to web semantics

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, Sean I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilis, Evangelos; Haag, Sven; Kuhn, Michael; Satagopam, Venkata P.; Schneider, Reinhard; Jensen, Lars J.

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detai...

  5. RDF Analytics: Lenses over Semantic Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Colazzo, Dario; Goasdoue?, Franc?ois; Manolescu, Ioana; Roatis, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The development of Semantic Web (RDF) brings new requirements for data analytics tools and methods, going beyond querying to semantics-rich analytics through warehouse-style tools. In this work, we fully redesign, from the bottom up, core data analytics concepts and tools in the context of RDF data, leading to the first complete formal framework for warehouse-style RDF analytics. Notably, we define i) analytical schemas tailored to heterogeneous, semantics-rich RDF graph, ii) analytical queri...

  6. Semantic Web Requirements through Web Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Semantic web has become a topic of active research in several fields of computer science and has applied in a wide range of domains such as bioinformatics, life sciences, and knowledge management. The two fast-developing research areas semantic web and web mining can complement each other and their different techniques can be used jointly or separately to solve the issues in both areas. In addition, since shifting from current web to semantic web mainly depe...

  7. Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Significant research activities have recently been directed towards the Semantic Web as a potential future substitute of the current World Wide Web. Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data. An important role in research towards the Semantic Web is played by formalisms and technologies for handling uncertainty and/or vagueness. In this paper, I first provide some motivating examples for handling uncerta...

  8. Streamlining semantic interpretation for medical narratives.

    OpenAIRE

    Romacker, M.; Schulz, S.; Hahn, U.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce two abstraction mechanisms by which the process of semantic interpretation of medical narratives can be simplified and further optimized. One relates to generalized triggering conditions, the other to inheritance-based specifications of semantic rules. The proposed methodology leads to a parsimonious inventory of abstract, simple and domain-independent semantic interpretation schemata whose effectiveness has been evaluated on a medical text corpus.

  9. Composition in distributional models of semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jeffrey John

    2011-01-01

    Distributional models of semantics have proven themselves invaluable both in cognitive modelling of semantic phenomena and also in practical applications. For example, they have been used to model judgments of semantic similarity (McDonald, 2000) and association (Denhire and Lemaire, 2004; Griffiths et al., 2007) and have been shown to achieve human level performance on synonymy tests (Landuaer and Dumais, 1997; Griffiths et al., 2007) such as those included in the Test of Engl...

  10. Semantic Hierarchies for Visual Object Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Marsza?ek, Marcin; Schmid, Cordelia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use lexical semantic networks to extend the state-of-the-art object recognition techniques. We use the semantics of image labels to integrate prior knowledge about inter-class relationships into the visual appearance learning. We show how to build and train a semantic hierarchy of discriminative classifiers and how to use it to perform object detection. We evaluate how our approach influences the classification accuracy and speed on the PASCAL VOC challenge 2006 da...

  11. Social and Semantic Coevolution in Knowledge Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Camille; Cointet, Jean-philippe

    2010-01-01

    Socio-semantic networks involve agents creating and processing information: com- munities of scientists, software developers, wiki contributors and webloggers are, among others, examples of such knowledge networks. We aim at demonstrating that the dynam- ics of these communities can be adequately described as the coevolution of a social and a socio-semantic network. More precisely, we will ?rst introduce a theoretical frame- work based on a social network and a socio-semantic network, ...

  12. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish, Naveen; Industrial Experiences

    2005-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building systems based on Semantic-Web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic-Web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing (IT) endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific inf...

  13. Semantics-based Question Generation and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Xuchen; Johns Hopkins University; Bouma, Gosse; University of Groningen; Zhang, Yi; Saarland University

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a question generation system based on the approach of semantic rewriting. The state-of-the-art deep linguistic parsing and generation tools are employed to convert (back and forth) between the natural language sentences and their meaning representations in the form of Minimal Recursion Semantics (MRS). By carefully operating on the semantic structures, we show a principled way of generating questions without ad-hoc manipulation of the syntactic structures. Based on the ...

  14. Automatic Ontology Matching Using Application Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Avigdor; Modica, Giovanni; Jamil, Hasan; Eyal, Ami

    2005-01-01

    We propose the use of application semantics to enhance the process of semantic reconciliation. Application semantics involves those elements of business reasoning that affect the way concepts are presented to users: their layout, and so on. In particular, we pursue in this article the notion of precedence, in which temporal constraints determine the order in which concepts are presented to the user. Existing matching algorithms use either syntactic means (such as term matching and domain matc...

  15. Proceedings Sixth Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Klin, Bartek; Soboci?ski, Pawe?

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2009, the Sixth Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics held on the 31st of August 2009 in Bologna, Italy as a affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2009, the 20th International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. The workshop is forum for researchers, students and practitioners interested in new dev...

  16. Semantic Interoperation for GeoScience Models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, integrated models involving components from different disciplines have become the developing trend of GeoScience modelling. However, a common lack of semantic representation produces hurdles for model sharing, reusing and interoperation. SOA and Web Service provide a more interoperable architecture for GeoScience Modelling with distributed components, however, is still limited to semantic interoperability. This paper theoretically discussed the motivation of using Semantic We...

  17. Semantic Annotation in the Alvis Project

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarenko, Adeline; Nédellec, Claire; Alphonse, Erick; Aubin, Sophie; Hamon, Thierry; Manine, Alain-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Alvis project aims at developing a distributed semantic search engine for specific domains. The semantic indexing in Alvis relies on semantic annotations of words, terms and named-entities in the documents. Such a precise annotation requires a close integration of linguistic processing steps and the exploitation of relevant linguistic resources, specific to the domain. Such resources are generally not available or insufficient with respect to the application needs in specific domains. Therefo...

  18. Semantic Plagiarism Detection System Using Ontology Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Shenoy K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism detection can play an important role in detecting stealing of original ideas in papers, journals and internet web sites. Checking these manually is simply impossible nowadays due to existence of large digital repository. Ontology is a way of describing documents semantics. Ontology mapping can resolve semantic heterogeneity in documents. Our paper proposes an automatic system for semantic plagiarism detection based on ontology mapping.

  19. Using a Diathesis Model for Semantic Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Atserias, Jordi; Castellon, Irene; Civit, Montse; Rigau, German

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a semantic parsing approach for unrestricted texts. Semantic parsing is one of the major bottlenecks of Natural Language Understanding (NLU) systems and usually requires building expensive resources not easily portable to other domains. Our approach obtains a case-role analysis, in which the semantic roles of the verb are identified. In order to cover all the possible syntactic realisations of a verb, our system combines their argument structure with a se...

  20. A Deep Architecture for Semantic Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Grefenstette, Edward; Blunsom, Phil; de Freitas, Nando; Hermann, Karl Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Many successful approaches to semantic parsing build on top of the syntactic analysis of text, and make use of distributional representations or statistical models to match parses to ontology-specific queries. This paper presents a novel deep learning architecture which provides a semantic parsing system through the union of two neural models of language semantics. It allows for the generation of ontology-specific queries from natural language statements and questions withou...

  1. Qubit semantics and quantum trees

    CERN Document Server

    Chiara, M L D; Leporini, R; Leporati, A

    2002-01-01

    In the qubit semantics the \\emph{meaning} of any sentence $\\alpha$ is represented by a \\emph{quregister}: a unit vector of the $n$--fold tensor product $\\otimes^n \\C^2$, where $n$ depends on the number of occurrences of atomic sentences in $\\alpha$. The logic characterized by this semantics, called {\\it quantum computational logic} (QCL), is {\\it unsharp}, because the non-contradiction principle is violated. We show that QCL does not admit any logical truth. In this framework, any sentence $\\alpha$ gives rise to a \\emph{quantum tree}, consisting of a sequence of unitary operators. The quantum tree of $\\alpha$ can be regarded as a quantum circuit that transforms the quregister associated to the atomic subformulas of $\\alpha$ into the quregster associated to $\\alpha$.

  2. Social Semantic Digital Library: The Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Projes Roy,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of classic and digital libraries into digital libraries is now passe. With evolution of technologies, classic libraries have upgraded themselves and have emerged as library and information centres. This paper discusses the integration of computer technologies with library and information science, and how semantics can be customised for library operations, and what can be the measures for converting routine tasks to semantic tasks. The paper concludes that making social semantic digital library is not at and the only thing required is to reduce the gap between library and Semantic Web communities.

  3. Semantic Clustering Based Relevance Language Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Pu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively generate clusters and use the information in clusters to improve information retrieval performance are still open research questions. By viewing a document as an interaction of a set of independent hidden topics, we propose a novel semantic clustering technique using independent component analysis. Then within language modeling framework, we apply the obtained semantic topic clusters into the estimation process of relevance model. We expect that semantic clustering will filter out those noisy documents so that the estimation of relevance model is only based on relevant documents and some useful semantic information. A semantic cluster is activated to be the most similar to a user’s information need by user’s query, the documents in the activated semantic cluster and the keywords of representing the activated semantic cluster are used for the estimation of relevance model. Therefore, we obtain a semantic cluster based relevance language model that uses pseudo relevance feedback technique without requiring any relevance training information. We applied the model in experiments on five TREC data sets. The experiment results show that our model can significantly improve retrieval performance over previous language models including relevance-based language models. We think that the main contribution of the improved performance comes from the estimation of relevance model on the semantic cluster that is closely related to a user’s information need.

  4. Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Estaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical meanings of the female proverbs connote worse qualities than those connoted by the male proverbs.

  5. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  6. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathi Babu, K.; Komali, A.; Mythry, V.; Ratnam, A. S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

  7. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Jarmasz, Mario; Szpakowicz, Stan

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced b...

  8. Flavour processing in semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Piwnica-Worms, K. E.; Omar, R.; Hailstone, J. C.; Warren, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms for the analysis of flavour information remain poorly understood. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) could potentially provide a window on these mechanisms; however, while abnormal eating behaviour and altered food preferences are common in SD, flavour processing has been little studied in this disorder. Here we undertook a detailed investigation of flavour processing in three patients at different stages of SD. One patient with a clinical syndrome of logopenic apha...

  9. Semantic Web for Program Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Memon, Qurban A.; Shakeel Khoja

    2010-01-01

    Typically, administrative systems involving information in an academic environment are disjoint, spread across various departments and support independent queries. The objectives in this work include investigation on integrating these independent systems to provide support to intelligent queries run on the integrated platform. A framework is proposed that enriches data in the legacy systems to provide a value-added semantic layer where annotation, query and reasoning can be carried out to sup...

  10. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particul...

  11. Enterprise Semantic Modelling for Interoperability

    OpenAIRE

    Boudjlida, Nacer; Panetto, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of annotations is to describe the content of “something” and they may be considered as meta-data. They are used for a while for text books, articles, hypertext documents and so on. We explore their usage in semantic-based and model-based interoperability, with the aim to make explicit the meaning and the structure of given models (artefacts) to enable not only their understanding, but also their exchange (and their possible transformation) between collaborating actors (human or ma...

  12. Order effects in dynamic semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2013-01-01

    In their target article, \\citet{WangBusemeyer13} [A quantum question order model supported by empirical tests of an a priori and precise prediction. \\emph{Topics in Cognitive Science}] discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different varia...

  13. From Distributional to Semantic Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, James Richard

    2004-01-01

    Lexical-semantic resources, including thesauri and WORDNET, have been successfully incorporated into a wide range of applications in Natural Language Processing. However they are very difficult and expensive to create and maintain, and their usefulness has been severely hampered by their limited coverage, bias and inconsistency. Automated and semi-automated methods for developing such resources are therefore crucial for further resource development and improved application perf...

  14. The Semantics of Implicit Content

    OpenAIRE

    Zeman, Dan Cristian

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis is to give a semantic account of implicit content – the kind of content that plays a crucial role in implicit communication. Implicit communication is a species of communication in which a speaker communicates certain contents that go over and above the contents retrievable from the linguistic meaning of the words used. The focus of the thesis is a certain kind of implicit communication involving locations (when sentences such as “It is raining” are used to co...

  15. Semantic Enhancement of Lecture Material

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolay, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Today's lectures are often talks following a straight line of slides. In many lectures the process of content teaching is not as efficient as it could be. Technologies, such as smart-phones and wireless communication, enable a new level of interaction between lecturer, content and audience. We describe how current lecture material can be semantically enhanced, to interactively assist the audience during and after a lecture.

  16. Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business

    OpenAIRE

    Juha Puustjarvi

    2010-01-01

    E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. X...

  17. Semantically Enhanced Software Documentation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Klieber, Werner; Granitzer, Michael; Gaisbauer, Mansuet; Tochtermann, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    High-quality software documentation is a substantial issue for understanding software systems. Shorter time-to-market software cycles increase the importance of automatism for keeping the documentation up to date. In this paper, we describe the automatic support of the software documentation process using semantic technologies. We introduce a software documentation ontology as an underlying knowledge base. The defined ontology is populated automatically by analysing source code, sof...

  18. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-bas...

  19. Integrating dynamic resources in corporate semantic web: an approach to enterprise application integration using semantic web services

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Moussa; Gandon, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing semantic web server architecture used by the ACACIA team to implement corporate memories. We rely on CORESE, a semantic web search engine, to provide web applications based on the semantic web services it can identify. Thus, CORESE is used as a semantic UDDI registry and allows us to automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules and an extensi...

  20. Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Puustjarvi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

  1. Standardization of Selected Semantic Differential Scales with Secondary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. T.

    A basic assumption of this study is that the meaning continuum registered by an adjective pair remains relatively constant over a large universe of concepts and over subjects within a relatively homogeneous population. An attempt was made to validate this assumption by showing the invariance of the factor structure across different types of…

  2. HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ON SEMANTIC WEB :(SEMANTIC HIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khozoie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information technology have changed information media by networking and internet .using technology inhealth as same as another part improve efficieincy and effectivness. currently the medical document isReality-based medicine, so that is the most important ,richest and the most realistic source of medical andhealth information.Health information management systems that require systems to the storage, retrieval,storage and elimination of health records (by law, and adjust to the rules of professional. these processare difficult and time consumig for human. In the meantime semantic HIM seem best solution.KEYWORDS

  3. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl

    2006-01-01

    In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language of trust policies. The operational semantics is given in terms of a composition of I/O automata. We prove that this semantics is faithful to its corresponding denotational semantics, in the sense that any run of the I/O automaton ``converges to'' the denotational semantics of the policies. Furthermore, as I/O automata are a natural model of asynchronous distributed computation, the semantics coincides with an asynchronous algorithm for distributedly computing the trust-state, suitable in the application environment.

  4. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  5. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  6. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  7. Lexical semantics in Ancient Egyptian. An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the volume "Lexical Semantics in Ancient Egyptian". The aim of this volume is to address methodological issues touching upon several domains of Ancient Egyptian lexical semantics that are likely to enhance and enrich future lexicographical studies. The orientation of this volume is primarily lexicological and not lexicographical.

  8. Some Novel Techniques in Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2003-01-01

    Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction to the main ideas of the MSOS framework.

  9. The Semantics of Pluralization in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Marcial

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of examples of abstract and concrete nouns reveals that pluralization in Spanish is a complex phenomenon from the semantic point of view. The number of abstract negative nouns being pluralized far outweighs that of their positive counterparts. Syntactic pluralization of abstracts implies a semantic change, and sometimes the pluralization…

  10. Semantic Representations as Procedures for Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Jack; Micham, Dennis L.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claim that a semantic theory adequate to capture linguistic intuitions must provide semantic representations corresponding to all possible scope relationships and that an active sentence and the corresponding passive will receive different preferred interpretations. (Author/AM)

  11. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  12. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  13. Measuring Individual Emotional Reactions and Semantic Spaces.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Ji?í

    Praha : EFPA/UPA, 2007 - (Polišenská, V.; Šolc, M.; Kotrlová, J.). s. 163 ISBN 978-80-7064-017-3. [European Congress of Psychology /10./. 03.07.2007-06.07.2007, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : semantic proximity * Word Association Test * Semantic Selection Test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  14. Semantic search integration to climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Shrestha, Biva [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present how research projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using Semantic Search capabilities to help scientists perform their research. We will discuss how the Mercury metadata search system, with the help of the semantic search capability, is being used to find, retrieve, and link climate change data. DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2014.6867639

  15. Semantic fields in low-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Katharina; Higgins, Susannah; Fetherston, Anne; Preissler, Melissa Allen; Gordon, Barry

    2002-12-01

    Restricted semantic fields and resultant stimulus overselectivity are often thought to be typical of low-functioning autism, as is a strong visual processing preference. However, these conclusions may in part be an artifact of testing methodology. A 12-year-old, low-functioning and nonverbal autistic boy was tested on an auditory word-to-picture selection task. The picture foils were chosen to have visual features, semantic features, both, or neither in common with the correct answer. Errors were made more often to semantically than to visually related items, and he showed generalization to items that had not been explicitly trained. This is taken as evidence that his semantic fields are broader than otherwise apparent, and that he was capable of expanding his semantic representations independently of specific training. PMID:12553593

  16. Distributional Measures of Semantic Distance: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Saif M

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mimic human notions of semantic distance has widespread applications. Some measures rely only on raw text (distributional measures) and some rely on knowledge sources such as WordNet. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare WordNet-based measures with human judgment, the use of distributional measures as proxies to estimate semantic distance has received little attention. Even though they have traditionally performed poorly when compared to WordNet-based measures, they lay claim to certain uniquely attractive features, such as their applicability in resource-poor languages and their ability to mimic both semantic similarity and semantic relatedness. Therefore, this paper presents a detailed study of distributional measures. Particular attention is paid to flesh out the strengths and limitations of both WordNet-based and distributional measures, and how distributional measures of distance can be brought more in line with human notions of semantic distance. We conclude with a br...

  17. Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Heindel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics (LTS. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS. The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems that is based on the idea of minimal reaction contexts as labels, due to Leifer and Milner. In comparison to previous work on inductive definitions of similarly derived LTSs, the main feature of the proposed axiomatization is a composition rule that captures the communication of sub-systems so that it can feature as a counterpart to the communication rule of CCS.

  18. Role of Ontology in Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Giri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of computers is changing from single isolated devices to entry points into a worldwide network of information exchange. Therefore, support in the exchange of data, information, and knowledge is becoming the key issue in computer technology today. The increasing volume of data available on the Web makes information retrieval a tedious and difficult task. Researchers are now exploring the possibility of creating a semantic Web, in which meaning is made explicit, allowing machines to process and integrate Web resources intelligently. The vision of the semantic Web introduces the next generation of the Web byestablishing a layer of machine-understandable data. The success of the semantic Web crucially depends on the easy creation, integration and use of semantic data, which will depend on building an ontology. This paper states the role of ontology in supporting information exchange process, particulary with semantic web.

  19. Model Design of Semantic Website Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Semantic web is an extension of the current World Wide Web. This paper proposes a new model of constructing semantic website, and takes the construction of semantic website in the field of tourism in Africa as an example, and describes an approach to build the semantic website. It is a common approach and can be applied to the construction of other semantic websites. First, analyze user’s requirements, and then build domain ontology based on them requirements, design interactive interface, and analyze the information entered by user. Then, retrieve and reason the ontology by Jena, and provide the required information and links. The proposed method takes full account of the demand of user’s interaction, facilitates obtaining the required information on the website. The example shows that the proposed model is effective.

  20. Semantically enhanced Uyghur Information Retrieval Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Uyghur search engine lacks semantic information, aiming to solve this problem, a semantically enhanced Uyghur information retrieval model was proposed based on the characteristics of Uyghur language. Firstly word stemming was carried out and web pages were represented by the form of 3-triples to construct the Uyghur knowledge base, then the matching between ontologies and web pages was established by computing concept similarity and relation similarity. Semantic inverted index was built to save the association between semantic entities and web pages, and user query analysis was implemented by expanding the queries and analyzing the relations between the queries, finally by combining the benefits of both keyword-based and semantic-based methods, ranking algorithm was implemented. By comparing with the Google search engine and the Lucene based method, the experiments validate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the model preliminarily.

  1. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  2. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  3. Semantic web revolutionizing knowledge discovery in the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Covers topics ranging from database, ontology, visualization, to semantic web services and workflowsFeatures the intersection of Semantic Web and Life SciencesGives examples/scenarios illustrating different Semantic Web applications in the life science domainDiscusses the limitations and obstacles that need to be overcome for Semantic Web to better meet the current and future needs of life science researchers

  4. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  5. The Function of Semantics in Automated Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacak, Milos; Pratt, Arnold W.

    This paper is a survey of some of the major semantic models that have been developed for automated semantic analysis of natural language. Current approaches to semantic analysis and logical interference are based mainly on models of human cognitive processes such as Quillian's semantic memory, Simmon's Protosynthex III and others. All existing…

  6. Semantics of (Resilient) X10

    OpenAIRE

    Crafa, Silvia; Cunningham, David; Saraswat, Vijay; Shinnar, Avraham; Tardieu, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We present a formal small-step structural operational semantics for a large fragment of X10, unifying past work. The fragment covers multiple places, mutable objects on the heap, sequencing, \\code{try/catch}, \\code{async}, \\code{finish}, and \\code{at} constructs. This model accurately captures the behavior of a large class of concurrent, multi-place X10 programs. Further, we introduce a formal model of resilience in X10. During execution of an X10 program, a place may fail f...

  7. Semantic Approach for Query Explication

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Gupta; Mahesh Verma

    2013-01-01

    The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since ther...

  8. Semantic Integration in the IFF

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE P1600.1 Standard Upper Ontology (SUO) project aims to specify an upper ontology that will provide a structure and a set of general concepts upon which domain ontologies could be constructed. The Information Flow Framework (IFF), which is being developed under the auspices of the SUO Working Group, represents the structural aspect of the SUO. The IFF is based on category theory. Semantic integration of object-level ontologies in the IFF is represented with its fusion construction. The IFF maintains ontologies using powerful composition primitives, which includes the fusion construction.

  9. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  10. Improving the quality and reliability of traffic differentiation in IP networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Pedro; Carvalho, Paulo; Freitas, Vasco

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a modular scheduling architecture for multi-QoS metric differentiation in class-based IP networks. The rationale of the supported differentiation modules is presented, highlighting the distinct differentiation semantics that might be used to control the delay, loss and rate metrics associated with the traffic classes. The devised modules resort to several relative and hybrid differentiation models to bound QoS metrics on high priority classes. In the proposed scheduling...

  11. LONGITUDINAL RATES OF LOBAR ATROPHY IN FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, SEMANTIC DEMENTIA, AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Casey E.; Dean, David L.; Rosen, Howard J.; Halabi, Cathra; Weiner, Michael; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared rates of regional atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and semantic dementia (SD). Cross-sectional studies have shown that different dementia syndromes are associated with different patterns of regional brain tissue loss. Rates of atrophy over time may be useful for differential diagnosis, and could be used to monitor disease progression, serving as an outcome measure for clinical trials. We studied patients with AD (n=12), FTD (n=13), SD (n=...

  12. SCALESEM : Evaluation of Semantic Graph based on Model Checking

    OpenAIRE

    Gueffaz, Mahdi; Rampacek, Sylvain; Nicolle, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Semantic interoperability problems have found their solutions using languages and techniques from the Semantic Web. The proliferation of ontologies and meta-information has improved the understanding of information and the relevance of search engine responses. However, the construction of semantic graphs is a source of numerous errors of interpretation or modelling and scalability remains a major problem. The processing of large semantic graphs is a limit to the use of semantics in current in...

  13. Combining knowledge discovery, ontologies, annotations, and semantic wikis

    OpenAIRE

    Astudillo, Hernan; Codocedo, Victor; Canals, Gérôme; Torres, Diego; Diaz, Alicia; Napoli, Amedeo; Gomes, Alan; Pimentel, Maria-Graça

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Wikis provide an original and operational infrastructure for efficiently combining semantic technologies and collaborative design activities. This text presents: a running example and its context (organization of the collections in a museum); concepts of wikis as a tool to allow computer supported cooperative work (cscw); concepts of semantic technologies and knowledge representation; concepts and examples of semantic wikis; anatomy of a semantic wiki (reasoning tools, storage, query...

  14. Pretty-big-step-semantics-based Certified Abstract Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Bodin, Martin; Jensen, Thomas; Schmitt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    We present a technique for deriving semantic program analyses from a natural semantics specification of the programming language. The technique is based on the pretty-big-step semantics approach applied to a language with simple objects called O'While. We specify a series of instrumentations of the semantics that makes explicit the flows of values in a program. This leads to a semantics-based dependency analysis, at the core, e.g., of tainting analysis in software security. The formalization ...

  15. Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Wang; Jia Jia; Yongxin Wang; Lianhong Cai

    2011-01-01

    Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is fir...

  16. Grammar-Based Random Walkers in Semantic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Marko A.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic networks qualify the meaning of an edge relating any two vertices. Determining which vertices are most "central" in a semantic network is difficult because one relationship type may be deemed subjectively more important than another. For this reason, research into semantic network metrics has focused primarily on context-based rankings (i.e. user prescribed contexts). Moreover, many of the current semantic network metrics rank semantic associations (i.e. directed pa...

  17. Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Sheetal A. Takale; Sushma S. Nandgaonkar

    2010-01-01

    Semantic similarity measures play an important role inthe extraction of semantic relations. Semantic similarity measuresare widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) andInformation Retrieval (IR). The work proposed here uses webbasedmetrics to compute the semantic similarity between words orterms and also compares with the state-of-the-art. For a computerto decide the semantic similarity, it should understand thesemantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it cannot unde...

  18. Generating Exploratory Search Interfaces for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Tvarožek, Michal; Bieliková, Mária

    2010-01-01

    At present, the promise of the Semantic Web has yet to be realized, partly because there are few real-world applications that allow end-users to access, view and process Semantic Web information. We aim to facilitate Semantic Web adoption by providing users with advanced exploratory search capability over Semantic Web data by providing a faceted exploratory search interface for arbitrary Semantic Web repositories. Our approach takes advantage of metadata describing the structure of the respec...

  19. Design of Collection and Semantic Annotation System for Web Images

    OpenAIRE

    Ruojuan Xue; Wenpeng Lu; Jinyong Cheng

    2013-01-01

    In order to satisfy the requirement of educators to automatically construct educational resource database with Web images, the paper designs and implements a collection and semantic annotation system for Web images. With the help of meta-search engine, the system collects Web images and their associated texts. In order to annotate semantic keywords, semantic dictionaries are built. Based on semantic dictionaries, the system annotates semantic keywords for Web images. The system is composed wi...

  20. Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2010-01-01

    Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construc...

  1. Using semantic resources to improve a syntactic dependency parser

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, G

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic syntactic parsing has made rapid progress, but is reaching a performance ceiling. More semantic resources need to be included. We exploit a number of semantic resources to improve parsing accuracy of a dependency parser. We compare semantic lexica on this task, then we extend the back-off chain by punishing underspecified decisions. Further, a simple distributional semantics approach is tested. Selectional restrictions are employed to boost interpretations that are semantically ...

  2. A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Venu Gopalachari, M.; Sammulal, Dr P.

    2013-01-01

    The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provid...

  3. Semantic Web search based on ontological conjunctive queries.

    OpenAIRE

    Fazzinga, B; Gianforme, G; Gottlob, G; T. Lukasiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data, and will possibly consist of (some form of) the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Semantic Web search, called Serene, which allows for a semantic processing of Web search queries, and for evaluating complex Web search queries that involve reasoning over the Web. More specifically, we first add ontological structure and semantics to Web ...

  4. Semantically aided interpretation and querying of Jefferson Project data using the SemantEco framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; Pinheiro, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We will describe the benefits we realized using semantic technologies to address the often challenging and resource intensive task of ontology alignment in service of data integration. Ontology alignment became relatively simple as we reused our existing semantic data integration framework, SemantEco. We work in the context of the Jefferson Project (JP), an effort to monitor and predict the health of Lake George in NY by deploying a large-scale sensor network in the lake, and analyzing the high-resolution sensor data. SemantEco is an open-source framework for building semantically-aware applications to assist users, particularly non-experts, in exploration and interpretation of integrated scientific data. SemantEco applications are composed of a set of modules that incorporate new datasets, extend the semantic capabilities of the system to integrate and reason about data, and provide facets for extending or controlling semantic queries. Whereas earlier SemantEco work focused on integration of water, air, and species data from government sources, we focus on redeploying it to provide a provenance-aware, semantic query and interpretation interface for JP's sensor data. By employing a minor alignment between SemantEco's ontology and the Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology used to model the JP's sensor deployments, we were able to bring SemantEco's capabilities to bear on the JP sensor data and metadata. This alignment enabled SemantEco to perform the following tasks: (1) select JP datasets related to water quality; (2) understand how the JP's notion of water quality relates to water quality concepts in previous work; and (3) reuse existing SemantEco interactive data facets, e.g. maps and time series visualizations, and modules, e.g. the regulation module that interprets water quality data through the lens of various federal and state regulations. Semantic technologies, both as the engine driving SemantEco and the means of modeling the JP data, enabled us to rapidly align the two ontologies without needing the projects to change models and allowed us to adopt the existing software development effort invested in SemantEco as a portal for exploring Lake George's water quality data. We plan to extend the registration of modules and facets to handle climate data, hydrology data, and food web data.

  5. Learning Analogies and Semantic Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Turney, P D; Turney, Peter D.; Littman, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We present an algorithm for learning from unlabeled text, based on the Vector Space Model (VSM) of information retrieval, that can solve verbal analogy questions of the kind found in the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A verbal analogy has the form A:B::C:D, meaning "A is to B as C is to D"; for example, mason:stone::carpenter:wood. SAT analogy questions provide a word pair, A:B, and the problem is to select the most analogous word pair, C:D, from a set of five choices. The VSM algorithm correctly answers 47% of a collection of 374 college-level analogy questions (random guessing would yield 20% correct). We motivate this research by relating it to work in cognitive science and linguistics, and by applying it to a difficult problem in natural language processing, determining semantic relations in noun-modifier pairs. The problem is to classify a noun-modifier pair, such as "laser printer", according to the semantic relation between the noun (printer) and the modifier (laser). We use a supervised nearest-neigh...

  6. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; MØrup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures, which we suggest might function as cognitive components for perceiving the underlying structure in lyrics.

  7. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Sudeepthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are playing a crucial role in enhancing traditional web search, as it is working to create machine readable data. but it will not replace traditional search engine. In this paper we made a brief survey on various promising features of some of the best semantic search engines developed so far and we have discussed the various approaches to semantic search. We have summarized the techniques, advantages of some important semantic web search engines that are developed so far.The most prominent part is that how the semantic search engines differ from the traditional searches and their results are shown by giving a sample query as input

  8. Uncovering the architecture of action semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2014-10-01

    Despite research suggesting that stored sensorimotor information about tool use is a component of the semantic representations of tools, little is known about the action features or organizing principles that underlie this knowledge. We used methods similar to those applied in other semantic domains to examine the "architecture" of action semantic knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants sorted photographs of tools into groups according to the similarity of their associated "use" actions and rated tools on dimensions related to action. The results suggest that the magnitude of arm movement, configuration of the hand, and manner of motion during tool use play a role in determining how tools cluster in action "semantic space." In Experiment 2, we validated the architecture uncovered in Experiment 1 using an implicit semantic task for which tool use knowledge was not ostensibly relevant (blocked cyclic word-picture matching). Using stimuli from Experiment 1, we found that participants performed more poorly during blocks of trials containing tools used with similar versus unrelated actions, and the amount of semantic interference depended on the magnitude of action similarity among tools. Thus, the degree of featural overlap between tool use actions plays a role in determining the overall semantic similarity of tools. PMID:25045905

  9. Semantic Conflicts Reconciliation as a Viable Solution for Semantic Heterogeneity Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa S. Ismail

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Achieving semantic interoperability is a current challenge in the field of data integration in order to bridge semantic conflicts occurring when the participating sources and receivers use different or implicit data assumptions. Providing a framework that automatically detects and resolves semantic conflicts is considered as a daunting task for many reasons, it should preserve the local autonomy of the integrated sources, as well as provides a standard query language for accessing the integrated data on a global basis. Many existing traditional and ontology-based approaches have tried to achieve semantic interoperability, but they have certain drawbacks that make them inappropriate for integrating data from a large number of participating sources. We propose semantic conflicts reconciliation (SCR framework, it is ontology-based system in which all data semantics explicitly described in the knowledge representation phase and automatically taken into account through the interpretation mediation service phase, so conflicts detected and resolved automatically at the query time

  10. Integrating Semantic Analysis into Syntactic Parsing: Combining Categorial Grammar and Frame Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, syntacticians and semanticists have been seeking a way to integrate semantic analysis into syntactic parsing, or inverse; because they have realized that understanding cannot be fully explained simply with syntax or semantics. Categorial Grammarians devoted a lot to extend the expressiveness of CG, but they missed a point what behinds the scene is meanings rather than grammar rules. Frame Semantics invented a very good formal representation of meanings; however it lacks an apparatus of syntactic operation like the one of CG. So, in this paper, we integrated them together, so as they could complement each other. This theoretical model can explain why some grammatical sentences are unacceptable in semantics. Besides, we introduced our Parsing System built on this theoretical model, which well supports our argument that if a semantic category is allowed by the frame, then the sentence is acceptable in semantics.  

  11. The Semantic eScience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF

  12. Semantic Integration Workshop at the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, AnHai; Halevy, Alon Y.; Noy, Natalya F.

    2004-01-01

    In numerous distributed environments, including today's World Wide Web, enterprise data management systems, large science projects, and the emerging semantic web, applications will inevitably use the information described by multiple ontologies and schemas. We organized the Workshop on Semantic Integration at the Second International Semantic Web Conference to bring together different communities working on the issues of enabling integration among different resources. The workshop generated a...

  13. List Context Fosters Semantic Processing: Parallels Between Semantic and Morphological Facilitation When Primes Are Forward Masked

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Basnight-brown, Dana M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined patterns of facilitation under forward-masked priming conditions across 3 list contexts (Experiments 1–3) that varied with respect to properties of filler trials—(a) mixed (morphological, orthographic, semantic), (b) identity, and (c) semantic—but held the relatedness proportion constant (75%). Facilitation for targets that were related morphologically to their prime occurred regardless of filler context, but facilitation for semantically related pairs occurred only...

  14. Theory of mind impairments in patients with semantic dementia. : ToM in semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, Ce?line; Bejanin, Alexandre; Piolino, Pascale; Laisney, Mickael; La Sayette, Vincent; Belliard, Serge; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Be?atrice

    2012-01-01

    Semantic dementia is characterized by semantic deficits and behavioural abnormalities that occur in the wake of bilateral inferolateral and predominantly left-sided anterior temporal lobe atrophy. The temporal poles have been shown to be involved in theory of mind, namely the ability to ascribe cognitive and affective mental states to others that regulates social interactions by predicting and interpreting human behaviour. However, very few studies have examined theory of mind in semantic dem...

  15. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  16. The lexical semantics of derived statives

    OpenAIRE

    Koontz-garboden, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the semantics of derived statives, deverbal adjectives that fail to entail there to have been a preceding (temporal) event of the kind named by the verb they are derived from, e.g. darkened in a darkened portion of skin. Building on Gawron’s (The lexical semantics of extent verbs, San Diego State University, ms, 2009) recent observations regarding the semantics of extent uses of change of state verbs (e.g., Kim’s skin darkens between the knee an...

  17. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  18. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    G.Sudeepthi; G. Anuradha; M.Surendra Prasad Babu

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are pla...

  19. Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

  20. Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,; Prof. Durgesh Pant,; Prof. Kunwar Singh Vaisla

    2011-01-01

    OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

  1. Mixing and blending syntactic and semantic dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Yvonne; Täckström, Oscar; Velupillai, Sumithra; Eklund, Johan; Fišel, Mark; Saers, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Our system for the CoNLL 2008 shared task uses a set of individual parsers, a set of stand-alone semantic role labellers, and a joint system for parsing and semantic role labelling, all blended together. The system achieved a macro averaged labelled F1- score of 79.79 (WSJ 80.92, Brown 70.49) for the overall task. The labelled attachment score for syntactic dependencies was 86.63 (WSJ 87.36, Brown 80.77) and the labelled F1-score for semantic dependencies was ...

  2. Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, S

    2009-01-01

    Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

  3. Change management for semantic web services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2011-01-01

    Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

  4. Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pabitha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced to provide accurate results.

  5. Blood differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...

  6. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Comesaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

  7. Next Generation Semantic Web and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyarashmi Panigrahi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, computers are changing from single, isolated devices into entry points to a worldwide network of information exchange and business transactions called the World Wide Web (WWW. However, the success of the WWW has made it increasingly difficult to find, access, present and maintain the information required by a wide variety of users. In response to this problem, many new research initiatives and commercial enterprises have been set up to enrich the available information with machine-process able semantics. This Semantic Web will provide intelligent access to heterogeneous, distributed information, enabling software products (agents to mediate between user needs and the information sources available. In this paper we describe some areas for application of this new technology. We focus on on-going work in the fields of knowledge management and electronic commerce. We also take a perspective on the semantic web-enabled web services which will help to bring the semantic web to its full potential.

  8. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  9. SEMANTIC GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR TAGBASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Durao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag basedrecommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases.Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevantrecommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show acomprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The studybesides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentageof the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much asit does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with suchnumber of expansions, the recommendations change considerably

  10. Software analysis in the semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joshua; Hall, Robert T.

    2013-05-01

    Many approaches in software analysis, particularly dynamic malware analyis, benefit greatly from the use of linked data and other Semantic Web technology. In this paper, we describe AIS, Inc.'s Semantic Extractor (SemEx) component from the Malware Analysis and Attribution through Genetic Information (MAAGI) effort, funded under DARPA's Cyber Genome program. The SemEx generates OWL-based semantic models of high and low level behaviors in malware samples from system call traces generated by AIS's introspective hypervisor, IntroVirtTM. Within MAAGI, these semantic models were used by modules that cluster malware samples by functionality, and construct "genealogical" malware lineages. Herein, we describe the design, implementation, and use of the SemEx, as well as the C2DB, an OWL ontology used for representing software behavior and cyber-environments.

  11. Semantic information influences race categorization from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that low-level visual features affect person categorization in a bottom-up fashion. Few studies have examined top-down influences, however, and have largely focused on how information recalled from memory or from motivation influences categorization. Here, we investigated how race categorizations are affected by the context in which targets are perceived by manipulating semantic information associated with the faces being categorized. We found that presenting faces that systematically varied in racial ambiguity with race-congruent (vs. incongruent) semantic labels shifted the threshold at which perceivers distinguished between racial groups. The semantic information offered by the labels therefore appeared to influence the categorization of race. These findings suggest that semantic information creates a context for the interpretation of perceptual cues during social categorization, highlighting an active role of top-down information in race perception. PMID:25810414

  12. Fuzzy knowledge management for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zongmin; Yan, Li; Cheng, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    This book goes to great depth concerning the fast growing topic of technologies and approaches of fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web. The topics of this book include fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontologies, queries of fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontology knowledge bases, extraction of fuzzy description logics and ontologies from fuzzy data models, storage of fuzzy ontology knowledge bases in fuzzy databases, fuzzy Semantic Web ontology mapping, and fuzzy rules and their interchange in the Semantic Web. The book aims to provide a single record of current research in the fuzzy knowledge representation and reasoning for the Semantic Web. The objective of the book is to provide the state of the art information to researchers, practitioners and graduate students of the Web intelligence and at the same time serve the knowledge and data engineering professional faced with non-traditional applications that make the application of conventional approaches difficult or impossible.

  13. Distributional Measures as Proxies for Semantic Relatedness

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Saif M

    2012-01-01

    The automatic ranking of word pairs as per their semantic relatedness and ability to mimic human notions of semantic relatedness has widespread applications. Measures that rely on raw data (distributional measures) and those that use knowledge-rich ontologies both exist. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare ontological measures with human judgment, the distributional measures have primarily been evaluated by indirect means. This paper is a detailed study of some of the major distributional measures; it lists their respective merits and limitations. New measures that overcome these drawbacks, that are more in line with the human notions of semantic relatedness, are suggested. The paper concludes with an exhaustive comparison of the distributional and ontology-based measures. Along the way, significant research problems are identified. Work on these problems may lead to a better understanding of how semantic relatedness is to be measured.

  14. A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting logic written using techniques that support the modular development of the specification in the precise sense that every module extension is conservative. We show that the MRS of CML can be used to interpret CML programs using the rewrite engine of the Maude system, a high-performance implementation of rewriting logic, and to verify CML programs using Maude's built-in LTL model checker. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic concepts of structural operational semantics and algebraic specifications.

  15. Quantitative Approaches to Semantic Knowledge Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Peter W.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces this special issue which describes several approaches to semantic knowledge representations. Discusses the various quantitative procedures employed in the articles, noting that they can also serve as theoretical approaches to knowledge representation. (SR)

  16. The SKUA Project and the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N.; Linde, T.; Andrews, K.

    2009-09-01

    The Semantic Web promises much for software developers, but because its claimed benefits are rather abstract, there is little obvious incentive to master its unfamiliar technology. In contrast, many `Social Web' applications seem rather trivial, and not obviously useful for astronomy. The SKUA project (Semantic Knowledge Underpinning Astronomy) is implementing a service which will realise the benefits of both these web technologies. This RESTful web service gives application authors ready access to simple persistence, simple (social) sharing, and lightweight semantics, at a low software-engineering cost. The SKUA service allows applications to persist assertions (such as bookmarks and ratings), and share them between users. On top of this, it provides lightweight, astronomy-specific semantics to enhance the usefulness and retrieval of the users' data. We will demonstrate the service, and astronomical applications using it.

  17. Semantic Grounding Strategies for Tagbased Recommender Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Durao, Frederico

    2011-01-01

    Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag based recommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases. Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevant recommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show a comprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The study besides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentage of the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much as it does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with such number of expansions, the recommendations change considerably.

  18. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the ?-calculus with explicit substitution.

  19. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-based MT. We see our approach as closely aligned with knowledge-based MT approaches (KBMT), and as a separate component that could be incorporated into existing systems. Examples and experimental results will show that, using this scheme, inexact matches can achieve correct lexical selection.

  20. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

    2012-01-01

    We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

  1. Semantic Aspect Retrieval for Encyclopedia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chao, Han; Yicheng, Liu; Yu, Hao; Xiaoyan, Zhu.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Web 2.0, more and more people contribute their knowledge to the Internet. Many general and domain-specific online encyclopedia resources become available, and they are valuable for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, such as summarization and question-answeri [...] ng. We propose a novel encyclopedia-specific method to retrieve passages which are semantically related to a short query (usually comprises of only one word/phrase) from a given article in the encyclopedia. The method captures the expression word features and categorical word features in the surrounding snippets of the aspect words by setting up massive hybrid language models. These local models outperform the global models such as LSA and ESA in our task.

  2. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  3. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mou?ek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  4. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mou?ek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  5. On social semantics in information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Waltinger, Ulli

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we analyze the performance of social semantics in textual information retrieval. By means of collaboratively constructed knowledge derived from web-based social networks, inducing both common-sense and domain-specific knowledge as constructed by a multitude of users, we will establish an improvement in performance of selected tasks within different areas of information retrieval. This work connects the concepts and the methods of social networks and the semantic web to support ...

  6. Semantic Part Segmentation with Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tsogkas, S.; Kokkinos, I.; Papandreou, G.; Vedaldi, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we address the task of segmenting an object into its parts, or semantic part segmentation. We start by adapting a state-of-the-art semantic segmentation system to this task, and show that a combination of a fully-convolutional Deep CNN system coupled with Dense CRF labelling provides excellent results for a broad range of object categories. Still, this approach remains agnostic to high-level constraints between object parts. We introduce such prior information b...

  7. Modality and the semantics-pragmatics interface

    OpenAIRE

    Papafragou, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis explores certain aspects of the structure of lexical semantics and its interaction with pragmatic processes of utterance comprehension, using as a case-study a sample of the English modal verbs. Contrary to previous polysemy-based accounts, I propose and defend a unitary semantic account of the English modals, and I give a relevance-theoretic explanation of the construction of their admissible (mainly, root and epistemic) contextual interpretations. Departing from p...

  8. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ksystra, Katerina; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

    2011-01-01

    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Soci...

  9. Semantic web services for web databases

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzzani, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web Services for Web Databases introduces an end-to-end framework for querying Web databases using novel Web service querying techniques. This includes a detailed framework for the query infrastructure for Web databases and services. Case studies are covered in the last section of this book. Semantic Web Services For Web Databases is designed for practitioners and researchers focused on service-oriented computing and Web databases.

  10. Distributional Measures as Proxies for Semantic Relatedness

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Saif M.; Hirst, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    The automatic ranking of word pairs as per their semantic relatedness and ability to mimic human notions of semantic relatedness has widespread applications. Measures that rely on raw data (distributional measures) and those that use knowledge-rich ontologies both exist. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare ontological measures with human judgment, the distributional measures have primarily been evaluated by indirect means. This paper is a detailed study...

  11. An Electrophysiological Investigation of Indirect Semantic Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Kreher, Donna A.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2006-01-01

    In two experiments, direct and indirect semantic priming were measured using event-related potentials. In Experiment 1, participants rated the relatedness between prime and target on a seven-point scale. In Experiment 2, participants simply read the primes and targets as they monitored for a semantic category in probe filler items. Significant direct and indirect N400 priming effects were observed in both experiments. In Experiment 1, the indirect N400 priming effect remained significant when...

  12. Distributional Measures of Semantic Distance: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Saif M.; Hirst, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mimic human notions of semantic distance has widespread applications. Some measures rely only on raw text (distributional measures) and some rely on knowledge sources such as WordNet. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare WordNet-based measures with human judgment, the use of distributional measures as proxies to estimate semantic distance has received little attention. Even though they have traditionally performed poorly when compared to W...

  13. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic r...

  14. Semantic Graph for Zero-Shot Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zhen-yong; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2014-01-01

    Zero-shot learning aims to classify visual objects without any training data via knowledge transfer between seen and unseen classes. This is typically achieved by exploring a semantic embedding space where the seen and unseen classes can be related. Previous works differ in what embedding space is used and how different classes and a test image can be related. In this paper, we utilize the annotation-free semantic word space for the former and focus on solving the latter iss...

  15. Semantic technologies for distributed information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In this book we show how semantic technologies ? and in particular the use of ontologies ? can be employed to address a number of typical challenges in distributed information systems: First, we illustrate how ontologies enable the integration of information across heterogeneous nodes. Second, we show how ontology evolution allows dealing with the dynamics in the information in a consistent manner. Third, we present a model for ontologybased coordination using semantic overlay networks.

  16. Semantic place recognition for context aware services

    OpenAIRE

    Ivannikova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Extracting the meaning of the most significant places, which are frequently visited by a mobile user, is a relevant problem in mobile computing. Predicting semantic meaning of such places is useful in many areas. The problem of place semantic annotation of a user location can be challenging for service providers. Awareness of user activities is very important for development of personalized applications, which can be used in health care systems, living systems, etc. Predicting location of mob...

  17. From semantic networks to dictionary structures

    OpenAIRE

    Koutny, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how thoughts become words, and to what degree semantic relationships between words can be captured in dictionaries. It analyses differences in the segmentation of the world by words, realisations of notions in parts of speech, and the lin- guistic appearance of event factors on the basis of five ethnic languages (Hungarian, Polish, English, French and German) as well as the planned language Esperanto. Semantic compo- sitionality as reflected in word derivation and form...

  18. Mapping Semantic Networks to Undirected Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Marko A.

    2008-01-01

    There exists an injective, information-preserving function that maps a semantic network (i.e a directed labeled network) to a directed network (i.e. a directed unlabeled network). The edge label in the semantic network is represented as a topological feature of the directed network. Also, there exists an injective function that maps a directed network to an undirected network (i.e. an undirected unlabeled network). The edge directionality in the directed network is represent...

  19. Associating Semantics to Multilingual Tags in Folksonomies

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a-silva, A.; Corcho, O?scar; Gracia Del Ri?o, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Tagging systems are nowadays a common feature in web sites where user-generated content plays an important role. However, the lack of semantics and multilinguality hamper information retrieval process based on folksonomies. In this paper we propose an approach to bring semantics to multilingual folksonomies. This approach includes a sense disambiguation activity and takes advantage from knowledge generated by the masses in the form of articles, redirection and disambiguation links, and transl...

  20. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiorgioGanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection”, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  1. Semantics of probabilistic processes an operational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the semantic foundations of concurrent systems with nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. Particular attention is given to clarifying the relationship between testing and simulation semantics and characterising bisimulations from metric, logical, and algorithmic perspectives. Besides presenting recent research outcomes in probabilistic concurrency theory, the book exemplifies the use of many mathematical techniques to solve problems in computer science, which is intended to be accessible to postgraduate students in Computer Science and Mathematics. It can also be us

  2. A Semantic Approach for Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Shaban

    2009-01-01

    Conventional document mining systems mainly use the presence or absence of keywords to mine texts. However, simple word counting and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. In this paper, the application of a semantic understanding-based approach to mine documents is presented. The approach is based on semantic notions to represent text, and to measure similarity between text documents. T...

  3. Business Process Retrieval Based on Behavioral Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Martinez, Cristhian Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for retrieving business processes considering search requirements based on behavioral semantics properties; it presents a framework called "BeMantics" for retrieving business processes based on structural, linguistics, and behavioral semantics properties. The relevance of the framework is evaluated retrieving business processes from a repository, and collecting a set of relevant business processes manually issued by human judges. The "BeMantics" framework score...

  4. Estonian Middle Semantics with Evidence from Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Virve-Anneli Vihman

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents arguments for recognizing a middle voice in Estonian. The claim that the semantics of middle-marked verbs differs in a substantial way from the semantics of other intransitive constructions leads to the examination of the discourse pragmatics of these constructions, and the relationship between discourse patterns and their valency and argument properties. Various topicality measures show that the argument participant in middle clauses lies between that of the sole particip...

  5. Model Mapping Approach Based on Ontology Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Jinkui Hou; Yuyan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The mapping relations between different models are the foundation for model transformation in model-driven software development. On the basis of ontology semantics, model mappings between different levels are classified by using structural semantics of modeling languages. The general definition process for mapping relations is explored, and the principles of structure mapping are proposed subsequently. The approach is further illustrated by the mapping relations from class model of object ori...

  6. Executable Structural Operational Semantics in Maude

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo López, José Alberto; Martí Oliet, Narciso

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes in detail how to bridge the gap between theory and practice when implementing in Maude structural operational semantics described in rewriting logic, where transitions become rewrites and inference rules become conditional rewrite rules with rewrites in the conditions, as made possible by the new features in Maude 2.0. We validate this technique using it in several case studies: a functional language Fpl (evaluation and computation semantics, including an a...

  7. Recovery geospatial objects using semantic similarity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neili Machado-García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology based on the semantic processing of geographic objects for the classification of soils according to the New Version of Genetic Classification of soils of Cuba. The method consists of five stages: conceptualization, synthesis, queries processing, retrieval and management. The result is a system of geospatial information management applying semantic similarity measure of Resnik. As a case study considering the region of San Jose de las Lajas located in the province of Mayabeque.

  8. Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2012-01-01

    Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search...

  9. Crips, fuzzy, and probabilistic faceted semantic search

    OpenAIRE

    Holi, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents contributions to the development of the faceted semantic search (FSS) paradigm. First, two fundamental solutions to FSS, which have been widely used since their development are presented. The first is the projection of search facets from annotation ontologies using logical rules. The second is the logic rule-based generation of recommendation links for search items based on the semantic relations of these items. After presenting these solutions, the rest of the...

  10. Measuring Semantic Similarity by Latent Relational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces Latent Relational Analysis (LRA), a method for measuring semantic similarity. LRA measures similarity in the semantic relations between two pairs of words. When two pairs have a high degree of relational similarity, they are analogous. For example, the pair cat:meow is analogous to the pair dog:bark. There is evidence from cognitive science that relational similarity is fundamental to many cognitive and linguistic tasks (e.g., analogical reasoning). In ...

  11. Semantic Segmentation with Same Topic Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Mao; Mei Xie

    2013-01-01

    A popular approach to semantic segmentation problems is to construct a pair wise Conditional Markov Random Field (CRF) over image pixels where the pair wise term encodes a preference for smoothness within pixel neighborhoods. Recently, researchers have considered higher-order models that encode local region or soft non-local constraints (e.g., label consistency or co-occurrence statistics). These new models with higher-order terms have significantly pushed the state-of-the-art for semantic se...

  12. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    OpenAIRE

    My Abdellah Kassimi; Omar El beqqali

    2012-01-01

    The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of ...

  13. Behavior Analysis of Semantic Data Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chirag Sharma,; Sandeep Kaur,

    2012-01-01

    There are many traditional models of databasepresent now a days in the form of Hierarchical model, NetworkModel, Relational model. Since they offer many advantages interms of data integrity, data storage and retrieval but there is abig disadvantage as compared to latest introduced databasemodels i.e semantic models such as Sembase, SAM, RM/T. Ourpaper presents many disadvantages of Conventional orTraditional Database Models as compared to Semantic modelsand try to find the efficient solution ...

  14. Evaluating word semantic properties using Sketch Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykova, Velislava; Simkova, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes approach to use statistically-based tools incorporated into Sketch Engine system for electronic text corpora processing to mining big textual data for search and extract word semantic properties. It presents and compares series of word search experiments using different statistical approaches and evaluates results for Bulgarian language EUROPARL 7 Corpus search to extract word semantic properties. Finally, the methodology is extended for multilingual application using Slovak language EUROPARL 7 Corpus.

  15. Semantic Malware Detection by Deploying Graph Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Karbalaie; Ashkan Sami; Mansour Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Today malware is a serious threat to our society. Several researchers are studying detection and mitigation of malware threats. On the other hand malware authors try to use obfuscation techniques for evading detection. Unfortunately usual approach (e.g., antivirus software) use signature based method which can easily be evaded. For addressing these shortcomings dynamic methods have been introduced. The aim of dynamic methods is to detect the semantic of malware family. Obfuscation of semantic...

  16. APPLICATION BASED SEMANTIC WEB MINING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Mahindra Pratap Singh Dohare

    2011-01-01

    The Web is a huge read-write information space where many items such as documents, images or other multimedia can be accessed. In this context, several information technologies have been developed to help users to satisfy their searching needs on the Web, and the most used are search engines. Search engines allow users to find Web resources formulating queries (a set of terms) and reviewing a list of answers. The Semantic Web improves the Web infrastructure with formal semantics and interlink...

  17. Synonyms Provide Semantic Preview Benefit in English

    OpenAIRE

    Schotter, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    While orthographic and phonological preview benefits in reading are uncontroversial (see Schotter, Angele, & Rayner, 2012 for a review), researchers have debated the existence of semantic preview benefit with positive evidence in Chinese and German, but no support in English. Two experiments, using the gazecontingent boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), show that semantic preview benefit can be observed in English when the preview and target are synonyms (share the same or highly similar meaning...

  18. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara H Partee

    2010-01-01

    Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural langu...

  19. Semantic Solutions to Program Analysis Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Problems in program analysis can be solved by developing novel program semantics and deriving abstractions conventionally. For over thirty years, higher-order program analysis has been sold as a hard problem. Its solutions have required ingenuity and complex models of approximation. We claim that this difficulty is due to premature focus on abstraction and propose a new approach that emphasizes semantics. Its simplicity enables new analyses that are beyond the current state of the art.

  20. Personalization of tourist application using semantic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The main research question this thesis tried to answer was: Using semantic technologies and information collected from a user's social network profile, is it possible to generate a reliable model of that user's interests?" Some research has been done using semantic technologies to create user models, and social networks have been used to collect information about the user's interests in order to apply that information to recommender systems. This project however ...

  1. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  2. Semantic fluency: cognitive basis and diagnostic performance in focal dementias and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Cherubini, Paolo; Baldinelli, Sara; Luzzi, Simona

    2014-05-01

    Semantic fluency is widely used both as a clinical test and as a basic tool for understanding how humans extract information from the semantic store. Recently, major efforts have been made to devise fine-grained scoring procedures to measure the multiple cognitive processes underlying fluency performance. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how many and which independent components are necessary to thoroughly describe performance on the fluency task. Furthermore, whether a combination of multiple indices can improve the diagnostic performance of the test should be assessed. In this study, we extracted multiple indices of performance on the semantic fluency test from a large sample of healthy controls (n = 307) and patients (n = 145) suffering from three types of focal dementia or Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that five independent components underlie semantic fluency performance. We argue that these components functionally map onto the generation and application of a search strategy (component 2), to the monitoring of the overall sequence to avoid repetitions (component 3) and out-of-category items (component 4), and to the full integrity of the semantic store (component 5). The integrated and effective work of all these components would relate to a "general effectiveness" component (component 1). Importantly, while all the focal dementia groups were equally impaired on general effectiveness measures, they showed differential patterns of failure in the other components. This finding suggests that the cognitive deficit that impairs fluency differs among the three focal dementia groups: a semantic store deficit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA), a strategy deficit in the non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfv-PPA), and an initiation deficit in the behavioural variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD). Finally, we showed that the concurrent use of multiple fluency indices improves the diagnostic accuracy of semantic fluency both for focal dementias and for AD. More generally, our study suggests that a formal evaluation of fine-grained patterns of performance would improve the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests. PMID:24681692

  3. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  4. Adaptive Semantic Middleware for Mobile Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Corradi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Context-awareness is considered a key driving principle for the design and provisioning of adaptable pervasive services. Rightfully describing and interpreting context, however, is a challenging issue. Semantic technologies are emerging as effective means to describe and reason about context information and to allow unknown entities to have a common understanding of context. However, the exploitation of semantic technologies for the design/deployment of context-aware applications in pervasive environments replete with heterogeneous devices requires to address several issues. In particular, a crucial aspect is how to support semantic based service provisioning to mobile devices with limited capabilities. Novel solutions are required to transparently and dynamically adapt semantic-based service provisioning to the properties of different access devices. The paper proposes a middleware-level solution approach that exploits the visibility of two kinds of metadata (profiles and policies to support the configurability of the semantic support functionalities depending on user/device properties, and that offers a wide set of mechanisms for making viable semantic based service provisioning even to resource-constrained portable devices.

  5. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content providers can access Reflect programmatically using SOAP, REST (HTTP post), and JavaScript. Usage of Reflect has grown rapidly within the life sciences, and while currently only genes, protein and small molecule names are tagged, we plan to soon expand the scope to include a much broader range of terms (e.g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, ‘semantics is in the eye of the end-user’, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic web technologies.

  6. Dynamic Metadata Management in Semantic File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The progression in data capacity and difficulty inflicts great challenges for file systems. To address these contests, an inventive namespace management scheme is in distracted need to deliver both the ease and competence of data access. For scalability, each server makes only local, autonomous decisions about relocation for load balancing. Associative access is provided by a traditional extension to present tree-structured file system conventions, and by protocols that are intended specifically for content based access.Rapid attributebased accesstofile system contents is fulfilled by instinctive extraction and indexing of key properties of file system objects. The programmed indexing of files and calendars is called “semantic” because user programmable transducers use data about the semantics of efficient file system objects to extract the properties for indexing. Tentative results from a semantic file system execution support the thesis that semantic file systems present a more active storage abstraction than do traditional tree planned file systems for data sharing and command level programming. Semantic file system is executed as a middleware in predictable file systems and works orthogonally with categorized directory trees. The semantic relationships and file groups recognized in file systems can also be used to facilitate file prefetching among other system-level optimizations. Allencompassing trace-driven experiments on our sample implementation validate the efficiency and competence.

  7. Stochastic Process Semantics for Dynamical Grammar Syntax: An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Mjolsness, E

    2005-01-01

    We define a class of probabilistic models in terms of an operator algebra of stochastic processes, and a representation for this class in terms of stochastic parameterized grammars. A syntactic specification of a grammar is mapped to semantics given in terms of a ring of operators, so that grammatical composition corresponds to operator addition or multiplication. The operators are generators for the time-evolution of stochastic processes. Within this modeling framework one can express data clustering models, logic programs, ordinary and stochastic differential equations, graph grammars, and stochastic chemical reaction kinetics. This mathematical formulation connects these apparently distant fields to one another and to mathematical methods from quantum field theory and operator algebra.

  8. How Does Ontology Contribute in Semantic Web Development?

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates and briefly describes the major currently existing problems with World Wide Web .i.e., Information filtration and Security became the main reasons of semantic web's invention. The semantic web claims of providing the semantic based solutions towards current web problems. Semantic web have introduced and relies on a main building block "Ontology" to provide the information in machine processable semantic models and produce semantically modelled knowledge representation systems. This paper also describes the role, construction process and the contributions of ontology in providing some in time proposed and implemented solutions. Furthermore paper concludes with the currently existing limitations in Ontology and the areas which need improvements.

  9. A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VENU GOPALACHARI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in the research on semantic web and knowledge processing and presents some recent research initiatives.

  10. List Context Fosters Semantic Processing: Parallels between Semantic and Morphological Facilitation when Primes Are Forward Masked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Laurie Beth; Basnight-Brown, Dana M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined patterns of facilitation under forward-masked priming conditions across 3 list contexts (Experiments 1-3) that varied with respect to properties of filler trials--(a) mixed (morphological, orthographic, semantic), (b) identity, and (c) semantic--but held the relatedness proportion constant (75%). Facilitation for targets that…

  11. From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Thomas C.; Hildebrand, Arne; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions ...

  12. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  13. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Town Christopher D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap" is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains. The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies, providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies, and discovery servers (semantic search engines interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info" uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet". Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

  14. From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions to content enrichment. Work starts from harvesting multimedia annotations in class-room recordings, and proceeds to deriving a dense educational semantic net between eLearning Objects decorated with extended LOM relations. Special focus is drawn on the processing of recorded speech and on an Ontological Evaluation Layer that autonomously derives meaningful inter-object relations. Further on, a semantic representation of hyperlinks is developed and elaborated to the concept of semantic link contexts, an approach to manage a coherent rhetori...

  15. WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Meštrovi?

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.

  16. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Agustus, Jennifer L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (“looming”) or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases. PMID:25859194

  17. Magmatic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasha Dunn

    In this activity students will examine magmatic differentiation processes using various items that I have provided. In groups they will use these random objects to design a model that can be used to demonstrate one of the magmatic differentiation processes. Each group will present their model, along with an explaination of the process, to the class. Students have one class period to prepare their models and explanations of the differentiation process assigned to them. They present these during the next class period.

  18. Arabic Semantic Web Applications – A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya M. Al-Zoghby

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Language is the mother tongue for 23 countries and more than 350 million persons. It is the language of the Holy Quran; therefore, many non-Arabic Islamic countries, like Pakistan, teach Arabic as a second language. Nevertheless, it is observable that the Arabic content on the Web is less than what should be. The evolution of the Semantic Web (SW added a new dimension to this problem. This paper is an attempt to figure out the problem, its causes, and to open avenues to think about the solutions. The survey presented in this paper concerned with the SW applications regarding the Arabic Language in the domains of Ontology construction and utilization, Arabic WordNet (AWN exploiting and enrichment, Arabic Named Entities Extraction, Holy Quran and Islamic Knowledge semantic representation, and Arabic Semantic Search Engines. In fact, the study revealed serious deficiencies in dealing semantically with the Arabic Language. That is mainly owing to the rarity of tools that can support the Arabic script. Furthermore, the Arabic resources, if available, are not free. Moreover, there are many technical problems in the semantic dealing with the Arabic context. Therefore, most of the developed applications are not sufficiently proficient. However, due to the significance of the Arabic Language, it is inevitable to overcome these deficiencies in order to put the Arabic Language in the category of the machine-semantically-interpretable languages, rather than just the textually processable ones. This way, we can exploit the power of the Semantic Web features in extracting the essence of the knowledge residing in the Arabic web documents and going beyond dealing with its rigid texts. 

  19. Differential manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kosinski, Antoni A

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho

  20. Formalizing cCSP Synchronous Semantics in PVS

    CERN Document Server

    Ripon, Shamim H

    2010-01-01

    Compensating CSP (cCSP) is a language defined to model long running business transactions within the framework of standard CSP process algebra. In earlier work, we have defined both traces and operational semantics of the language. We have shown the consistency between the two semantic models by defining a relationship between them. Synchronization was missing from the earlier semantic definitions which is an important feature for any process algebra. In this paper, we address this issue by extending the syntax and semantics to support synchronization and define a relationship between the semantic models. Moreover, we improve the scalability of our proof technique by mechanically verifying the semantic relationship using theorem prover PVS. We show how to embed process algebra terms and semantics into PVS and to use these embeddings to prove the semantic relationship.

  1. Ontology Based Semantics Checking for UML Activity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UML activity model is mainly used to model the behaviors of software system and the quality of activity model will influence the quality of software system. But because the UML activity model lacks strictly formal semantics, it is difficult to make formal semantics analysis and checking for activity model. An ontology based method of semantics checking for activity model is proposed. The semantics of activity model is divided into static semantics and dynamic semantics. The static semantics is transformed into OWL DL by an algorithm, and the dynamic semantics is described by DL-Safe rules. Then the consistency of UML activity model is analyzed and some model checking rules are defined, which enables model consistency checking by using an ontology reasoning tool.

  2. A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; 10.5121/ijwest.2011.2203

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality, scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages. Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systems must be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges in this domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervised learning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learn...

  3. Semantics for Biological Data Resource: Cell Image Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 165 NIST Semantics for Biological Data Resource: Cell Image Database (Web, free access)   This Database is a prototype to test concepts for semantic searching of cell image data based on experimental details.

  4. Methods and Strategies: A New Use for Semantic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna A. Wolfinger

    2006-01-01

    Semantic maps are frquently used graphic organizers that help students analyze their reading or develop their vocabulary. However, semantic maps can also be used effectively as a preassessment strategy for science teaching.

  5. John Mair on Semantic Paradoxes: Alethic and Correspondence Paradoxes I.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 1 (2012), s. 58-84. ISSN 1214-8407 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : John Mair * Swyneshedian semantic s * semantic paradoxes * network evaluation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. John Mair on Semantic Paradoxes: Alethic and Correspondence Paradoxes II.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 2 (2012), s. 154-183. ISSN 1214-8407 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : John Mair * Swyneshedian semantic s * semantic paradoxes * network evaluation * scholastic logic Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Age-related vulnerability in the neural systems supporting semantic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JonathanEPeelle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to form abstract representations of objects in semantic memory is crucial to language and thought. The utility of this information relies both on the representations of sensory-motor feature knowledge stored in long-term memory and the executive processes required to retrieve, manipulate, and evaluate this semantic knowledge in a task-relevant manner. These complementary components of semantic memory can be differentially impacted by aging. We investigated semantic processing in normal aging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young and older adults were asked to judge whether two printed object names match on a particular feature (for example, whether a tomato and strawberry have the same color. The task thus required both retrieval of relevant visual feature knowledge of object concepts and evaluating this information. Objects were drawn from either natural kinds or manufactured objects, and were queried on either color or shape in a factorial design. Behaviorally, all subjects performed well, but older adults could be divided into those whose performance matched that of young adults (better performers and those whose performance was worse (poorer performers. All subjects activated several cortical regions while performing this task, including bilateral inferior and lateral temporal cortex and left frontal and prefrontal cortex. Better performing older adults showed increased overall activity in bilateral premotor cortex and left lateral occipital cortex compared to young adults, and increased activity in these brain regions relative to poorer performing older adults who also showed gray matter atrophy in premotor cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of domain-general executive processing brain regions to semantic memory, and illustrate differences in how these regions are recruited in healthy older adults.

  8. Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahn, R.; Garrard, P.

    2006-01-01

    The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used a semantic verification task and resting 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of mild to moderate AD patients to investigate this issue. The four task conditions required semantic knowledge of (1) visual, (2) functional properties of living objects, and (3) visual or (4) functional properties of nonliving objects. Visual property verification of living objects was significantly correlated with left posterior fusiform gyrus metabolism (Brodmann's area [BA] 37/19). Effects of visual and functional property verification for nonliving objects largely overlapped in the left anterior temporal (BA 38/20) and bilateral premotor areas (BA 6), with the visual condition extending more into left lateral precentral areas. There were no associations with functional property verification for living concepts. Our results provide strong support for anatomically separable representations of living and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas.

  9. A Secured and Semantically Addressed E-Mail Service

    OpenAIRE

    OSOFISAN; Adenike O; Amadi, J. C.; ETENG; Idongesit.E

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of semantic addresses to send emails in a corporate environment. Semantic Email Addressing (SEA) allows emails to be sent to a semantically speci?ed recipient or group of recipients, which may be dynamically changingovertime. In order to describe the concept of SEA and its advantages, it is compared with the concept of mailing lists. Two solutions to send semantically addressed emails are presented, on one hand a client sided solution has been elaborated wher...

  10. Study of Semantic Web Based Library Knowledge Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Qing-song

    2013-01-01

    This study firstly proposes a structure of semantic grid by combining the advantage of semantic web with the research of the grid technology and discusses the key technologies and services of knowledge management un-der semantic grid environment. Then not only discusses semantic notes and knowledge discovery on the basis of ontology but also the model transformation tacit knowledge based on ontology. Then based on the above, it describes the ideas about the knowledge management model under th...

  11. A platform for the development of Semantic Web portals

    OpenAIRE

    López-Cima, A.; Corcho, Óscar; Gómez-Pérez, A

    2006-01-01

    A Semantic Web portal is a Web application that offers information and services related to a specific domain, and that has been developed with Semantic Web technology. For the time being, the main difference with respect to a traditional Web portal is based on technological aspects: traditional Web portals are based on standard Web technology (HTML, XML, servlets, JSPs, etc.); semantic portals are based on that technology plus the use of Semantic Web languages like RDF, R...

  12. A novel explicit context based approach for Computing Semantic Relatedness

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvan Mohamad Rezaei; Mehran Mohsenzadeh; Mashallah Abbasi Dezfouli

    2012-01-01

    Computing semantic relatedness (SR) of words is a main functionality of large amounts of language applications. Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA) is successful in computing semantic relatedness. ESA is an approach to explicitly represent the meaning of any text as a weighted vector of Wikipedia-based concepts and calculate semantic relatedness between terms or documents based on comparing the corresponding vectors. However, ESA method generates the same vector for an ambiguous word and does no...

  13. Verb production during action naming in semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Me?ligne, D.; Fossard, Marion; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; De?monet, J. -f

    2012-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an action naming task based on video clips. The pattern of errors, involving a huge proportion of generic verbs (e.g. “to remove” versus “to peel”...

  14. Building and Using Knowledge Models for Semantic Image Annotation

    OpenAIRE

    Bannour, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a new methodology for building and using structured knowledge models for automatic image annotation. Specifically, our first proposals deal with the automatic building of explicit and structured knowledge models, such as semantic hierarchies and multimedia ontologies, dedicated to image annotation. Thereby, we propose a new approach for building semantic hierarchies faithful to image semantics. Our approach is based on a new image-semantic similarity measure between...

  15. Zero-Shot Learning for Semantic Utterance Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Dauphin, Yann N.; Tur, Gokhan; Hakkani-tur, Dilek; Heck, Larry

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel zero-shot learning method for semantic utterance classification (SUC). It learns a classifier $f: X \\to Y$ for problems where none of the semantic categories $Y$ are present in the training set. The framework uncovers the link between categories and utterances using a semantic space. We show that this semantic space can be learned by deep neural networks trained on large amounts of search engine query log data. More precisely, we propose a novel method tha...

  16. Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Groussard, Mathilde; Viader, Fausto; Hubert, Vale?rie; Landeau, Brigitte; Abbas, Ahmed; Desgranges, Be?atrice; Eustache, Francis; Platel, Herve?

    2010-01-01

    Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, "musical semantic memory" is defined as memory for "well-known" melodies without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning, while "verbal semantic memory" corresp...

  17. Automatic and Intelligent Decision Making In Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Shrutika Kulkarni; Pradeep Chouskey; Gajendra Vaiker

    2012-01-01

    Concepts like "semantic computing" and "semantic search" refer to computational techniques that use knowledge representation and deep linkage into the referents of information tokens in language dictionaries, thesauri and ontology’s) and in data resources (libraries, databases and web-based repositories). Perhaps the best-known sense is in the "semantic web", it is also reviews the technologies that make up the SW with the implications of these technologies Semantic Intelligence, Defined Sema...

  18. A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    LI Zedong; Duan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qingling

    2013-01-01

    The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available in...

  19. Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Malik; Udayan Ghose

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new ...

  20. System Model-Based Definition of Modeling Language Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Grönninger, Hans; Ringert, Jan Oliver; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to define the semantics for object-oriented modeling languages. One important property of this semantics is to support underspecified and incomplete models. To this end, semantics is given as predicates over elements of the semantic domain. This domain is called the system model which is a general declarative characterization of object systems. The system model is very detailed since it captures various relevant structural, behavioral, a...

  1. Innocent Game Semantics via Intersection Type Assignment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Di Gianantonio, Pietro; Lenisa, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to correlate two different approaches to the semantics of programming languages: game semantics and intersection type assignment systems (ITAS). Namely, we present an ITAS that provides the description of the semantic interpretation of a typed lambda calculus in a game model based on innocent strategies. Compared to the traditional ITAS used to describe the semantic interpretation in domain theoretic models, the ITAS presented in this paper has two main differences: th...

  2. The denotational semantics of an object oriented programming language

    OpenAIRE

    Hense, Andreas V.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, several descriptions of object oriented programming languages with denotational semantics have been given. Cook presented a denotational semantics of class inheritance. This semantics abstracts from the internal state of objects, which is one of their salient characteristics. In this paper we show that Cooks denotational semantics of class inheritance is applicable to object oriented programming languages, where objects have a state. For this purpose we define a direct denotation...

  3. Wrapper semantics of an object oriented programming language with state

    OpenAIRE

    Hense, Andreas V.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, several descriptions of object oriented programming languages with denotational semantics have been given. Cook presented an intuitive denotational semantics of class inheritance. This semantics abstracts from the internal state of objects, which is one of their salient characteristics. In this paper we show that Cooks denotational semantics of class inheritance is applicable to object oriented programming languages, where objects have a state. For this purpose we define a direct...

  4. Semantic Integration Process of Business Components through Ontology Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Hicham Elasri; Abderrahim Sekkaki

    2013-01-01

    Ontology Alignment (OA) identifies semantically matching of different entities, OA continues to attract great attention within the database, information system and artificial intelligence communities. OA used to solve the semantic heterogeneity and hide the complexity of retrieving entities of heterogeneous source. That’s why we rely on the OA for resolving semantic conflict during design phase of information system, particularly in semantic integration of Business Components (BC). Our ...

  5. Ontology-Driven Query Reformulation in Semantic Search

    OpenAIRE

    Solskinnsbakk, Geir

    2007-01-01

    Semantic search is a research area in which the goal is to understand the users intended meaning of the query. This requires disambiguation of the user query and interpreting the semantics of the query. Semantic search would thus improve the users search experience through more precise result sets. Moreover, ontologies are explicit conceptualizations of domains, defining concepts, their properties, and the relations among them. This makes ontologies semantic representations of specific...

  6. Evaluating semantic search tools using the SEALS platform

    OpenAIRE

    Wrigley, S.N.; Elbedweihy, K; Reinhardt, D.; Bernstein, A.; Ciravegna, F

    2010-01-01

    In common with many state of the art semantic technologies, there is a lack of comprehensive, established evaluation mechanisms for semantic search tools. In this paper, we describe a new evaluation and benchmarking approach for semantic search tools using the infrastructure under development within the SEALS initiative. To our knowledge, it is the first effort to present a comprehensive evaluation methodology for semantic search tools. The paper describes the evaluation methodology including...

  7. Semantic Web Search based on Ontology Modeling using Protege Reasoner

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar, Monica; K, Saravanaguru RA.

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web works on the existing Web which presents the meaning of information as well-defined vocabularies understood by the people. Semantic Search, at the same time, works on improving the accuracy if a search by understanding the intent of the search and providing contextually relevant results. This paper describes a semantic approach toward web search through a PHP application. The goal was to parse through a user's browsing history and return semantically relevan...

  8. Semantic Self-Formation of Communities of Peers

    OpenAIRE

    CASTANO, SILVANA; MONTANELLI, STEFANO

    2005-01-01

    The formation of semantic communities of peers plays a crucial role for realizing effective query propagation mechanisms on a semantic basis. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the self-organization of autonomous communities of peers; we propose semantic handshake techniques based on semantic community aggregation and community-aware query propagation techniques exploiting dynamic ontology matching techniques for improving traditional P2P search and discovery capabilities.

  9. Efficient Approach for Semantic Web Searching Using Markov Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Salve; Rajesh Chakrawarti

    2012-01-01

    The semantic search usually the web pages for the required information and filter the pages from semantic web searching unnecessary pages by using advanced algorithms. Web pages are vulnerable in answering intelligent semantic search from the user due to the confidence of their consequences on information obtainable in web pages. To get the trusted results semantic web search engines require searching for pages that maintain such information at some place including domain knowledge. The layer...

  10. CLEARS - An Education and Research Tool for Computational Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Milward, David; Konrad, Karsten; Maier, Holger; Pinkal, Manfred

    1996-01-01

    The CLEARS (Computational Linguistics Education and Research for Semantics) tool provides a graphical interface allowing interactive construction of semantic representations in a variety of different formalisms, and using several construction methods. CLEARS was developed as part of the FraCaS project which was designed to encourage convergence between different semantic formalisms, such as Montague-Grammar, DRT, and Situation Semantics. The CLEARS system is freely available...

  11. Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu AIRINEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

  12. Relating Weight Constraint and Aggregate Programs: Semantics and Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guohua; You, Jia-Huai

    2011-01-01

    Weight constraint and aggregate programs are among the most widely used logic programs with constraints. In this paper, we relate the semantics of these two classes of programs, namely the stable model semantics for weight constraint programs and the answer set semantics based on conditional satisfaction for aggregate programs. Both classes of programs are instances of logic programs with constraints, and in particular, the answer set semantics for aggregate programs can be ...

  13. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980. ‘Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds. ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

  14. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

  15. Semantic grasping escapes Weber's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenkamp, Christian; Gärtner, Wiebke; Haus, Isabel D; Franz, Volker H

    2015-04-01

    According to Weber's law, the just noticeable difference between stimuli increases proportionally with stimulus magnitude, suggesting that perception becomes more variable when a stimulus becomes larger. Surprisingly, this basic psychophysical principle appears to be violated in grasping because the variability of grasping movements does not increase with object size. This dissociation between perception and grasping has been interpreted either as evidence for different neuronal processing of real-time visual size information [Ganel, T., Chajut, E., Algom, D. (2008a). Current Biology, 18(14), R599-R601], or for the idea that grasping ignores stimulus size and is based on position information only [Smeets, J. B. J., and Brenner, E. (2008). Current Biology, 18(23), R1089-R1090]. Both accounts assume that it is the processing of visual information that leads to the absence of Weber's law in grasping. We show that even if neither visual nor any real-time sensory information about the stimulus is presented (but only abstract, semantic information about its size), grasping does not follow Weber's law. This indicates that other mechanisms must be responsible for the unexpected behavior of grasping. PMID:25731904

  16. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  17. Harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Simko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The eective information processing (e.g. search, organi-zation of the heterogeneous information spaces requiresmetadata layer above the resources. However, the acqui-sition of resource metadata and domain models are chal-lenging tasks. Here, the crowdsourcing has emerged asan alternative to expert-based and automated semanticsacquisition approaches. One of its branches are the gameswith a purpose (GWAPs which encapsulate the seman-tics acquisition tasks into the game processes. We analyzeexisting GWAPs and propose their classication. Fur-thermore we devised our own GWAP-based approaches.For acquisition of lightweight term relationship network,we devised a search query formulation game, usable alsofor specic domain models. For acquisition of (personalimage tags, we devised a card game, where players mem-orize positions of concealed cards and identify identicalpairs. For validation of music metadata, we devised amulti-choice question-based game, where players identifytag sets that are characteristic to music tracks they hear.We also looked at the GWAPs from their design per-spectives. We present a design oriented classication sys-tem for GWAPs, adress several design issues recurring inGWAPs and present new design patterns to solve them.

  18. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel, Vanderveken.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psycholog [...] ical modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka), human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  19. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian SØndergaard

    2004-01-01

    Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW, and with values of the type NOW + D, where D is a non-variable time duration. To accommodate these semantics, three new timestamp values are introduced. Finally, implementation is explored. We show how to represent the variable NOW with columns of standard SQL data types and give a mapping from SQL on NOW-relative  data to standard SQL on these columns. The paper thereby completes the semantics, the querying, and the modification of now-relative databases.   Udgivelsesdato: DEC

  20. Semantic Malware Detection by Deploying Graph Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Karbalaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today malware is a serious threat to our society. Several researchers are studying detection and mitigation of malware threats. On the other hand malware authors try to use obfuscation techniques for evading detection. Unfortunately usual approach (e.g., antivirus software use signature based method which can easily be evaded. For addressing these shortcomings dynamic methods have been introduced. The aim of dynamic methods is to detect the semantic of malware family. Obfuscation of semantic based method is too difficult and results of these methods are promising. However deploying semantic based methods for real time detection have several complications. Current semantic methods are too time-consuming and usually need a robust virtual machine to obtain the behavior. In this paper we present an automatic detection method based on graph mining techniques with near optimal detection rate. That is 96.6% accuracy and only 3.4% false positive. In our method, first the malware is analyzed in a virtual machine environment to observe its semantic. A graph representation of malware behavior is constructed. The representation is based on relationships between system calls and allows rearrangement of system calls. Graph is used for representing the behavior of application because graph, especially labeled graph, can be used to model lots of complicated relation between data. At the next step we mine information graph and extract the most discriminative graphs that separate malware from benign. Finally, a classification method is used and the mentioned accuracy was obtained.

  1. Semantic Stability in Social Tagging Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Claudia; Strohmaier, Markus; Huberman, Bernardo A

    2013-01-01

    One potential disadvantage of social tagging systems is that due to the lack of a centralized vocabulary, a crowd of users may never manage to reach a consensus on the description of resources (e.g., books, users or songs) on the Web. Yet, previous research has provided interesting evidence that the tag distributions of resources may become semantically stable over time as more and more users tag them. At the same time, previous work has raised an array of new questions such as: (i) How can we assess the semantic stability of social tagging systems in a robust and methodical way? (ii) Does semantic stabilization of tags vary across different social tagging systems and ultimately, (iii) what are the factors that can explain semantic stabilization in such systems? In this work we tackle these questions by (i) presenting a novel and robust method which overcomes a number of limitations in existing methods, (ii) empirically investigating semantic stabilization processes in a wide range of social tagging systems w...

  2. Deriving Logical Consequences Using Ontological Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S. Langde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web technology enables us to specify metadata about things in the world and help us to relate this metadata using ontology databases and language. The core of the Semantic Web is Ontology, which is used to explicitly represent our conceptualizations. This paper is an efforts to improve the relevancy of results in a search system for a particular domain by exploiting the domain knowledge captured in an OWL ontology using the protégé tool. We make ontological database from static relational database using protégé. The key ingredients that make up an ontology are a vocabulary of basic terms, semantic interconnections, simple rules of inference and some logic for a particular topic. We extract semantic meaning from query entered by the user using tool and then we map this meaning into ontological database. To achieve semantic search, a search engine is needed which can interpret the meaning of a user's query and the relations among the concepts that a document contains with respect to a particular domain. Protégé is an extensible and customizable tool for constructing ontologies and for developing applications that use these ontologies. After that we display this data on user screen. The output of this project is to provide appropriate result to user for enter his queries.

  3. Structured Operational Semantics for Graph Rewriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Dorman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Process calculi and graph transformation systems provide models of reactive systems with labelled transition semantics. While the semantics for process calculi is compositional, this is not the case for graph transformation systems, in general. Hence, the goal of this article is to obtain a compositional semantics for graph transformation system in analogy to the structural operational semantics (SOS for Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS. The paper introduces an SOS style axiomatization of the standard labelled transition semantics for graph transformation systems. The first result is its equivalence with the so-called Borrowed Context technique. Unfortunately, the axiomatization is not compositional in the expected manner as no rule captures "internal" communication of sub-systems. The main result states that such a rule is derivable if the given graph transformation system enjoys a certain property, which we call "complementarity of actions". Archetypal examples of such systems are interaction nets. We also discuss problems that arise if "complementarity of actions" is violated.

  4. Discrete Characterization of Domain Using Semantic Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Madan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lots of approaches have been developed to understand the software source code and majority of them are focused on program structural information which results in the loss of domain semantic crucial information contained in the text or symbols of source code. To understand software as a whole, we need to enrich these approaches with conceptual insights gained from the domain semantics. This paper proposes the mapping of domain to the code using the information retrieval techniques to use linguistic information, such as identifier names and comments in source code. Concept of Semantic Clustering has been introduced in this paper and an algorithm has been provided to group source artifacts based on how the synonymy and polysemy is related. Based on semantic similarity automatic labeling of the program code is done after detecting the clusters, and is visually explore in 3-Dimension for discrete characterization. This approach works at the source code textual level which makes it language independent. The approach correlates the semantics with structural information applies at different levels of Abstraction (e.g. packages, classes, methods.

  5. SEMANTIC BASED MULTIPLE WEB SEARCH ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS.S.LATHA SHANMUGAVADIVU,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of information available to end users through the Web, search engines come to play ever a more critical role. Nevertheless, because of their general-purpose approach, it is always less uncommon that obtained result sets provide a burden ofuseless pages. The next-generation Web architecture, represented by the Semantic Web, provides the layered architecture possibly allowing overcoming this limitation. Several search engines have been proposed, which allow increasing information retrieval accuracy by exploiting a key content of Semantic Web resources, that is, relations. To make the Semantic Web work, well-structured data andrules are necessary for agents to roam the Web [2]. XML and RDF are two important technologies: we can create our own structures by XML without indicating what they mean; RDF uses sets of triples which express basic concepts [2]. DAML is the extension of XML and RDF The aim of this project is to develop a search engine based on ontologymatching within the Semantic Web. It uses the data in Semantic Web form such as DAML or RDF. When the user input a query, the program accepts the query and transfers it to a machine learning agent. Then the agent measures the similarity between different ontology’s, and feedback the matched item to the user.

  6. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdellah Kassimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  7. Cognitive semantic networks: emotional verbs throw a tantrum but don't bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have over the past decades established that language is grounded in sensorimotor areas of the brain. The same neuronal circuits seem involved whether we literally pick up a ball or in a phrase refer to grasping an idea. However recent findings have demonstrated that not only leg, hand and face related but also emotional action verbs activate premotor systems in the brain. Hypothesizing that the force and spatial parameters which define action based language might also be reflected in the latent semantics of words, we select motor and emotion related verbs and apply latent semantic analysis, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering and network graph analysis to quantify their interaction and identify parameters of force and spatial differentiation which we propose cognitively relate emotions to sensorimotor action schemas.

  8. Analysis of verbal fluency ability in Alzheimer's disease: the role of clustering, switching and semantic proximities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2014-05-01

    The underlying nature of verbal fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in this study. Participants were 48 individuals with AD and 48 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performance on letter and category tasks was analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, mean cluster size, and total switches. Compared with the control group, AD participants produced fewer words and switches on both fluency tasks and had a reduced category cluster size. The AD group was differentially impaired on category compared with letter fluency and produced more repetitive responses but fewer category exemplars than controls on the category task. A multidimensional scaling approach revealed that AD participants' semantic maps were similar to controls. Overall, the data suggest that executive abilities involving search and retrieval processes and a reduced availability of semantically related words contributed to the AD group's poorer performance despite similar temporal recall and organizational patterns. PMID:24687588

  9. RDF/S)XML Linguistic Annotation of Semantic Web Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado de Cea, G.; Álvarez de Mon Rego, I.; Pareja-Lora, A.; Plaza Arteche, R.

    2002-01-01

    Although with the Semantic Web initiative much research on web pages semantic annotation has already done by AI researchers, linguistic text annotation, including the semantic one, was originally developed in Corpus Linguistics and its results have been somehow neglected by AI. ...

  10. Causal and Semantic Relatedness in Discourse Understanding and Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Larsen, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Processing time and memory for sentences were examined as a function of the degree of semantic and causal relatedness between sentences in short narratives. In Experiments 1-2B, semantic and causal relatedness between sentence pairs was independently manipulated. Causal relatedness was assessed through pretesting and semantic relatedness was…

  11. Multiuse of Oceanographic Data on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Feng (barry); Campbell, Jon; Griffiths, Gwyn

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Ocean is an initiative to build a semantic web infrastructure to enable marine scientists to collaboratively publish their resources on the semantic web to assist multi use of the ocean data. We borrow concepts and technologies in the semantic web and adopt the Agile Knowledge Engineering (AKE) methodology to enable collaborative knowledge engineering in ocean resource management.

  12. Operational approach to semantics and translation for programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei

    1983-01-01

    The problems of semantics and translation for concurrent programming languages are studied in this thesis. A structural operational approach is introduced to specify the semantics of parallelism and communication. Using this approach, semantics for the concurrent programming languages CSP (Hoare's Communicating Sequential Processes), multitasking and exception handling in Ada, Brinch-Hansen's Edison and CCS (Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems) are defined and some...

  13. An Educational Tool for Browsing the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Kim, Younghwan; Park, Seongbin

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web where information is represented in a machine processable way. It is not separate from the current Web and one of the confusions that novice users might have is where the Semantic Web is. In fact, users can easily encounter RDF documents that are components of the Semantic Web while they navigate…

  14. Integrating Multiple Knowledge Sources for Robust Semantic Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Atserias, Jordi; Padro, Lluis; Rigau, German

    2001-01-01

    This work explores a new robust approach for Semantic Parsing of unrestricted texts. Our approach considers Semantic Parsing as a Consistent Labelling Problem (CLP), allowing the integration of several knowledge types (syntactic and semantic) obtained from different sources (linguistic and statistic). The current implementation obtains 95% accuracy in model identification and 72% in case-role filling.

  15. SEMANTIC SPACE OF COMPUTER GAMES: THE ATTEMPT OF RECONSTRUCTION ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???: ???? ?????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzakov A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an empirical psycho semantic survey with the aim to reveal implicit model categories of computer games in everyday consciousness. Semantic space contained two main psychological «dimensions» of computer games and may to explain human disposition to computer play activity. New term “semantic space of computer games” is determined

  16. Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salman

    This series of lectures, created by Salman Khan of the Khan Academy, focuses on topics covered in a first year course in differential equations. A basic understanding of differentiation and integration from Calculus before starting here is necessary. Overall, the collection features 45 videos and is a quintessential guide to this broad topic.

  17. When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

  18. Gamma- and theta-band synchronization during semantic priming reflect local and long-range lexical-semantic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mellem, Monika S.; Friedman, Rhonda B.; Medvedev, Andrei V.

    2013-01-01

    Anterior and posterior brain areas are involved in the storage and retrieval of semantic representations, but it is not known how these areas dynamically interact during semantic processing. We hypothesized that long-range theta-band coherence would reflect coupling of these areas and examined the oscillatory dynamics of lexical-semantic processing using a semantic priming paradigm with a delayed letter-search task while recording subjects' EEG. Time-frequency analysis revealed facilitation o...

  19. Latent Semantics of Action Verbs Reflect Phonetic Parameters of Intensity and Emotional Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  20. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 X 20 emotion, face, and hand related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora; HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  1. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  2. A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that ? is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.

  3. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  4. Semantic Web Approach towards E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Kiran Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Technologies enable machines to interpret data published in a machine-interpretable form on the web. The existing e-commerce web data can be understandable to humans to read but machines cannot process it due to lack of semantics. To gain the advantage of using online shopping, consumer needs to search different e-commerce websites for a better price of product. Hence searching plays a crucial role in e-commerce to overcome information asymmetry and price dispersion. In this paper, we explained the basics of e-commerce with advantage, disadvantages and where the semantic web technologies can be applied is given for the benefit of consumer.

  5. Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search

    CERN Document Server

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2012-01-01

    Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search is based on "joint meaning" understood as a joint construal of the creators of the contents and the user of the contents using the faced taxonomy with the Semantic Web. A proof-of concept prototype shows how the proposed methodological approach can also be applied to existing presentation components, built with different languages and/or component technologies.

  6. A Semantic Layer for Embedded Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor Networks progressively assumed the critical role of bridges between the real world and information systems, through always more consolidated and efficient sensor technologies that enable advanced heterogeneous sensor grids. Sensor data is commonly used by advanced systems and intelligent applications in order to archive complex goals. Processes that build high-level knowledge from sensor data are commonly considered as the key core concept. This paper proposes a semantic layer that would optimally support the knowledge building in sensor systems as well as it enables semantic interaction model at different levels (module, subsystem, system. The semantic layer proposed in the paper is currently used by several architectures and applications in the context of different domains.

  7. Robust Semantic Framework for web search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Swamy Naidu #1 , S.Narayana #2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . However, in order to rank results, most of the existing solutions need to work on the whole annotated knowledge base. In the existing system a relation-based page rank algorithm to be used in conjunction with Semantic Web search engines that simply relies on information that could be extracted from user queries and on annotated resources. This system retrieves all matching results that are based on minimum spanning nodes and fails to represent the owl and rdf structure in graphical representation.Proposed system overcomes all the drawbacks by introducing a new framework to represent the web semantic results based on the query. This system uses OWL , logic programming in order to get effective semantic search results. This proposed system represents all the OWL structure relationships in graphical node representation.

  8. Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI to semantically find plagiarism.

  9. Refining the Semantics of Social Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Marazopoulou, Katerina; Jensen, David

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of network data, researchers are increasingly focusing on questions investigating phenomena occurring on networks. This often includes analysis of peer-effects, i.e., how the connections of an individual affect that individual's behavior. This type of influence is not limited to direct connections of an individual (such as friends), but also to individuals that are connected through longer paths (for example, friends of friends, or friends of friends of friends). In this work, we identify an ambiguity in the definition of what constitutes the extended neighborhood of an individual. This ambiguity gives rise to different semantics and supports different types of underlying phenomena. We present experimental results, both on synthetic and real networks, that quantify differences among the sets of extended neighbors under different semantics. Finally, we provide experimental evidence that demonstrates how the use of different semantics affects model selection.

  10. A Semantic Approach for Document Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shaban

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional document mining systems mainly use the presence or absence of keywords to mine texts. However, simple word counting and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. In this paper, the application of a semantic understanding-based approach to mine documents is presented. The approach is based on semantic notions to represent text, and to measure similarity between text documents. The representation scheme reflects existing relations between concepts and facilitates accurate similarity measurements that result in better mining performance. A document mining process, namely semantic document clustering, is investigated and tackled in various ways. The proposed representation scheme along with the proposed similarity measure were implemented as vital components of a mining system. The approach has enabled more effective document clustering than what conventional techniques would provide. The experimental work is reported, and its results are presented and analyzed.

  11. Discovering Recurrent Image Semantics from Class Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jesse S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supervised statistical learning has become a critical means to design and learn visual concepts (e.g., faces, foliage, buildings, etc. in content-based indexing systems. The drawback of this approach is the need of manual labeling of regions. While several automatic image annotation methods proposed recently are very promising, they usually rely on the availability and analysis of associated text descriptions. In this paper, we propose a hybrid learning framework to discover local semantic regions and generate their samples for training of local detectors with minimal human intervention. A multiscale segmentation-free framework is proposed to embed the soft presence of discovered semantic regions and local class patterns in an image independently for indexing and matching. Based on 2400 heterogeneous consumer images with 16 semantic queries, both similarity matching based on individual index and integrated similarity matching have outperformed a feature fusion approach by 26% and 37% in average precisions, respectively.

  12. Semantic Textual Entailment Recognition using UNL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Partha, Pakray; Soujanya, Poria; Sivaji, Bandyopadhyay; Alexander, Gelbukh.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-way textual entailment (TE) recognition system that uses semantic features has been described in this paper. We have used the Universal Networking Language (UNL) to identify the semantic features. UNL has all the components of a natural language. The development of a UNL based textual entailme [...] nt system that compares the UNL relations in both the text and the hypothesis has been reported. The semantic TE system has been developed using the RTE-3 test annotated set as a development set (includes 800 text-hypothesis pairs). Evaluation scores obtained on the RTE-4 test set (includes 1000 text-hypothesis pairs) show 55.89% precision and 65.40% recall for YES decisions and 66.50% precision and 55.20% recall for NO decisions and overall 60.3% precision and 60.3% recall.

  13. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

  14. Derived Stimulus Relations, Semantic Priming, and Event-Related Potentials: Testing a Behavioral Theory of Semantic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Staunton, Carmel; Whelan, Robert; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Derived equivalence relations, it has been argued, provide a behavioral model of semantic or symbolic meaning in natural language, and thus equivalence relations should possess properties that are typically associated with semantic relations. The present study sought to test this basic postulate using semantic priming. Across three experiments,…

  15. e-Science and biological pathway semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Joanne S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the semantic integration of these data. Semantic Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this semantic integration. Since pathway knowledge is central to much of the scientific research today it is a good test-bed for semantic integration. Within the context of biological pathways, the BioPAX initiative, part of a broader movement towards the standardization and integration of life science databases, forms a necessary prerequisite for its successful application of e-Science in health care and life science research. This paper examines whether BioPAX, an effort to overcome the barrier of disparate and heterogeneous pathway data sources, addresses the needs of e-Science. Results We demonstrate how BioPAX pathway data can be used to ask and answer some useful biological questions. We find that BioPAX comes close to meeting a broad range of e-Science needs, but certain semantic weaknesses mean that these goals are missed. We make a series of recommendations for re-modeling some aspects of BioPAX to better meet these needs. Conclusion Once these semantic weaknesses are addressed, it will be possible to integrate pathway information in a manner that would be useful in e-Science.

  16. User Search Personalization in Semantic Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Venkata Ramana , Dr.K.Venugopala Rao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behaviour (usage data in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In the first part of our Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the second part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank, a Page Rank style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query.

  17. Pretty-big-step-semantics-based Certified Abstract Interpretation (Preliminary version)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Bodin; Thomas Jensen; Alan Schmitt

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique for deriving semantic program analyses from a natural semantics specification of the programming language. The technique is based on a particular kind of semantics called pretty-big-step semantics. We present a pretty-big-step semantics of a language with simple objects called O'While and specify a series of instrumentations of the semantics that explicitates the flows of values in a program. This leads to a semantics-based dependency analysis, at the ...

  18. Knowledge Representation in the Social Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Weller, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to sum up the vital and highly topical research issue of knowledge representation on the Web and to discuss novel solutions by combining benefits of folksonomies and Web 2.0 approaches with ontologies and semantic technologies. The book contains an overview of knowledge representation approaches in past, present and future, introduction to ontologies, Web indexing and in first case the novel approaches of developing ontologies. combines aspects of knowledge representation for both the Semantic Web (ontologies) and the Web 2.0 (folksonomies). Currently there is

  19. Web Information Extraction Systems for Web Semantization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D?dek, Jan

    Se?a : Pont, 2009 - (Vojtáš, P.), s. 1-6 ISBN 978-80-970179-2-7. [ITAT 2009. Conference on Theory and Practice of Information Theory. Krá?ova stud?a (SK), 25.09.2009-29.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA ?R GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : web information extraction * web semantization * semantic web * information systems Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  20. Relaxed Operational Semantics of Concurrent Programming Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Petri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel, operational framework to formally describe the semantics of concurrent programs running within the context of a relaxed memory model. Our framework features a "temporary store" where the memory operations issued by the threads are recorded, in program order. A memory model then specifies the conditions under which a pending operation from this sequence is allowed to be globally performed, possibly out of order. The memory model also involves a "write grain," accounting for architectures where a thread may read a write that is not yet globally visible. Our formal model is supported by a software simulator, allowing us to run litmus tests in our semantics.

  1. Mathematical aspects of logic programming semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Covering the authors' own state-of-the-art research results, Mathematical Aspects of Logic Programming Semantics presents a rigorous, modern account of the mathematical methods and tools required for the semantic analysis of logic programs. It significantly extends the tools and methods from traditional order theory to include nonconventional methods from mathematical analysis that depend on topology, domain theory, generalized distance functions, and associated fixed-point theory.The book covers topics spanning the period from the early days of logic programming to current times. It discusses

  2. Six challenges for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamins, R.; Contreras, Jesús; Corcho, Óscar; Gómez-Pérez, A

    2002-01-01

    The Semantic Web has attracted a diverse, but significant, community of researchers, institutes and companies, all sharing the belief that one day it will have as big an impact on life as currently the WWW/Internet has We share that vision, based on the ever-increaseing need to reduce information overload, and to increase task delegation to software agents However, there is still a long way to go before the Semantic Web dream comes true. We identify some of the major challenges the community ...

  3. Semantic mashups intelligent reuse of web resources

    CERN Document Server

    Endres-Niggemeyer, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Mashups are mostly lightweight Web applications that offer new functionalities by combining, aggregating and transforming resources and services available on the Web. Popular examples include a map in their main offer, for instance for real estate, hotel recommendations, or navigation tools.  Mashups may contain and mix client-side and server-side activity. Obviously, understanding the incoming resources (services, statistical figures, text, videos, etc.) is a precondition for optimally combining them, so that there is always some undercover semantics being used.  By using semantic annotations

  4. Symbolic Representation of Algorithmic Game Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar S. Dimovski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of second-order recursion free Idealized Algol with infinite data types. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones we generalize the standard notion of regular-language and automata representations to that of corresponding symbolic representations. In this way terms with infinite data types, such as integers, can be expressed as finite symbolic-automata although the standard automata interpretation is infinite. Moreover, significant reductions of the state space of game semantics models are obtained. This enables efficient verification of terms, which is illustrated with several examples.

  5. Preserving Semantics in Automatically Created Ontology Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Giorgio; Tanca, Letizia

    In an open world such as the Internet, one of the most challenging tasks is ontology alignment, which is the process of finding relationships among their elements. Performing this work in an automated fashion is, however, subject to errors, because of the different semantics carried by the same concept in different application domains or because of different ontology design styles which often produce incompatible ontology structures. In this chapter, we relate the most important approaches to ontology mapping revision, proposing a revision technique which aims at preserving the semantics of the original ontologies.

  6. Model Mapping Approach Based on Ontology Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkui Hou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The mapping relations between different models are the foundation for model transformation in model-driven software development. On the basis of ontology semantics, model mappings between different levels are classified by using structural semantics of modeling languages. The general definition process for mapping relations is explored, and the principles of structure mapping are proposed subsequently. The approach is further illustrated by the mapping relations from class model of object oriented modeling language to the C programming codes. The application research shows that the approach provides a theoretical guidance for the realization of model mapping, and thus can make an effective support to model-driven software development

  7. Semantic technologies for e-government

    CERN Document Server

    Vitvar, Tomas; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    E-government faces huge challenges in achieving interoperability and integration, taking into account differences in laws, regulations, services, administrative processes and languages across regions and countries. On the other hand, issues like service, data and process integration have been researched by the Semantic Web community for several years now, and in the last two to three years we have witnessed the first applications of semantic technologies in real, operational e-government systems in both Europe and the US which address exactly these challenges. With this book, the editors prese

  8. Interpreting Inference Engine for Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS. PRIYANKA PATEL , MS. PRIYANKA TRIKHA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Semantic web is a web of data, where data should be related to one another and also Knowledge will be organized in conceptual spaces according to its meaning. To understand and use the data and knowledge encoded in semantic web documents requires inference engine. There are number of inference engines used for consistency checking and classification like Pellet, Fact, Fact++, Hermit, Racer Pro, KaON2, and Base Visor. Some of them are reviewed and tested for few prebuilt ontologies. This paper presents the analysis of different inference engines with set of ontologies. It requires assessment and evaluation before selecting an appropriate inference engine for a given application.

  9. Semantic technologies and e-business

    OpenAIRE

    Bedini, Ivan; Gardarin, Georges; Nguyen, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we study what semantic technologies can bring to the e-business domain and how they can be applied to it. After an overview of the goals to be achieved by e-business applications we detail a large panel of existing e-business standards, with a specific focus on B2B (Business to Business) and their current modus operandi. Furthermore we also present some of the most relevant e-business ontologies. We then argue that the use of semantic technologies will simplify the automatic ...

  10. Supervised Semantic Classification for Nuclear Proliferation Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing feature extraction and classification approaches are not suitable for monitoring proliferation activity using high-resolution multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. In this paper we present a supervised semantic labeling framework based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation method. This framework is used to analyze over 120 images collected under different spatial and temporal settings over the globe representing three major semantic categories: airports, nuclear, and coal power plants. Initial experimental results show a reasonable discrimination of these three categories even though coal and nuclear images share highly common and overlapping objects. This research also identified several research challenges associated with nuclear proliferation monitoring using high resolution remote sensing images.

  11. Supervised Semantic Classification for Nuclear Proliferation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Existing feature extraction and classification approaches are not suitable for monitoring proliferation activity using high-resolution multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. In this paper we present a supervised semantic labeling framework based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation method. This framework is used to analyze over 120 images collected under different spatial and temporal settings over the globe representing three major semantic categories: airports, nuclear, and coal power plants. Initial experimental results show a reasonable discrimination of these three categories even though coal and nuclear images share highly common and overlapping objects. This research also identified several research challenges associated with nuclear proliferation monitoring using high resolution remote sensing images.

  12. Semi-automatic creation of semantic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bröcker, L.

    2007-01-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web ist one of extending the World Wide Web of today to one "[..] in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation." (Tim Berners-Lee in an article for the Scientific American in 2001). This promises an exciting future for the WWW. The advantages for users and machines alike are eminent, many of the building stones like RDF or OWL are in place already. But why has the Semantic Web not been adopted by mor...

  13. Semantic Web and Model-Driven Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Parreiras, Fernando S

    2012-01-01

    The next enterprise computing era will rely on the synergy between both technologies: semantic web and model-driven software development (MDSD). The semantic web organizes system knowledge in conceptual domains according to its meaning. It addresses various enterprise computing needs by identifying, abstracting and rationalizing commonalities, and checking for inconsistencies across system specifications. On the other side, model-driven software development is closing the gap among business requirements, designs and executables by using domain-specific languages with custom-built syntax and se

  14. A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models into the domain of the logical correspondence.

  15. Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, S.; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    With the growing amount of health information and frequent outbreaks of diseases, the retrieval of health information is given more concern. Machine understanding of spatial information can improve the interpretation of health data semantics. Most of the current research focused on the non-spatial semantics of health data, using ontologies and rules. Utilizing the spatial component of health data can assist in the understanding of health phenomena. This research proposes a semantic health information query architecture that allows the incorporation of both non-spatial semantics and geospatial semantics in health information integration and retrieval.

  16. Fast Distributed Dynamics of Semantic Networks via Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Facundo; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano; Fernández Slezak, Diego

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of semantic organization using social media, a collective expression of human thought. We propose a novel, time-dependent semantic similarity measure (TSS), based on the social network Twitter. We show that TSS is consistent with static measures of similarity but provides high temporal resolution for the identification of real-world events and induced changes in the distributed structure of semantic relationships across the entire lexicon. Using TSS, we measured the evolution of a concept and its movement along the semantic neighborhood, driven by specific news/events. Finally, we showed that particular events may trigger a temporary reorganization of elements in the semantic network. PMID:26074953

  17. Differential games

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2013-01-01

    This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest

  18. Semantic Security: Privacy Definitions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfei Liu; Li Xiong; Jun Luo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate a privacy framework named Indistinguishabley Privacy. Indistinguishable privacy could be deemed as the formalization of the existing privacy definitions in privacy preserving data publishing as well as secure multi-party computation. We introduce three representative privacy notions in the literature, Bayes-optimal privacy for privacy preserving data publishing, differential privacy for statistical data release, and privacy w.r.t. semi-honest behavior in the secure...

  19. High performance semantic factoring of giga-scale semantic graph databases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    al-Saffar, Sinan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Adolf, Bob (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Haglin, David (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mackey, Greg Edward; Goodman, Eric L.; Joslyn, Cliff A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Feo, John (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mizell, David (Cray, Inc.)

    2010-10-01

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to bring high performance computational resources to bear on their analysis, interpretation, and visualization, especially with respect to their innate semantic structure. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multithreaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional clusters, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture, and present the results of our deploying that for the analysis of the Billion Triple dataset with respect to its semantic factors, including basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths.

  20. The large-scale structure of semantic networks statistical analyses and a model for semantic growth

    CERN Document Server

    Steyvers, M; Tenenbaum, Mark Steyvers & Joshua B.

    2001-01-01

    We present statistical analyses of the large-scale structure of three types of semantic networks: word associations, WordNet, and Roget's thesaurus. We show that they have a small-world structure, characterized by sparse connectivity, short average path-lengths between words, and strong local clustering. In addition, the distributions of the number of connections follow power laws that indicate a scale-free pattern of connectivity, with most nodes having relatively few connections joined together through a small number of hubs with many connections. These regularities have also been found in certain other complex natural networks, such as the world wide web, but they are not consistent with many conventional models of semantic organization, based on inheritance hierarchies, arbitrarily structured networks, or high-dimensional vector spaces. We propose that these structures reflect the mechanisms by which semantic networks grow. We describe a simple model for semantic growth, in which each new word or concept ...