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Sample records for semantic differential

  1. A Revised Semantic Differential Scale Distinguishing between Negative and Positive God Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Gibson, Harry M.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 755 school pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 years completed the Benson and Spilka semantic differential measure of God images. Factor analysis indicated the advantages of re-scoring the measure as an eight item unidimensional index, defining semantic space relating to God images ranging from negative affect to positive affect.…

  2. Nurses' attitudes towards people with dementia: the semantic differential technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf; Helin, Yvonne; Dahl, Annika; Hellzén, Ove; Asplund, Kenneth

    2006-05-01

    One important aspect of the nurse-patient relationship is nurses' attitudes towards their patients. Nurses' attitudes towards people with dementia have been studied from a wide range of approaches, but few authors have focused on the structure of these attitudes. This study aimed to identify a structure in licensed practical nurses' attitudes towards people with dementia. Twenty-one group dwelling units for people with dementia at 11 nursing homes participated in the study. A total of 1577 assessments of 178 patients were sent out to 181 respondents and 1237 answers were returned. The semantic differential technique was used. The scale had 57 bipolar pairs of adjectives that estimate an unknown number of dimensions of nurses' attitudes towards an identified patient. The assessments were analysed using entropy-based measures of association combined with structural plots. The analysis revealed four dimensions, which related to licensed practical nurses' opinions of the patients: an ethical and aesthetic dimension; an ability to understand; an ability to experience; and an ability for social interaction. The results of the study indicated that, on the positive to negative attitude continuum, the nurses' attitudes fell at the positive to neutral end. This is an important finding owing to the personhood perspective, from which it is reasonable to assume that, with a more positive attitude to people with dementia, the prerequisites for person-centred care will improve. PMID:16711185

  3. Differentiation of perceptual and semantic subsequent memory effects using an orthographic paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Michael C C; Liu, Karen P Y; Ting, Kin Hung; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-11-27

    This study aimed to differentiate perceptual and semantic encoding processes using subsequent memory effects (SMEs) elicited by the recognition of orthographs of single Chinese characters. Participants studied a series of Chinese characters perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining the object making sounds), and then made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Recognition performance in terms of d-prime measure in the semantic condition was higher, though not significant, than that of the perceptual condition. The between perceptual-semantic condition differences in SMEs at P550 and late positive component latencies (700-1000ms) were not significant in the frontal area. An additional analysis identified larger SME in the semantic condition during 600-1000ms in the frontal pole regions. These results indicate that coordination and incorporation of orthographic information into mental representation is essential to both task conditions. The differentiation was also revealed in earlier SMEs (perceptual>semantic) at N3 (240-360ms) latency, which is a novel finding. The left-distributed N3 was interpreted as more efficient processing of meaning with semantically learned characters. Frontal pole SMEs indicated strategic processing by executive functions, which would further enhance memory. PMID:23063888

  4. Workplace Information Literacy in the Scientific Field : an Empirical Analysis Using the Semantic Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlbacher, Susanne; Hammwöhner, Rainer; Wolff, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The study focuses on eliciting a semantic concept of Information Literacy by capturing the information worker s perception of the information process. It is presumed that this perception influences the formation and advancement of Information Literacy at the workplace. The approach is based on the creation of a semantic differential scale. Target group are scientists from the field of natural sciences. The survey shows that five partly correlated principal aspects play a major role: personal ...

  5. The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

  6. Development and psychometric testing of a semantic differential scale of sexual attitude for the older person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Shin, Sunhwa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a semantic differential scale of sexual attitudes for older people in Korea. The scale was based on items derived from a literature review and focus group interviews. A methodological study was used to test the reliability and validity of the instrument. A total of 368 older men and women were recruited to complete the semantic differential scale. Fifteen pairs of adjective ratings were extracted through factor analysis. Total variance explained was 63.40%. To test for construct validity, group comparisons were implemented. The total score of sexual attitudes showed significant differences depending on gender and availability of sexual activity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.96. The findings of this study demonstrate that the semantic differential scale of sexual attitude is a reliable and valid instrument. PMID:26275235

  7. Combining a semantic differential with fMRI to investigate brands as cultural symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, complex cultural symbols like brands are investigated with psychological approaches. Often this is done by using semantic differentials, in which participants are asked to rate a brand regarding different pairs of adjectives. Only recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to examine brands. In the current work we used fMRI in combination with a semantic differential to cross-validate both methods and to improve the characterization of the basic factors constituting the semantic space. To this end we presented pictures of brands while recording subject's brain activity during an fMRI experiment. Results of the semantic differential arranged the brands in a semantic space illustrating their relationships to other cultural symbols. FMRI results revealed activation of the medial prefrontal cortex for brands that loaded high on the factor 'social competence', suggesting an involvement of a cortical network associated with social cognitions. In contrast, brands closely related to the factor 'potency' showed decreased activity in the superior frontal gyri, possibly related to working memory during task performance. We discuss the results as a different engagement of the prefrontal cortex when perceiving brands as cultural symbols. PMID:20080877

  8. Assessing Attitudes toward the Elderly: Polizzi's Refined Version of the Aging Semantic Differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Kenneth G.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=300) assessed adults aged 70-85 using a revised Aging Semantic Differential. Factor analyses indicated that addition of new adjective pairs and removal of old ones updated the instrument. Principal component analyses revealed four-factor structures for elderly men and elderly women, indicating gender differences in attitudes.…

  9. Attitudes toward Younger and Older Adults: The German Aging Semantic Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…

  10. Use of the Semantic Differential in Bilingualism Research and Its Relevance to Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, David; Bynner, John

    1981-01-01

    Study investigated bilingual subjects' perceptions of connotative differences between concepts in English and French using a form of the semantic differential in which the scales were derived from Cattell's 16 personality factors. Results show no significant differences in affective meaning between concepts within or across languages but…

  11. Analysis of gender differences in the perception of properties: An application for differential semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Llinares

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of differential semantics to identify the semantic space (structure used by men and women to describe their perception of properties on sale. 112 men and 43 women evaluated 112 images of flats on sale at the time of the study in the city of Valencia (Spain using 60 adjectives. The set of attributes or variables which capture the user’s perception of a property in his own words (semantic axes was identified using factor analysis of principal components. The semantic space of a property was described by 15 independent axes which explained 64% of the variability for males and 17 axes which explained 72.3% of the variance for females. The connection between the subject’s emotional response, expressed through the set of axes (15 for males and 17 for females and the global evaluation in terms of the purchase decision was established. The results demonstrated significant differences in the variables used by both genders to express their perception of a property on sale and the weight of these variables on the purchase decision.

  12. Reward is assessed in three dimensions that correspond to the semantic differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John G; Baddeley, Roland J

    2013-01-01

    If choices are to be made between alternatives like should I go for a walk or grab a coffee, a 'common currency' is needed to compare them. This quantity, often known as reward in psychology and utility in economics, is usually conceptualised as a single dimension. Here we propose that to make a comparison between different options it is important to know not only the average reward, but also both the risk and level of certainty (or control) associated with an option. Almost all objects can be the subject of choice, so if these dimensions are required in order to make a decision, they should be part of the meaning of those objects. We propose that this ubiquity is unique, so if we take an average over many concepts and domains these three dimensions (reward, risk, and uncertainty) should emerge as the three most important dimensions in the "meaning" of objects. We investigated this possibility by relating the three dimensions of reward to an old, robust and extensively studied factor analytic instrument known as the semantic differential. Across a very wide range of situations, concepts and cultures, factor analysis shows that 50% of the variance in rating scales is accounted for by just three dimensions, with these dimensions being Evaluation, Potency, and Activity [1]. Using a statistical analysis of internet blog entries and a betting experiment, we show that these three factors of the semantic differential are strongly correlated with the reward history associated with a given concept: Evaluation measures relative reward; Potency measures absolute risk; and Activity measures the uncertainty or lack of control associated with a concept. We argue that the 50% of meaning captured by the semantic differential is simply a summary of the reward history that allows decisions to be made between widely different options. PMID:23418445

  13. Departmentality :   The functional differentiation of systems & the decapitation of the body semantics - or: how to ground Luhmann's theory of functional differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2008-01-01

      Niklas Luhmann's system theory outlines a methodology that focuses empirical problems in depth. This is possible by means of an abductive use of an overwhelmingly accessibility to theoretical observations. However, this theory is itself a result of historical developments. It origins in a path of self-descriptive communications studied by Luhmann as semantic transformations. The paper goes back to Immanuel Kant's theory of systems and traces its origins on the basis of an evolution of a subdifferentiated legal system. Especially the semantic differentiation of forms is followed and takes a focus on semantic forms in chancellor H.-F. d'Aguesseau's and Fredrick the Great's self-description of power. The overall aim is to study the legacy and the strength of functional differentiation in state formation. How did the separated powers of functional differentiation emerge and how did it describe itself as difference to a reason of state?

  14. Generation Y, wine and alcohol. A semantic differential approach to consumption analysis in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Nicola; Fabbrizzi, Sara; Alampi Sottini, Veronica; Sacchelli, Sandro; Bernetti, Iacopo; Menghini, Silvio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study is the elicitation of the consumer's semantic perception of different alcoholic beverages in order to provide information for the definition of communication strategies for both the private sector (and specifically the wine industry) and the public decision maker. Such information can be seen as the basis of a wider social marketing construct aimed at the promotion of responsible drinking among young consumers. The semantic differential approach was used in this study. The data collection was based on a survey to 430 consumers between 18 and 35years old in Tuscany, Italy. The database was organized in a three-way structure, indexing the data in a multiway matrix. The data were processed using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Moreover, homogeneous clusters of consumers were identified using a Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) approach. The results of the study highlight that beer and spirits are mainly perceived as "Young", "Social", "Euphoric", "Happy", "Appealing" and "Trendy" beverages, while wine is associated mostly with terms such as "Pleasure", "Quality" and "Comfortable". Furthermore, the cluster analysis allowed for the identification of three groups of individuals with different approaches to alcohol drinking. The results of the study supply a useful information framework for the elaboration of specific communication strategies that, based on the drinking habits of young consumers and their perception of different beverages, can use a language that is very close to the consumer typologies. Such information can be helpful for both private and public communication strategies. PMID:24370355

  15. Application of a methodology for categorizing and differentiating urban soundscapes using acoustical descriptors and semantic-differential attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, A F

    2013-07-01

    A subjective and physical categorization of an ambient sound is the first step to evaluate the soundscape and provides a basis for designing or adapting this ambient sound to match people's expectations. For this reason, the main goal of this work is to develop a categorization and differentiation analysis of soundscapes on the basis of acoustical and perceptual variables. A hierarchical cluster analysis, using 15 semantic-differential attributes and acoustical descriptors to include an equivalent sound-pressure level, maximum-minimum sound-pressure level, impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level, sound-pressure level time course, and spectral composition, was conducted to classify soundscapes into different typologies. This analysis identified 15 different soundscape typologies. Furthermore, based on a discriminant analysis the acoustical descriptors, the crest factor (impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level), and the sound level at 125?Hz were found to be the acoustical variables with the highest impact in the differentiation of the recognized types of soundscapes. Finally, to determine how the different soundscape typologies differed from each other, both subjectively and acoustically, a study was performed. PMID:23862885

  16. Noetics in pastoral counselling: The making of a semantic differential analysis in pastoral care and counselling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniël J., Louw.

    Full Text Available Praxis in pastoral care and counselling entails more than merely practice and practicalities (communication skills). Praxis refers to the intentionality within human action and behaviour. Praxis exhibits the realm of intentionality and meaning as displayed within and by human attitudes. It is hypoth [...] esised that due to the noetic dimension in human actions, the making of a pastoral diagnosis (a qualitative assessment of the impact of Christian spirituality and the meaning on the system of existential, relational networking) should deal with the realm of significant and purposeful intentionality. The latter is already implied in the phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl's eidetic observation or inspection (phenomenological consciousness). In order to incorporate noetics in pastoral care and counselling, a pastoral semantic differential analysis (PSDA) within the making of a pastoral diagnosis was proposed. The PSDA was linked to the need for a qualitative approach regarding the impact of God-images on religious association and existential life experiences.

  17. The Use of Semantic Differential Scaling to Define the Multi-Dimensional Representation of Odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Pamela; Maute, Christopher; Oshida, Akiko; Hikichi, Satoshi; Izumi, Yu

    2008-01-01

    The mental representation elicited by smelling an odor often consists of multiple sensory and affective dimensions, yet, the richness of this elaboration is difficult to capture using methods to rate the intensity of these factors in isolation. Attempts to use language descriptors for olfactory experience have also been shown to be rather limited; among non-specialists, there is no universally accepted system for describing odors, leading to greater reliance on specific item associations. In this study we explored the utility of semantic differential scaling for illustrating the various dimensions of olfactory experience. 300 volunteers rated thirty distinct odorants using 50 SDS adjectives. Three factors emerged from the analysis (based on 17 adjective-pairs) accounting for 53% of the variance, and corresponding to the evaluation, potency and activity dimensions identified for other stimulus types. SD scaling appears to be a viable method for identifying the multiple dimensions of mental representation evoked when smelling an odorant and may prove a useful tool for both consumer and basic research alike. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Although numerous methods of classifying odors have been developed, little agreement has been achieved on the dimensions that are useful to both basic and consumer research. The identification of a set of Semantic Differential adjectives which are relevant to olfactory experience can become a useful tool for classifying the qualitative and affective basis on which odorants differ.. In particular, the degree to which odorants evokes multi-dimensional representations from other sensory modalities (visual, auditory, somatosensory or gustatory), can be usefully applied in the arena of product development both within and across cultures. PMID:19122880

  18. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (? = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1 are significantly down regulated. All down regulated genes in this panel were highly up regulated in most other types of cancers. These panels of proteins may represent signature biomarkers for lung cancer and will aid in lung cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring as well as in the prediction of responses to therapeutics.

  19. Assessment of the refined aging semantic differential: recommendations for enhancing validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Tan, Jing; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    The Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) by Rosencranz and McNevin (1969) is the most widely used instrument in gerontological and geriatric education to assess the stereotypic attitudes young people have toward older adults. Polizzi (2003) updated the ASD with current adjectives and reduced the instrument to a single latent factor, attitude. We examine the validity of this major instrument and describe the strengths and shortcomings. The instrument was administered to 199 medical students that participated in a national pilot project, Vital Visionaries, funded by National Institute on Aging. Confirmatory factory analysis using structural equation modeling (SEM) was used. Qualitative data captured stereotypic attitudes young people have toward older adults. SEM indexes suggest that a one-factor structure has poor fit. Qualitative analyses suggest medical students hold multiple dimensions of stereotypic attitudes toward older adults. We suggest that the latent factor, attitude, can be assessed with fewer observed items, thereby creating room for the additional latent factors. The resulting instrument could be just as short, but offer a more comprehensive assessment of young people's stereotypic attitudes toward older adults. PMID:20461618

  20. Differential activation of frontal lobe areas by lexical and semantic language tasks: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, David; Byrnes, Michelle L; Mastaglia, Frank L; Thickbroom, Gary W

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether frontal lobe regions, including Broca's area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), are differentially activated during lexical and semantic language tasks, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in eight healthy right-handed subjects silently performing two semantic tasks (adjective and verb generation) and a lexical retrieval task (noun recall). Activation was observed in Broca's area, DLPFC and SMA for all tasks. Broca's area activation was approximately doubled during the semantic tasks compared with the lexical task (verbs vs nouns: 19.1+/-4.5 vs 8.9+/-1.6 voxels, p=0.02; adjectives vs nouns 24.4+/-7.5 vs 10.1+/-2.8 voxels, p=0.04); however, there were no significant differences in the DLFPC or SMA across tasks. We conclude that Broca's area is more active during tasks that have a semantic content, whereas areas involved in preparatory processing (SMA) and memory retrieval (DLPFC) are engaged equally during both types of task. PMID:16410203

  1. Developmental Changes in Differential Incentive Effects on Semantic Elaboration in Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Robert S.; Witryol, Sam L.

    1979-01-01

    Incentive motivation effects on stimulus encoding of elementary school students was investigated by pairing words associated with two levels of semantic elaboration with two levels of monetary rewards and testing through recall. (CM)

  2. Judging the other: psychiatric nurses' attitudes towards identified inpatients as measured by the semantic differential technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, L; Ordell, M; Dahl, A; Hellzén, O

    2004-10-01

    Nurses' attitudes towards psychiatric patients can be expressed in terms of either a symptom-oriented approach or a personhood-focused approach where the latter is characterized by the ambition to establish a genuine and lasting relationship, while the former places the emphasis on correcting 'defective' patient behaviour. To study whether previous typologies found in a qualitative in-depth interview study exist in a larger quantitative investigation and, if so, to identify and describe a structure for the nurses' attitudes connected to each of the identified typologies. Six psychiatric group dwellings and six acute psychiatric hospital wards participated in the study. In all, 2700 assessments of 163 patients were sent out to 160 respondents and 2436 answers were returned, that is, the external dropout rate was 9.8%. The semantic differential technique was used. This is a method for quantifying the meaning that is attached to an identified phenomenon through series of bipolar pairs of adjectives. The scale has 57 bipolar pairs of adjectives, which estimates an unknown number of dimensions of nurses' attitudes towards an identified patient. The respondents' answers were analysed through entropy-based measures of association combined with structural plots. The analysis revealed that the four typologies existed as a delimited group, especially the groups of 'good' and 'evil' patients, while the 'crazy' and 'invisible' patients existed in a more blurred form. The analysis also revealed that the two groups, 'good' and 'evil', were connected to the nurses' ethical and aesthetic attitude structure, while the 'crazy' patients were linked to the cognitive structure and the 'invisible' patients to the empathetic structure. The study indicates that the two typologies, 'good' and 'evil', could be seen as each other's antithesis and, together with the other two typologies, 'crazy' and 'invisible', they touched upon a structure of the nurses' attitudes that was closely connected to a negative view of the patient except in one case -'the good' patients, which was probably based on his/her exterior symptoms. PMID:15450021

  3. Assessment of the Relatedness of Equivalent Stimuli through a Semantic Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoloti, Renato; de Rose, Julio C.

    2009-01-01

    If stimulus equivalence is a model of meaning, abstract stimuli should acquire the meaning of meaningful stimuli equivalent to them. In Experiment 1, college students matched faces expressing emotions to arbitrary pictures, forming three classes of equivalent stimuli, each comprising an emotional expression and three arbitrary pictures. Semantic…

  4. Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

  5. Differential effects of viewing positions on standard versus semantic Stroop interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Ludovic; Augustinova, Maria

    2014-04-01

    From their finding that the substantial magnitude of the Stroop interference that occurs when a participant's initial fixation is directed at the optimal viewing position is eliminated when the initial fixation is directed at the end of a word, Perret and Ducrot (2010) concluded that initial fixation at the latter position likely prevents reading. In the present study, we further examined this interpretation. To this end, the two conflict dimensions (semantic vs. response) that were confounded in the original work were separated within a semantically based Stroop paradigm (Neely & Kahan, 2001) that was administered with vocal (instead of manual) responses. In line with past findings showing greater interference in the vocal task, the reported results indicated that standard Stroop interference was reduced, but not eliminated, thus making the initial interpretation in terms of reading suppression unlikely. This conclusion is further strengthened by the presence of isolated semantic interference, the magnitude of which remained significant and was unaffected by viewing position. In sum, these results show that initial fixation of the end of a word simply reduces (nonsemantic) response competition. PMID:24002970

  6. Basic semantics of product sounds:

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan Vieira, E.; van Egmond, R

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two experiments, we determined eight factors that underlie the semantic associations of product sounds (attention, roughness, smoothness, temporal constancy, (un)familiarity, unpleasantness, machinery, a...

  7. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ksjeongl@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo [Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-ro, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  8. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  9. The Equal-Interval Nature of Semantic Differential Scales: An Empirical Investigation Using Fiedler's Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale and Magnitude Estimation and Case III Scaling Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriesheim, Chester A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Eighteen bipolar adjective pairs that are used in Fielder's Least Preferred (LPC) coworker instrument were examined using 2 scaling techniques with a sample of 113 respondents. Both pair-comparison treatments suggest that true bipolarity does not characterize most of the paired adjectives. Implications for LPC and semantic differential research…

  10. Análise da Validade e Precisão de Instrumento de Diferencial Semântico / Analysis of Validity and Precision of a Semantic Differential Instrument

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Henrique de, Almeida; Renato, Bortoloti; Paulo Roberto dos Santos, Ferreira; Patricia Waltz, Schelini; Julio César Coelho de, Rose.

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou evidências de validade e precisão de um instrumento de diferencial semântico que tem sido utilizado para medir a transferência de significados entre estímulos equivalentes. Um total de 196 estudantes universitários avaliou fotografias de faces expressando emoções e também figu [...] ras abstratas, utilizando um instrumento composto por 13 escalas bipolares ancoradas por adjetivos opostos. A análise fatorial dos dados coletados forneceu indicações da validade do instrumento e os coeficientes alfa obtidos indicam que os dois fatores extraídos nesta análise possuem níveis de precisão aceitáveis, embora um dos fatores deva ser revisto. Discute-se que o modelo de equivalência de estímulos, entendido como um modelo experimental de relações simbólicas, pode se beneficiar de instrumentos capazes de fornecer medidas válidas de transferência de significado. Abstract in english This study assessed evidence of validity and precision of a semantic differential test that has been used to measure the transfer of meaning among equivalent stimuli. Participants were 196 college students who evaluated pictures of faces expressing emotions and also abstract pictures using an instru [...] ment comprised by 13 bipolar scales anchored by opposite adjectives. The factor analysis of the data evidenced the validity of the instrument. Values of alpha coefficients indicated that the factors extracted by this analysis have acceptable levels of precision, although one of the factors might be revised. It is discussed that the stimulus equivalence paradigm, an experimental model for symbolic relations, can benefit from instruments that provide valid measures of meaning transfer.

  11. [Proposal for a modified method of semantic differential diagnosis in testing for stereotyping of the mentally ill patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, O

    2000-01-01

    In the paper, a proposal of using the semantic differential (by Osgood) for the research on social perception of mentally ill is presented. It allows for investigation of the basic attributes of the stereotype of psychiatric patient: social character, evaluative aspect, simplification, over-generalization of the opinion and its stiffness. The article presents the pilot results coming from the research in a group of students of psychology (first year of studying), who had no lectures in psychiatry by that time (N = 149). The results lead to the conclusion that the picture of mentally ill has social character, that is--some of its attributes are common for a majority of responders (over 77%). They also confirm (with a high certainty--coming to 79%) that most of mentally ill persons (64-80%) are unpredictable, lost, difficult to understand, introvert, unconscious, not self-possessed, excitable, threatening, aggressive and violent. The results show that in the portrait of mentally ill negative attributes are in majority. This portrait--so one-sided and negative--can be one of the basic predictores of social rejection of mentally ill persons. PMID:11202021

  12. Research on the scenic meaning of rooftop greening with semantic differential measure and join-count statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Koshimiz, H. [Meiji Univ., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture

    2006-07-01

    Clarification of the scenic improvement effects of rooftop greening are necessary in order to promote rooftop greening as one form of urban greenery. A study was conducted in order to establish a method for quantitatively clarifying the effects of rooftop greening in improving scenery. An evaluation experiment was conducted using photographs of actual rooftop greening. This paper discussed the methods and results of this study. The study extracted factors influencing scenery using the repertory grid technique, which investigates the style in which the theme is explored. An evaluation experiment was then conducted based on the semantic differential measure, which is a psychological estimation method, using the factors as the evaluation yardstick. In order to understand the relationship between the psychological evaluation and the scenery components, a multiple regression analysis and a factor analysis were also conducted. In addition, photographs of the scenery were made into a mesh form. The layout of greenery was quantitatively analysed using join-count statistics, which can calculate the degree to which two kinds of things are mixed within a space. It was concluded that the scenery of rooftop greening varies according to the distance between the viewers and the rooftop greening, the layout of the greenery, and the form of rooftop greening and that these factors need to be taken into account when planning rooftop greening. In addition, it was concluded that the importance of the medium distance view in external scenery lies in the degree to which the greenery is mixed, and that the degree of this mixing can be effectively gauged with join-count statistics. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Dynamic semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Dekker, Paul JE

    2012-01-01

    The first publication to include a condensed, yet complete treatment of anaphora and modality, this volume's integrated theory combines classical formal semantics and modern dynamic semantics without altering the fundamental linguistic paradigm.

  14. Generative Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  15. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory system, and…

  16. Visual Product Evaluation: Using the Semantic Differential to Investigate the Influence of Basic Vase Geometry on Users’ Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Maier, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Products evoke emotions in people. Emotions can influence purchase decisions and product evaluations. It is widely acknowledged that better product performance and higher user satisfaction can be reached through aesthetic design. However, when designing a new product, most of the attention is generally paid to enhance its functionality and usability and much less consideration is given to the emotional needs of users. This paper explores a methodology based on Emotional Design theory in order to discover implicit emotional needs of users toward product design and how they are related to very simple product features. Various forms of vases are used as a product case. Additionally, a compact list of product-specific semantic descriptors is proposed and used. Survey, interview techniques and statistical methods were performed in this paper, where significant correlations between semantic descriptors were found. A formal link between specific product features and how the products are perceived is introduced and the results were used to build prototype vases. A simple validation on aesthetic value was performed with the results confirming the general trend of the possibility to define perception from a simple set of geometric features.

  17. EL SEMANTICO DIFERENCIAL COMO PROPUESTA METODOLOGICA PARA CARACTERIZAR EL LIDERAZGO EN UNA ORGANIZACIÓN / THE DIFFERENTIAL SEMANTICS AS METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL TO CHARACTERIZE THE LEADERSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GIOVANNY, PEREZ ORTEGA; MARTÍN DARIO, ARANGO SERNA; JHON WILLIAM, BRANCH BEDOYA.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El liderazgo es un fenómeno esencial en la administración de cualquier tipo de organización, se refiere a un patrón de conducta según como lo perciben los demás, y se desarrolla a partir de experiencias, educación, capacitación y condiciones naturales. La primera parte de este artículo se dedica a r [...] ealizar una definición del liderazgo para luego clasificarlo en tres grupos: Liderazgo Transaccional, Liderazgo Transformacional y las teorías emergentes. A continuación se explican los pasos que componen la metodología propuesta para caracterizar el liderazgo en una organización la cual esta basada en la técnica de Semántica Diferencial de Osgood en la cual se construye una escala bipolar tipo diferencial semántico. Finalmente se muestran los resultados alcanzados de la aplicación de la metodología en las ONG en Antioquia, para lo cual se realiza una definición acerca de las ONG y las características percibidas de los líderes en esta clase de organizaciones en Antioquia. Abstract in english Leadership is a basic aspect f management for any type of organization, it refers to a behavioral pattern according to the perception of the other, and it is developed from experiences, education, capacity building and natural conditions. The first part of this paper focuses on defining leadership, [...] classifying it in three groups: transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and emergent theories. Later, there is a description of the steps that constitute a methodology proposed to characterize leadership in organizations. This methodology is grounded in the Osgood Differentiation Semantics, in which a bipolar scale of semantical differentiation type is constructed. Finally, results from the application of this methodology in NGO (Non-Governmental Organizations) in Antioquia are shown. A definition of NGOs is carried out, as well as a description of the perceived characteristics of NGO leaders in Antioquia.

  18. Database Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, the first step to connect relational databases with systems consequence (Kent: "System Consequence" 2009), is concerned with the semantics of relational databases. It aims to to study system consequence in the logical/semantic system of relational databases. The paper, which was inspired by and which extends a recent set of papers on the theory of relational database systems (Spivak: "Functorial Data Migration" 2012), is linked with work on the Information Flow F...

  19. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types.......Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  20. Development of a Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Evaluation of Sound Quality Using a Semantic Differential Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2013-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed. However, there is room for improvement particularly in terms of sound quality. BCU speech is accompanied by a strong high-pitched tone and contain some distortion. In this study, the sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulations] and air-conducted (AC) speech was quantitatively evaluated using semantic differential and factor analysis. The results showed that all the types of BCU speech had higher metallic and lower esthetic factor scores than AC speech. On the other hand, transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to AC speech generally; the transposed speech showed a higher powerfulness factor score than the other types of BCU speech and a higher esthetic factor score than DSB-SC speech. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  1. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017575313451Dekker, Paul. 2004. ‘Grounding Dynamic Semantics’. In Anne Bezuidenhout & Marga Reimer (eds. ‘Descriptions and Beyond: An Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays on Definite and Indefinite Descriptions and other Related Phenomena’, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Dekker, Paul. 2007. ‘Optimal Inquisitive Discourse’. In Maria Aloni, Alastair Butler & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Questions in Dynamic Semantics’, CRiSPI 17, pp. 83–101. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Frege, Gottlob. 1892. ‘Über Sinn und Bedeutung’. Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik NF 100: pp. 25–50.Ginzburg, Jonathan. 1995. ‘Resolving Questions, I & II’. Linguistics and Philosophy 18, no. 5,6: pp. 459–527 and 567–609.Ginzburg, Jonathan. To appear. The Interactive Stance: Meaning for Conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen. 1999. ‘The Logic of Interrogation’. In T. Matthews & D. Strolovitch (eds. ‘Proceedings of SALT IX’, Also appeared in Aloni, M., Butler, A., and Dekker, P., 2007, Questions in Dynamic Semantics, CRiSPI, Elsevier.: CLC Publications.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Roelofsen, Floris. 2009. ‘Inquisitive Semantics and Pragmatics’. In Jesus M. Larrazabal & Larraitz Zubeldia (eds. ‘Meaning, Content, and Argument: Proceedings of the ILCLI International Workshop on Semantics, Pragmatics, and Rhetoric’, Bilbao: University of the Basque Country Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Stokhof, Martin. 1991. ‘Dynamic Predicate Logic’. Linguistics and Philosophy 14, no. 1: pp. 39–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628304Hulstijn, Joris. 1997. ‘Structured Information States. Raising and Resolving Issues’. In Anton Benz & Gerhard Jäger (eds. ‘Proceedings of MunDial97’, pp. 99–117. University of Munich.Jäger, Gerhard. 1996. ‘Only Updates. On the Dynamics of the Focus Particle only’. In Martin Stokhof & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Tenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, pp. 387–405. Amsterdam: ILLC, University of Amsterdam.Lascarides, Alex & Asher, Nicholas. 2009. ‘The Interpreta

  2. Making secure Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Adis Medi?; Adis Golubovi?

    2010-01-01

    this paper first describes ways of semantic web security implementation through layers. These layers are presented as a backbone for semantic web architecture and are represented in XML security, RDF security and in an idea of semantic web security standardization.

  3. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such

  4. Semantic Annotation: The Mainstay of Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Slimani, Thabet

    2013-01-01

    Given that semantic Web realization is based on the critical mass of metadata accessibility and the representation of data with formal knowledge, it needs to generate metadata that is specific, easy to understand and well-defined. However, semantic annotation of the web documents is the successful way to make the Semantic Web vision a reality. This paper introduces the Semantic Web and its vision (stack layers) with regard to some concept definitions that helps the understan...

  5. The semantics of biological forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language. PMID:25669053

  6. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  7. Elucidating semantic disorganisation from a word comprehension task: do patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show differential processing of nouns, verbs and adjectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Susan L; Batty, Rachel A

    2008-07-01

    Memory deficits have been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the precise impact of semantic memory deficits on word comprehension, particularly across grammatical categories, has not been adequately investigated in these disorders. Furthermore, previous studies examining semantic memory have predominantly been designed so that most healthy controls perform at ceiling, questioning the validity of observed differences between patient and control groups. A new word definition task examined word comprehension across grammatical categories, i.e. nouns, verbs and adjectives, and was designed to overcome the ceiling effect. It was administered to 32 schizophrenia patients, 28 bipolar disorder patients and 32 matched healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients had a global impairment on the task but bipolar patients were only impaired on a recognition memory component. Word comprehension, however, across grammatical categories was comparable across groups. PMID:18495434

  8. Semantic relation vs. surprise: the differential effects of related and unrelated co-verbal gestures on neural encoding and subsequent recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Benjamin; Meyer, Lea; Green, Antonia; Kircher, Tilo

    2014-06-01

    Speech-associated gesturing leads to memory advantages for spoken sentences. However, unexpected or surprising events are also likely to be remembered. With this study we test the hypothesis that different neural mechanisms (semantic elaboration and surprise) lead to memory advantages for iconic and unrelated gestures. During fMRI-data acquisition participants were presented with video clips of an actor verbalising concrete sentences accompanied by iconic gestures (IG; e.g., circular gesture; sentence: "The man is sitting at the round table"), unrelated free gestures (FG; e.g., unrelated up down movements; same sentence) and no gestures (NG; same sentence). After scanning, recognition performance for the three conditions was tested. Videos were evaluated regarding semantic relation and surprise by a different group of participants. The semantic relationship between speech and gesture was rated higher for IG (IG>FG), whereas surprise was rated higher for FG (FG>IG). Activation of the hippocampus correlated with subsequent memory performance of both gesture conditions (IG+FG>NG). For the IG condition we found activation in the left temporal pole and middle cingulate cortex (MCC; IG>FG). In contrast, for the FG condition posterior thalamic structures (FG>IG) as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices were activated (FG>NG). Our behavioral and fMRI-data suggest different mechanisms for processing related and unrelated co-verbal gestures, both of them leading to enhanced memory performance. Whereas activation in MCC and left temporal pole for iconic co-verbal gestures may reflect semantic memory processes, memory enhancement for unrelated gestures relies on the surprise response, mediated by anterior/posterior cingulate cortex and thalamico-hippocampal structures. PMID:24746497

  9. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Splendiani Andrea; Burger Albert; Paschke Adrian; Romano Paolo; Marshall M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more be...

  10. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  11. Syntax versus Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Reinhard; Keller, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    We report on the idea to use colours to distinguish syntax and semantics as an educational tool in logic classes. This distinction gives also reason to reflect on some philosophical issues concerning semantics.

  12. Right Hemispheric Participation in Semantic Decision Improves Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Kiely M.; Jane B. Allendorfer; Jerzy P Szaflarski

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in healthy adults demonstrate involvement of a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions during a variety of semantic processing tasks. While these areas are believed to be fundamental to semantic processing, it is unclear if task performance is correlated with differential recruitment of these or other brain regions. The objective of this study was to identify the structures underlying improved accuracy on a semantic decision task. We...

  13. The Semantics of Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Sablayrolles, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic study of motion complexes (ie. of a motion verb followed by a spatial preposition). We focus on the spatial and the temporal intrinsic semantic properties of the motion verbs, on the one hand, and of the spatial prepositions, on the other hand. Then, we address the problem of combining these basic semantics in order to formally and automatically derive the spatiotemporal semantics of a motion complex from the spatiotemporal properties of i...

  14. The Semantics of Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Sablayrolles, P

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic study of motion complexes (ie. of a motion verb followed by a spatial preposition). We focus on the spatial and the temporal intrinsic semantic properties of the motion verbs, on the one hand, and of the spatial prepositions, on the other hand. Then, we address the problem of combining these basic semantics in order to formally and automatically derive the spatiotemporal semantics of a motion complex from the spatiotemporal properties of its components.

  15. Measuring semantic complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Zadrozny, W

    1995-01-01

    We define {\\em semantic complexity} using a new concept of {\\em meaning automata}. We measure the semantic complexity of understanding of prepositional phrases, of an "in depth understanding system", and of a natural language interface to an on-line calendar. We argue that it is possible to measure some semantic complexities of natural language processing systems before building them, and that systems that exhibit relatively complex behavior can be built from semantically simple components.

  16. The Social Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Breslin, John G

    2009-01-01

    Presenting a short overview of both the Social Web and the Semantic Web, this title describes some popular social media and social networking applications, lists their strengths and limitations, and explains some applications of Semantic Web technology to address their shortcomings by enhancing them with semantics

  17. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...... semantics from another....

  18. Evaluating Feature-Category Relations Using Semantic Fluency Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, P.; Morais, J.; Kolinsky, R.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between semantic features and semantic categories has been raised by Warrington and colleagues, who claimed that sensory and functional-associative features are differentially important in determining the meaning of living and nonliving things (Warrington & McCarthy, 1983, 1987; Warrington & Shallice, 1984). In the…

  19. Is Semantics Physical?!

    CERN Document Server

    Koleva, Maria K

    2010-01-01

    It is demonstrated that under the hypothesis of boundedness, the semantics appears as a property of spontaneous physical processes. It turns that both semantic structure and semantic meaning have their own physical agents each of which is represented trough generic for the state space property. The boundedness sets an exclusive two-fold representation of a semantic unit: as a specific sequence of letters and as a performance of a specific engine so that their interplay serves as grounds for building a multi-layer hierarchy of semantic structures. It is established that in this setting the semantics admits both non-extensivity, permutation sensitivity and Zipf`s law. The robustness of the hierarchical organization of semantic structures is maintained by new generic form of non-local feedback that appears as a result of the necessary for sustaining boundeness matter wave emitting.

  20. Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Ting; Pinker, Steven

    2010-12-01

    Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) Lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) Semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; (3) Morphological structure effects, in which a word with a headless structure (e.g., a verb derived from a noun) blocks access to a stored irregular form; (4) Compositionality effects, in which the stored combination of an irregular word's meaning (e.g., the verb's inherent aspect) with the meaning of the inflection (e.g., pastness) doesn't readily transfer to new senses with different combinations of such meanings. In four experiments, speakers were presented with existing and novel verbs and asked to rate their past-tense forms, semantic similarities, grammatical structure, and aspectual similarities. We found (1) an interaction between semantic and phonological similarity, coinciding with reported strategies of analogizing to known verbs and implicating lexical effects; (2) weak and inconsistent effects of semantic similarity; (3) robust effects of morphological structure, and (4) robust effects of aspectual compositionality. Results are consistent with theories of language that invoke lexical entries and morphological structure, and which differentiate the mode of storage of regular and irregular verbs. They also suggest how psycholinguistic processes have shaped vocabulary structure over history. PMID:21151703

  1. Visualizing and Structuring Semantic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Mäenpää

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is proposed a method for representing semantic data and knowledge. The method is based two foundational concepts: semantic link network and adjacency model. The method allows graph presentations of semantic data and it preserves the semantic relationships between the concepts of the domain. Furthermore with the methodit is possible construct relational model of the semantically rich data.

  2. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  3. Super Rough Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this research a new algebraic semantics of rough set theory including additional meta aspects is proposed. The semantics is based on enhancing the standard rough set theory with notions of 'relative ability of subsets of approximation spaces to approximate'. The eventual algebraic semantics is developed via many deep results in convexity in ordered structures. A new variation of rough set theory, namely 'ill-posed rough set theory' in which it may suffice to know some of ...

  4. Benchmarking Semantic Web technology

    OpenAIRE

    García-Castro, Raúl

    2008-01-01

    Semantic Web technologies need to interchange ontologies for further use. Due to the heterogeneity in the knowledge representation formalisms of the different existing technologies, interoperability is a problem in the SemanticWeb and the limits of the interoperability of current technologies are yet unknown. A massive improvement of the interoperability of current SemanticWeb technologies, or of any other characteristic of these technologies, requires continuous evaluations that should be de...

  5. Towards semantic web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Berendt, Bettina; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd

    2002-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. The idea is to improve, on the one hand, the results of Web Mining by exploiting the new semantic structures in the Web; and to make use of Web Mining, on overview of where the two areas meet today, and sketches ways of how a closer integration could be profitable.

  6. Semantic Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Misha Mehra,; Nishant Kumar

    2011-01-01

    With changing technology, the Internet has taken a pivotal role in all kinds of applications in our daily lives. To handle flood of information on the Internet, smarter Web technology is also required. This requirement has led to the advent of newer, smarter and better Web technology called 'Semantic Web'. Semantic Web is the next step in Web evolution. High usability of Semantic Web has found significant applications in the field of life sciences, crime investigation, scientific research, li...

  7. Semantic Service Oriented Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Di Marzo Serugendo, Giovanna; Deriaz, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new prototype of a semantic Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) called Spec Services. Instead of publishing their API through a protocol like SOAP, as Web Services do, services can register to a service manager a powerful syntactic description or even semantic description of their capabilities. The client entity will then send a syntactic or semantic description of its requirements to the service manager, which will try to find an appropriate formerly registered service...

  8. Characterizing semantic web services

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano, Marcelo; Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Estevez, Elsa Clara

    2004-01-01

    Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which data contained in the web documents are machine-understandable. On the other hand, Web Services provide a new model of the web in which sites exchange dynamic information on demand. Combination of both introduces a new concept named Semantic Web Services in which semantic information is added to the different activities involved in Web Services, such as discovering, publication, composition, etc. In this paper, we analyze several ...

  9. Frame-Semantic Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Dipanjan; Chen, Desai; Martins, André F. T.; Schneider, Nathan; Smith, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Frame semantics is a linguistic theory that has been instantiated for English in the FrameNet lexicon. We solve the problem of frame-semantic parsing using a two-stage statistical model that takes lexical targets (i.e., content words and phrases) in their sentential contexts and predicts frame-semantic structures. Given a target in context, the first stage disambiguates it to a semantic frame. This model uses latent variables and semi-supervised learning to improve frame disambiguation for ta...

  10. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  11. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  12. Semantic MediaWiki.

    OpenAIRE

    Krötzsch, M; Vrandecic, D; Völkel, M; Cruz, IF (Isabel); Decker, S; Allemang, D; Preist, C; Schwabe, D (Daniel); Mika, P (Peter); Uschold, M; Aroyo, L.

    2006-01-01

    Semantic MediaWiki is an extension of MediaWiki - a widely used wild-engine that also powers Wikipedia. Its aim is to make semantic technologies available to a broad community by smoothly integrating them with the established usage of MediaWiki. The software is already used on a number of productive installations world-wide, but the main target remains to establish "Semantic Wikipedia" as an early adopter of semantic technologies on the web. Thus usability and scalability are as important as ...

  13. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  14. Semantic search: issues and technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demich Olga Valerievna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems and general algorithm of a semantic search are considered in the paper. Distinctive features of the semantic search algorithm are described. The existing realization problems of semantic search engines are revealed.

  15. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics. PMID:26103601

  16. Semantics of Statebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj Lervad

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Raki?, Petar Bojani?. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp.......Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Raki?, Petar Bojani?. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp....

  17. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  18. Semantic Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya S. Sahoo, "Semantic Sensor Web," IEEE Internet Computing, 12 (4), July-August 2008, pp. 78-83. http://knoesis.wright.edu/research/semsci/application_domain/sem_sensor/ [2] Amit Sheth and Matthew Perry, "Traveling the Semantic Web through Space, Time and Theme," IEEE Internet Computing, 12 (2), February-March 2008. http://knoesis.org/research/semweb/projects/stt/

  19. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  20. Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, N.; Skidmore, A.K.; Werff, H.M.A., van der; Groen, T.A.; De Boer, W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.; Kohi, E.; Peel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development....

  1. Semdrops: A Social Semantic Tagging Approach for Emerging Semantic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Diego; Diaz, Alicia; Skaf-Molli, Hala; Molli, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract--This paper proposes a collective intelligence strategy for emerging semantic data. It presents a combination of social web practices with semantic web technologies to enrich existing web resources with semantic data. The paper introduces a social semantic tagging approach called Semdrops. Semdrops de?nes a conceptual model which is an extension of the Gruber's tag model where the tag concept is extended to semantic tag. Semdrops is implemented as a Firefox add-on tool that turns the...

  2. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  3. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  4. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  5. SEMANTIC WEB (CREATING AND QUERYING)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya S. Dandagi; Dr. Nandini Sidna

    2016-01-01

    Semantic Web is a system that allows machines to understand complex human requests. Depending on the meaning semantic web replies. Semantics is the learning of the meanings of linguistic appearance. It is the main branch of contemporary linguistics. Semantics is meaning of words, text or a phrase and relations between them. RDF provides essential support to the Semantic Web. To represent distributed information RDF is created. Applications can use RDF created and process it in an adaptive man...

  6. Organizational Semantic Web based Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Necula, Sabina-Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tries to treat organizational semantic web based portals. The first part of the paper focuses on concepts regarding semantic web based portals. After discussing some concepts we treat the basic functionalities that a semantic web based portal must have and we finish by presenting these functionalities by actual examples. We present semantic web based portals after studying the necessary implementations from literature and practice. We develop some examples that use semantic web ...

  7. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  8. Semantics for Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    van Harmelen, Frank; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Hendler, James A.; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Hitzler, Pascal; Wright State University; Janowicz, Krzysztof; University of California, Santa Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduction summarizes the seven guest-edited contributions to AI Magazine that explore opportunities and challenges arising from transferring and adapting semantic web technologies to the big data quest.

  9. "Pre-semantic" cognition revisited: critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T; Hopper, Samantha; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and "regularization errors" (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of "pre-semantic" processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven "pre-semantic" tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularization errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single-case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on "pre-semantic" tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory. PMID:19766662

  10. Semantic based DNS Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages semantic and natural language processing tools in order to analyze large volumes of DNS data. The main research novelty consists in detecting malicious and dangerous domain names by evaluating the semantic similarity with already known names. This process can provide valuable information for...

  11. Semantic transfer in Verbmobil

    OpenAIRE

    Copestake, Ann

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a detailed discussion of semantic transfer in the context of the Verbmobil Machine Translation project. The use of semantic transfer as a translation mechanism is introduced and justified by comparison with alternative approaches. Some criteria for evaluation of transfer frameworks are discussed and a comparison is made of three different approaches to the representation of translation rules or equivalences. This is followed by a discussion of control of application of transfer ...

  12. Semantic Game Worlds:

    OpenAIRE

    Tutenel, T.

    2012-01-01

    The visual quality of game worlds increased massively in the last three decades. However, the closer game worlds depict reality, the more noticeable it is for gamers when objects do not behave accordingly. An important problem is that the data of a game world is often scattered across different components of the game engine. What lacks is a common semantic representation that can act as the glue between these components. In this thesis we define semantic game worlds as game worlds that ar...

  13. Uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto: evaluación mediante diferencial semántico Use of the mirror in the second stage of labor: evaluation by means of semantic differential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio José Becerra-Maya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: examinar la actitud de la mujer y su pareja, sobre el uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado en el Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón. A partir de un estudio piloto realizado sobre una muestra de 92 sujetos, se elaboró una escala de 14 ítems basada en la técnica del diferencial semántico. Una muestra de 159 sujetos completó la escala así como el cuestionario estado-rasgo (STAI. Resultados: el porcentaje de aceptación fue del 90%. Las puntuaciones medias superan el valor neutro en todos los ítems. El 88,5% (IC 95%:78,8 a 98,1 de la mujeres que experimentaron la vivencia consideraron que el uso del espejo estimula pujar frente al 73,6% (IC 95%:62,7 a 84,4 que lo manifestaron como expectativa. Conclusiones: El uso del espejo durante el periodo expulsivo es valorado favorablemente por la mayoría de las mujeres y sus parejas.Aims: To know the attitude of the woman and her partner the use of the mirror in the second stage of labor. Methods: This descriptive cross - sectional study was carried at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, Spain. The data were collected using an 14 Items scale based on the semantic differential technique developed from a pilot study with 92 subjects. A sample de 159 subjects they completed the scale, as well as the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results: The percentage of acceptance was of 90%. The mean score in the scale overcame the neutral value in all items. The 88,5% (CI 95%:78,8 a 98,1 of women who experienced the experience thought that the use of the mirror stimulates to push versus 73,6% (CI 95%:62,7 a 84,4 before the delivery. Conclusions: The use of the mirror during the second stage of labor is valued favorably by the majority of the women and her pairs.

  14. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  15. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the Worl...

  16. A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Denhière, Guy; Lemaire, Benoît; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is des...

  17. The Semantic SPASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide the means to easily implement semantic search for science data archives using space science data models and metadata. It also suggests the means to support correlative search across science disciplines, missions, and instruments since multiple ontologies can be gathered together for processing . Finally broad scope interoperability can be envisioned where semantically aware software agents reason about and process distributed science data repositories.

  18. Semantic Changes of Gerund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickien?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, semantic models of gerund in the Lithuanian language are being investigated. Their productivity and the reasons of their change in the Lithuanian language are identified. The tendency to use gerund semantic structure in noun constructions is typical not only in Greek or Latin languages but also in English, Russian, etc. Regular polysemy is regarded as semantic derivation, i. e. shifting from main meanings to derivative ones. The object of this investigation is the usage patterns of gerunds which bear both the meaning of a verb and a noun. The examples for the present study have been gathered from the language of different Lithuanian dialects as well as from the Dictionary of the Lithuanian language (different volumes, etc. The research results reveal that semantic changes of object and result are the most productive, whereas mood or time semantic model proved to be not so productive. The productivity of regular models depends on the fact that there are suffix derivatives which have the meaning of a result. The research shows that scientific style and language of different dialects are rich in the use of gerund.

  19. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  20. Implicit learning of semantic preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Paciorek, Albertyna

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD dissertation examines the phenomenon of semantic implicit learning, using semantic preferences of novel verbs as a test case. Implicit learning refers to the phenomenon of learning without intending to learn or awareness that one is learning at all. Semantic preference (or selectional preference – as preferred in computational linguistics) is the tendency of a word to co-occur with words sharing similar semantic features. For example, ‘drink’ is typically fo...

  1. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  2. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  3. Defaults, preorder semantics and circumscription

    OpenAIRE

    Schlechta, Karl

    1992-01-01

    We examine questions related to translating defaults into circumscription. Imielinski has examined the concept of preorder semantics as an abstraction from specific systems of circumscription. We give precise definitions, characterize preorder semantics syntactically and examine the translatability of one default into preorder semantics. Finally, we give a rather bleak outlook on the translation of defaults into circumscription.

  4. A Timed Semantics for SDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Sharp, Robin

    An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics...

  5. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  6. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  7. Affective Dimension of University Professors about their Teaching: An Exploration through the Semantic Differential Technique / Dimensión afectiva de los profesores universitarios sobre la enseñanza: Una exploratoración através de la técnica del diferencial semántico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antoni, Badia Garganté; Julio, Meneses; Carles, Monereo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este estudio es incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las emociones de los profesores sobre su enseñanza, como un componente de la identidad docente. En la primera parte, presentamos una revisión comprensiva sobre la literatura acerca del tipo de emociones de los profes [...] ores y la enseñanza. En la segunda parte presentamos los resultados de un estudio de validez con una escala de diferencial semántico desarrollada para explorar las emociones de profesores universitarios sobre su enseñanza. Esta escala fue diligenciada por una muestra de 198 profesores universitarios y consistió en una lista de pares de adjetivos bipolares que resumen una gran cantidad de clasificaciones affectivas sobre la enseñanza en educación superior. El análisis factorial expoloratorio revela una estructura de tres factores de emociones sobre la enseñanza en educación superior: motivación para la enseñanza, auto-evaluación docente, y desempeño en la enseñanza. El cruzamiento de la escala con la aproximación docente de Trigwell y Prosser (2004) se analiza y se discute. Los resultados sugieren nuevas líneas de investigación acerca de las emociones de los profesores en educación superior, proponiendo estudios futuros para reunión una mayor evidencia de validez sobre las dimensiones afectivas en la enseñanza. Abstract in english The main objective of this study is to increase our knowledge regarding professors' emotions about their teaching, as a component of teacher identity. In the first part, we present a comprehensive review of the literature about the types of teachers' emotions and teaching. In the second part we pres [...] ent the results of a validity study with a semantic differential scale developed to explore the emotions of university professors about their teaching. This scale was fulfilled by a sample of198 university teachers and comprises a list of pairs of bi-polar adjectives that summarize a broad range of affective classifications about teaching in higher education. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three -factor structure of emotions about teaching in higher education: Motivation for teaching, Evaluation of oneself as a teacher, and Teaching performance. The cross-referencing of the scale to Trigwell and Prosser's (2004) teachers' approaches to teaching is analysed and discussed. Our results suggest new lines of research about teachers' emotions in higher education, proposing further studies to collect more validity evidences about the affective dimensions of teaching.

  8. A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory

    CERN Document Server

    Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

  9. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...... based on denotational semantics and we identify the need for extending the semantic universe with low constructs whose sole purpose is to facilitate the proof. For dealing with partial correctness it suffices to consider approximations that are less defined than the desired fixed points; for dealing...

  10. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differenti...

  11. Universal Semantics in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  12. Semantic-based Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Dorna, Michael; Emele, Martin

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a new semantic-based transfer approach developed and applied within the Verbmobil Machine Translation project. We give an overview of the declarative transfer formalism together with its procedural realization. Our approach is discussed and compared with several other approaches from the MT literature. The results presented in this article have been implemented and integrated into the Verbmobil system.

  13. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  14. Universal Semantics in Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenying Wang

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which applications are also briefly looked into.

  15. Semantic and Lexical Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    Helping students understand coherence in terms of the lexical ties and semantic relations possible between clauses and sentences formalizes an area of writing instruction that has been somewhat vague before and makes the process of creating a coherent paragraph less mysterious. Many students do not have the intuitive knowledge base for absorbing…

  16. From Data to Semantic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Floridi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  17. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  18. Semantic Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent, Etter

    2011-01-01

    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

  19. Whither Experimental Semantics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to propose a methodology for the theory of reference in which experiments feature prominently. These experiments should primarily test linguistic usage rather than the folk’s referential intuitions. The proposed methodology urges the use of: (A philosophers’ referential intuitions, both informally and, occasionally, scientifically gathered; (B the corpus, both informally and scientifically gathered; (C elicited production; and, occasionally, (D folk’s referential intuitions. The most novel part of this is (C and that is where most of the experimental work should be. The secondary goal of the paper is to defend my earlier paper “Experimental Semantics” from the criticisms of Machery, Mallon, Nichols, and Stich in “If Folk Intuitions Vary, Then What?” They charge that I have seriously misunderstood their goal in “Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style” and that many of my arguments are “largely irrelevant”. I argue that these charges are baseless.

  20. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Šimko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Many applications depend on the effective acquisition of semantic metadata, and this state-of-the-art volume provides extensive coverage of the field of semantics acquisition games (SAGs). SAGs are a part of the crowdsourcing approach family and the authors analyze their role as tools for acquisition of resource metadata and domain models. Three case studies of SAG-based semantics acquisition methods are shown, along with other existing SAGs: 1. the Little Search Game - a search query formulation game using negative search, serving for acquisition of lightweight semantics. 2. the PexAce - a ca

  1. Where Are the Semantics in the Semantic Web?

    OpenAIRE

    Uschold, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The most widely accepted defining feature of the semantic web is machine-usable content. By this definition, the semantic web is already manifest in shopping agents that automatically access and use web content to find the lowest air fares or book prices. However, where are the semantics? Most people regard the semantic web as a vision, not a reality -- so shopping agents should not "count." To use web content, machines need to know what to do when they encounter it, which, in turn, requires ...

  2. Semantic Social Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Erétéo, Guillaume; Gandon, Fabien; Corby, Olivier; Buffa, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) tries to understand and exploit the key features of social networks in order to manage their life cycle and predict their evolution. Increasingly popular web 2.0 sites are forming huge social network. Classical methods from social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to such online networks. In this paper, we propose leveraging semantic web technologies to merge and exploit the best features of each domain. We present how to facilitate and e...

  3. Semantic Exploration of DNS

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme; Wagner, Cynthia; Engel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DNS structure discloses useful information about the organization and the operation of an enterprise network, which can be used for designing attacks as well as monitoring domains supporting malicious activities. Thus, this paper introduces a new method for exploring the DNS domains. Although our previous work described a tool to generate existing DNS names accurately in order to probe a domain automatically, the approach is extended by leveraging semantic analysis of domain names. In par...

  4. Semantic trajectory compression

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, F.; Richter, K F; Laube, P

    2009-01-01

    In the light of rapidly growing repositories capturing the movement tra jectories of people in spacetime, the need for tra jectory compression becomes obvious. This paper argues for semantic trajectory compression (STC) as a means of substantially compressing the movement trajectories in an urban environment with acceptable information loss. STC exploits that human urban movement and its large–scale use (LBS, navigation) is embedded in some geographic context, typically de?ned by tran...

  5. Questionnaire on focus semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Renans, Agata; Zimmermann, Malte; Greif, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This is the 15th issue of the working paper series Interdisciplinary Studies on Information Structure (ISIS) of the Sonderforschungsbereich (SFB) 632. This online version contains the Questionnaire on Focus Semantics contributed by Agata Renans, Malte Zimmermann and Markus Greif, members of Project D2 investigating information structural phenomena from a typological perspective. The present issue provides a tool for collecting and analyzing natural data with respect to relevant linguistic que...

  6. Metaphor and Lexical Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Glanzberg

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This paper shows that several sorts of expressions cannot be interpreted metaphorically, including determiners, tenses, etc. Generally, functional categories cannot be interpreted metaphorically, while lexical categories can. This reveals a semantic property of functional categories, and it shows that metaphor can be used as a probe for investigating them. It also reveals an important linguistic constraint on metaphor. The paper argues this constraint applies to the interface betwee...

  7. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  8. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.

  9. Semantic Search Engine: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusree.ramachandran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search engines which gives the selected results which the user searching for. So here in this paper, a survey is done about the semantic search engines to revel the promising features of the semantic search engines(SSE.It deals about the description of some of the best semantic search engines

  10. Computing Semantic Relatedness using DBPedia

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, José Paulo; Rodrigues, Vânia; Queirós, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Extracting the semantic relatedness of terms is an important topic in several areas, including data mining, information retrieval and web recommendation. This paper presents an approach for computing the semantic relatedness of terms using the knowledge base of DBpedia - a community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia. Several approaches to extract semantic relatedness from Wikipedia using bag-of-words vector models are already available in the literature. The research pre...

  11. Towards a Semantic Grid Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Goble, Carole

    2005-01-01

    The Semantic Grid is an extension of the current Grid in which information and services are given well defined and explicitly represented meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. In the last few years, several projects have embraced this vision and there are already successful pioneering applications that combine the strengths of the Grid and of semantic technologies. However, the Semantic Grid currently lacks a reference architecture, or a systematic approach for...

  12. Semantic modelling and lexical knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ortiz, Antonio

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper I describe the conceptual level of representation of a database, currently in development, which aims at fulfilling the Functional-Lexematic model. I will concentrate on the semantic component, as it is central for the theory of Functional Grammar as well as for the database overall structure. A brief introduction to database architecture and more specifically, semantic modelling, is provided. The focus is on semantic modelling as a useful tool to represent lexical inform...

  13. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  14. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  15. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  16. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionariesSome semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  17. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  18. Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Marko A.; Bollen, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meani...

  19. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself, but by the specific way that the materials are used in the product. Selection of materials is therefore often done by looking at similar products. The product as well as its constitutive materials possesses a number of technical properties like strength, stiffness and hardness. Furthermore the product possesses a number of semantic properties associated with the meaning we read from the form, colour, texture and sound of the product. The purpose of working with these properties can be to make the use of the product more self-evident, to form or enhance the cultural meaning of the product and to give the product a distinct character. For the technical properties there exists a well developed and commonly accepted terminology that can be utilised at product search and material selection (Ashby 1996). This is not the case for the semantic properties which are important for the outcome reflecting the product design processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material search also require a clear terminology. It is not our aim to identify a new terminology but rather to identify the terminology already in use. The paper also describes different research methods for identifying such a terminology.

  20. Semantic and Process Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Oscar Fernández Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management systems support education at different levels of the education. This is very important for the process in which the higher education of Cuba is involved. Structural transformations of teaching are focused on supporting the foundation of the information society in the country. This paper describes technical aspects of the designing of a model for the integration of multiple knowledgemanagement tools supporting teaching. The proposal is based on the definition of an ontology for the explicit formal description of the semantic of motivations of students and teachers in the learning process. Its target is to facilitate knowledge spreading.

  1. Universal semantic communication

    CERN Document Server

    Juba, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Is meaningful communication possible between two intelligent parties who share no common language or background? In this work, a theoretical framework is proposed in which it is possible to address when and to what extent such semantic communication is possible: such problems can be rigorously addressed by explicitly focusing on the goals of the communication. Under this framework, it is possible to show that for many goals, communication without any common language or background is possible using universal protocols. This work should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate-level knowled

  2. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    specific way that the materials are used in the product. Selection of materials is therefore often done by looking at similar products. The product as well as its constitutive materials possesses a number of technical properties like strength, stiffness and hardness. Furthermore the product possesses a...... distinct character. For the technical properties there exists a well developed and commonly accepted terminology that can be utilised at product search and material selection (Ashby 1996). This is not the case for the semantic properties which are important for the outcome reflecting the product design...

  3. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  4. Semantic Feature Distinctiveness and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Katherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access is the process in which basic components of meaning in language, the lexical entries (words) are activated. This activation is based on the organization and representational structure of the lexical entries. Semantic features of words, which are the prominent semantic characteristics of a word concept, provide important information…

  5. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  6. The semantic planetary data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  7. Evolutionary Self-Adaptive Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhasz, Rafael; Stern, Julio M.

    2011-03-01

    We present SASC, Self-Adaptive Semantic Crossover, a new class of crossover operators for genetic programming. SASC operators are designed to induce the emergence and then preserve good building-blocks, using meta-control techniques based on semantic compatibility measures. SASC performance is tested in a case study concerning the replication of investment funds.

  8. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one based on denotational semantics and we identify the need for extending the semantic universe with low constructs whose sole purpose is to facilitate the proof. For dealing with partial correctness it suffices to consider approximations that are less defined than the desired fixed points; for dealing with total correctness we introduce functions that are more defined than the fixed points

  9. On Semantic Information in Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Johannsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The connection between semantic information and evolution has gained growing attention recently. Evolution in this contribution—as in others before—we consider as being driven by information. Semantic information, as we consider it, is based on energy. It follows syntactic and semantic rules. We assume syntax, semantics and pragmatics to be structural features of information in biological evolution. These features started to evolve with the very beginning of life and have become more complex and richer in the course of the unfolding biological evolution across all species. We argue that semantic information is an exclusive feature of biological evolution. We present an information model covering this which to a certain degree—it does not cover quantitative aspects—complements Shannon’s information theory and opens novel views on informational based processes in nature.

  10. Psychologizing the Semantics of Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Woods

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychologiser la sémantique de la fictionLes théoriciens sémantistes de la fiction cherchent typiquement à expliquer nos relations sémantiques au fictionnel dans le contexte plus général des théories de la référence, privilégiant une explication de la sémantique sur le psychologique. Dans cet article, nous défendons une dépendance inverse. Par l’éclaircissement de nos relations psychologiques au fictionnel, nous trouverons un guide pour savoir comment développer une sémantique de la fiction. S’ensuivra une esquisse de la sémantique.Semantic theorists of fiction typically look for an account of our semantic relations to the fictional within general-purpose theories of reference, privileging an explanation of the semantic over the psychological. In this paper, we counsel a reverse dependency. In sorting out our psychological relations to the fictional, there is useful guidance about how to proceed with the semantics of fiction. A sketch of the semantics follows.

  11. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops and adapts constantely. Recently both media and migrations have accelerated considerably in speed. In Europe and thus in Denmark homogenous populations have developed into multicultural ones; bringing people together with very different religions, new habits and other ways of expressing themselves. Language has not kept pace with this development. From obvious reasons in that millions of people have to adapt to this new situation with lightning speed. That seems not to be possible. We have to use words, metaphors and comparisons containing adverse connotations, and this situation creates ways of using unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble thatcould be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools to keep debates on the straight and narrow.

  12. Latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304272

  13. When the zebra loses its stripes but is still in the savannah: Results from a semantic priming paradigm in semantic dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Merck, Catherine; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Laisney, Mickaël; Vichard, Hélène; Belliard, Serge

    2013-01-01

    : Studies using semantic priming paradigms to measure the integrity of the features underlying concepts in semantic dementia (SD) reported differential impairment, in that functional features appeared to be more robust to brain damage than other features, such as perceptual ones. However, these prior studies were single case reports and the inclusion of too many heterogeneous features under the "functional features" heading casts doubts on their apparent preservation. To verify the robustness...

  14. High density ERP indices of conscious and unconscious semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, María; Madrid, Eduardo; Lupiáñez, Juan; Tudela, Pío

    2003-10-01

    The existence of differential brain mechanisms of conscious and unconscious processing is a matter of debate nowadays. The present experiment explores whether conscious and unconscious semantic priming in a lexical decision task at a long prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) correlate with overlapping or different event related potential (ERP) effects. Results show that the N400 effect, which appeared when words were consciously perceived, completely disappeared when primes were masked at a level where the ability of participants to detect the prime was near chance. Instead, a rather different set of ERP effects was found to index unconscious semantic priming. This suggests that the processes at the basis of conscious and unconscious semantic analyses can under some circumstances be rather different. Moreover, our results support the notion that conscious and unconscious processes are at least partially separable in the brain. PMID:14561458

  15. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  16. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  17. Enhancing Web Search with Heterogeneous Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Shi, Zhongzhi

    This paper explores four kinds of semantic knowledge to improve keyword-based Web search, including thesauruses, categories, ontologies, and social annotations. These heterogeneous semantic knowledge represent meanings of Web information, thus they can be used to improve search results in respect of semantic relevance. Currently, different semantic search paradigms have been developed for different kind of semantic knowledge respectively. However, how to make the most of all heterogeneous semantic knowledge to optimize Web search is still a big challenge in practice. To these ends, this paper proposes an integrated semantic search mechanism to incorporate textual information and keyword search with heterogeneous semantic knowledge and semantic search. Experiments show that the proposed mechanism effectively integrates heterogeneous semantic knowledge to improve Web search.

  18. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

  19. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas; Kalkan, S.; Wörgötter, F.; Krüger, Norbert

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrate...... its potential by two applications. As a first application, we localize lane structures by the semantic descriptors and their relations in a Bayesian framework. As the second application, which is in the context of vision based grasping, we show how the semantic relations can be associated to actions...

  20. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  1. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  2. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Å imko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and extensive review of state-of-the-art in semantics acquisition game (SAG) design A set of design patterns for SAG designers A set of case studies (real SAG projects) demonstrating the use of SAG design patterns

  3. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  4. Approximating geometric crossover in semantic space

    OpenAIRE

    Krawiec, Krzysztof; Lichocki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a crossover operator that works with genetic programming trees and is approximately geometric crossover in the semantic space. By defining semantic as program's evaluation profile with respect to a set of fitness cases and constraining to a specific class of metric-based fitness functions, we cause the fitness landscape in the semantic space to have perfect fitness-distance correlation. The proposed approximately geometric semantic crossover exploits this property of the semantic f...

  5. Semantic WEB Services Using Clustering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jayeeta Majumder,; Saikat Khanra

    2014-01-01

    Semantic Web Services, like conventional web services, are the server end of a client–server system for machine-to-machine interaction via the World Wide Web. Semantic services are a component of the semantic web because they use markup which makes data machine-readable in a detailed and sophisticated way (as compared with human-readable HTML which is usually not easily "understood" by computer programs). Semantic similarity measures are specific types of Semantic measures: ma...

  6. Search Relevance based on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bicer, Veli

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we explore the challenge of search relevance in the context of semantic search. Specifically, the notion of semantic relevance can be distinguished from the other types of relevance in Information Retrieval (IR) in terms of employing an underlying semantic model. We propose the emerging Semantic Web data on the Web which is represented in RDF graph structures as an important candidate to become such a semantic model in a search process.

  7. Explaining presupposition projection with dynamic semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rothschild

    2011-01-01

    Heim's (1982, 1983b) dynamic semantics provides an attractive system for capturing the basic facts about presupposition projection. A long-standing criticism of this semantics is that it requires for each connective lexical stipulations that are not determined by its truth-conditional meaning. I give a precise formulation of this criticism in terms of what I call a "rewrite semantics". Then, I use this idea of a rewrite semantics to formulate a new version of dynamic semantics. This version d...

  8. UML 2 Semantics Symposium: Formal Semantics for UML

    OpenAIRE

    Broy, Manfred; Crane, Michelle L.; Dingel, Juergen; Hartman, Alan; Rumpe, Bernhar; Selic, Brau

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium, held in conjunction with MoDELS 2006, was to present the current state of research of the UML 2 Semantics Project. Equally important to receiving feedback from an audience of experts was the opportunity to invite researchers in the field to discuss their own work related to a formal semantics for the Unified Modeling Language. This symposium is a follow-on to our first workshop, held in conjunction with ECMDA 2005.

  9. Dissociating the effects of semantic grouping and rehearsal strategies on event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleepen, T M J; Markus, C R; Jonkman, L M

    2014-12-01

    The application of elaborative encoding strategies during learning, such as grouping items on similar semantic categories, increases the likelihood of later recall. Previous studies have suggested that stimuli that encourage semantic grouping strategies had modulating effects on specific ERP components. However, these studies did not differentiate between ERP activation patterns evoked by elaborative working memory strategies like semantic grouping and more simple strategies like rote rehearsal. Identification of neurocognitive correlates underlying successful use of elaborative strategies is important to understand better why certain populations, like children or elderly people, have problems applying such strategies. To compare ERP activation during the application of elaborative versus more simple strategies subjects had to encode either four semantically related or unrelated pictures by respectively applying a semantic category grouping or a simple rehearsal strategy. Another goal was to investigate if maintenance of semantically grouped vs. ungrouped pictures modulated ERP-slow waves differently. At the behavioral level there was only a semantic grouping benefit in terms of faster responding on correct rejections (i.e. when the memory probe stimulus was not part of the memory set). At the neural level, during encoding semantic grouping only had a modest specific modulatory effect on a fronto-central Late Positive Component (LPC), emerging around 650 ms. Other ERP components (i.e. P200, N400 and a second Late Positive Component) that had been earlier related to semantic grouping encoding processes now showed stronger modulation by rehearsal than by semantic grouping. During maintenance semantic grouping had specific modulatory effects on left and right frontal slow wave activity. These results stress the importance of careful control of strategy use when investigating the neural correlates of elaborative encoding. PMID:25242500

  10. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  11. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I; Frank, Anette; Reyle, Uwe

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative representations of the sentence which are then filtered by subsequent discourse and world knowledge. The advantage of UDRSs is not only that they allow for monotonic incremental interpretation but also that they are equipped with truth conditions and a proof theory that a...

  12. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The advantages of the formlism are shown with respect to a grammar for a fragment of German that deals with (i) quantifier scope ambiguities triggered by scrambling and/or movement and (ii) ambiguities that arise from the collective/distributive distinction of plural NPs. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative...

  13. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which are...... also rooted in the lexical-semantic classification of Russian nouns. The presentation focuses on semantics, both lexical and grammatical, and not least the connection between these two levels of content. The principal theoretical impact is the insight that grammar and lexis should not be seen as a...... random collection of subsystems, but as a comprehensive structure of interconnected oppositions, repeating the same semantic distinctions at different levels and in different lexical and grammatical classes. The book is of interest to students of Russian and linguists with some command, stronger or...

  14. Semantic domains in computational linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzo, Alfio

    2009-01-01

    An ideal text for researchers and graduate students, this comprehensive volume covers semantic domains and domain models, as well as ways of applying the technique to text categorization, word sense disambiguation, and cross-language text categorization.

  15. Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Samper

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS. The algorithm uses the description of the service capabilities to match the semantic values. The traditional matching has been improved using ontologies which constitute a step further in the matching algorithms. To implement the algorithm, an agent FIPA compliant architecture has been designed and developed. The results obtained are positive. The semantic web services framework developed in combination with the use of the matchmaking algorithm, which allows finding services based on their similarities.

  16. Operational semantics for signal handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Strygin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

  17. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  18. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Light, M

    1996-01-01

    Most natural language processing tasks require lexical semantic information. Automated acquisition of this information would thus increase the robustness and portability of NLP systems. This paper describes an acquisition method which makes use of fixed correspondences between derivational affixes and lexical semantic information. One advantage of this method, and of other methods that rely only on surface characteristics of language, is that the necessary input is currently available.

  19. Semantic Changes in Apparent Time

    OpenAIRE

    Magué, Jean-Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Semantic changes have been scientifically studied for more than 150 years (Nerlich 1992). All along this history, successive generations of scholars have adopted at least three different theoretical frameworks (Magué 2005). Chronologically, the first trend focused on the identification of the different kinds of semantic changes a lexeme can undergo. This taxonomist trend culminates with Ullman (1962). The second trend adopts a typologist point of view and is characterized both by the advocacy...

  20. Are Some Semantic Changes Predictable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Steen

    2010-01-01

      Historical linguistics is traditionally concerned with phonology and syntax. With the exception of grammaticalization - the development of auxiliary verbs, the syntactic rather than localistic use of prepositions, etc. - semantic change has usually not been described as a result of regular...... developments, but only as specific meaning changes in individual words. This paper will suggest some regularities in semantic change, regularities which, like sound laws, have predictive power and can be tested against recorded languages....

  1. Semantic information and artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    de Araújo, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    For a computational system to be intelligent, it should be able to perform, at least, basic deductions. Nonetheless, since deductions are, in some sense, equivalent to tautologies, it seems that they do not provide new information. The present article proposes a measure the degree of semantic informativity of valid deductions in a dynamic setting. Concepts of coherency and relevancy, displayed in terms of insertions and deletions on databases, are used to define semantic informativity. In thi...

  2. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  3. Operational semantics for signal handling

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim Strygin; Hayo Thielecke

    2012-01-01

    Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be wel...

  4. Verisimilitude and strongly semantic information

    OpenAIRE

    Cevolani, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    In The Philosophy of Information, Luciano Floridi presents a theory of “strongly semantic information”, based on the idea that “information encapsulates truth” (the so-called “veridicality thesis”). Starting with Popper, philosophers of science have developed different explications of the notion of verisimilitude or truthlikeness, construed as a combination of truth and information. Thus, the theory of strongly semantic information and the theory of verisimilitude are intimatel...

  5. Semantic Approach for Query Explication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

  6. Semantic priming in number naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynvoet, Bert; Brysbaert, Marc; Fias, Wim

    2002-10-01

    The issue of semantic and non-semantic conversion routes for numerals is still debated in numerical cognition. We report two number-naming experiments in which the target numerals were preceded by another numeral (prime). The primes and targets could be presented either in arabic (digit) notation or in verbal (alphabetical) notation. The results reveal a semantically related distance effect: Latencies are fastest when the prime has the same value as the target and increase when the distance between prime and target increases. We argue that the present results are congruent with the idea that the numerals make access to an ordered semantic number line common to all notations, as the results are the same for within-notation priming (arabic-arabic or verbal-verbal) and between-notations priming (arabic-verbal or verbal-arabic). The present results also point to a rapid involvement of semantics in the naming of numerals, also when the numerals are words. As such, they are in line with recent claims of rapid semantic mediation in word naming. PMID:12420988

  7. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation of a...... denotational semantics in continuation style. We then compare this valuation function with that of Clinger's original denotational semantics of Scheme....

  8. Lost for emotion words: What motor and limbic brain activity reveals about autism and semantic theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel L. Moseley; Shtyrov, Yury; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterised by deficits in understanding and expressing emotions and are frequently accompanied by alexithymia, a difficulty in understanding and expressing emotion words. Words are differentially represented in the brain according to their semantic category and these difficulties in ASC predict reduced activation to emotion-related words in limbic structures crucial for affective processing. Semantic theories view ‘emotion actions’ as critical for learn...

  9. Neural Dynamics Associated with Semantic and Episodic Memory for Faces: Evidence from Multiple Frequency Bands

    OpenAIRE

    Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Kutas, Marta; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Prior semantic knowledge facilitates episodic recognition memory for faces. To examine the neural manifestation of the interplay between semantic and episodic memory, we investigated neuroelectric dynamics during the creation (study) and the retrieval (test) of episodic memories for famous and nonfamous faces. Episodic memory effects were evident in several EEG frequency bands: theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (9–13 Hz), and gamma (40–100 Hz). Activity in these bands was differentially modulated by pree...

  10. Semantic photo synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Brostow, G. J.; Shotton, J.; Kwatra, V.; Cipolla, R.

    2007-02-01

    Composite images are synthesized from existing photographs by artists who make concept art, e.g. storyboards for movies or architectural planning. Current techniques allow an artist to fabricate such an image by digitally splicing parts of stock photographs. While these images serve mainly to "quickly" convey how a scene should look, their production is laborious. We propose a technique that allows a person to design a new photograph with substantially less effort. This paper presents a method that generates a composite image when a user types in nouns, such as "boat" and "sand." The artist can optionally design an intended image by specifying other constraints. Our algorithm formulates the constraints as queries to search an automatically annotated image database. The desired photograph, not a collage, is then synthesized using graph-cut optimization, optionally allowing for further user interaction to edit or choose among alternative generated photos. Our results demonstrate our contributions of (1) a method of creating specific images with minimal human effort, and (2) a combined algorithm for automatically building an image library with semantic annotations from any photo collection.

  11. A Semantic Approach for Recommendations generation: some Cultural Heritage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio De Tommasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available EnThe growing availability of data in the information systems has raised the challenging problem of distinguishing between the resources that belong to the same information context. Starting from the hypothesis that the information system is based on Semantic Web technologies, is it possible to use these technologies to make an information system more adaptive to user requirements in order to enable personalization and differentiation mechanisms in the information delivery process?This paper proposes an approach to building recommendations by using Semantic Web technologies, in order to give the users a different access to the information. The outcome is a semantic recommender engine, capable of retrieving and ranking semantically annotated resources, by using a set of domain ontologies and a semantic matching algorithm. We are showing some applications of this model in the Cultural Heritage domain in which the presented approach seems to be particularly effective, due to the richness of semantic structures and models existing for such domain.ItLa crescente quantità di dati disponibili da parte dei sistemi informativi ha sollevato il complesso problema della distinzione tra risorse appartenenti allo stesso contesto informativo. Partendo dall'ipotesi che il sistema informativo si basi sulle tecnologie proprie del Web Semantico, è possibile utilizzare tali tecnologie per rendere il sistema adattivo ai requisiti dell'utente, abilitando, in questo modo, meccanismi di personalizzazione e differenziazione?Questo articolo propone un approccio per la generazione di recommendation,  utilizzando le tecnologie del Web Semantico, al fine di fornire, ai singoli utenti, accessi differenziati alle informazioni. Il risultato è un motore di generazione di recommendation semantiche, in grado di recuperare e classificare risorse annotate semanticamente, avvalendosi di un set di ontologie di dominio e di un algoritmo di matching semantico. Saranno infine descritte alcune applicazioni di tale modello nel dominio del Cultural Heritage. In tale dominio, infatti, grazie all'enorme mole di ontologie, modelli e strutture semantiche esistenti, l'approccio presentato sembra essere particolarmente efficace.

  12. CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1998-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998....

  13. Process-oriented semantic web search

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, DT

    2011-01-01

    The book is composed of two main parts. The first part is a general study of Semantic Web Search. The second part specifically focuses on the use of semantics throughout the search process, compiling a big picture of Process-oriented Semantic Web Search from different pieces of work that target specific aspects of the process.In particular, this book provides a rigorous account of the concepts and technologies proposed for searching resources and semantic data on the Semantic Web. To collate the various approaches and to better understand what the notion of Semantic Web Search entails, this bo

  14. High density ERP indices of conscious and unconscious semantic priming.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ruz; Madrid, E; Lupiáñez, J; Tudela, P

    2003-01-01

    The existence of differential brain mechanisms of conscious and unconscious processing is a matter of debate nowadays. The present experiment explores whether conscious and unconscious semantic priming in a lexical decision task at a long prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) correlate with overlapping or different event related potential (ERP) effects. Results show that the N400 effect, which appeared when words were consciously perceived, completely disappeared when primes were maske...

  15. Neuromagnetic brain responses to words from semantic sub- and supercategories

    OpenAIRE

    Rockstroh Brigitte; Assadollahi Ramin

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundWe explored spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activity evoked by written words from super-ordinate and sub-ordinate semantic categories and hoped to find a differential cortical and/or temporal distribution of the brain response depending on the level of the categories. Twenty-three subjects saw 360 words belonging to six sub-ordinate categories (mammals, birds, fish, fruit, flowers, trees) within two super-ordinate categories (fauna, flora). Visually evoked magnetic fields were ...

  16. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  17. Canadian semantic web technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Weichang

    2010-01-01

    Introduces the most recent advanced working theories, prototypes and applicationsProvides a special focus on applications of semantic web technology on electronic healthProvides contents on semantic web technologies for both researchers and practitioners

  18. Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Marko A

    2007-01-01

    Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meaningful ways. However, new models have emerged that explicitly encode procedural information within the semantic network substrate. With these new technologies, the Semantic Web has evolved from a data modeling medium to a computational medium. This article provides a classification of existing computational modeling efforts and the requirements of supporting technologies that will aid in the further growth of this burgeoning domain.

  19. Formal Language Decomposition into Semantic Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes FÄHNDRICH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for semantic decomposition. For that we surveys languages used to enrich contextual information with semantic descriptions. Such descriptions can be e.g. applied to enable reasoning when collecting vast amounts of information. In particular, we focus on the elements of the languages that make up their semantic. To do so, we compare the expressiveness of the well-known languages OWL, PDDL and MOF with a theory from linguistic called the Natural Semantic Metalanguage. We then analyze how the semantic of the language is build up and describe how semantic decomposition based on the semantic primes can be used for a so called mental lexicon. This mental lexicon can be used to reason upon semantic service description in the research domain of service match making.

  20. Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Lima Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito.OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de validación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama.OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and calculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulting measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

  1. Agency and the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This text looks at the construction of the Semantic Web, which will enable computers to automatically and independently consume Web-based information. With numerous programming examples, it is ideal for undergraduates and graduates in mathematics, computer science and logic and researchers interested in Multi-Agent Systems and the Semantic Web. - ;This highly topical text considers the construction of the next generation of the Web, called the Semantic Web. This will enable computers to automatically consume Web-based information, overcoming the human-centric focus of the Web as it stands at present, and expediting the construction of a whole new class of knowledge-based applications that will intelligently utilise Web content. The text is structured into three main sections on knowledge representation techniques, reasoning with multi-agent systems, and knowledge services. For each of these topics, the text provides an overview of the state-of-the-art techniques and the popular standards that have been define...

  2. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die tekskorpusmetode kan nie gebruik word vir minderheidstale waarin tekste ontbreek nie. Om in die behoefte te voorsien, het die skrywer 'n lys van 1 600 semantiese domeine opgestel wat hy suksesvol gebruik het om woorde te versamel. In 'n werksessie-omgewing kan 'n groep sprekers tot soveel as 17 000 woorde in tien dae versamel. Hierdie metode lei tot 'n geklassifiseerde woordelys wat doeltreffend uitgebrei kan word tot 'n volledige woordeboek. Die metode werk omdat die mentale leksikon 'n groot web is wat rondom sleutelbegrippe gestruktureer is. 'n Semantiese domein kan gedefinieer word as 'n belangrike kon-sep saam met die woorde wat direk daarmee verband hou vanweë leksikale verwantskappe. 'n Persoon kan die mentale web gebruik om vinnig van woord tot woord binne 'n domein te spring. Die skrywer is besig om vir elke domein 'n profiel te ontwikkel om te help met die versameling van woorde en met die beskrywing van hul semantiek. 'n Ondersoek van semantiek binne die konteks van 'n domein lewer baie insigte. Die metode laat die totstandbrenging van sowel alfabeties as semanties gerangskikte woordeboeke toe. Die lys domeine is bedoel om univer-seel in omvang en toepassing te wees. Moontlik as gevolg van universalia van menslike ervaring en universalia van taalkundige vermoë, is daar treffende ooreenkomste tussen verskillende lyste semantiese domeine wat ontwikkel is vir tale oor die hele wêreld. Die gebruik van 'n gestandaardi-seerde lys domeine om veelsoortige woordeboeke te klassifiseer, skep moontlikhede vir kruislin-guistiese navorsing oor semantiese en leksikale universalia. Sleutelwoorde: SEMANTIESE DOMEINE, SEMANTIESE VELDE, SEMANTIESE KATE-GORIEË, LEKSIKALE VERWANTSKAPPE, SEMANTIESE PRIMITIEWES, DOMEINPROFIELE, MENTALE LEKSIKON, SEMANTIESE UNIVERSALIA, MINDERHEIDSTALE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE

  3. Semantic networks: visualizations of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, R T; Barnden, J A

    1997-08-01

    The history of semantic networks is almost as long as that of their parent discipline, artificial intelligence. They have formed the basis of many fascinating, yet controversial, discussions in conferences and in the literature, ranging from metaphysics through to complexity theory in computer science. Many excellent surveys of the field have been written, and yet it is our belief that none of them has examined the important link between their use as a formal scheme for knowledge representation and their more heuristic use as an informal tool for thinking. In our consideration of semantic networks as computerized tools, we will discuss three levels of abstraction that we believe can help us understand how semantic networks are used. I. PMID:21223898

  4. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    CERN Document Server

    Poesio, M

    1995-01-01

    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language is specified as the translation language of a grammar covering sentences that display three classes of semantic ambiguity: lexical ambiguity, scopal ambiguity, and referential ambiguity. The expressions of this language denote sets of senses. A formalization of defeasible reasoning with underspecified representations is presented, based on Default Logic. Some issues to be confronted by such a formalization are discussed.

  5. SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide W...

  6. Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.32

    2010-01-01

    Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic systems and systems biology.

  7. SomeRDFS in the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Adjiman, Philippe; Goasdoué, François; Rousset, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    The Semantic Web envisions a world-wide distributed architecture where computational resources will easily inter-operate to coordinate complex tasks such as query answering. Semantic marking up of web resources using ontologies is expected to provide the necessary glue for making this vision work. Using ontology languages, (communities of) users will build their own ontologies in order to describe their own data. Adding semantic mappings between those ontologies, in order to semantically rela...

  8. Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Estaji; Fakhteh Nakhavali

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female) terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical mea...

  9. Business Intelligence using Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yasodha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers becomes an essential thing in our day-to-day life. Currently, computers can change from single, isolated devices into entry points to exchange the information called World Wide Web(WWW. Humans are capable of using the web to carry our the task. However, a computer cannot accomplish the same task without the human direction, because web pages are designed to be read by the people, not by the machines. Usually, humans interact with the web to gather information or to improve their business intelligence. The information is accessed by giving a related keyword to search. This keyword is used by the server to provide the relevant information about the given keyword. The server provides only limited information for the given keyword. But there exists a lot of information regarding the keyword but it is not provided to the user due to the lack of word in the given keyword. So the keyword searching becomes intangible to fulfill the requirements of the user in some situation. This kind of searching is made with the presence of humans. To overcome this problem and to reduce the human effort, we propose a new method in this paper. This new method is termed as “SEMANTIC WEB”. The Semantic Web is an extension of the WWW. This is used to carry out the task directly by the computers instead of humans. The computer generates the Machine-Processable Information. The Semantic Web provides the automated schemes for gaining more relevant information by analyzing the kind of user behavior who currently use the web. With the help of Semantic Web, the user can access the web and gather more information with less effort. Semantic web is used to provide information by the web itself. This paper is used to explain the use and applications of the Semantic Web in a precise way.

  10. Semantic HMC for Big Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Thomas; Peixoto, Rafael; Cruz, Christophe; Bertaux, Aurlie; Silva, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing Big Data can help corporations to im-prove their efficiency. In this work we present a new vision to derive Value from Big Data using a Semantic Hierarchical Multi-label Classification called Semantic HMC based in a non-supervised Ontology learning process. We also proposea Semantic HMC process, using scalable Machine-Learning techniques and Rule-based reasoning.

  11. Semantically Driven Mutation in Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Lawrence; Johnson, Colin G.

    2009-01-01

    Using semantic analysis, we present a technique known as semantically driven mutation which can explicitly detect and apply behavioural changes caused by the syntactic changes in programs that result from the mutation operation. Using semantically driven mutation, we demonstrate increased performance in genetic programming on seven benchmark genetic programming problems over two different domains.

  12. Web to Semantic Web & Role of Ontology

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this research paper we are briefly presenting current major web problems and introducing semantic web technologies with the claim of solving existing web's problems. Furthermore we are describing Ontology as the main building block of semantic web and focusing on its contributions to semantic web progress and current limitations.

  13. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab Abd al-Hamed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

  14. Linguistic Extraction for Semantic Annotation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D?dek, J.; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin : Springer, 2008 - (Badica, C.; Mangioni, G.; Carchiolo, V.; Burdescu, D.), s. 85-94 ISBN 978-3-540-85256-8. - (Studies in Computational Intelligence. 162). [IDC 2008. International Symposium on Intelligent and Distributed Computing /2./. Catania (IT), 18.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA AV ?R 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic information extraction * linguistics * semantic computing * aggregation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  15. Qubit semantics and quantum trees

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In the qubit semantics the \\emph{meaning} of any sentence $\\alpha$ is represented by a \\emph{quregister}: a unit vector of the $n$--fold tensor product $\\otimes^n \\C^2$, where $n$ depends on the number of occurrences of atomic sentences in $\\alpha$. The logic characterized by this semantics, called {\\it quantum computational logic} (QCL), is {\\it unsharp}, because the non-contradiction principle is violated. We show that QCL does not admit any logical truth. In this framework, any sentence $\\...

  16. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our...... semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures...

  17. Semantics as Based on Inference.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2006 - (van Benthem, J.; Heinzmann, G.; Rebuschi, M.; Visser, H.), s. 25-36 ISBN 1-4020-5011-9. - (Logic, Epistemology , and the Unity of Science. 3). [Philosophical Insights into Logic and Mathematics: The History and Outcome of Alternative Semantics and Syntax. Nancy (FR), 30.09.2002-04.10.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA0009001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : formal semantics * inferentialism * logical calculi Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  18. Web Semantization – Design and Principles.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D?dek, Jan; Eckhardt, Alan; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin : Springer, 2010 - (Snášel, V.; Szczepaniak, P.; Abraham, A.; Kacprzyk, J.), s. 3-18 ISBN 978-3-642-10686-6. - (Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. 67). [AWIC 2009. Atlantic Web Intelligence Conference /6./. Prague (CZ), 09.09.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET100300517; GA ?R GD201/09/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic web * semantic annotation * web information extraction * user preferences Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  20. Order effects in dynamic semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2014-01-01

    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from the crucial non-commutativity of mental operations upon the belief state of a cognitive agent. PMID:24259268

  1. Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahn, R.; Garrard, P.; Talazko, J.; Gondan, Matthias; Bubrowski, P.; Juengling, F.; Slawik, H.; Dykierek, P.; Koester, B.; Hull, M.

    2006-01-01

    semantic verification task and resting 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of mild to moderate AD patients to investigate this issue. The four task conditions required semantic knowledge of (1) visual, (2) functional properties of living objects, and (3) visual or (4) functional......The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse...... damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used a...

  2. Evaluation of the Project Management Competences Based on the Semantic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the testing and evaluation facilities of the SinPers system. The SinPers is a web based learning environment in project management, capable of building and conducting a complete and personalized training cycle, from the definition of the learning objectives to the assessment of the learning results for each learner. The testing and evaluation facilities of SinPers system are based on the ontological approach. The educational ontology is mapped on a semantic network. Further, the semantic network is projected into a concept space graph. The semantic computability of the concept space graph is used to design the tests. The paper focuses on the applicability of the system in the certification, for the knowledge assessment, related to each element of competence. The semantic computability is used for differentiating between different certification levels.

  3. Extracting Generalized Semantic Roles from Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Jafarinejad; Mehrnoush Shamsfard

    2012-01-01

    One of the oldest constructs of linguistic theory is semantic role. Automatic extraction of semantic roles in a sentence is a movement towards semantic processing of texts which has been the focus of attention in recent years. Extraction of semantic roles from a text contains some essential parts. Recognition of verb(s) of the sentence, recognition of noun phrases and their heads, and labeling the role of each phrase in the sentence as a semantic argument of verb are general parts of a system...

  4. Multimedia Semantics Metadata, Analysis and Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Troncy, Raphael; Schenk, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the latest research results in the multimedia and semantic web communities, bridging the "Semantic Gap" This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science,

  5. Semantics Based on Conceptual Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärdenfors, Peter

    The overall goal is to show that conceptual spaces are more promising than other ways of modelling the semantics of natural language. In particular, I will show how they can be used to model actions and events. I will also outline how conceptual spaces provide a cognitive grounding for word classes, including nouns, adjectives, prepositions and verbs.

  6. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  7. Semantic Features of the Object

    OpenAIRE

    Grici?t?, Salom?ja

    2012-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the features of the object in traditional and semantic syntax. A special attention is payed to the processes and the ways of expressing the object in each of them, namely, in material, mental, verbal, relational, existential and happening processes. The examples were taken from the novel "The Great Gatsby" by F. Scott Fitzgerald.

  8. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  9. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pun?ochá?, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 3 (2015), s. 323-355. ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  10. Semantics as Based on Inference.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2006 - (van Benthem, J.; Heinzmann, G.; Rebuschi, M.; Visser, H.), s. 25-36 ISBN 1-4020-5011-9. - (Logic, Epistemology , and the Unity of Science. 3) R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA0009001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : formal semantics * inferentialism * logical calculi Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. The semantic conception of proof

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Nik

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the informal semantic conception of proof and axiomatize the proof relation and the provability operator. A self referential propositional calculus which admits provable liar type sentences is introduced and proven consistent. We also investigate the problem of interpreting arbitrary formal systems in systems which include a provability operator.

  12. Generative Semantics and Dialect Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, James W.

    An extrinsic relationship between generative semantics and dialect geography should be exploited because contemporary transformational grammarians have too easily ignored the work of the dialectologist and have been too readily satisfied with what might be called armchair evidence. The work of the dialect geographers needs to be taken into…

  13. The Scandal of Semantic Platonism.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Vladimír

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2012 - (Maclaurin, J.), s. 191-200 ISBN 978-94-007-3983-3. - (Studies in History and Philosophy of Science . 28) R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP401/10/1279 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : semantics * Platonism, * constructions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Metaphor interpretation and use: a window into semantics in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvevåg, B; Helsen, K; De Hert, M; Sweers, K; Storms, G

    2011-12-01

    The nature of putative semantic anomalies in schizophrenia is controversial. Metaphor interpretation and use provide a useful methodology with which to probe semantics since metaphors are critical in reasoning processes and in how conceptual knowledge is organized. The first study examined free speech for figurative language. The second study explored whether emotional versus non-emotional metaphorical language interpretation elicits differences in the tendencies to produce idiosyncratic (bizarre) or literal interpretations or use of other metaphors to describe the meaning of a metaphor. The third study examined the interpretation of time metaphors. We expected the time perspective in ambiguous sentences to be differentially influenced by previously presented unambiguous sentences of a specific perspective, either events moving relative to a stationary observer (moving-time) or an observer moving relative to a stationary event (moving-ego). First, we found that patients used a similar amount of figurative language as control participants. Second, we did not find any difference between the groups in terms of idiosyncratic interpretations, although patients did interpret more metaphors literally and controls utilized more figurative language. Third, we did not find evidence of a difference between the groups in terms of time perspectives influencing ambiguous target sentences differentially. As operationalized here, the interpretation and use of metaphors is similar in patients with schizophrenia to that of healthy control participants. To the extent that metaphors recruit semantic processes this area of cognition is generally intact in schizophrenia. PMID:21821395

  15. Semantic Artificial Immune Model for Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-jiao Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Applying artificial immune system to fault diagnosis is a new development direction in artificial intelligence, but the traditional artificial immune mode could not reasonably reflect the semantic similarity in the complexity problem space. For issues of semantic description of fault diagnosis, this paper introduces group cooperative mechanism of lymphocyte with a semantic tag to artificial immune system, thus solves the problem of semantic logical reasoning of fault knowledge. This paper presents a semantic-based artificial immune diagnosis model; designs an immune negative selection diagnostic in semantic environment; utilizes new coevolutionary algorithm diagnostic; and diagnoses fault in large electromechanical devices.  The experimental results show that the method used in this paper has higher classification accuracy compared with the traditional artificial immune diagnostics, at the same time, verified expression capacity of semantic-based lymphocytes, which can provide more valuable diagnostic information.

  16. Semantic grid model, methodology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hua-jun

    2008-01-01

    Semantic Grid: Model, Methodology, and Applications introduces to the science, core technologies, and killer applications. First, scientific issues of semantic grid systems are covered, followed by two basic technical issues, data-level semantic mapping, and service-level semantic interoperating. Two killer applications are then introduced to show how to build a semantic grid for specific application domains. Although this book is organized in a step by step manner, each chapter is independent. Detailed application scenarios are also presented. In 1990, Prof. Wu invented the first KB-system tool, ZIPE, based on C on a SUN platform. He proposed the first coupling knowledge representing model, Couplingua, which embodies Rule, Frame, Semantic Network and Nerve Cell Network, and supports symbol computing and data processing computing. His current focus is on semantic web, grid & ubiquitous computing, and their applications in the life sciences.

  17. Learning Dependency-Based Compositional Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Percy; Klein, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Suppose we want to build a system that answers a natural language question by representing its semantics as a logical form and computing the answer given a structured database of facts. The core part of such a system is the semantic parser that maps questions to logical forms. Semantic parsers are typically trained from examples of questions annotated with their target logical forms, but this type of annotation is expensive. Our goal is to learn a semantic parser from question-answer pairs instead, where the logical form is modeled as a latent variable. Motivated by this challenging learning problem, we develop a new semantic formalism, dependency-based compositional semantics (DCS), which has favorable linguistic, statistical, and computational properties. We define a log-linear distribution over DCS logical forms and estimate the parameters using a simple procedure that alternates between beam search and numerical optimization. On two standard semantic parsing benchmarks, our system outperforms all existing...

  18. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen; Metzner, Alexander; Damm, Werner

    2003-01-01

    We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate...... distributed code using the original Statemate semantics. The new, distributed semantics has the advantages that, first, it enables the generation of efficient distributed code, second, it preserves many aspects of the original semantics for those parts of a model that are not distributed, and third, the...... changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation...

  19. Adopting Abstract Images for Semantic Scene Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnick, C Lawrence; Vedantam, Ramakrishna; Parikh, Devi

    2016-04-01

    Relating visual information to its linguistic semantic meaning remains an open and challenging area of research. The semantic meaning of images depends on the presence of objects, their attributes and their relations to other objects. But precisely characterizing this dependence requires extracting complex visual information from an image, which is in general a difficult and yet unsolved problem. In this paper, we propose studying semantic information in abstract images created from collections of clip art. Abstract images provide several advantages over real images. They allow for the direct study of how to infer high-level semantic information, since they remove the reliance on noisy low-level object, attribute and relation detectors, or the tedious hand-labeling of real images. Importantly, abstract images also allow the ability to generate sets of semantically similar scenes. Finding analogous sets of real images that are semantically similar would be nearly impossible. We create 1,002 sets of 10 semantically similar abstract images with corresponding written descriptions. We thoroughly analyze this dataset to discover semantically important features, the relations of words to visual features and methods for measuring semantic similarity. Finally, we study the relation between the saliency and memorability of objects and their semantic importance. PMID:26959669

  20. Endoscopic image analysis in semantic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwitt, R; Vasconcelos, N; Rasiwasia, N; Uhl, A; Davis, B; Häfner, M; Wrba, F

    2012-10-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as (1) recognition of important semantic concepts, (2) semantically-focused image browsing, and (3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  1. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation-passing style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation...... of a denotational semantics in continuation-passing style.  We then compare this valuation function with that of Clinger's original denotational semantics of Scheme....

  2. Realization of Semantic Atom Blog

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Dhiren R

    2009-01-01

    Web blog is used as a collaborative platform to publish and share information. The information accumulated in the blog intrinsically contains the knowledge. The knowledge shared by the community of people has intangible value proposition. The blog is viewed as a multimedia information resource available on the Internet. In a blog, information in the form of text, image, audio and video builds up exponentially. The multimedia information contained in an Atom blog does not have the capability, which is required by the software processes so that Atom blog content can be accessed, processed and reused over the Internet. This shortcoming is addressed by exploring OWL knowledge modeling, semantic annotation and semantic categorization techniques in an Atom blog sphere. By adopting these techniques, futuristic Atom blogs can be created and deployed over the Internet.

  3. The evolution of semantic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-05-01

    Semantic or cultural systems are sets of concepts connected by meaningful relationships, and they exhibit properties similar to those of populations of biological organisms. Drawing upon ideas from evolutionary biology and methods from information technology, this article explores the potential for research and engineering on the evolution of semantic systems. Such work in cultural genetics requires two things: (1) a rigorous but evolving taxonomic system to categorize cultural artifacts, elements, and clusters, and (2) a set of hypotheses about the processes that cause evolutionary change. This article illustrates systematic approaches to cultural taxonomy with data on the popular ideology of the space program, science fiction motion pictures, nanotechnology books, and nanotechnology research grants. It offers hypotheses derived from evolutionary and population biology that might be useful in explaining cultural evolution. PMID:15194612

  4. Enterprise Semantic Modelling for Interoperability

    OpenAIRE

    Boudjlida, Nacer; Panetto, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of annotations is to describe the content of “something” and they may be considered as meta-data. They are used for a while for text books, articles, hypertext documents and so on. We explore their usage in semantic-based and model-based interoperability, with the aim to make explicit the meaning and the structure of given models (artefacts) to enable not only their understanding, but also their exchange (and their possible transformation) between collaborating actors (human or ma...

  5. Semantics for Possibilistic Disjunctive Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves, Juan Carlos; Osorio, Mauricio; Cortés, Ulises

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a possibilistic disjunctive logic programming approach for modeling uncertain, incomplete and inconsistent information is defined. This approach introduces the use of possibilistic disjunctive clauses which are able to capture incomplete information and incomplete states of a knowledge base at the same time. By considering a possibilistic logic program as a possibilistic logic theory, a construction of a possibilistic logic programming semantic based on answ...

  6. Semantic construction from parse forests

    OpenAIRE

    Schiehlen, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes a system which uses packed parser output directly to build semantic representations. More specifically, the system takes as input Packed Shared Forests in the sense of Tomita [Tomita, 1985] and produces packed Underspecified Discourse Representation Structures. The algorithm visits every node in the Parse Forest only a bounded number of times, so that a significant increase in efficiency is registered for ambiguous sentences.

  7. Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business

    OpenAIRE

    Juha Puustjarvi

    2010-01-01

    E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. X...

  8. Semantic Interoperability and Health Records

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Hugo; Machado, José; Neves, José; Abelha, António

    2010-01-01

    Systems Interoperability and Electronic Health Records are responsible for an exponential number of visits in electronic repository, either in terms of medical professionals or related staff. This is paramount for a better and sustainable quality-of-care in clinical assistance and of great potential to medical research. Following these lines of though, we present an agency for the diffusion, integration and archiving of medical information, and show how semantic web can enforce the use of ele...

  9. Semantic Enrichment of Ontology Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Schema and ontology matching play an important part in the field of data integration and semantic web. Given two heterogeneous data sources, meta data matching usually constitutes the first step in the data integration workflow, which refers to the analysis and comparison of two input resources like schemas or ontologies. The result is a list of correspondences between the two schemas or ontologies, which is often called mapping or alignment. Many tools and research approaches have been propo...

  10. The Semantics of Implicit Content

    OpenAIRE

    Zeman, Dan Cristian

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis is to give a semantic account of implicit content – the kind of content that plays a crucial role in implicit communication. Implicit communication is a species of communication in which a speaker communicates certain contents that go over and above the contents retrievable from the linguistic meaning of the words used. The focus of the thesis is a certain kind of implicit communication involving locations (when sentences such as “It is raining” are used to communic...

  11. Order effects in dynamic semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2013-01-01

    In their target article, \\citet{WangBusemeyer13} [A quantum question order model supported by empirical tests of an a priori and precise prediction. \\emph{Topics in Cognitive Science}] discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different varia...

  12. Semantically Enhanced Software Documentation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Klieber, Werner; Granitzer, Michael; Gaisbauer, Mansuet; Tochtermann, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    High-quality software documentation is a substantial issue for understanding software systems. Shorter time-to-market software cycles increase the importance of automatism for keeping the documentation up to date. In this paper, we describe the automatic support of the software documentation process using semantic technologies. We introduce a software documentation ontology as an underlying knowledge base. The defined ontology is populated automatically by analysing source code, sof...

  13. Semantic Enhancement of Lecture Material

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolay, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Today's lectures are often talks following a straight line of slides. In many lectures the process of content teaching is not as efficient as it could be. Technologies, such as smart-phones and wireless communication, enable a new level of interaction between lecturer, content and audience. We describe how current lecture material can be semantically enhanced, to interactively assist the audience during and after a lecture.

  14. Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Systems in this research paper.

  15. Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Syste...

  16. From Distributional to Semantic Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, James Richard

    2004-01-01

    Lexical-semantic resources, including thesauri and WORDNET, have been successfully incorporated into a wide range of applications in Natural Language Processing. However they are very difficult and expensive to create and maintain, and their usefulness has been severely hampered by their limited coverage, bias and inconsistency. Automated and semi-automated methods for developing such resources are therefore crucial for further resource development and improved application perf...

  17. Ontologies for the semantic web

    OpenAIRE

    Vallés, María Clara; Fillottrani, Pablo Rubén

    2008-01-01

    The Semantic Web attempts to reach a state in the future where everything on the Web will no longer be only machine-readable, but also machine-understandable. An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization. A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose. Every knowledge base, knowledge-based system, or knowledge-level agent is committed to some conceptualization, explicitly or implicitly. By defining shared and comm...

  18. Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Puustjarvi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

  19. Semantic search via concept annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    2007-04-01

    Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. We define concept annealing as a lexical, syntactic, and semantic expansion capability (the removal of defects and the internal stresses that cause term- and phrase-based search failure) coupled with a directed contraction capability (semantically-related terms, queries, and concepts nucleate and grow to replace those originally deformed by internal stresses). These two capabilities are tied together in a control loop mediated by the information retrieval precision and recall metrics coupled with intuition provided by the operator. The specific representations developed have been targeted at facilitating highly efficient and effective semantic indexing and searching. This new generation of Find capability enables additional processing (i.e. all-source tracking, relationship extraction, and total system resource management) at rates, precisions, and accuracies previously considered infeasible. In a recent experiment, an order magnitude reduction in time to actionable intelligence and nearly three orderss magnitude reduction in false alarm rate was achieved.

  20. Semantic category word search impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurd, J M; Elvevag, B; Cortina-Borja, M

    1997-11-01

    Mechanisms of lexical retrieval within natural semantic categories are investigated in patients with schizophrenia. We predicted and found that schizophrenics show lexical retrieval impairments on word search tasks. Experiments are described in which subjects either scan through word lists for single target items (simple search), or search for members of a semantic category (semantic search). Two groups of subjects are employed: medicated schizophrenics, and a comparison group with similar age and premorbid intelligence. A significant between-group difference is reported (for both speed and accuracy) in semantic category search but not in simple search. It is known that many schizophrenic patients have word finding difficulties (Frith, 1992; Frith et al., 1991). Our results support the claim that in some schizophrenics at least, selective lexical-semantic parallel processing deficits may underlie word finding aberrations. It is possible that such dysfunctions reflect weakened connection strengths between units making up a lexical-semantic field (as characterised by proximity to a prototype). PMID:25419795

  1. Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Gupta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word“Semantic” refers to “meaning” – a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and resultoriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding informationon the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision oflinking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream,hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines toyield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework thenaïve approach of searching information on the syntactic web is cliché. This paper proposes an optimisedsemantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with aproposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to accessand time saving.

  2. Different brain activities predict retrieval success during emotional and semantic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Brandeis, Daniel; Perrig, Walter J

    2011-12-01

    There is an increasing line of evidence supporting the idea that the formation of lasting memories involves neural activity preceding stimulus presentation. Following this line, we presented words in an incidental learning setting and manipulated the prestimulus state by asking the participants to perform either an emotional (neutral or emotional) or a semantic (animate or inanimate) decision task. Later, we tested the retrieval of each previously presented word with a recognition memory test. For both conditions, the subsequent memory effect (SME) was defined as ERP difference between subsequently remembered and forgotten words. Comparing the prestimulus SME between and within the two conditions yielded topographic differences in the time interval from -1300 to -700 msec before stimulus onset. This indicates that the activity of brain areas involved in incidental encoding of semantic information varied in the spatial distribution of ERPs, depending on the emotional and semantic requirements of the task. These findings provide evidence that there is a difference in semantic and emotional preparatory processes, which modulates successful encoding into episodic memory. This difference suggests that there are multiple task-specific functional neural systems that support memory formation. These systems differ in location and/or relative contribution of some of the brain structures that generate the measured scalp electric fields. Consequently, the cognitive processes that enable memory formation depend on the differential semantic nature of the study task and reflect differences in the preparatory processing of the multiple semantic components of a word's meaning. PMID:21812556

  3. Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sakthivel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Web Services are mounting as an inventive mechanism for rendering services to subjective devices over the WWW. As a consequence of the rapid growth of Web Services applications and the plenty of Service Providers, the consumer is facing with the inevitability of selecting the “right” Service Provider. In such a scenario the Quality of Service (QoS serves as a target to differentiate Service Providers. To select the best Web Services / Service Providers, Ranking and Optimization of Web Service Compositions are challenging areas of research with significant implications for the realization of the “Web of Services” revelation. The “Semantic Web Services” use formal semantic descriptions of Web Service functionality and interface to enable automated reasoning over Web Service Compositions. This study from its experimental results revealed that the existing Semantic Web Services faces a few challenging issues such as poor prediction of best Web Services and optimized Service Providers, which leads to QoS degradation of Semantic Web. To address and overcome these identified issues, this research work is calculating the semantic similarities, utilization of various Web Services and Service Providers. After measuring these parameters, all the Web Services are ranked based on their Utilization. Finally, our proposed technique, selected best Web Services based on their ranking and placed in Web Services Composition. From the experimental results, it is established that our proposed mechanism improves the performance of Semantic Web in terms of Execution Time, Processor Utilization and Memory Management.

  4. Semantic hyperpriming in schizophrenic patients: increased facilitation or impaired inhibition in semantic association processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Lecardeur, Laurent; Giffard, Bénédicte; Laisney, Mickael; Brazo, Perrine; Delamillieure, Pascal; Eustache, Francis; Dollfus, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing semantic priming in schizophrenic patients have reported conflicting results. In the present study, we explored semantic priming in a sample of schizophrenic patients with mild thought disorders. We wondered if distinct cognitive processes, such as facilitation and/or inhibition, underlie semantic hyperpriming and are variously impaired in schizophrenic patients. Using a lexical decision task, we evaluated semantic priming in 15 schizophrenic patients (DSM-IV) with ...

  5. Metadata for semantic and social applications

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Metadata is a key aspect of our evolving infrastructure for information management, social computing, and scientific collaboration. DC-2008 will focus on metadata challenges, solutions, and innovation in initiatives and activities underlying semantic and social applications. Metadata is part of the fabric of social computing, which includes the use of wikis, blogs, and tagging for collaboration and participation. Metadata also underlies the development of semantic applications, and the Semant...

  6. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish, Naveen; Industrial Experiences

    2005-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building systems based on Semantic-Web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic-Web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing (IT) endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific inf...

  7. e-Science and biological pathway semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Joanne S; Stevens Robert D

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the semantic integration of these data. Semantic Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this semantic integration. Since pathway knowledge ...

  8. Social Semantic Digital Library: The Future

    OpenAIRE

    Projes Roy,; Dipti Arora

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of classic and digital libraries into digital libraries is now passe. With evolution of technologies, classic libraries have upgraded themselves and have emerged as library and information centres. This paper discusses the integration of computer technologies with library and information science, and how semantics can be customised for library operations, and what can be the measures for converting routine tasks to semantic tasks. The paper concludes that making social semantic...

  9. Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    MANNING, JEREMY R.; Kahana, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organized, and retrieved. One pervasive finding is that when a pair of semantically related words (e.g. “cat” and “dog”) is embedded in the studied list, the related words are often recalled successively. This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering (Bousfield and Sedgewick, 1944...

  10. An Evaluation Platform for Semantic Web Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Cécile

    2006-01-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web aims at enhancing today's Web in order to provide a more efficient and reliable environment for both providers and consumers of Web resources (i.e. information and services). To deploy the Semantic Web, various technologies have been developed, such as machine understandable description languages, language parsers, goal matchers, and resource composition algorithms. Since the Semantic Web is just emerging, each technology tends to make assumptions about differen...

  11. Semantic Hierarchies for Visual Object Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Marszałek, Marcin; Schmid, Cordelia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use lexical semantic networks to extend the state-of-the-art object recognition techniques. We use the semantics of image labels to integrate prior knowledge about inter-class relationships into the visual appearance learning. We show how to build and train a semantic hierarchy of discriminative classifiers and how to use it to perform object detection. We evaluate how our approach influences the classification accuracy and speed on the PASCAL VOC challenge 2006 da...

  12. Semantic Modelling for Product Line Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    ROSHCHIN, Mikhail; Graubmann, Peter; Kamaev, Valery

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our work is to present solutions and a methodical support for automated techniques and procedures in domain engineering, in particular for variability modeling. Our approach is based upon Semantic Modeling concepts, for which semantic description, representation patterns and inference mechanisms are defined. Thus, model-driven techniques enriched with semantics will allow flexibility and variability in representation means, reasoning power and the required analysis ...

  13. Game semantics for probabilistic modal ?-calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Mio, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The probabilistic (or quantitative) modal ?-calculus is a fixed-point logic designed for expressing properties of probabilistic labeled transition systems (PLTS’s). Two semantics have been studied for this logic, both assigning to every process state a value in the interval [0, 1] representing the probability that the property expressed by the formula holds at the state. One semantics is denotational and the other is a game semantics, specified in terms of two-player stochastic...

  14. Names, types, and static semantic analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Heberle, Andreas; Glesner, Sabine; Loewe, Welf

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new approach for the specification and generation of the semantic analysis for typed programming languages. We specify context-sensitive syntactic properties of a language by a system of semantic rules. For various imperative programming language concepts, we discuss the required semantic rules. In particular, we show how overloading of programmer-defined identifiers can be handled. We propose an algorithm to solve these constraint systems efficiently, ...

  15. Semantic Web Requirements through Web Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Semantic web has become a topic of active research in several fields of computer science and has applied in a wide range of domains such as bioinformatics, life sciences, and knowledge management. The two fast-developing research areas semantic web and web mining can complement each other and their different techniques can be used jointly or separately to solve the issues in both areas. In addition, since shifting from current web to semantic web mainly depe...

  16. A DSL for Explicit Semantic Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Bart; Denil, Joachim; Boulanger, Frédéric; Hardebolle, Cécile; Jacquet, Christophe; Vangheluwe, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the domain of heterogeneous model composition, semantic adaptation is the "glue" that is necessary to assemble heterogeneous models so that the resulting composed model has well-defined semantics. In this paper, we present an execution model for a semantic adaptation interface between heterogeneous models. We introduce a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) for specifying such an interface explicitly using rules, and a transformation toward the ModHel'X framework. The DSL enables the modeller to...

  17. Semantic Interoperation for GeoScience Models

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Yi

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, integrated models involving components from different disciplines have become the developing trend of GeoScience modelling. However, a common lack of semantic representation produces hurdles for model sharing, reusing and interoperation. SOA and Web Service provide a more interoperable architecture for GeoScience Modelling with distributed components, however, is still limited to semantic interoperability. This paper theoretically discussed the motivation of using Semantic We...

  18. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ksystra, Katerina; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

    2011-01-01

    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Social Semantic Web.

  19. An Update Semantics for Defeasible Obligations

    OpenAIRE

    van der Torre, Leendert; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The deontic logic DUS is a Deontic Update Semantics for prescriptive obligations based on the update semantics of Veltman. In DUS the definition of logical validity of obligations is not based on static truth values but on dynamic action transitions. In this paper prescriptive defeasible obligations are formalized in update semantics and the diagnostic problem of defeasible deontic logic is discussed. Assume a defeasible obligation `normally A ought to be (done)' together withthe fact `A is n...

  20. Automatic Ontology Matching Using Application Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Avigdor; Modica, Giovanni; Jamil, Hasan; Eyal, Ami

    2005-01-01

    We propose the use of application semantics to enhance the process of semantic reconciliation. Application semantics involves those elements of business reasoning that affect the way concepts are presented to users: their layout, and so on. In particular, we pursue in this article the notion of precedence, in which temporal constraints determine the order in which concepts are presented to the user. Existing matching algorithms use either syntactic means (such as term matching and domain matc...

  1. Semantically enhanced Uyghur Information Retrieval Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Ma; Yating Yang; Xi Zhou; Junlin Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Uyghur search engine lacks semantic information, aiming to solve this problem, a semantically enhanced Uyghur information retrieval model was proposed based on the characteristics of Uyghur language. Firstly word stemming was carried out and web pages were represented by the form of 3-triples to construct the Uyghur knowledge base, then the matching between ontologies and web pages was established by computing concept similarity and relation similarity. Semantic inverted index was...

  2. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  3. Semantic Jira - Semantic Expert Finder in the Bug Tracking Tool Jira

    OpenAIRE

    Heyn, Velten; Paschke, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The semantic expert recommender extension for the Jira bug tracking system semantically searches for similar tickets in Jira and recommends experts and links to existing organizational (Wiki) knowledge for each ticket. This helps to avoid redundant work and supports the search and collaboration with experts in the project management and maintenance phase based on semantically enriched tickets in Jira.

  4. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  5. Intrinsic Semantic Spaces for the representation of documents and semantic annotated data

    OpenAIRE

    Lastra Díaz, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces two novel semantic representation spaces for text documents and semantically annotated data, which are based in an intrinsic geometry approach,as well as other results, among which we have: (1) a novel ontology-based semantic distan

  6. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ganapathi Babu; A.Komali; V.Mythry; A.S.K.Ratnam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

  7. Analysis and Interpretation of Semantic HTML Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng; Guo, Feifei; Xu, Fan; Chen, Xiuguo

    Table is an effective manifestation of structural knowledge, on which the semantic analysis is a very important part in semantic document analysis. To interpret the structure and the semantic relations of the HTML documents, definitions of normalized table and tabular coordinate system are proposed according to database relation theory. This paper classifies cells into normalized cells and visual cells, indicates that row or column and its combined cell are the primary semantic expression forms of table and nested tables are the further expansion of a certain table cell. Finally, a table analyzing algorithm is given based on tabular coordinate system. Practice shows that the algorithm is simple, fast and having certain practical significance.

  8. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    Reduction semantics is a popular format for small-step operational semantics of deterministic programming languages with computational effects. Each reduction semantics gives rise to a reduction-based normalization function where the reduction sequence is enumerated. Refocusing is a practical way...... of the term to enumerate the reduction sequence, in contrast to the reduction-based normalization function. We have discovered that refocusing does not apply as readily for reduction semantics that use an outermost reduction strategy and have overlapping rules where a contractum can be a proper...

  9. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  10. Social Semantic Digital Library: The Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Projes Roy,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of classic and digital libraries into digital libraries is now passe. With evolution of technologies, classic libraries have upgraded themselves and have emerged as library and information centres. This paper discusses the integration of computer technologies with library and information science, and how semantics can be customised for library operations, and what can be the measures for converting routine tasks to semantic tasks. The paper concludes that making social semantic digital library is not at and the only thing required is to reduce the gap between library and Semantic Web communities.

  11. The Method of Automatic Acquisition of Semantic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niguang Tian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a semantic relation database, and uses the semantic relation database automatic acquisition of syntactic patterns and new relationships, and syntactic patterns to obtain a method of semantic relations.

  12. Semantic Web Framework for Development of Very Large Ontologies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergey, Yablonsky.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of the Semantic Web framework for very large ontologies. The Semantic Web is often associated with specific XML-based standards for semantics, such as RDF and OWL. Application of lexical ontologies such as WordNet and others for different tasks on the Semantic W [...] eb requires their representation in RDF and/or OWL formats with possibility of the different ontology mappings, semantic workflows, services and other semantic technologies.

  13. A Necessary Condition for Semantic Interoperability in the Large

    OpenAIRE

    Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Aberer, Karl

    2004-01-01

    With new standards like RDF or OWL paving the way for the much anticipated semantic web, a new breed of large scale semantic systems is about to appear. Even if research on semantic reconciliation methods is abundant, it is not clear how interoperable very large scale semantic systems can be. This paper represents a first effort towards analytically analyzing semantic interoperability in the large: By adapting a recent graph-theoretic framework, we examine the dynamics of large scale semantic...

  14. How Does Ontology Contribute in Semantic Web Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates and briefly describes the major currently existing problems with World Wide Web .i.e., Information filtration and Security became the main reasons of semantic web's invention. The semantic web claims of providing the semantic based solutions towards current web problems. Semantic web have introduced and relies on a main building block "Ontology" to provide the information in machine processable semantic models and produce semantically modelled knowled...

  15. Modelling Semantic Association and Conceptual Inheritance for Semantic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillant, P

    2001-01-01

    Allowing users to interact through language borders is an interesting challenge for information technology. For the purpose of a computer assisted language learning system, we have chosen icons for representing meaning on the input interface, since icons do not depend on a particular language. However, a key limitation of this type of communication is the expression of articulated ideas instead of isolated concepts. We propose a method to interpret sequences of icons as complex messages by reconstructing the relations between concepts, so as to build conceptual graphs able to represent meaning and to be used for natural language sentence generation. This method is based on an electronic dictionary containing semantic information.

  16. HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ON SEMANTIC WEB :(SEMANTIC HIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khozoie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information technology have changed information media by networking and internet .using technology inhealth as same as another part improve efficieincy and effectivness. currently the medical document isReality-based medicine, so that is the most important ,richest and the most realistic source of medical andhealth information.Health information management systems that require systems to the storage, retrieval,storage and elimination of health records (by law, and adjust to the rules of professional. these processare difficult and time consumig for human. In the meantime semantic HIM seem best solution.KEYWORDS

  17. Integrating dynamic resources in corporate semantic web: an approach to enterprise application integration using semantic web services

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Moussa; Gandon, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing semantic web server architecture used by the ACACIA team to implement corporate memories. We rely on CORESE, a semantic web search engine, to provide web applications based on the semantic web services it can identify. Thus, CORESE is used as a semantic UDDI registry and allows us to automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules and an extensi...

  18. Towards a Programmable Semantic Extract-Transform-Load Framework for Semantic Data Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Rudra; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In order to create better decisions for business analytics, organizations increasingly use external data, structured, semistructured and unstructured, in addition to the (mostly structured) internal data. Current Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) tools are not suitable for this "open world scenario" because they do not consider semantic issues in the integration process. Also, current ETL tools neither support processing semantic-aware data nor create a Semantic Data Warehouse (DW) as a semantic repository of semantically integrated data. This paper describes SETL: a (Python based) programmable Semantic ETL framework. SETL builds on Semantic Web (SW) standards and tools and supports developers by offerring a number of powerful modules, classes and methods for (dimensional and semantic) DW constructs and tasks. Thus it supports semantic-aware data sources, semantic integration, and creating a semantic DW, composed of an ontology and its instances. A comprehensive experimental evaluation comparing SETL to a solution made with traditional tools (requiring much more hand coding) on a concrete use case, shows that SETL provides better performance, knowledge base quality and porgrammer productivity.

  19. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic web technologies, including ontologies and a semantic mediator. The semantically-enhanced SPEGG allowed a client to submit a single query (e.g. ';hills') and to retrieve data from two separate gazetteers with different vocabularies (e.g. where one refers to ';summits' another refers to ';hills'). Supporting the SPEGG was a SPARQL server that held the ontologies and processed queries on them. Earth Science surveys and forecast always have a place on Earth. Being able to share the information about a place and solve inconsistencies about that place from different sources will enable geoscientists to better do their research. In the advent of mobile geo computing and location based services (LBS), brokering gazetteers will provide geoscientists with access to gazetteer services rich with information and functionality beyond that offered by current generic gazetteers.

  20. A Semantic Without Syntax 1

    OpenAIRE

    Didehvar, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Here, by introducing a version of "Unexpected hanging paradox" we try to open a new way and a new explanation for paradoxes, similar to liar paradox. Also, we will show that we have a semantic situation which no syntactical logical system could support that. In the end, we propose a claim as a question. Based on this claim, having an axiomatic system for computability theory is not possible. In fact we will show that the method applied here could yields us as a generalized result, some Theori...

  1. Semantics of (Resilient) X10

    OpenAIRE

    Crafa, Silvia; Cunningham, David; Saraswat, Vijay; Shinnar, Avraham; Tardieu, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We present a formal small-step structural operational semantics for a large fragment of X10, unifying past work. The fragment covers multiple places, mutable objects on the heap, sequencing, \\code{try/catch}, \\code{async}, \\code{finish}, and \\code{at} constructs. This model accurately captures the behavior of a large class of concurrent, multi-place X10 programs. Further, we introduce a formal model of resilience in X10. During execution of an X10 program, a place may fail f...

  2. Semantics Web and Ontology Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Musumbu, Kaninda

    2013-01-01

    The Semantics Web is a vision for the future of the Web in which informati on is given explicit meaning, making it easier for machines to automatically pro cess and integrate information available on the Web. An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledg e. Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowled ge, like medicine, tool manufacturing, real es...

  3. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  4. Two-Level Semantics and Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    Two-level semantics is a variant of Scott/Strachey denotational semantics in which the concept of binding time is treated explicitly. This is done by formally distinguishing between those computations that take place at run-time and those that take place at compile-time. Abstract interpretation is...

  5. Essay Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tristan

    2003-01-01

    Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is an automated, statistical technique for comparing the semantic similarity of words or documents. In this article, I examine the application of LSA to automated essay scoring. I compare LSA methods to earlier statistical methods for assessing essay quality, and critically review contemporary essay-scoring systems…

  6. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  7. Some Novel Techniques in Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction to the...

  8. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  9. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  10. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  11. Semantic processing in "associative" false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Yang, Y; Reyna, V F; Howe, M L; Mills, B A

    2008-12-01

    We studied the semantic properties of a class of illusions, of which the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm is the most prominent example, in which subjects falsely remember words that are associates of studied words. We analyzed DRM materials for 16 dimensions of semantic content and assessed the ability of these dimensions to predict interlist variability in false memory. For the more general class of illusions, we analyzed pairs of presented and unpresented words that varied in associative strength for the presence of these same 16 semantic properties. DRM materials proved to be exceptionally rich in meaning, as indexed by these semantic properties. Variability in false recall, false recognition, and backward associative strength loaded on a single semantic factor (familiarity/meaningfulness), whereas variability in true recall loaded on a quite different factor (imagery/concreteness). For word association generally, 15 semantic properties varied reliably with forward or backward association between words. Implications for semantic versus associative processing in this class of illusions, for dual-process theories, and for semantic properties of word associations are discussed. PMID:19001566

  12. Semantic search integration to climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Shrestha, Biva [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present how research projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using Semantic Search capabilities to help scientists perform their research. We will discuss how the Mercury metadata search system, with the help of the semantic search capability, is being used to find, retrieve, and link climate change data. DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2014.6867639

  13. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  14. Model Design of Semantic Website Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Semantic web is an extension of the current World Wide Web. This paper proposes a new model of constructing semantic website, and takes the construction of semantic website in the field of tourism in Africa as an example, and describes an approach to build the semantic website. It is a common approach and can be applied to the construction of other semantic websites. First, analyze user’s requirements, and then build domain ontology based on them requirements, design interactive interface, and analyze the information entered by user. Then, retrieve and reason the ontology by Jena, and provide the required information and links. The proposed method takes full account of the demand of user’s interaction, facilitates obtaining the required information on the website. The example shows that the proposed model is effective.

  15. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis with......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference, it is...... empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...

  16. Distributional Measures of Semantic Distance: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Saif M

    2012-01-01

    The ability to mimic human notions of semantic distance has widespread applications. Some measures rely only on raw text (distributional measures) and some rely on knowledge sources such as WordNet. Although extensive studies have been performed to compare WordNet-based measures with human judgment, the use of distributional measures as proxies to estimate semantic distance has received little attention. Even though they have traditionally performed poorly when compared to WordNet-based measures, they lay claim to certain uniquely attractive features, such as their applicability in resource-poor languages and their ability to mimic both semantic similarity and semantic relatedness. Therefore, this paper presents a detailed study of distributional measures. Particular attention is paid to flesh out the strengths and limitations of both WordNet-based and distributional measures, and how distributional measures of distance can be brought more in line with human notions of semantic distance. We conclude with a br...

  17. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  18. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference, it is...... demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis with...

  19. Role of Ontology in Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Giri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of computers is changing from single isolated devices to entry points into a worldwide network of information exchange. Therefore, support in the exchange of data, information, and knowledge is becoming the key issue in computer technology today. The increasing volume of data available on the Web makes information retrieval a tedious and difficult task. Researchers are now exploring the possibility of creating a semantic Web, in which meaning is made explicit, allowing machines to process and integrate Web resources intelligently. The vision of the semantic Web introduces the next generation of the Web byestablishing a layer of machine-understandable data. The success of the semantic Web crucially depends on the easy creation, integration and use of semantic data, which will depend on building an ontology. This paper states the role of ontology in supporting information exchange process, particulary with semantic web.

  20. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  1. Semantically enhanced Uyghur Information Retrieval Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Uyghur search engine lacks semantic information, aiming to solve this problem, a semantically enhanced Uyghur information retrieval model was proposed based on the characteristics of Uyghur language. Firstly word stemming was carried out and web pages were represented by the form of 3-triples to construct the Uyghur knowledge base, then the matching between ontologies and web pages was established by computing concept similarity and relation similarity. Semantic inverted index was built to save the association between semantic entities and web pages, and user query analysis was implemented by expanding the queries and analyzing the relations between the queries, finally by combining the benefits of both keyword-based and semantic-based methods, ranking algorithm was implemented. By comparing with the Google search engine and the Lucene based method, the experiments validate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the model preliminarily.

  2. Explaining presupposition projection with dynamic semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rothschild

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Heim's (1982, 1983b dynamic semantics provides an attractive system for capturing the basic facts about presupposition projection. A long-standing criticism of this semantics is that it requires for each connective lexical stipulations that are not determined by its truth-conditional meaning. I give a precise formulation of this criticism in terms of what I call a "rewrite semantics". Then, I use this idea of a rewrite semantics to formulate a new version of dynamic semantics. This version does not require stipulations particular to individual connectives, but rather allows a derivation of the presupposition projection properties for each connective from its truth-conditional meaning. doi:10.3765/sp.4.3 BibTeX info

  3. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; MØrup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures, which we suggest might function as cognitive components for perceiving the underlying structure in lyrics.

  4. ISBD and the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Willer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of integration between ISBD and the semantic web have been examined through the work of the IFLA Study Groups, created with the task to investigate the possibilities for representing ISBD in web technologies and services. One of the main study groups is represented by the ISBD/XML Study Group, formed in 2008.The paper describes the activities developing a representation of International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD in Resource Description Framework (RDF: the research, technical, and administrative activities undertaken to make bibliographic metadata authorized by the IFLA standard available to the Semantic Web as trustworthy information.The paper discusses the ongoing representation of elements in RDF in the ISBD namespace, the treatment of aggregated statements composed of multiple elements, and the development of a Dublin Core Application Profile for ISBD. An introduction to recent initiatives within IFLA to develop representation of its models and standards in RDF, as well as an administrative and technical infrastructure to support such initiatives will be given as a background to the work on ISBD.Some European libraries such as the British Library and the Mannheim University Library, are experimenting means to transform their catalogues into tools interoperating with the web. RDF seems to be the most suitable tool for the universal bibliographic control within the libraries of the future.

  5. Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tymoshuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological DictionaryWhen compiling bi- and multilingual phraseological lexicons it is necessary to address such theoretical issues as the formulation linguistically grounded principles of selection of phraseological units and their translation, semantic interpretation based on differentiation of pictures of the world of the linguistic systems, comprehensive combination of elements of the structure and presentation of various linguistic ambiguities, rational form of dictionary entries and building of user-friendly interface in electronic dictionary systems, etc. The article addresses the principles of Ukrainian-Polish electronic phraseological dictionary, which is one of the first attempts of complex and systematic presentation of Ukrainian and Polish phraseology. The main attention is paid to the lexicographic representation of phraseological units, their semantic characterization and selection problem idiomatic equivalents.

  6. Semantic web revolutionizing knowledge discovery in the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Covers topics ranging from database, ontology, visualization, to semantic web services and workflowsFeatures the intersection of Semantic Web and Life SciencesGives examples/scenarios illustrating different Semantic Web applications in the life science domainDiscusses the limitations and obstacles that need to be overcome for Semantic Web to better meet the current and future needs of life science researchers

  7. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  8. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  9. Extracting Generalized Semantic Roles from Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Jafarinejad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest constructs of linguistic theory is semantic role. Automatic extraction of semantic roles in a sentence is a movement towards semantic processing of texts which has been the focus of attention in recent years. Extraction of semantic roles from a text contains some essential parts. Recognition of verb(s of the sentence, recognition of noun phrases and their heads, and labeling the role of each phrase in the sentence as a semantic argument of verb are general parts of a system that does this task. There is a wide variety of definitions for semantic roles from verb specific roles to some general roles known as thematic roles, This paper focuses on a generalization of thematic roles called proto-roles or generalized semantic roles which includes two roles; actor and undergoer. In this paper we extract proto-roles in a Persian sentence exploiting POS tags. We use Peykareh as our input corpus and apply a rule based approach to extract actor and undergoer of verb(s.

  10. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Sudeepthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are playing a crucial role in enhancing traditional web search, as it is working to create machine readable data. but it will not replace traditional search engine. In this paper we made a brief survey on various promising features of some of the best semantic search engines developed so far and we have discussed the various approaches to semantic search. We have summarized the techniques, advantages of some important semantic web search engines that are developed so far.The most prominent part is that how the semantic search engines differ from the traditional searches and their results are shown by giving a sample query as input

  11. Semantically aided interpretation and querying of Jefferson Project data using the SemantEco framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; Pinheiro, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We will describe the benefits we realized using semantic technologies to address the often challenging and resource intensive task of ontology alignment in service of data integration. Ontology alignment became relatively simple as we reused our existing semantic data integration framework, SemantEco. We work in the context of the Jefferson Project (JP), an effort to monitor and predict the health of Lake George in NY by deploying a large-scale sensor network in the lake, and analyzing the high-resolution sensor data. SemantEco is an open-source framework for building semantically-aware applications to assist users, particularly non-experts, in exploration and interpretation of integrated scientific data. SemantEco applications are composed of a set of modules that incorporate new datasets, extend the semantic capabilities of the system to integrate and reason about data, and provide facets for extending or controlling semantic queries. Whereas earlier SemantEco work focused on integration of water, air, and species data from government sources, we focus on redeploying it to provide a provenance-aware, semantic query and interpretation interface for JP's sensor data. By employing a minor alignment between SemantEco's ontology and the Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology used to model the JP's sensor deployments, we were able to bring SemantEco's capabilities to bear on the JP sensor data and metadata. This alignment enabled SemantEco to perform the following tasks: (1) select JP datasets related to water quality; (2) understand how the JP's notion of water quality relates to water quality concepts in previous work; and (3) reuse existing SemantEco interactive data facets, e.g. maps and time series visualizations, and modules, e.g. the regulation module that interprets water quality data through the lens of various federal and state regulations. Semantic technologies, both as the engine driving SemantEco and the means of modeling the JP data, enabled us to rapidly align the two ontologies without needing the projects to change models and allowed us to adopt the existing software development effort invested in SemantEco as a portal for exploring Lake George's water quality data. We plan to extend the registration of modules and facets to handle climate data, hydrology data, and food web data.

  12. Social semantics the search for meaning on the web

    CERN Document Server

    Halpin, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Statistical Semantics for the Semantic Web provides a unique introduction to identity and reference theories of the World Wide Web, through the academic lens of philosophy of language and data-driven statistical models. The Semantic Web is a natural evolution of the Web, and this book covers the URL-based Web architecture and Semantic Web in detail.Statistical Semantics for the Semantic Web discusses how the largest problem facing the Semantic Web is the problem of identity and reference, and how these are the results of a larger general theory of meaning. This book hypothesizes that statistic

  13. SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Sharma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. To improve the internet service quality and increase the user click rate on a specific website, it is necessary for a web developer to know what the user really want to do, predict which pages the user is potentially interested in. In this paper, various techniques for Semantic Web mining like web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining are discussed. Our main focus is on web usage mining and its application in web personalization. Study shows that the accuracy of recommendation system has improved significantly with the use of semantic web mining in web personalization. Keywords: Navigation Pattern, Pattern Analysis, Semantic Web, Web Personalization, Web Usage Mining.

  14. The Semantic eScience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF

  15. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  16. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    G.Sudeepthi; G. Anuradha; M.Surendra Prasad Babu

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are pla...

  17. Change management for semantic web services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2011-01-01

    Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

  18. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  19. The lexical semantics of derived statives

    OpenAIRE

    Koontz-Garboden, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the semantics of derived statives, deverbal adjectives that fail to entail there to have been a preceding (temporal) event of the kind named by the verb they are derived from, e.g. darkened in a darkened portion of skin. Building on Gawron’s (The lexical semantics of extent verbs, San Diego State University, ms, 2009) recent observations regarding the semantics of extent uses of change of state verbs (e.g., Kim’s skin darkens between the knee and th...

  20. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  1. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.; Haag, S.; Kuhn, M.; Satagopam, V.P.; Schneider, R.; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail a...

  2. Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

  3. Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, S

    2009-01-01

    Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

  4. Quantifying Semantic Linguistic Maturity in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to quantify semantic linguistic maturity (SELMA) based on a high dimensional semantic representation ofwords created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0–12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human raters we found that SELMA predicted the rating of semantic maturity made by human raters over and above the prediction made using a child’s age and number of wo...

  5. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  6. Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kiefer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation towards semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited.

  7. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-based MT. We see our approach as closely aligned with knowledge-based MT approaches (KBMT), and as a separate component that could be incorporated into existing systems. Examples and experimental results will show that, using this scheme, inexact matches can achieve correct lexical selection.

  8. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

    2012-01-01

    We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

  9. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  10. Semantic Aspect Retrieval for Encyclopedia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chao, Han; Yicheng, Liu; Yu, Hao; Xiaoyan, Zhu.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Web 2.0, more and more people contribute their knowledge to the Internet. Many general and domain-specific online encyclopedia resources become available, and they are valuable for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, such as summarization and question-answeri [...] ng. We propose a novel encyclopedia-specific method to retrieve passages which are semantically related to a short query (usually comprises of only one word/phrase) from a given article in the encyclopedia. The method captures the expression word features and categorical word features in the surrounding snippets of the aspect words by setting up massive hybrid language models. These local models outperform the global models such as LSA and ESA in our task.

  11. The Semantic Analysis of Icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Piravivanak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available "Eikon" (Greek word or "Imago" (Latin word signifies a kind of similarity or "likeness". In Plato’s philosophy, this term implies "likeness" of appearance to pattern or symbol. In semantic analysis of icon, which is correlated with Idea, we can find factors such as "perception", "imagination", "likeness", "imitation" (Mimesis, "imaginary ideas", that is, it is not possible to reduce icon to a material picture because it is supported by cultural (symbolic, perceptual and conceptual sources. The process in which an icon is established indicates a special relation between icon and imaginary ideas that is supported by symbolic sources. Then, it is not possible to regard icon as a material picture because icon is an icon of a symbol which is able to play its role visibly in relation to a symbol.

  12. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  13. Semantic Optimization of Preference Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Chomicki, J

    2004-01-01

    The notion of preference is becoming more and more ubiquitous in present-day information systems. Preferences are primarily used to filter and personalize the information reaching the users of such systems. In database systems, preferences are usually captured as preference relations that are used to build preference queries. In our approach, preference queries are relational algebra or SQL queries that contain occurrences of the winnow operator ("find the most preferred tuples in a given relation"). We present here a number of semantic optimization techniques applicable to preference queries. The techniques make use of integrity constraints, and make it possible to remove redundant occurrences of the winnow operator and to apply a more efficient algorithm for the computation of winnow. We also study the propagation of integrity constraints in the result of the winnow. We have identified necessary and sufficient conditions for the applicability of our techniques, and formulated those conditions as constraint ...

  14. A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    M.VENU GOPALACHARI; DR. P.SAMMULAL

    2013-01-01

    The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provides a...

  15. Modeling the Relationship between Texture Semantics and Textile Images

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Wang; Jia Jia; Yongxin Wang; Lianhong Cai

    2011-01-01

    Texture semantics, which is the kind of feelings that the texture feature of an image would arouse in people, is important in texture analysis. In this paper, we study the relationship between texture semantics and textile images, and propose a novel parametric mapping model to predict texture semantics from textile images. To represent rich texture semantics and enable it to participate in computation, 2D continuous semantic space, where the axes correspond to hard-soft and warm-cool, is fir...

  16. A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a ...

  17. Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2010-01-01

    Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construc...

  18. Code generation from UML models with semantic variation points

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvel, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    UML semantic variation points provide intentional degrees of freedom for the interpretation of the metamodel semantics. The interest of semantic variation points is that UML now becomes a family of languages sharing lot of commonalities and some variabilities that one can customize for a given application domain. In this paper, we propose to reify the various semantic variation points of UML 2.0 statecharts into models of their own to avoid hardcoding the semantic choices in the tools. We do ...

  19. Semantic Web search based on ontological conjunctive queries.

    OpenAIRE

    Fazzinga, B; Gianforme, G; Gottlob, G.; T. Lukasiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data, and will possibly consist of (some form of) the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Semantic Web search, called Serene, which allows for a semantic processing of Web search queries, and for evaluating complex Web search queries that involve reasoning over the Web. More specifically, we first add ontological structure and semantics to Web ...

  20. Semantic Fluency in Mild and Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkala, Seija

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an impairment of the semantic memory responsible for processing meaning-related knowledge. This study was aimed at examining how Finnish-speaking healthy elderly subjects (n = 30) and mildly (n=20) and moderately (n = 20) demented AD patients utilize semantic knowledge to performa semantic fluency task, a method of studying semantic memory. In this task subjects are typically given 60 seconds to generate words belonging to the semantic category of ...

  1. Using semantic resources to improve a syntactic dependency parser

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, G

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic syntactic parsing has made rapid progress, but is reaching a performance ceiling. More semantic resources need to be included. We exploit a number of semantic resources to improve parsing accuracy of a dependency parser. We compare semantic lexica on this task, then we extend the back-off chain by punishing underspecified decisions. Further, a simple distributional semantics approach is tested. Selectional restrictions are employed to boost interpretations that are semantically ...

  2. Generating Exploratory Search Interfaces for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Tvarožek, Michal; Bieliková, Mária

    2010-01-01

    At present, the promise of the Semantic Web has yet to be realized, partly because there are few real-world applications that allow end-users to access, view and process Semantic Web information. We aim to facilitate Semantic Web adoption by providing users with advanced exploratory search capability over Semantic Web data by providing a faceted exploratory search interface for arbitrary Semantic Web repositories. Our approach takes advantage of metadata describing the structure of the respec...

  3. Theory of mind impairments in patients with semantic dementia. : ToM in semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, Céline; Bejanin, Alexandre; PIOLINO, Pascale; Laisney, Mickael; De La Sayette, Vincent; Belliard, Serge; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Semantic dementia is characterized by semantic deficits and behavioural abnormalities that occur in the wake of bilateral inferolateral and predominantly left-sided anterior temporal lobe atrophy. The temporal poles have been shown to be involved in theory of mind, namely the ability to ascribe cognitive and affective mental states to others that regulates social interactions by predicting and interpreting human behaviour. However, very few studies have examined theory of mind in semantic dem...

  4. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, Petr; Mou?ek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological...

  5. Semantic Web Languages and Semantic Web Services as Application Areas for Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Polleres, Axel

    2005-01-01

    In the Semantic Web and Semantic Web Services areas there are still unclear issues concerning an appropriate language. Answer Set Programming and ASP engines can be particularly interesting for Ontological Reasoning, especially in the light of ongoing discussions of non-Monotonic extensions for Ontology Languages. Previously, the main concern of discussions was around OWL and Description Logics. Recently many extensions and suggestions for Rule Languages and Semantic Web Languages pop up, par...

  6. On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Keimel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    G. Plotkin and the author have worked out the equivalence between state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics in a domain theoretical setting for programs combining nondeterminism and probability. Works of C. Morgan and co-authors, Keimel, Rosenbusch and Streicher, already go in the same direction using only discrete state spaces. It is the aim of this paper to exhibit a general framework in which one can hope that state transformer semantics and predicat...

  7. Failing to get the gist: reduced false recognition of semantic associates in semantic dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, JS; Verfaellie, M; Hodges, JR; Lee, AC; Graham, KS; Koutstaal, W; Schacter, DL; Budson, AE

    2005-01-01

    In 2 experiments involving patients with semantic dementia, the authors investigated the impact of semantic memory loss on both true and false recognition. Experiment 1 involved recognition memory for categories of everyday objects that shared a predominantly semantic relationship. The patients showed preserved item-specific recollection for the pictorial stimuli but, compared with control participants, exhibited significantly reduced utilization of gist information regarding the categories o...

  8. Semantic Integration Workshop at the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, AnHai; Halevy, Alon Y.; Noy, Natalya F.

    2004-01-01

    In numerous distributed environments, including today's World Wide Web, enterprise data management systems, large science projects, and the emerging semantic web, applications will inevitably use the information described by multiple ontologies and schemas. We organized the Workshop on Semantic Integration at the Second International Semantic Web Conference to bring together different communities working on the issues of enabling integration among different resources. The workshop generated a...

  9. Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pabitha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced to provide accurate results.

  10. Lexical-semantic processing in the semantic priming paradigm in aphasic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the explicit lexical-semantic processing deficits which characterize aphasia may be observed in the absence of implicit semantic impairment. The aim of this article was to critically review the international literature on lexical-semantic processing in aphasia, as tested through the semantic priming paradigm. Specifically, this review focused on aphasia and lexical-semantic processing, the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the semantic paradigms used, and recent evidence from neuroimaging studies on lexical-semantic processing. Furthermore, evidence on dissociations between implicit and explicit lexical-semantic processing reported in the literature will be discussed and interpreted by referring to functional neuroimaging evidence from healthy populations. There is evidence that semantic priming effects can be found both in fluent and in non-fluent aphasias, and that these effects are related to an extensive network which includes the temporal lobe, the pre-frontal cortex, the left frontal gyrus, the left temporal gyrus and the cingulated cortex.

  11. Fuzzy knowledge management for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zongmin; Yan, Li; Cheng, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    This book goes to great depth concerning the fast growing topic of technologies and approaches of fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web. The topics of this book include fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontologies, queries of fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontology knowledge bases, extraction of fuzzy description logics and ontologies from fuzzy data models, storage of fuzzy ontology knowledge bases in fuzzy databases, fuzzy Semantic Web ontology mapping, and fuzzy rules and their interchange in the Semantic Web. The book aims to provide a single record of current research in the fuzzy knowledge representation and reasoning for the Semantic Web. The objective of the book is to provide the state of the art information to researchers, practitioners and graduate students of the Web intelligence and at the same time serve the knowledge and data engineering professional faced with non-traditional applications that make the application of conventional approaches difficult or impossible.

  12. Next Generation Semantic Web and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyarashmi Panigrahi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, computers are changing from single, isolated devices into entry points to a worldwide network of information exchange and business transactions called the World Wide Web (WWW. However, the success of the WWW has made it increasingly difficult to find, access, present and maintain the information required by a wide variety of users. In response to this problem, many new research initiatives and commercial enterprises have been set up to enrich the available information with machine-process able semantics. This Semantic Web will provide intelligent access to heterogeneous, distributed information, enabling software products (agents to mediate between user needs and the information sources available. In this paper we describe some areas for application of this new technology. We focus on on-going work in the fields of knowledge management and electronic commerce. We also take a perspective on the semantic web-enabled web services which will help to bring the semantic web to its full potential.

  13. Semantic web services advancement through evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Brian; König-Ries, Birgitta; Küster, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Including a useful overview of the latest research on implemented SWS technologies, this volume details a variety of current semantic service approaches and provides valuable material that will enhance future SWS evaluation methodologies and techniques.

  14. A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira

    This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting logic...... written using techniques that support the modular development of the specification in the precise sense that every module extension is conservative. We show that the MRS of CML can be used to interpret CML programs using the rewrite engine of the Maude system, a high-performance implementation of...... rewriting logic, and to verify CML programs using Maude's built-in LTL model checker. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic concepts of structural operational semantics and algebraic specifications....

  15. The Doxastic Interpretation of Team Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Galliani, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    We advance a doxastic interpretation for many of the logical connectives considered in Dependence Logic and in its extensions, and we argue that Team Semantics is a natural framework for reasoning about beliefs and belief updates.

  16. SEMANTIC GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR TAGBASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Durao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag basedrecommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases.Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevantrecommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show acomprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The studybesides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentageof the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much asit does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with suchnumber of expansions, the recommendations change considerably

  17. Action Semantics and ASF+SDF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2002-01-01

    Modularity and tool support are crucial features for practical use of formal descriptions of programming languages. The combination of unrestricted context-free grammars with action semantics allows complete language descriptions with exceptionally good modularity. Moreover, by specifying the...

  18. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  19. Learning Semantic String Transformations from Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rishabh

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of performing semantic transformations on strings, which may represent a variety of data types (or their combination) such as a column in a relational table, time, date, currency, etc. Unlike syntactic transformations, which are based on regular expressions and which interpret a string as a sequence of characters, semantic transformations additionally require exploiting the semantics of the data type represented by the string, which may be encoded as a database of relational tables. Manually performing such transformations on a large collection of strings is error prone and cumbersome, while programmatic solutions are beyond the skill-set of end-users. We present a programming by example technology that allows end-users to automate such repetitive tasks. We describe an expressive transformation language for semantic manipulation that combines table lookup operations and syntactic manipulations. We then present a synthesis algorithm that can learn all transformations in the language that...

  20. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  1. SPARK: Adapting Keyword Query to Semantic Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chong; Xiong, Miao; Wang, Haofen; Yu, Yong

    Semantic search promises to provide more accurate result than present-day keyword search. However, progress with semantic search has been delayed due to the complexity of its query languages. In this paper, we explore a novel approach of adapting keywords to querying the semantic web: the approach automatically translates keyword queries into formal logic queries so that end users can use familiar keywords to perform semantic search. A prototype system named 'SPARK' has been implemented in light of this approach. Given a keyword query, SPARK outputs a ranked list of SPARQL queries as the translation result. The translation in SPARK consists of three major steps: term mapping, query graph construction and query ranking. Specifically, a probabilistic query ranking model is proposed to select the most likely SPARQL query. In the experiment, SPARK achieved an encouraging translation result.

  2. Philosophical presuppositions of two-dimensional semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovi? Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional semantics is only seemingly a unique answer to the problem of meaning. Philosophers prone to two-dimensionalism, generally agree in regard to formal deficiencies arising from intensional semantics. In order to respond to these, they created a specific formal framework including two types of intensions (as opposed to only one used to capture the meaning of terms in intensional semantics. Issues that usually arise regarding this framework independently constitute a very interesting philosophical debate, but, they can also mislead one into conclusion about the identical aims or philosophical aspirations of its participants. The similarities on the formal level, often hide insurmountable conceptual differences in the interpretation of two-dimensional framework: Kaplan uses it to show expression’s context dependence, Stalnaker to capture meta-semantic facts, while Chalmers believes this framework traces a path to the epistemic roots of meaning. In this paper I intend to spotlight these differences.

  3. Data Quality Principles in the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf, Ahmad; SENART, ALINE

    2013-01-01

    The increasing size and availability of web data make data quality a core challenge in many applications. Principles of data quality are recognized as essential to ensure that data fit for their intended use in operations, decision-making, and planning. However, with the rise of the Semantic Web, new data quality issues appear and require deeper consideration. In this paper, we propose to extend the data quality principles to the context of Semantic Web. Based on our extensi...

  4. Semantic Image Retrieval: An Ontology Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Manzoor; Balubaid, Mohammed A.; Bassam Zafar; Hafsa Umar; M. Shoaib Khan

    2015-01-01

    Images / Videos are major source of content on the internet and the content is increasing rapidly due to the advancement in this area. Image analysis and retrieval is one of the active research field and researchers from the last decade have proposed many efficient approaches for the same. Semantic technologies like ontology offers promising approach to image retrieval as it tries to map the low level image features to high level ontology concepts. In this paper, we have proposed Semantic Ima...

  5. Semantic web services for web databases

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzzani, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web Services for Web Databases introduces an end-to-end framework for querying Web databases using novel Web service querying techniques. This includes a detailed framework for the query infrastructure for Web databases and services. Case studies are covered in the last section of this book. Semantic Web Services For Web Databases is designed for practitioners and researchers focused on service-oriented computing and Web databases.

  6. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are...

  7. On social semantics in information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Waltinger, Ulli

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we analyze the performance of social semantics in textual information retrieval. By means of collaboratively constructed knowledge derived from web-based social networks, inducing both common-sense and domain-specific knowledge as constructed by a multitude of users, we will establish an improvement in performance of selected tasks within different areas of information retrieval. This work connects the concepts and the methods of social networks and the semantic web to support ...

  8. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-01-01

    Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural langu...

  9. Lightweight Semantic Annotation of Geospatial RESTful Services

    OpenAIRE

    Saquicela, V.; Vilches-Blázquez, LM.; Corcho, Óscar

    2011-01-01

    RESTful services are increasingly gaining traction over WS-* ones. As with WS-* services, their semantic annotation can provide benefits in tasks related to their discovery, composition and mediation. In this paper we present an approach to automate the semantic annotation of RESTful services using a cross-domain ontology like DBpedia, domain ontologies like GeoNames, and additional external resources (suggestion and synonym services). We also present a preliminary evaluation in the geospatia...

  10. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by e...

  11. From surface dependencies towards deeper semantic representations

    OpenAIRE

    Versley, Yannick; Zinsmeister, Heike

    2008-01-01

    In the past, a divide could be seen between ’deep’ parsers on the one hand, which construct a semantic representation out of their input, but usually have significant coverage problems, and more robust parsers on the other hand, which are usually based on a (statistical) model derived from a treebank and have larger coverage, but leave the problem of semantic interpretation to the user. More recently, approaches have emerged that combine the robustness of datadriven (statistical) models with ...

  12. Lightweight semantic prototyper for conceptual modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sedrakyan, Gayane; Snoeck, Monique

    2014-01-01

    While much research work was devoted to conceptual model quality validation techniques, most of the existing tools in this domain focus on syntactic quality. Tool support for checking semantic quality (correspondence between the conceptual model and requirements of a domain to be engineered) is largely lacking. This work introduces a lightweight model-driven semantic prototyper to test/validate conceptual models. The goal of the tool is twofold: (1) to assist business analysts in validating s...

  13. Semantics of probabilistic processes an operational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the semantic foundations of concurrent systems with nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. Particular attention is given to clarifying the relationship between testing and simulation semantics and characterising bisimulations from metric, logical, and algorithmic perspectives. Besides presenting recent research outcomes in probabilistic concurrency theory, the book exemplifies the use of many mathematical techniques to solve problems in computer science, which is intended to be accessible to postgraduate students in Computer Science and Mathematics. It can also be us

  14. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    OpenAIRE

    My Abdellah Kassimi; Omar El beqqali

    2012-01-01

    The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of ...

  15. Building a Social Semantic Digital Library

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nisheva-Pavlova; D. Shukerov; Pavlov, P

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes some current trends of research and development in the field of digital libraries. The presentation is focused on the main features of two new generations of digital libraries – the so-called semantic digital libraries and social semantic digital libraries. The design characteristics, principles of functioning and some implementation details of a particular academic digital library have been discussed as an illustration of the suggested ideas.

  16. On the relations between monadic semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computational metalanguage with general recursive types and multiple notions of effects, through which a variety of concrete denotational semantics can be conveniently factored, by suitably interpreting the effects as monads. We then propose a methodology for relating two such interpretations of the metalanguage, with the aim of showing that the semantics they induce agree for complete programs. As a prototypical instance of such a relation, we use the framework to show agree...

  17. Semantic technologies for distributed information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In this book we show how semantic technologies ? and in particular the use of ontologies ? can be employed to address a number of typical challenges in distributed information systems: First, we illustrate how ontologies enable the integration of information across heterogeneous nodes. Second, we show how ontology evolution allows dealing with the dynamics in the information in a consistent manner. Third, we present a model for ontologybased coordination using semantic overlay networks.

  18. Semantic Aggregator of Public Professional Events

    OpenAIRE

    Lama Assum; Rawan Babaier; Nour Alkhatib; Lilac Al-Safadi

    2012-01-01

    The data on the web has been created by a large number of people and is hosted in a large number of independent resources across the globe. Therefore, there is a need to develop data aggregators to help the process of knowledge-based integration. The data without central coordination resulted in heterogeneity. The integration of data on the Internet continues to be a challenge for searching and discovery efforts. Semantic aggregators are agents for data integration using semantic web te...

  19. The gap is semantic, not epistemological

    OpenAIRE

    D'Oro, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores an alternative to the metaphysical challenge to physicalism posed by Jackson and Kripke and to the epistemological one exemplified by the positions of Nagel, Levine and McGinn. On this alternative the mind-body gap is neither ontological nor epistemological, but semantic. I claim that it is because the gap is semantic that the mind-body problem is a quintessentially philosophical problem that is not likely to wither away as our natural scientific knowledge advances.(1)

  20. Semantic tags for generative multiview product breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Paviot, Thomas; Cheutet, Vincent; Lamouri, Samir

    2010-01-01

    The interoperability of IT systems that drive engineering and production processes (i.e. Product Data Management and Enterprise Resource Planning systems) is still an issue. The semantic meaning of product information has to be explicit in order to be able to exchange information between these systems. However, the product breakdown activity generates many disconnected product views over which the product semantics is disseminated and mostly implicit. This paper introduces a methodology allow...

  1. The Semantic Grid: Past, Present and Future.

    OpenAIRE

    Roure, DD; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Euzenat, J

    2005-01-01

    Grid computing offers significant enhancements to our capabilities for computation, information processing and collaboration, and has exciting ambitions in many fields of endeavour. This talk will explain why the full richness of the Grid vision, with its application in e-Science, e-Research or e-Business, requires the combination of Semantic Web and Grid - giving us the "Semantic Grid", an extension of the current Grid in which information and services are given well-defined meaning, better ...

  2. Semantic Identification: Balancing between Complexity and Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Falelakis M.; Diou C.; Delopoulos A

    2006-01-01

    An efficient scheme for identifying semantic entities within data sets such as multimedia documents, scenes, signals, and so forth, is proposed in this work. Expression of semantic entities in terms of syntactic properties is modelled with appropriately defined finite automata, which also model the identification procedure. Based on the structure and properties of these automata, formal definitions of attained validity and certainty and also required complexity are defined as metrics of iden...

  3. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Taheriyan, Mohsen; Knoblock, Craig A; Szekely, Pedro; Ambite, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data that can be leveraged to build and augment knowledge graphs. However, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources represent the implicit meaning of the data by specifying the concepts and the relationships within the data. Such models are the key ingredients to automatically publish the data into knowledge g...

  4. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ganapathi Babu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. This paper gives an overview of how the semantic web is used for mining the World Wide Web.

  5. Crips, fuzzy, and probabilistic faceted semantic search

    OpenAIRE

    Holi, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents contributions to the development of the faceted semantic search (FSS) paradigm. First, two fundamental solutions to FSS, which have been widely used since their development are presented. The first is the projection of search facets from annotation ontologies using logical rules. The second is the logic rule-based generation of recommendation links for search items based on the semantic relations of these items. After presenting these solutions, the rest of the...

  6. Bayesian natural language semantics and pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2015-01-01

    The contributions in this volume focus on the Bayesian interpretation of natural languages, which is widely used in areas of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and computational linguistics. This is the first volume to take up topics in Bayesian Natural Language Interpretation and make proposals based on information theory, probability theory, and related fields. The methodologies offered here extend to the target semantic and pragmatic analyses of computational natural language interpretation. Bayesian approaches to natural language semantics and pragmatics are based on methods from

  7. How Controlled English can Improve Semantic Wikis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, T.

    2009-01-01

    The motivation of semantic wikis is to make acquisition, maintenance, and mining of formal knowledge simpler, faster, and more flexible. However, most existing semantic wikis have a very technical interface and are restricted to a relatively low level of expressivity. In this paper, we explain how AceWiki uses controlled English - concretely Attempto Controlled English (ACE) - to provide a natural and intuitive interface while supporting a high degree of expressivity. We introduce recent impr...

  8. Semantic Awareness for Automatic Image Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Finding relations between image semantics and image characteristics is a problem of long standing in computer vision and related fields. Despite persistent efforts and significant advances in the field, today’s computers are still strikingly unable to achieve the same complex understanding of semantic image content as human users do with ease. This is a problem when large sets of images have to be interpreted or somehow processed by algorithms. This problem becomes increasingly urgent with th...

  9. Semantic verbal fluency in two contrasting languages

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkala, Seija; Goral, Mira; Hyun, JungMoon; Obler, Loraine K.; ERKINJUNTTI, TIMO; Albert, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF performance in two semantic categories (animals and clothes), in the proportions of words produced within the first half (30 seconds) of the SVF task...

  10. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  11. Applying semantic web services to enterprise web

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y.; Yang, Q P; Sun, X.; Wei, P

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Web provides a convenient, extendable, integrated platform for information sharing and knowledge management. However, it still has many drawbacks due to complexity and increasing information glut, as well as the heterogeneity of the information processed. Research in the field of Semantic Web Services has shown the possibility of adding higher level of semantic functionality onto the top of current Enterprise Web, enhancing usability and usefulness of resource, enabling decision su...

  12. Two-Level Semantics and Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1988-01-01

    A two-level denotational metalanguage that is suitable for defining the semantics of Pascal-like languages is presented. The two levels allow for an explicit distinction between computations taking place at compile-time and computations taking place at run-time. While this distinction is perhaps not absolutely necessary for describing the input-output semantics of programming languages, it is necessary when issues such as data flow analysis and code generation are considered. For an example stac...

  13. Using semantic cues to learn syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Naseem, Tahira; Barzilay, Regina

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for dependency grammar induction that utilizes sparse annotations of semantic relations. This induction set-up is attractive because such annotations provide useful clues about the underlying syntactic structure, and they are readily available in many domains (e.g., info-boxes and HTML markup). Our method is based on the intuition that syntactic realizations of the same semantic predicate exhibit some degree of consistency. We incorporate this intuition in a directed...

  14. Towards Ideal Semantics for Analyzing Stream Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Harald; Dao-Tran, Minh; Eiter, Thomas; Fink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The rise of smart applications has drawn interest to logical reasoning over data streams. Recently, different query languages and stream processing/reasoning engines were proposed in different communities. However, due to a lack of theoretical foundations, the expressivity and semantics of these diverse approaches are given only informally. Towards clear specifications and means for analytic study, a formal framework is needed to define their semantics in precise terms. To this end, we presen...

  15. APPLICATION BASED SEMANTIC WEB MINING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Mahindra Pratap Singh Dohare

    2011-01-01

    The Web is a huge read-write information space where many items such as documents, images or other multimedia can be accessed. In this context, several information technologies have been developed to help users to satisfy their searching needs on the Web, and the most used are search engines. Search engines allow users to find Web resources formulating queries (a set of terms) and reviewing a list of answers. The Semantic Web improves the Web infrastructure with formal semantics and interlink...

  16. Semantic interoperability framework for smart spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kiljander, J. (Jussi)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At the heart of the smart space vision is the idea that devices interoperate with each other autonomously to assist people in their everyday activities. In order to make this vision a reality, it is important to achieve semantic-level interoperability between devices. The goal of this dissertation is to enable Semantic Web technology-based interoperability in smart spaces. There are many challenges that need to be solved before this goal can be achieved. In this dissertation, ...

  17. Measuring Semantic Similarity by Latent Relational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Turney, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces Latent Relational Analysis (LRA), a method for measuring semantic similarity. LRA measures similarity in the semantic relations between two pairs of words. When two pairs have a high degree of relational similarity, they are analogous. For example, the pair cat:meow is analogous to the pair dog:bark. There is evidence from cognitive science that relational similarity is fundamental to many cognitive and linguistic tasks (e.g., analogical reasoning). In ...

  18. Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2012-01-01

    Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search...

  19. Evaluating word semantic properties using Sketch Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykova, Velislava; Simkova, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes approach to use statistically-based tools incorporated into Sketch Engine system for electronic text corpora processing to mining big textual data for search and extract word semantic properties. It presents and compares series of word search experiments using different statistical approaches and evaluates results for Bulgarian language EUROPARL 7 Corpus search to extract word semantic properties. Finally, the methodology is extended for multilingual application using Slovak language EUROPARL 7 Corpus.

  20. Argumentation Semantics for Prioritised Default Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Anthony P.; Modgil, Sanjay; Rodrigues, Odinaldo

    2015-01-01

    We endow prioritised default logic (PDL) with argumentation semantics using the ASPIC+ framework for structured argumentation, and prove that the conclusions of the justified arguments are exactly the prioritised default extensions. Argumentation semantics for PDL will allow for the application of argument game proof theories to the process of inference in PDL, making the reasons for accepting a conclusion transparent and the inference process more intuitive. This also opens...

  1. Model Mapping Approach Based on Ontology Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Jinkui Hou; Yuyan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The mapping relations between different models are the foundation for model transformation in model-driven software development. On the basis of ontology semantics, model mappings between different levels are classified by using structural semantics of modeling languages. The general definition process for mapping relations is explored, and the principles of structure mapping are proposed subsequently. The approach is further illustrated by the mapping relations from class model of object ori...

  2. Semantic Analysis of Women Beauty Product Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    El Hainun

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement is a kind of communication processes between consumer and producer. The most important thing in communication process is the understanding about meaning that is discussed to avoid missunderstanding between hearer and speaker. The study about meaning is semantics, and through this thesis entitled “Semantic Analysis of Woman Beauty Products Advertisements”, the writer is going to explore the meaning in used that appears in the object of the analysis. The data are collected from wo...

  3. Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene. PMID:17405446

  4. Comparison and Evaluation of Semantic Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the performance of five semantic search engines that are available on the web, using 45 criteria, in the form of a researcher-made checklist. Criteria provided in the checklist included both common and semantic features. Common criteria or features are those applicable to all search engines and semantic ones are those only applicable to semantic search engines. Findings show that the selected search engines do not have suitable performance and expected efficiency. DuckDuckGo, has the most points, considering regular features. Cluuz is in the second place with 20 points and Hakia with 18 points was in the third place. Lexxe and Factbites, with scores of 15 and 10 were placed in the next categories in order of their points. In semantic features, DuckDuckGo, with 10/65 points was in the first place. Hakia with 9/99 points was in the second place, and then the search engines Cluuz with 8/66 Points, Lexxe with 8/65 points and Factbites with 7/32 points were allocated to the next levels. The research results also indicated that on the whole, considering ordinary and semantic features, DuckDuckGo with 31/65 points, Cluuz with 28/66, Hakia with 27/99 points, Lexxe with 23/65 points and Factbites with 17/32 points, got the highest scores out of it.

  5. Semantic relatedness for evaluation of course equivalencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Beibei

    Semantic relatedness, or its inverse, semantic distance, measures the degree of closeness between two pieces of text determined by their meaning. Related work typically measures semantics based on a sparse knowledge base such as WordNet or Cyc that requires intensive manual efforts to build and maintain. Other work is based on a corpus such as the Brown corpus, or more recently, Wikipedia. This dissertation proposes two approaches to applying semantic relatedness to the problem of suggesting transfer course equivalencies. Two course descriptions are given as input to feed the proposed algorithms, which output a value that can be used to help determine if the courses are equivalent. The first proposed approach uses traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet and corpora for courses from multiple fields of study. The second approach uses Wikipedia, the openly-editable encyclopedia, and it focuses on courses from a technical field such as Computer Science. This work shows that it is promising to adapt semantic relatedness to the education field for matching equivalencies between transfer courses. A semantic relatedness measure using traditional knowledge sources such as WordNet performs relatively well on non-technical courses. However, due to the "knowledge acquisition bottleneck," such a resource is not ideal for technical courses, which use an extensive and growing set of technical terms. To address the problem, this work proposes a Wikipedia-based approach which is later shown to be more correlated to human judgment compared to previous work.

  6. Query Expansion based on Associated Semantic Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Huang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of query keywords based on semantic relations is an effective approach to improve the performance of information retrieval. Traditional methods of query expansion did not adequately make use of semantic relations between query keywords. In this paper, a novel approach for query expansion is presented. The main idea of the approach is to construct a ‘Tree of Associational Semantics Model’ and select candidate keywords from the tree. In the first step, a group of initial semantic trees for original keywords are constructed based on WordNet thesaurus. Secondly, noise nodes on the trees are removed by calculating the similarities between words. The pruned trees are subsequently assembled into a big integrated tree, i.e. Tree of Associational Semantics Model, by expanding the trees upward until finding a common root. Finally, the nodes on the integrated tree are filtered and supplemented based on Mutual Information. All words selected from the tree are assigned semantic weights which are used in computing similarity between the query and documents in internet. In addition, the distributional situation of query keywords in documents is also considered in document retrieval. Experimental results demonstrate about 14.6% precision and 13.7% prec@20 improvement over the traditional tfidf-based method.

  7. Dynamic Metadata Management in Semantic File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The progression in data capacity and difficulty inflicts great challenges for file systems. To address these contests, an inventive namespace management scheme is in distracted need to deliver both the ease and competence of data access. For scalability, each server makes only local, autonomous decisions about relocation for load balancing. Associative access is provided by a traditional extension to present tree-structured file system conventions, and by protocols that are intended specifically for content based access.Rapid attributebased accesstofile system contents is fulfilled by instinctive extraction and indexing of key properties of file system objects. The programmed indexing of files and calendars is called “semantic” because user programmable transducers use data about the semantics of efficient file system objects to extract the properties for indexing. Tentative results from a semantic file system execution support the thesis that semantic file systems present a more active storage abstraction than do traditional tree planned file systems for data sharing and command level programming. Semantic file system is executed as a middleware in predictable file systems and works orthogonally with categorized directory trees. The semantic relationships and file groups recognized in file systems can also be used to facilitate file prefetching among other system-level optimizations. Allencompassing trace-driven experiments on our sample implementation validate the efficiency and competence.

  8. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content providers can access Reflect programmatically using SOAP, REST (HTTP post), and JavaScript. Usage of Reflect has grown rapidly within the life sciences, and while currently only genes, protein and small molecule names are tagged, we plan to soon expand the scope to include a much broader range of terms (e.g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, ‘semantics is in the eye of the end-user’, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic web technologies.

  9. Semantic Framework for Mapping Object-Oriented Model to Semantic Web Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jezek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a~Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  10. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mou?ek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  11. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i.......e., big-step operational semantics) specified in Abadi and Cardelli's monograph. This abstract machine therefore embodies the soundness of Abadi and Cardelli's reduction semantics and natural semantics relative to each other. To move closer to actual implementations, which use environments rather than...... actual substitutions, we then represent object methods as closures and in the same inter-derivational spirit, we present three new semantic artifacts: a reduction semantics for a version of Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects with explicit substitutions, an environment-based abstract machine...

  12. Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

  13. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  14. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Town Christopher D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap" is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains. The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies, providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies, and discovery servers (semantic search engines interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info" uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet". Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

  15. Optimal foraging in semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T; Jones, Michael N; Todd, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared structure of the search problems-searching in patchy environments-and recent evidence supporting a domain-general cognitive search process. To investigate these questions directly, we asked participants to recover from memory as many animal names as they could in 3 min. Memory search was modeled over a representation of the semantic search space generated from the BEAGLE memory model of Jones and Mewhort (2007), via a search process similar to models of associative memory search (e.g., Raaijmakers & Shiffrin, 1981). We found evidence for local structure (i.e., patches) in memory search and patch depletion preceding dynamic local-to-global transitions between patches. Dynamic models also significantly outperformed nondynamic models. The timing of dynamic local-to-global transitions was consistent with optimal search policies in space, specifically the marginal value theorem (Charnov, 1976), and participants who were more consistent with this policy recalled more items. PMID:22329683

  16. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  17. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

  18. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel, Vanderveken.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psycholog [...] ical modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka), human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  19. Harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Simko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The eective information processing (e.g. search, organi-zation of the heterogeneous information spaces requiresmetadata layer above the resources. However, the acqui-sition of resource metadata and domain models are chal-lenging tasks. Here, the crowdsourcing has emerged asan alternative to expert-based and automated semanticsacquisition approaches. One of its branches are the gameswith a purpose (GWAPs which encapsulate the seman-tics acquisition tasks into the game processes. We analyzeexisting GWAPs and propose their classication. Fur-thermore we devised our own GWAP-based approaches.For acquisition of lightweight term relationship network,we devised a search query formulation game, usable alsofor specic domain models. For acquisition of (personalimage tags, we devised a card game, where players mem-orize positions of concealed cards and identify identicalpairs. For validation of music metadata, we devised amulti-choice question-based game, where players identifytag sets that are characteristic to music tracks they hear.We also looked at the GWAPs from their design per-spectives. We present a design oriented classication sys-tem for GWAPs, adress several design issues recurring inGWAPs and present new design patterns to solve them.

  20. From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions to content enrichment. Work starts from harvesting multimedia annotations in class-room recordings, and proceeds to deriving a dense educational semantic net between eLearning Objects decorated with extended LOM relations. Special focus is drawn on the processing of recorded speech and on an Ontological Evaluation Layer that autonomously derives meaningful inter-object relations. Further on, a semantic representation of hyperlinks is developed and elaborated to the concept of semantic link contexts, an approach to manage a coherent rhetori...

  1. How Does Ontology Contribute in Semantic Web Development?

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates and briefly describes the major currently existing problems with World Wide Web .i.e., Information filtration and Security became the main reasons of semantic web's invention. The semantic web claims of providing the semantic based solutions towards current web problems. Semantic web have introduced and relies on a main building block "Ontology" to provide the information in machine processable semantic models and produce semantically modelled knowledge representation systems. This paper also describes the role, construction process and the contributions of ontology in providing some in time proposed and implemented solutions. Furthermore paper concludes with the currently existing limitations in Ontology and the areas which need improvements.

  2. The neural underpinnings of semantic ambiguity and anaphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Veena D; Phillips, Natalie A; Einagel, Stephanie; Baum, Shari R

    2010-01-22

    We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in order to investigate how definite NP anaphors are integrated into semantically ambiguous contexts. Although sentences such as Every kid climbed a tree lack any syntactic or lexical ambiguity, these structures exhibit two possible meanings, where either many trees or only one tree was climbed. This semantic ambiguity is the result of quantifier scope ambiguity. Previous behavioural studies have shown that a plural definite NP continuation is preferred (as reflected in a continuation sentence, e.g., The trees were in the park) over singular NPs (e.g., The tree was in the park). This study aimed to identify the neurophysiological pattern associated with the integration of the continuation sentences, as well as the time course of this process. We examined ERPs elicited by the noun and verb in continuation sentences following ambiguous and unambiguous context sentences. A sustained negative shift was most evident at the Verb position in sentences exhibiting scope ambiguity. Furthermore, this waveform did not differentiate itself until 900 ms after the presentation of the Noun, suggesting that the parser waits to assign meaning in contexts exhibiting quantifier scope ambiguity, such that such contexts are left as underspecified representations. PMID:19837047

  3. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Comesaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

  4. The Semantic Structure of a Set of Scales Developed for Use with Large City Pupils. A Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrer, James E.; Farber, Irvin J.

    In a previous Semantic Differential study, Ayrer and Farber (1972) reported the results of a factor analysis which utilized a matrix sampling approach. Some problems were encountered (negative eigen-values). The current study did not involve matrix sampling, but the same basic results were obtained. This suggests matrix sampling may be an…

  5. Semantic memory: Which side are you on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Karalyn; Kopelman, Michael D; Woollams, Anna M; Brownsett, Sonia L E; Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Wise, Richard J S

    2015-09-01

    We present two patients in whom the combination of lesion site and cognitive performance was uniquely informative about the organisation and functional anatomy of semantic memory. One had had a single lobar stroke with an unusual distribution, largely destroying the whole of the left temporal lobe ventral to the superior temporal sulcus. The other patient had had herpes simplex encephalitis with destruction that was confined to the left cerebral hemisphere. The lesion again mainly encompassed the left temporal lobe, but also extended to the left inferior frontal gyrus. Cognitive outcomes in the two patients were compared with each other and with published results from patients with semantic dementia. This is because, whereas the majority of semantic dementia patients present with more prominent atrophy of the left rostroventral temporal lobe, they invariably have a degree of atrophy in the mirror region on the right that progresses. Semantic dementia therefore provides no clear evidence about the specific role of the left rostroventral temporal lobe. The two patients showed a highly consistent cognitive profile. Their deficits were also similar in many respects to that observed in patients with mild-moderate semantic dementia, including severe anomia that was not resolved by phonological cues and impairment on non-verbal as well as verbal semantic tasks. Certain key features of the semantic dementia profile, however-including sensitivity to the familiarity and typicality of the stimulus materials-appeared only in tasks requiring verbal output in these two patients with unilateral left temporal lesions. Results in these cases provide some of the first definitive evidence regarding the specific functions of the left anterior temporal lobe. PMID:25451042

  6. The semantic advantage in object memorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Wick, Farahnaz; Pomplun, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies (Hwang et al., 2011) indicate that our strategies for memorizing objects in naturalistic scenes can be predicted by the semantic relationships between objects in that scene. That is, we tend to make saccades to objects that are most semantically related to the object in the current fixation. A possible explanation is that consecutive inspection of semantically similar objects facilitates object memorization. Previous work in our lab has shown that indeed, characteristic objects from a specific context have a close semantic relationship that facilitates recognition. The observed high recognition rate was not induced by gist-based errors, as performance did not decline even when false recognition rates were significantly reduced. When and how does this 'semantic advantage' arise during processing? We investigated this question using a rapid serial visual presentation task, which mimics sequential eye movements. A series of eight grayscale object images on a white background were shown for 250 ms each. Subsequently, participants saw another image and indicated whether it had been in the series (same/different judgment). The object sets were randomly chosen or taken from specific contexts such as airport, park or bedroom. In three experiments, we measured recognition accuracy as we varied target position (excluding first and last image in the series) and primed participants with context labels either before or after a trial. The context labels provided for random trials were randomly chosen and misleading. Results show that the semantic advantage starts after viewing approximately three objects in the context trials when compared to random trials. Priming with context labels (either before or after the trial) diminishes this advantage and in general hurts performance. These results reveal that object memory benefits from the semantic structure established by an efficient, unconscious mechanism that is impeded by conscious category processing. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326631

  7. Arabic Semantic Web Applications – A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya M. Al-Zoghby

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Language is the mother tongue for 23 countries and more than 350 million persons. It is the language of the Holy Quran; therefore, many non-Arabic Islamic countries, like Pakistan, teach Arabic as a second language. Nevertheless, it is observable that the Arabic content on the Web is less than what should be. The evolution of the Semantic Web (SW added a new dimension to this problem. This paper is an attempt to figure out the problem, its causes, and to open avenues to think about the solutions. The survey presented in this paper concerned with the SW applications regarding the Arabic Language in the domains of Ontology construction and utilization, Arabic WordNet (AWN exploiting and enrichment, Arabic Named Entities Extraction, Holy Quran and Islamic Knowledge semantic representation, and Arabic Semantic Search Engines. In fact, the study revealed serious deficiencies in dealing semantically with the Arabic Language. That is mainly owing to the rarity of tools that can support the Arabic script. Furthermore, the Arabic resources, if available, are not free. Moreover, there are many technical problems in the semantic dealing with the Arabic context. Therefore, most of the developed applications are not sufficiently proficient. However, due to the significance of the Arabic Language, it is inevitable to overcome these deficiencies in order to put the Arabic Language in the category of the machine-semantically-interpretable languages, rather than just the textually processable ones. This way, we can exploit the power of the Semantic Web features in extracting the essence of the knowledge residing in the Arabic web documents and going beyond dealing with its rigid texts. 

  8. Functional differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Gerald Jay

    2013-01-01

    Physics is naturally expressed in mathematical language. Students new to the subject must simultaneously learn an idiomatic mathematical language and the content that is expressed in that language. It is as if they were asked to read Les Misérables while struggling with French grammar. This book offers an innovative way to learn the differential geometry needed as a foundation for a deep understanding of general relativity or quantum field theory as taught at the college level.The approach taken by the authors (and used in their classes at MIT for many years) differs from the conventional one in several ways, including an emphasis on the development of the covariant derivative and an avoidance of the use of traditional index notation for tensors in favor of a semantically richer language of vector fields and differential forms. But the biggest single difference is the authors' integration of computer programming into their explanations. By programming a computer to interpret a formula, the student soon learn...

  9. The refinement of the super generic concept: semantic challenge for product re-innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Barei; Malcolm Ross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uptake of super generic or hybrid pharmaceuticals has decelerated despite their important economic potential for the generic pharmaceutical industry. The aim of switching to these product portfolios was to enable product differentiation; however, these strategies are influenced by new semantic challenges, which have hampered the promotion of value-added pharmaceuticals or super generics in recent years. Objective: To investigate whether the use of the term ‘generic’ would reduc...

  10. WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Meštrovi?

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.

  11. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

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    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980. ‘Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds. ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

  12. Semantic Framework in EEG/ERP Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Ježek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Our research group specializes in research of brain activity. We widely use methods of encephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERP. Since a collection of obtained data/metadata gradually grows we had to solve their long term storage and management. As a solution we developed the EEG/ERP Portal as a core of a complete software infrastructure supporting EEG/ERP research. Since we are working on the registration of the EEG/ERP Portal as a recognizable data source within NIF we provide the stored experiments in the form of the Semantic Web structures. Since the EEG/ERP Portal is a Java-based application with the data layer using common JavaBeans we are simultaneously developing the Semantic Framework that transforms input JavaBeans into the Semantic Web languages. The Semantic Framework is being developed as a single library. It is used as a black box with the input in the form of a set of JavaBeans and the output in the form of an ontology document. The ontology document can be serialized into several supported syntaxes. We currently support RDF/XML, OWL/XML, Turtle, and abbreviated OWL/XML formats. The Semantic Framework contains three subcomponents. The first subcomponent is the Extended JenaBean. Because of semantic gaps between object-oriented and Semantic Web models we proposed and implemented an extension of common JavaBean using Java Annotations. The output of the extended JenaBean component is an internal model representation. This representation is submitted to the second, Ontology Model Creator, subcomponent. This subcomponent creates an Ontology model. The internal JenaBean model is processed and an ontology document is created by calling Jena API methods. The result model can be further processed by the last subcomponent OWL API that transforms the ontology model into the supported ontology formats. The Semantic Framework is integrated in the EEG/ERP Portal where it is controlled by a build-in timer. The timer calls the Semantic Framework API in regular intervals. The API generates the ontology document from the stored experiments. The ontology document is stored in a temporary file. When any document request appears the temporary file containing the actual set of stored experiments is immediately available. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, Project "NTIS" New Technologies for Information Society"", European Centre of Excellence, CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0090."

  13. Luciano Floridi's theory of semantic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Peroži?

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Luciano Floridi is an Italian philosopher with an Anglo-Saxon career, who started a new philosophical discipline, the philosophy of information (Floridi 2002. As opposed to most authors who deal with this subject, Floridi, in his rich opus, treats information as a broader concept. However, this paper will treat information neither as a social and ethical phenomenon, nor as information and communication technologies. The aim of the paper is to examine information as a subject of philosophical investigation. The paper gives an overview of and a comment on the theory of semantic information that Floridi presented in two core articles: Semantic Conceptions of Information (2011 and Outline of a Theory of Strongly Semantic Information (2004. The first text gives an overview of ideas that form a framework for the philosophical analysis of information and presents the main theses of Floridi’s theory of semantic information. The second text is a step away from the philosophical towards the scientific theory by using situational logic as a basis for quantification (measurement of two dimensions of semantic information: inaccuracy and vacuity.

  14. Discrete Characterization of Domain Using Semantic Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Madan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lots of approaches have been developed to understand the software source code and majority of them are focused on program structural information which results in the loss of domain semantic crucial information contained in the text or symbols of source code. To understand software as a whole, we need to enrich these approaches with conceptual insights gained from the domain semantics. This paper proposes the mapping of domain to the code using the information retrieval techniques to use linguistic information, such as identifier names and comments in source code. Concept of Semantic Clustering has been introduced in this paper and an algorithm has been provided to group source artifacts based on how the synonymy and polysemy is related. Based on semantic similarity automatic labeling of the program code is done after detecting the clusters, and is visually explore in 3-Dimension for discrete characterization. This approach works at the source code textual level which makes it language independent. The approach correlates the semantics with structural information applies at different levels of Abstraction (e.g. packages, classes, methods.

  15. SEMANTIC INTEGRATION FOR AUTOMATIC ONTOLOGY MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham AMROUCH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ontologies have played a key technology role for information sharing and agents interoperability in different application domains. In semantic web domain, ontologies are efficiently used to face the great challenge of representing the semantics of data, in order to bring the actual web to its full power and hence, achieve its objective. However, using ontologies as common and shared vocabularies requires a certain degree of interoperability between them. To confront this requirement, mapping ontologies is a solution that is not to be avoided. In deed, ontology mapping build a meta layer that allows different applications and information systems to access and share their informations, of course, after resolving the different forms of syntactic, semantic and lexical mismatches. In the contribution presented in this paper, we have integrated the semantic aspect based on an external lexical resource, wordNet, to design a new algorithm for fully automatic ontology mapping. This fully automatic character features the main difference of our contribution with regards to the most of the existing semi-automatic algorithms of ontology mapping, such as Chimaera, Prompt, Onion, Glue, etc. To better enhance the performances of our algorithm, the mapping discovery stage is based on the combination of two sub-modules. The former analysis the concept’s names and the later analysis their properties. Each one of these two sub-modules is it self based on the combination of lexical and semantic similarity measures.

  16. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdellah Kassimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  17. Deriving Logical Consequences Using Ontological Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S. Langde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web technology enables us to specify metadata about things in the world and help us to relate this metadata using ontology databases and language. The core of the Semantic Web is Ontology, which is used to explicitly represent our conceptualizations. This paper is an efforts to improve the relevancy of results in a search system for a particular domain by exploiting the domain knowledge captured in an OWL ontology using the protégé tool. We make ontological database from static relational database using protégé. The key ingredients that make up an ontology are a vocabulary of basic terms, semantic interconnections, simple rules of inference and some logic for a particular topic. We extract semantic meaning from query entered by the user using tool and then we map this meaning into ontological database. To achieve semantic search, a search engine is needed which can interpret the meaning of a user's query and the relations among the concepts that a document contains with respect to a particular domain. Protégé is an extensible and customizable tool for constructing ontologies and for developing applications that use these ontologies. After that we display this data on user screen. The output of this project is to provide appropriate result to user for enter his queries.

  18. Ontology Based Semantics Checking for UML Activity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UML activity model is mainly used to model the behaviors of software system and the quality of activity model will influence the quality of software system. But because the UML activity model lacks strictly formal semantics, it is difficult to make formal semantics analysis and checking for activity model. An ontology based method of semantics checking for activity model is proposed. The semantics of activity model is divided into static semantics and dynamic semantics. The static semantics is transformed into OWL DL by an algorithm, and the dynamic semantics is described by DL-Safe rules. Then the consistency of UML activity model is analyzed and some model checking rules are defined, which enables model consistency checking by using an ontology reasoning tool.

  19. John Mair on Semantic Paradoxes: Alethic and Correspondence Paradoxes II.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 2 (2012), s. 154-183. ISSN 1214-8407 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : John Mair * Swyneshedian semantics * semantic paradoxes * network evaluation * scholastic logic Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  20. John Mair on Semantic Paradoxes: Alethic and Correspondence Paradoxes I.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 1 (2012), s. 58-84. ISSN 1214-8407 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : John Mair * Swyneshedian semantics * semantic paradoxes * network evaluation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; 10.5121/ijwest.2011.2203

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality, scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages. Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systems must be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges in this domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervised learning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learn...

  2. Automatic Construction of Semantic Dictionary for Question Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyin Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An automatic method for building a semantic dictionary from existing questions in a pattern-based question answering system is proposed for question categorization. This dictionary consists of two main parts: Semantic Domain Terms (SDT, which is a domain specific term list, and Semantic Labeled Terms (SLT, which contain common terms tagged with semantic labels. The semantic dictionary is built using the proposed method on a set of 2509 questions with semantic patterns in our system. 3390 questions without semantic patterns are used as ground truth to test its performance. Experimental results show that the precision of question classification is improved by 7.5% in average after using the constructed semantic dictionary compared with the baseline method.

  3. A Semantic Wiki on Cooperation in Public Administration in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Krabina

    2010-01-01

    Authorities cooperate in various ways. The Web portal www.verwaltungskooperation.eu aims to share knowledge on collaboration projects. A semantic wiki approach was used to facilitate best practice documentation with Semantic Web and Web 2.0 technology.

  4. Semantic fluency: cognitive basis and diagnostic performance in focal dementias and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Cherubini, Paolo; Baldinelli, Sara; Luzzi, Simona

    2014-05-01

    Semantic fluency is widely used both as a clinical test and as a basic tool for understanding how humans extract information from the semantic store. Recently, major efforts have been made to devise fine-grained scoring procedures to measure the multiple cognitive processes underlying fluency performance. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how many and which independent components are necessary to thoroughly describe performance on the fluency task. Furthermore, whether a combination of multiple indices can improve the diagnostic performance of the test should be assessed. In this study, we extracted multiple indices of performance on the semantic fluency test from a large sample of healthy controls (n = 307) and patients (n = 145) suffering from three types of focal dementia or Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that five independent components underlie semantic fluency performance. We argue that these components functionally map onto the generation and application of a search strategy (component 2), to the monitoring of the overall sequence to avoid repetitions (component 3) and out-of-category items (component 4), and to the full integrity of the semantic store (component 5). The integrated and effective work of all these components would relate to a "general effectiveness" component (component 1). Importantly, while all the focal dementia groups were equally impaired on general effectiveness measures, they showed differential patterns of failure in the other components. This finding suggests that the cognitive deficit that impairs fluency differs among the three focal dementia groups: a semantic store deficit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA), a strategy deficit in the non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfv-PPA), and an initiation deficit in the behavioural variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD). Finally, we showed that the concurrent use of multiple fluency indices improves the diagnostic accuracy of semantic fluency both for focal dementias and for AD. More generally, our study suggests that a formal evaluation of fine-grained patterns of performance would improve the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests. PMID:24681692

  5. When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

  6. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kalil A; Rosa, Nelson S; Cunha, Paulo R F

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  7. Towards Semantic Clustering – A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phei-Chin Lim, Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer, Dayang NurFatimah Awg. Iskandar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Image clustering is an important technology which helps users to get hold of thelarge amount of online visual information, especially after the rapid growth of theWeb. This paper focuses on image clustering methods and their application inimage collection or online image repository. Current progress of image clusteringrelated to image retrieval and image annotation are summarized and some openproblems are discussed. Related works are summarized based on the problemsaddressed, which are image segmentation, compact representation of image set,search space reduction, and semantic gap. Issues are also identified in currentprogress and semantic clustering is conjectured to be the potential trend. Ourframework of semantic clustering as well as the main abstraction levels involvedis briefly discussed.

  8. Refining the Semantics of Social Influence

    CERN Document Server

    Marazopoulou, Katerina; Jensen, David

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of network data, researchers are increasingly focusing on questions investigating phenomena occurring on networks. This often includes analysis of peer-effects, i.e., how the connections of an individual affect that individual's behavior. This type of influence is not limited to direct connections of an individual (such as friends), but also to individuals that are connected through longer paths (for example, friends of friends, or friends of friends of friends). In this work, we identify an ambiguity in the definition of what constitutes the extended neighborhood of an individual. This ambiguity gives rise to different semantics and supports different types of underlying phenomena. We present experimental results, both on synthetic and real networks, that quantify differences among the sets of extended neighbors under different semantics. Finally, we provide experimental evidence that demonstrates how the use of different semantics affects model selection.

  9. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...... provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional...... means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components are...

  10. Relational Semantics for Databases and Predicate Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The relational data model requires a theory of relations in which tuples are not only many-sorted, but can also have indexes that are not necessarily numerical. In this paper we develop such a theory and define operations on relations that are adequate for database use. The operations are similar to those of Codd's relational algebra, but differ in being based on a mathematically adequate theory of relations. The semantics of predicate calculus, being oriented toward the concept of satisfiability, is not suitable for relational databases. We develop an alternative semantics that assigns relations as meaning to formulas with free variables. This semantics makes the classical predicate calculus suitable as a query language for relational databases.

  11. Language, Semantics, and Methods for Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico

    representation and do not address how to build up protocol representations in a compositional fashion. This dissertation presents a new, event-based approach to reasoning about security protocols. We seek a broader class of models to show how event-based models can be structured in a compositional way and so...... used to give a formal semantics to security protocols which supports proofs of their correctness. More precisely, we give a compositional event-based semantics to an economical, but expressive, language for describing security protocols (SPL); so the events and dependency of a wide range of protocols...... related to a transition semantics which can easily be implemented. (An existing SPL implementation bridges the gap that often exists between abstract protocol models on which verification of security properties is carried out and the implemented protocol.) SPL-nets are a particular kind of contextual...

  12. A Semantic Layer for Embedded Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor Networks progressively assumed the critical role of bridges between the real world and information systems, through always more consolidated and efficient sensor technologies that enable advanced heterogeneous sensor grids. Sensor data is commonly used by advanced systems and intelligent applications in order to archive complex goals. Processes that build high-level knowledge from sensor data are commonly considered as the key core concept. This paper proposes a semantic layer that would optimally support the knowledge building in sensor systems as well as it enables semantic interaction model at different levels (module, subsystem, system. The semantic layer proposed in the paper is currently used by several architectures and applications in the context of different domains.

  13. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically......, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural...... language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%....

  14. Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI to semantically find plagiarism.

  15. Semantic technologies in a decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; B?dic?, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and semantic technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on semantic data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based semantic closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).

  16. Robust Semantic Framework for web search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Swamy Naidu #1 , S.Narayana #2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . However, in order to rank results, most of the existing solutions need to work on the whole annotated knowledge base. In the existing system a relation-based page rank algorithm to be used in conjunction with Semantic Web search engines that simply relies on information that could be extracted from user queries and on annotated resources. This system retrieves all matching results that are based on minimum spanning nodes and fails to represent the owl and rdf structure in graphical representation.Proposed system overcomes all the drawbacks by introducing a new framework to represent the web semantic results based on the query. This system uses OWL , logic programming in order to get effective semantic search results. This proposed system represents all the OWL structure relationships in graphical node representation.

  17. Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search

    CERN Document Server

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2012-01-01

    Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search is based on "joint meaning" understood as a joint construal of the creators of the contents and the user of the contents using the faced taxonomy with the Semantic Web. A proof-of concept prototype shows how the proposed methodological approach can also be applied to existing presentation components, built with different languages and/or component technologies.

  18. Semantic Web Approach towards E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Kiran Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Technologies enable machines to interpret data published in a machine-interpretable form on the web. The existing e-commerce web data can be understandable to humans to read but machines cannot process it due to lack of semantics. To gain the advantage of using online shopping, consumer needs to search different e-commerce websites for a better price of product. Hence searching plays a crucial role in e-commerce to overcome information asymmetry and price dispersion. In this paper, we explained the basics of e-commerce with advantage, disadvantages and where the semantic web technologies can be applied is given for the benefit of consumer.

  19. A Secured and Semantically Addressed E-Mail Service

    OpenAIRE

    OSOFISAN; Adenike O; AMADI, J.C.; ETENG; Idongesit.E

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of semantic addresses to send emails in a corporate environment. Semantic Email Addressing (SEA) allows emails to be sent to a semantically speci?ed recipient or group of recipients, which may be dynamically changingovertime. In order to describe the concept of SEA and its advantages, it is compared with the concept of mailing lists. Two solutions to send semantically addressed emails are presented, on one hand a client sided solution has been elaborated where ...

  20. Exploring Words with Semantic Correlations from Chinese Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Huang, Kaiyan; Tsuchiya, Seiji; Ren, Fuji; Zhong, Yixin

    In this paper, we work on semantic correlation between Chinese words based on Wikipedia documents. A corpus with about 50,000 structured documents is generated from Wikipedia pages. Then considering of hyper-links, text overlaps and word frequency, about 300,000 word pairs with semantic correlations are explored from these documents. We roughly measure the degree of semantic correlations and find groups with tight semantic correlations by self clustering.

  1. Automatic Discovery of Semantic Relations Based on Association Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangfeng Luo; Kai Yan; Xue Chen

    2008-01-01

    Automatic discovery of semantic relations between resources is a key issue in Web-based intelligent applications such as document understanding and Web services. This paper explores how to automatically discover the latent semantic relations and their properties based on the existing association rules. Through building semantic matrix by the association rules, four semantic relations can be extracted using union and intersection in set theory. By building a cyclic graph model, the transitive ...

  2. Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu AIRINEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

  3. Linear logic-based semantics construction for LTAG

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Anette; Genabith, Josef van

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we review existing appoaches to semantics construction in LTAG (Lexicalised Tree Adjoining Grammar) which are all based on the notion of derivation (tree)s. We argue that derivation structures in LTAG are not appropriate to guide semantic composition, due to a non-isomorphism, in LTAG, between the syntactic operation of adjunction on the one hand, and the semantic operations of complementation and modification, on the other. Linear Logic based “glue” semantics, by now the classi...

  4. Efficient Construction of Underspecified Semantics under Massive Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Doerre, Jochen

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the problem of determining a compact underspecified semantical representation for sentences that may be highly ambiguous. Due to combinatorial explosion, the naive method of building semantics for the different syntactic readings independently is prohibitive. We present a method that takes as input a syntactic parse forest with associated constraint-based semantic construction rules and directly builds a packed semantic structure. The algorithm is fully implem...

  5. Semantic priming, schizophrenia and the ketamine model of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanovic, A.

    2009-01-01

    The central aim of the studies presented in my thesis was to investigate the modulation of semantic memory function and its neural correlates in relation to schizophrenia. Semantic information is stored information that is impersonal, and includes knowledge of words and their meaning, and general knowledge about the world. Semantic memory deficits are thought to underlie core symptoms of schizophrenia, including delusions, thought disorder and alogia. The semantic priming (S...

  6. Dependency-based Semantic Analysis of Natural-language Text

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Semantic roles, logical relations such as Agent or Instrument that hold between events and their participants and circumstances, need to be determined automatically by several types of applications in natural language processing. This process is referred to as semantic role labeling. This dissertation describes how to construct statistical models for semantic role labeling of English text, and how role semantics is related to surface syntax. It is generally agreed that the problem of s...

  7. Semi-Supervised Learning to Identify UMLS Semantic Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuan; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    The UMLS Semantic Network is constructed by experts and requires periodic expert review to update. We propose and implement a semi-supervised approach for automatically identifying UMLS semantic relations from narrative text in PubMed. Our method analyzes biomedical narrative text to collect semantic entity pairs, and extracts multiple semantic, syntactic and orthographic features for the collected pairs. We experiment with seeded k-means clustering with various distance metrics. We create an...

  8. A platform for the development of Semantic Web portals

    OpenAIRE

    López-Cima, A.; Corcho, Óscar; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2006-01-01

    A Semantic Web portal is a Web application that offers information and services related to a specific domain, and that has been developed with Semantic Web technology. For the time being, the main difference with respect to a traditional Web portal is based on technological aspects: traditional Web portals are based on standard Web technology (HTML, XML, servlets, JSPs, etc.); semantic portals are based on that technology plus the use of Semantic Web languages like RDF, R...

  9. Semantic Web Search based on Ontology Modeling using Protege Reasoner

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar, Monica; K, Saravanaguru RA.

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web works on the existing Web which presents the meaning of information as well-defined vocabularies understood by the people. Semantic Search, at the same time, works on improving the accuracy if a search by understanding the intent of the search and providing contextually relevant results. This paper describes a semantic approach toward web search through a PHP application. The goal was to parse through a user's browsing history and return semantically relevan...

  10. Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Malik; Udayan Ghose

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new ...

  11. Semantic Integration Process of Business Components through Ontology Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Hicham Elasri; Abderrahim Sekkaki

    2013-01-01

    Ontology Alignment (OA) identifies semantically matching of different entities, OA continues to attract great attention within the database, information system and artificial intelligence communities. OA used to solve the semantic heterogeneity and hide the complexity of retrieving entities of heterogeneous source. That’s why we rely on the OA for resolving semantic conflict during design phase of information system, particularly in semantic integration of Business Components (BC). Our ...

  12. Urban Design Logical Scheming Based on Semantic Network Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Dong; Guangtian Zou; Lin Qi

    2013-01-01

    Urban design logical scheming is a research based on the semantic network method, supplementing and perfecting the semantic network method. After the introduction of the semantic network logical scheming method, some experimental studies had been done from the aspects of logical judgment, logical screening and logical solving to text the validity and feasibility of semantic network scheming method applied in urban designing. Thereinto, logical judgment was mainly used to evaluate the accuracy...

  13. Ontology-Driven Query Reformulation in Semantic Search

    OpenAIRE

    Solskinnsbakk, Geir

    2007-01-01

    Semantic search is a research area in which the goal is to understand the users intended meaning of the query. This requires disambiguation of the user query and interpreting the semantics of the query. Semantic search would thus improve the users search experience through more precise result sets. Moreover, ontologies are explicit conceptualizations of domains, defining concepts, their properties, and the relations among them. This makes ontologies semantic representations of specific...

  14. Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Ansari, Aftab 2012. Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools: Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 67. Semantic Web is one important and relevant research area in computer science. A growing research attention to this field can be explained by the opportunities the Semantic Web could provide by representing and reasoning about semantic information. The objective of this thesis is to study the technologies for...

  15. Automatic and Intelligent Decision Making In Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Shrutika Kulkarni; Pradeep Chouskey; Gajendra Vaiker

    2012-01-01

    Concepts like "semantic computing" and "semantic search" refer to computational techniques that use knowledge representation and deep linkage into the referents of information tokens in language dictionaries, thesauri and ontology’s) and in data resources (libraries, databases and web-based repositories). Perhaps the best-known sense is in the "semantic web", it is also reviews the technologies that make up the SW with the implications of these technologies Semantic Intelligence, Defined Sema...

  16. User Search Personalization in Semantic Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Venkata Ramana , Dr.K.Venugopala Rao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behaviour (usage data in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In the first part of our Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the second part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank, a Page Rank style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query.

  17. Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Haytham T. Al-Feel; Magdy Koutb; Hoda Suoror

    2008-01-01

    Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there is no ag...

  18. THE CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF SEMANTIC STRUCTURE. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURLING, ROBBINS; FRIEDRICH, PAUL

    SEVERAL EXPLORATIONS WERE MADE INTO THE STRUCTURE OF MEANING IN BURMESE AND RUSSIAN. VARIOUS KINDS OF LINGUISTIC INFORMATION WERE ISOLATED BY TEXTUAL STUDY AND INTERVIEWS WITH NATIVE SPEAKERS. DISCUSSION COVERED SUCH THEORETICAL QUESTIONS AS (1) SYNCHRONY AND DIACHRONY, (2) SEMANTICS AND GRAMMAR, (3) SEMANTICS AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE, (4) SEMANTICS…

  19. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  20. The Verbmobil semantic formalism (Version 1.3)

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Johan; Mastenbroek, Elsbeth; McGlashan, Scott; Millies, Sebastian; Pinkal, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the semantic formalism developed at Saarbrücken University as part of the Verbmobil project. The formalism is based upon DRT with additional functionality to meet the requirements on semantic construction arising from spoken dialogue translation. We define the syntax of the formalism and illustrate the semantic composition process in detail.