WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Preserving differential privacy under finite-precision semantics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The approximation introduced by finite-precision representation of continuous data can induce arbitrarily large information leaks even when the computation using exact semantics is secure. Such leakage can thus undermine design efforts aimed at protecting sensitive information. We focus here on differential privacy, an approach to privacy that emerged from the area of statistical databases and is now widely applied also in other domains. In this approach, privacy is protected by the addition ...

Ivan Gazeau; Dale Miller; Catuscia Palamidessi

2013-01-01

2

Preserving differential privacy under finite-precision semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The approximation introduced by finite-precision representation of continuous data can induce ar- bitrarily large information leaks even when the computation using exact semantics is secure. Such leakage can thus undermine design efforts aimed at protecting sensitive information. We focus here on differential privacy, an approach to privacy that emerged from the area of statistical databases and is now widely applied also in other domains. In this approach, privacy is protected by the additio...

Gazeau, Ivan; Miller, Dale; Palamidessi, Catuscia

2013-01-01

3

A Revised Semantic Differential Scale Distinguishing between Negative and Positive God Images  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 755 school pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 years completed the Benson and Spilka semantic differential measure of God images. Factor analysis indicated the advantages of re-scoring the measure as an eight item unidimensional index, defining semantic space relating to God images ranging from negative affect to positive affect.…

Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Gibson, Harry M.

2006-01-01

4

Workplace Information Literacy in the Scientific Field : an Empirical Analysis Using the Semantic Differential Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study focuses on eliciting a semantic concept of Information Literacy by capturing the information worker s perception of the information process. It is presumed that this perception influences the formation and advancement of Information Literacy at the workplace. The approach is based on the creation of a semantic differential scale. Target group are scientists from the field of natural sciences. The survey shows that five partly correlated principal aspects play a major role: personal ...

2008-01-01

5

Semantic relations differentially impact associative recognition memory: electrophysiological evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Though associative recognition memory is thought to rely primarily on recollection, recent research indicates that familiarity might also make a substantial contribution when to-be-learned items are integrated into a coherent structure by means of an existing semantic relation. It remains unclear how different types of semantic relations, such as categorical (e.g., dancer-singer) and thematic (e.g., dancer-stage) relations might affect associative recognition, however. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we addressed this question by manipulating the type of semantic link between paired words in an associative recognition memory experiment. An early midfrontal old/new effect, typically linked to familiarity, was observed across the relation types. In contrast, a robust left parietal old/new effect was found in the categorical condition only, suggesting a clear contribution of recollection to associative recognition for this kind of pairs. One interpretation of this pattern is that familiarity was sufficiently diagnostic for associative recognition of thematic relations, which could result from the integrative nature of the thematic relatedness compared to the similarity-based nature of categorical pairs. The present study suggests that the extent to which recollection and familiarity are involved in associative recognition is at least in part determined by the properties of semantic relations between the paired associates. PMID:23942226

Kriukova, Olga; Bridger, Emma; Mecklinger, Axel

2013-10-01

6

Differential lexical and semantic spreading activation in Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to be associated with disruption in semantic networks. Previous studies examining changes in spreading activation in AD have used a lexical decision task paradigm. We have used a paradigm based on average word frequencies obtained from the words generated on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) and the Animal Naming (AN) test. The COWAT and AN tests were administered to a group of 25 patients with AD and 20 control participants. We predicted that the patients with AD would have higher average word frequencies on the COWAT and AN tests than the control participants. The results indicated that the AD group generated words with a higher average word frequency on the AN test but a lower average word frequency on the COWAT. The reasons for the discrepancy in average word frequencies on the AN test and COWAT are discussed. PMID:23800553

Foster, Paul S; Drago, Valeria; Yung, Raegan C; Pearson, Jaclyn; Stringer, Kristi; Giovannetti, Tania; Libon, David; Heilman, Kenneth M

2013-08-01

7

Reward is assessed in three dimensions that correspond to the semantic differential.  

Science.gov (United States)

If choices are to be made between alternatives like should I go for a walk or grab a coffee, a 'common currency' is needed to compare them. This quantity, often known as reward in psychology and utility in economics, is usually conceptualised as a single dimension. Here we propose that to make a comparison between different options it is important to know not only the average reward, but also both the risk and level of certainty (or control) associated with an option. Almost all objects can be the subject of choice, so if these dimensions are required in order to make a decision, they should be part of the meaning of those objects. We propose that this ubiquity is unique, so if we take an average over many concepts and domains these three dimensions (reward, risk, and uncertainty) should emerge as the three most important dimensions in the "meaning" of objects. We investigated this possibility by relating the three dimensions of reward to an old, robust and extensively studied factor analytic instrument known as the semantic differential. Across a very wide range of situations, concepts and cultures, factor analysis shows that 50% of the variance in rating scales is accounted for by just three dimensions, with these dimensions being Evaluation, Potency, and Activity [1]. Using a statistical analysis of internet blog entries and a betting experiment, we show that these three factors of the semantic differential are strongly correlated with the reward history associated with a given concept: Evaluation measures relative reward; Potency measures absolute risk; and Activity measures the uncertainty or lack of control associated with a concept. We argue that the 50% of meaning captured by the semantic differential is simply a summary of the reward history that allows decisions to be made between widely different options. PMID:23418445

Fennell, John G; Baddeley, Roland J

2013-01-01

8

Departmentality :   The functional differentiation of systems & the decapitation of the body semantics - or: how to ground Luhmann's theory of functional differentiation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Niklas Luhmann's system theory outlines a methodology that focuses empirical problems in depth. This is possible by means of an abductive use of an overwhelmingly accessibility to theoretical observations. However, this theory is itself a result of historical developments. It origins in a path of self-descriptive communications studied by Luhmann as semantic transformations. The paper goes back to Immanuel Kant's theory of systems and traces its origins on the basis of an evolution of a subdifferentiated legal system. Especially the semantic differentiation of forms is followed and takes a focus on semantic forms in chancellor H.-F. d'Aguesseau's and Fredrick the Great's self-description of power. The overall aim is to study the legacy and the strength of functional differentiation in state formation. How did the separated powers of functional differentiation emerge and how did it describe itself as difference to a reason of state?

Harste, Gorm

2008-01-01

9

Generation Y, wine and alcohol. A semantic differential approach to consumption analysis in Tuscany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study is the elicitation of the consumer's semantic perception of different alcoholic beverages in order to provide information for the definition of communication strategies for both the private sector (and specifically the wine industry) and the public decision maker. Such information can be seen as the basis of a wider social marketing construct aimed at the promotion of responsible drinking among young consumers. The semantic differential approach was used in this study. The data collection was based on a survey to 430 consumers between 18 and 35years old in Tuscany, Italy. The database was organized in a three-way structure, indexing the data in a multiway matrix. The data were processed using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Moreover, homogeneous clusters of consumers were identified using a Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) approach. The results of the study highlight that beer and spirits are mainly perceived as "Young", "Social", "Euphoric", "Happy", "Appealing" and "Trendy" beverages, while wine is associated mostly with terms such as "Pleasure", "Quality" and "Comfortable". Furthermore, the cluster analysis allowed for the identification of three groups of individuals with different approaches to alcohol drinking. The results of the study supply a useful information framework for the elaboration of specific communication strategies that, based on the drinking habits of young consumers and their perception of different beverages, can use a language that is very close to the consumer typologies. Such information can be helpful for both private and public communication strategies. PMID:24370355

Marinelli, Nicola; Fabbrizzi, Sara; Alampi Sottini, Veronica; Sacchelli, Sandro; Bernetti, Iacopo; Menghini, Silvio

2014-04-01

10

Noetics in pastoral counselling: The making of a semantic differential analysis in pastoral care and counselling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Praxis in pastoral care and counselling entails more than merely practice and practicalities (communication skills. Praxis refers to the intentionality within human action and behaviour. Praxis exhibits the realm of intentionality and meaning as displayed within and by human attitudes. It is hypothesised that due to the noetic dimension in human actions, the making of a pastoral diagnosis (a qualitative assessment of the impact of Christian spirituality and the meaning on the system of existential, relational networking should deal with the realm of significant and purposeful intentionality. The latter is already implied in the phenomenological approach of Edmund Husserl’s eidetic observation or inspection (phenomenological consciousness. In order to incorporate noetics in pastoral care and counselling, a pastoral semantic differential analysis (PSDA within the making of a pastoral diagnosis was proposed. The PSDA was linked to the need for a qualitative approach regarding the impact of Godimages on religious association and existential life experiences.

Daniël J. Louw

2011-03-01

11

Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency  

Science.gov (United States)

Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

2012-01-01

12

The differential contributions of pFC and temporo-parietal cortex to multimodal semantic control: exploring refractory effects in semantic aphasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aphasic patients with multimodal semantic impairment following pFC or temporo-parietal (TP) cortex damage (semantic aphasia [SA]) have deficits characterized by poor control of semantic activation/retrieval, as opposed to loss of semantic knowledge per se. In line with this, SA patients show "refractory effects"; that is, declining accuracy in cyclical word-picture matching tasks when semantically related sets are presented rapidly and repeatedly. This is argued to follow a build-up of competition between targets and distractors. However, the link between poor semantic control and refractory effects is still controversial for two reasons. (1) Some theories propose that refractory effects are specific to verbal or auditory tasks, yet SA patients show poor control over semantic processing in both word and picture semantic tasks. (2) SA can result from lesions to either the left pFC or TP cortex, yet previous work suggests that refractory effects are specifically linked to the left inferior frontal cortex. For the first time, verbal, visual, and nonverbal auditory refractory effects were explored in nine SA patients who had pFC (pFC+) or TP cortex (TP-only) lesions. In all modalities, patient accuracy declined significantly over repetitions. This refractory effect at the group level was driven by pFC+ patients and was not shown by individuals with TP-only lesions. These findings support the theory that SA patients have reduced control over multimodal semantic retrieval and, additionally, suggest there may be functional specialization within the posterior versus pFC elements of the semantic control network. PMID:22220727

Gardner, Hannah E; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Dodds, Naomi; Jones, Theresa; Ehsan, Sheeba; Jefferies, Elizabeth

2012-04-01

13

Implementation of Various Semantic Differential Coding Strategies as a Function of Responses to the Ideal Source in the Prediction of Overall Credibility and Homophily.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was designed to investigate the consequences of various coding strategies on the semantic differential as a function of responses to an ideal source in the prediction of overall credibility and homophily. The study was also intended to provide additional evidence for the disconfirmation of the underlying extremity assumption of the…

Hellweg, Susan A.

14

Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

2009-10-01

15

Differential task effects on N400 and P600 elicited by semantic and syntactic violations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Syntactic violations in sentences elicit a P600 component in the event-related potential, which is frequently interpreted as signaling reanalysis or repair of the sentence structure. However, P600 components have been reported also for semantic and combined semantic and syntactic violations, giving rise to still other interpretations. In many of these studies, the violation might be of special significance for the task of the participants; however there is a lack of studies directly targeting task effects on the P600. Here we repeated a previously published study but using a probe verification task, focusing on individual words rather than on sentence correctness and directly compared the results with the previous ones. Although a (somewhat smaller) N400 component occurred also in the present study, we did not observe a parietal P600 component. Instead, we found a late anterior negativity. Possibly, the parietal P600 observed in sentence acceptability paradigms relates to the target value of the violations or to late sentence structure-specific processes that are more task-sensitive than the N400 and which are or not initiated in the probe verification task. In any case the present findings show a strong dependency of P600-eliciting processes from attention to the sentences context whereas the N400 eliciting processes appear relatively robust. PMID:24614675

Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Shmuilovich, Olga; Martíenz, Pilar Casado; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

2014-01-01

16

Semantic Advertising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such...

Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John

2013-01-01

17

Semantic Normativity without Semantic Norm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Against both strongly normativist views of language (Putnam, Burge) and strongly anti-normativist views (Chomsky, Bilgrami), I defend a moderate view of semantic normativity, on which normativity does not require the existence of ultimate semantic authorities and is consistent with the possibility of semantic deviance.

Marconi, Diego

1997-01-01

18

A Developmental Study of Conceptual, Semantic Differential, and Acoustical Dimensions as Encoding Categories in Short-Term Memory. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to investigate developmental changes in encoding processes. It attempted to determine the extent to which children of varying ages utilize semantic (denotative or connotative) and acoustical encoding categories in a short-term memory task. It appears to be a reasonable assumption that as associational hierarchies…

Pender, Nola J.

19

Inferring knowledge from a large semantic network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a rich semantic network based on a differential analysis. We then detail implemented measures that take into account common and differential features between words. In a last section, we describe some industrial applications.

Dutoit, Dominique; Poibeau, Thierry

2002-01-01

20

Inferring knowledge from a large semantic network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a rich semantic network based on a differential analysis. We then detail implemented measures that take into account common and differential features between words. In a last section, we describe some industrial applications.

Dutoit, Dominique; Poibeau, Thierry

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Language for Semantic Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic analysis is important for compilers. In the APTS program transformation system, semantics is specified by rules in the language RSL. The semantic rules are interpreted by APTS to generate the semantic information of the program, which is then use...

J. Cai

1993-01-01

22

Development of a Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Evaluation of Sound Quality Using a Semantic Differential Method  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed. However, there is room for improvement particularly in terms of sound quality. BCU speech is accompanied by a strong high-pitched tone and contain some distortion. In this study, the sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulations] and air-conducted (AC) speech was quantitatively evaluated using semantic differential and factor analysis. The results showed that all the types of BCU speech had higher metallic and lower esthetic factor scores than AC speech. On the other hand, transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to AC speech generally; the transposed speech showed a higher powerfulness factor score than the other types of BCU speech and a higher esthetic factor score than DSB-SC speech. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

2013-07-01

23

Semantic web mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. This survey analyzes the convergence of trends from both areas: an increasing number of researchers is working on improving the results of Web Mining by exploiting semantic structures in the Web, and they make use of Web Mining techniques for building the Semantic Web. Last but not least, these techniques can be used for mining the Semantic Web itself. The Semantic Web is t...

Stumme, Gerd; Hotho, Andreas; Berendt, Bettina

2006-01-01

24

Game Semantics and Subtyping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Game Semantics is a relatively new framework for the description of the semantics of programming languages. By combining the mathematical elegance of Denotational Semantics with explicitly operational concepts, Game Semantics has made possible the direct and intuitive modelling of a large range of programming constructs. In this thesis, we show how Game Semantics is able to model subtyping. We start by designing an untyped ?-calculus with ground values that explicitly internalises the n...

Chroboczek, Juliusz

2003-01-01

25

Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

Anna Lamandini

2011-06-01

26

Programming the semantic web  

CERN Multimedia

With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

2009-01-01

27

Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial ...

2011-01-01

28

Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will ...

2011-01-01

29

Semantic relation vs. surprise: The differential effects of related and unrelated co-verbal gestures on neural encoding and subsequent recognition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Speech-associated gesturing leads to memory advantages for spoken sentences. However, unexpected or surprising events are also likely to be remembered. With this study we test the hypothesis that different neural mechanisms (semantic elaboration and surprise) lead to memory advantages for iconic and unrelated gestures. During fMRI-data acquisition participants were presented with video clips of an actor verbalising concrete sentences accompanied by iconic gestures (IG; e.g., circular gesture; sentence: "The man is sitting at the round table"), unrelated free gestures (FG; e.g., unrelated up down movements; same sentence) and no gestures (NG; same sentence). After scanning, recognition performance for the three conditions was tested. Videos were evaluated regarding semantic relation and surprise by a different group of participants. The semantic relationship between speech and gesture was rated higher for IG (IG>FG), whereas surprise was rated higher for FG (FG>IG). Activation of the hippocampus correlated with subsequent memory performance of both gesture conditions (IG+FG>NG). For the IG condition we found activation in the left temporal pole and middle cingulate cortex (MCC; IG>FG). In contrast, for the FG condition posterior thalamic structures (FG>IG) as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices were activated (FG>NG). Our behavioral and fMRI-data suggest different mechanisms for processing related and unrelated co-verbal gestures, both of them leading to enhanced memory performance. Whereas activation in MCC and left temporal pole for iconic co-verbal gestures may reflect semantic memory processes, memory enhancement for unrelated gestures relies on the surprise response, mediated by anterior/posterior cingulate cortex and thalamico-hippocampal structures. PMID:24746497

Straube, Benjamin; Meyer, Lea; Green, Antonia; Kircher, Tilo

2014-06-01

30

Research on Individualized Product Requirement Expression Based on Semantic Network  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish an effective platform for individualized product development, the individualized product requirement expression forms were put forward. The diversity Semantic Network of product knowledge representation was researched based on the dualistic semantic network, and the product requirement framework model was established. Thereby the validity, reliability and consistency of the requirement expression process were ensured. Finally an example of customer requirement expression model about differential mechanism based on semantic network was described to satisfy with the individualized product design system.

Yang, Qin; Pan, Xiuqin; Wei, Daozhu; Wu, Ke

31

The Semantics of Motion  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present a semantic study of motion complexes (ie. of a motion verb followed by a spatial preposition). We focus on the spatial and the temporal intrinsic semantic properties of the motion verbs, on the one hand, and of the spatial prepositions, on the other hand. Then, we address the problem of combining these basic semantics in order to formally and automatically derive the spatiotemporal semantics of a motion complex from the spatiotemporal properties of its components.

Sablayrolles, P

1995-01-01

32

Abstracting over Semantic Theories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of this thesis is abstraction over theories of formal semantics for natural language.It is motivated by the belief that a metatheoretical perspective can contribute both to a better theoretical understanding of semantic theories, and to improved practical mechanisms for developing theories of semantics and combining them with theories of syntax.

Holt, Alexander G. B.

1993-01-01

33

Thalamic semantic paralexia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alexia may be divided into different subtypes, with semantic paralexia being particularly rare. A 57 year old woman with a discreet left thalamic stroke and semantic paralexia is described. Language evalution with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Battery confirmed the semantic paralexia (deep alexia). Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning excluded other cerebral lesions. A good recovery ensued. PMID:22593810

Hoffmann, Michael

2012-01-01

34

Thalamic semantic paralexia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alexia may be divided into different subtypes, with semantic paralexia being particularly rare. A 57 year old woman with a discreet left thalamic stroke and semantic paralexia is described. Language evalution with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Battery confirmed the semantic paralexia (deep alexia). Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning excluded other cerebral lesions. A good recovery ensued.

2012-01-01

35

Thalamic semantic paralexia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alexia may be divided into different subtypes, with semantic paralexia being particularly rare. A 57 year old woman with a discreet left thalamic stroke and semantic paralexia is described. Language evalution with the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Battery confirmed the semantic paralexia (deep alexia. Multimodality magnetic resonance imaging brain scanning excluded other cerebral lesions. A good recovery ensued.

Michael Hoffmann

2012-01-01

36

Semantics via Machine Translation  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

Culhane, P. T.

1977-01-01

37

Semantic Networks and Social Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

Downes, Stephen

2005-01-01

38

Visualizing and Structuring Semantic Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper is proposed a method for representing semantic data and knowledge. The method is based two foundational concepts: semantic link network and adjacency model. The method allows graph presentations of semantic data and it preserves the semantic relationships between the concepts of the domain. Furthermore with the methodit is possible construct relational model of the semantically rich data.

Teemu Mäenpää

2013-04-01

39

Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web  

CERN Multimedia

The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

Ashish, Naveen

2011-01-01

40

Semantics of optimistic computation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The derivation of a semantically equivalent optimistic computation from a pessimistic computation by application-independent transformations is discussed. Computations are modeled by program dependence graphs (PDGS). The semantics of a computation is defined by a mapping from an initial state to a final state and is realized by a graph rewriting system. Semantics-preserving transformations are applied to PDGS of the pessimistic computation to produce an optimistic version. The transformations...

Bubenik, Rick; Zwaenepoel, Willy

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Super Rough Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research a new algebraic semantics of rough set theory including additional meta aspects is proposed. The semantics is based on enhancing the standard rough set theory with notions of 'relative ability of subsets of approximation spaces to approximate'. The eventual algebraic semantics is developed via many deep results in convexity in ordered structures. A new variation of rough set theory, namely 'ill-posed rough set theory' in which it may suffice to know some of ...

Mani, A.

2006-01-01

42

Towards semantic web mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. The idea is to improve, on the one hand, the results of Web Mining by exploiting the new semantic structures in the Web; and to make use of Web Mining, on overview of where the two areas meet today, and sketches ways of how a closer integration could be profitable.

Berendt, Bettina; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd

2002-01-01

43

Enhancing medical database semantics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, asso...

Lea?o, B. F.; Pavan, A.

1995-01-01

44

Applied Semantic Web Technologies  

CERN Multimedia

The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

Sugumaran, Vijayan

2011-01-01

45

The Semantic Learning Organization  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The aim of this paper is introducing the concept of a "semantic learning organization" (SLO) as an extension of the concept of "learning organization" in the technological domain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper takes existing definitions and conceptualizations of both learning organizations and Semantic Web technology to develop…

Sicilia, Miguel-Angel; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

2005-01-01

46

The UMLS Semantic Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The UMLS network of semantic types is one component of NLM's evolving Unified Medical Language System. This paper discusses the role of the semantic network in the overall system, then describes the evolution and current status of the network, and, finally, concludes with a discussion of plans for further development.

1989-01-01

47

Semantic Network Processing Systems,  

Science.gov (United States)

The report deals with a particular subset of knowledge oriented systems: the semantic network approach which is one of the most used methods of representing and manipulating knowledge in the AI field. A brief overview of the basic components of a semantic...

J. G. Delgado-Frias W. R. Moore

1987-01-01

48

Semantics of Smalltalk-80  

Science.gov (United States)

A formal model of the Smalltalk-80 programming language is introduced. The semantics of much of the Smalltalk-80 language are described using the denotational style. A poorly-designed feature of Smalltalk is highlighted, and alternative semantics are presented for the language feature.

Wolczko, Mario

49

Perspectives in Semantic Interoperability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the problem of semantic technology interoperability from two different perspectives. First, from a theoretical perspective by presenting an overview of the different factors that affect interoperability and, second, from a practical perspective by reusing evaluation methods and applying them to six current semantic technologies in order to assess their interoperability.

Garci?a-castro, Rau?l; Go?mez-pe?rez, A.

2011-01-01

50

Semantic Business Process Modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

2010-01-01

51

On Quantifying Semantic Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to look at some existing methods of semantic information quantification and suggest some alternatives. It begins with an outline of Bar-Hillel and Carnap’s theory of semantic information before going on to look at Floridi’s theory of strongly semantic information. The latter then serves to initiate an in-depth investigation into the idea of utilising the notion of truthlikeness to quantify semantic information. Firstly, a couple of approaches to measure truthlikeness are drawn from the literature and explored, with a focus on their applicability to semantic information quantification. Secondly, a similar but new approach to measure truthlikeness/information is presented and some supplementary points are made.

Simon D’Alfonso

2011-01-01

52

A Semantic Graph Query Language  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

Kaplan, I L

2006-10-16

53

Categorizing words through semantic memory navigation  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic memory is the cognitive system devoted to storage and retrieval of conceptual knowledge. Empirical data indicate that semantic memory is organized in a network structure. Everyday experience shows that word search and retrieval processes provide fluent and coherent speech, i.e. are efficient. This implies either that semantic memory encodes, besides thousands of words, different kind of links for different relationships (introducing greater complexity and storage costs), or that the structure evolves facilitating the differentiation between long-lasting semantic relations from incidental, phenomenological ones. Assuming the latter possibility, we explore a mechanism to disentangle the underlying semantic backbone which comprises conceptual structure (extraction of categorical relations between pairs of words), from the rest of information present in the structure. To this end, we first present and characterize an empirical data set modeled as a network, then we simulate a stochastic cognitive navigation on this topology. We schematize this latter process as uncorrelated random walks from node to node, which converge to a feature vectors network. By doing so we both introduce a novel mechanism for information retrieval, and point at the problem of category formation in close connection to linguistic and non-linguistic experience.

Borge-Holthoefer, J.; Arenas, A.

2010-03-01

54

Reactive Kripke semantics  

CERN Document Server

This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

Gabbay, Dov M

2013-01-01

55

Semantic Web Service Composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research community of Web, presently is working to generate its next generation i.e. Semantic Web. They are moving towards automation of the retrieval and processing of web contents. The systems based on the semantic web require performing various processes like discovery, selection, composition, orchestration, monitoring etc. on services provided by it for satisfying client needs. In this paper, we will be concentrating on semantic web service composition techniques. The work deals with exploring different type of composition techniques, categorization of them, and comparing them based on some of their properties like process, reasoners & languages involved, interface etc.

Kumar Sandeep

2008-01-01

56

Semantic based DNS Forensics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages semantic and natural language processing tools in order to analyze large volumes of DNS data. The main research novelty consists in detecting malicious and dangerous domain names by evaluating the semantic similarity with already known names. This process can provide valuable information for...

Marchal, Samuel; Franc?ois, Je?ro?me; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

2012-01-01

57

Compositional Semantics in Verbmobil  

CERN Document Server

The paper discusses how compositional semantics is implemented in the Verbmobil speech-to-speech translation system using LUD, a description language for underspecified discourse representation structures. The description language and its formal interpretation in DRT are described as well as its implementation together with the architecture of the system's entire syntactic-semantic processing module. We show that a linguistically sound theory and formalism can be properly implemented in a system with (near) real-time requirements.

Bos, J W; Lieske, C; Mori, Y; Pinkal, M; Worm, K L; Bos, Johan; Gambäck, Björn; Lieske, Christian; Mori, Yoshiki; Pinkal, Manfred; Worm, Karsten

1996-01-01

58

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis is a novel statistical technique for the analysis of two-mode and co-occurrence data, which has applications in information retrieval and filtering, natural language processing, machine learning from text, and in related areas. Compared to standard Latent Semantic Analysis which stems from linear algebra and performs a Singular Value Decomposition of co-occurrence tables, the proposed method is based on a mixture decomposition derived f...

Hofmann, Thomas

2013-01-01

59

Semantic based DNS Forensics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages semantic and natural language processing tools in order to analyze large volumes of DNS data. The main research novelty consists in detecting malicious and dangerous domain names by semantic similarity with already known names. This process can provide valuable information for reconstructing...

2011-01-01

60

Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the Worl...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is c...

Denhie?re, Guy; Lemaire, Benoi?t; Bellissens, Ce?drick; Jhean, Sandra

2007-01-01

62

Exploiting Semantic Indexing Images for Emergence Recommendation Semantics System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thanks to the efforts of the Semantic Web Community (W3C), images can be semantically indexed with metadata. The explicit representation of image contents is made possible by using ontologies that provide a common and shared understanding of a domain at both human users and application levels. The approach that we are proposing in this paper is a semantic indexing of images based on conceptual method. To make efficient the semantic indexing, we also propose a recommender system. User profiles...

Zomahoun, Damien; Houngue, Pe?lagie; Ye?tongnon, Kokou

2013-01-01

63

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

64

Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

2007-08-07

65

Semantic Observation Integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

Werner Kuhn

2012-09-01

66

Semantic Component Composition  

CERN Multimedia

Building complex software systems necessitates the use of component-based architectures. In theory, of the set of components needed for a design, only some small portion of them are "custom"; the rest are reused or refactored existing pieces of software. Unfortunately, this is an idealized situation. Just because two components should work together does not mean that they will work together. The "glue" that holds components together is not just technology. The contracts that bind complex systems together implicitly define more than their explicit type. These "conceptual contracts" describe essential aspects of extra-system semantics: e.g., object models, type systems, data representation, interface action semantics, legal and contractual obligations, and more. Designers and developers spend inordinate amounts of time technologically duct-taping systems to fulfill these conceptual contracts because system-wide semantics have not been rigorously characterized or codified. This paper describes a formal character...

Kiniry, J R

2002-01-01

67

Semantic Social Network Analysis  

CERN Multimedia

Social Network Analysis (SNA) tries to understand and exploit the key features of social networks in order to manage their life cycle and predict their evolution. Increasingly popular web 2.0 sites are forming huge social network. Classical methods from social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to such online networks. In this paper, we propose leveraging semantic web technologies to merge and exploit the best features of each domain. We present how to facilitate and enhance the analysis of online social networks, exploiting the power of semantic social network analysis.

Erétéo, Guillaume; Corby, Olivier; Buffa, Michel

2009-01-01

68

Evolution of semantic systems  

CERN Multimedia

Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

2013-01-01

69

Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference. PMID:23867104

Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

2013-10-01

70

The representation of conceptual knowledge: visual, auditory, and olfactory imagery compared with semantic processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments comparing imaginative processing in different modalities and semantic processing were carried out to investigate the issue of whether conceptual knowledge can be represented in different format. Participants were asked to judge the similarity between visual images, auditory images, and olfactory images in the imaginative block, if two items belonged to the same category in the semantic block. Items were verbally cued in both experiments. The degree of similarity between the imaginative and semantic items was changed across experiments. Experiment 1 showed that the semantic processing was faster than the visual and the auditory imaginative processing, whereas no differentiation was possible between the semantic processing and the olfactory imaginative processing. Experiment 2 revealed that only the visual imaginative processing could be differentiated from the semantic processing in terms of accuracy. These results showed that the visual and auditory imaginative processing can be differentiated from the semantic processing, although both visual and auditory images strongly rely on semantic representations. On the contrary, no differentiation is possible within the olfactory domain. Results are discussed in the frame of the imagery debate. PMID:24337415

Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Matteo, Rosalia; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

2014-05-01

71

An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

2014-01-01

72

Latent Semantic Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

Dumais, Susan T.

2004-01-01

73

Semantic-based Transfer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents a new semantic-based transfer approach developed and applied within the Verbmobil Machine Translation project. We give an overview of the declarative transfer formalism together with its procedural realization. Our approach is discussed and compared with several other approaches from the MT literature. The results presented in this article have been implemented and integrated into the Verbmobil system.

Dorna, Michael; Emele, Martin

1996-01-01

74

Semantic Web Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work funded by DARPA and done by MIT and W3C under DAML Agent Markup Language (DAML) project between 2002 and 2005 provided key steps in the research in the Semantic Web technology, and also played an essential role in delivering the technology to ind...

R. Swick T. Berners-Lee

2006-01-01

75

Semantic physical science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’. We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles.

Murray-Rust Peter

2012-08-01

76

Causality in the Semantics of Esterel: Revisited  

CERN Multimedia

We re-examine the challenges concerning causality in the semantics of Esterel and show that they pertain to the known issues in the semantics of Structured Operational Semantics with negative premises. We show that the solutions offered for the semantics of SOS also provide answers to the semantic challenges of Esterel and that they satisfy the intuitive requirements set by the language designers.

Mousavi, MohammadReza

2010-01-01

77

On the Unification of Process Semantics: Logical Semantics  

CERN Document Server

We continue with the task of obtaining a unifying view of process semantics by considering in this case the logical characterization of the semantics. We start by considering the classic linear time-branching time spectrum developed by R.J. van Glabbeek. He provided a logical characterization of most of the semantics in his spectrum but, without following a unique pattern. In this paper, we present a uniform logical characterization of all the semantics in the enlarged spectrum. The common structure of the formulas that constitute all the corresponding logics gives us a much clearer picture of the spectrum, clarifying the relations between the different semantics, and allows us to develop generic proofs of some general properties of the semantics.

Romero-Hernández, David; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.4

2011-01-01

78

Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics  

CERN Document Server

Many applications depend on the effective acquisition of semantic metadata, and this state-of-the-art volume provides extensive coverage of the field of semantics acquisition games (SAGs). SAGs are a part of the crowdsourcing approach family and the authors analyze their role as tools for acquisition of resource metadata and domain models. Three case studies of SAG-based semantics acquisition methods are shown, along with other existing SAGs: 1. the Little Search Game - a search query formulation game using negative search, serving for acquisition of lightweight semantics. 2. the PexAce - a ca

Šimko, Jakub

2014-01-01

79

A SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MEASURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Similarity measures are the most important tools in information retrieval and natural language processing. Sentence similarities are of capital importance in online translation. Words-to-document similarity is the key factor to compute query relevance. Text similarities play a big role in data mining. A lot of similarity measures have been used in different domains. Most of the measures are corpus dependent or language dependent. When some measures are good to compute word-to-document matching, they are unable to compute document-to-document similarity and vice versa. In this paper we present a method that can be used to compute any kind of semantic similarity. The method is neither corpus dependent nor language dependent, and gives a way to compare more accurately semantic relatedness.

Abdoulahi Boubacar

2013-08-01

80

Semantic Vector Machines  

CERN Multimedia

We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural language processing problems, and thus moved to the second part of our work: sentence compression. We introduce a flexible neural network architecture for learning embeddings of words and sentences that extract their semantics, propose an efficient implementation in the Torch framework and present embedding results comparable to the ones obtained with classical neural language models, while being more powerful.

Vincent, Etter

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Semantic Exploration of DNS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The DNS structure discloses useful information about the organization and the operation of an enterprise network, which can be used for designing attacks as well as monitoring domains supporting malicious activities. Thus, this paper introduces a new method for exploring the DNS domains. Although our previous work described a tool to generate existing DNS names accurately in order to probe a domain automatically, the approach is extended by leveraging semantic analysis of domain names. In par...

Marchal, Samuel; Franc?ois, Je?ro?me; Wagner, Cynthia; Engel, Thomas

2012-01-01

82

Semantic Web Services Fundamentals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research area of Semantic Web Services investigates the annotation of services, typically in a SOA, with a precise mathematical meaning in a formal ontology. These annotations allow a higher degree of automation. The last decade has seen a wide proliferation of such approaches, proposing different ontology languages, and paradigms for employing these in practice. The next chapter gives an overview of these approaches. In the present chapter, we provide an understanding of the fundamental ...

Heymans, Stijn; Hoffmann, Joerg; Marconi, Annapaola; Phlipps, Joshua; Weber, Ingo

2011-01-01

83

Semantic Social Network Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social Network Analysis (SNA) tries to understand and exploit the key features of social networks in order to manage their life cycle and predict their evolution. Increasingly popular web 2.0 sites are forming huge social network. Classical methods from social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to such online networks. In this paper, we propose leveraging semantic web technologies to merge and exploit the best features of each domain. We present how to facilitate and enhance the analysi...

2009-01-01

84

Metaphor and Lexical Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT: This paper shows that several sorts of expressions cannot be interpreted metaphorically, including determiners, tenses, etc. Generally, functional categories cannot be interpreted metaphorically, while lexical categories can. This reveals a semantic property of functional categories, and it shows that metaphor can be used as a probe for investigating them. It also reveals an important linguistic constraint on metaphor. The paper argues this constraint applies to the interface betwee...

Michael Glanzberg

2008-01-01

85

Dynamic semantics for metaphor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An intensional logic with dynamic interpretation is presented in order to provide a formal semantics for sense extension, lexical ambiguity and metaphoricity. Intensionality is required in order to provide the right account of polysemy and homonymy. The dynamics are required in order to allow the interpretation of a sentence to impact the interpretation of subsequent sentences by adding any extended expressions. Metaphoricity is captured in the classification of indices at whic...

Vogel, Carl

2001-01-01

86

Semantic Search Engine: A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search engines which gives the selected results which the user searching for. So here in this paper, a survey is done about the semantic search engines to revel the promising features of the semantic search engines(SSE.It deals about the description of some of the best semantic search engines

Anusree.ramachandran

2011-11-01

87

Color Semantics for Image Indexing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a color-based image descriptor that can be used for image indexing based on high-level semantic concepts. The descriptor is based on Kobayashi's Color Image Scale, which is a system that includes 130 basic colors combined in 1170 three-color combinations. Each combination is labeled with one of 180 high-level semantic concepts, like "elegant", "romantic", "provocative", etc. Moreover, words are located in a two-dimensional semantic space, and arranged into g...

2010-01-01

88

From Data to Semantic Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definiti...

Luciano Floridi

2003-01-01

89

Semantic Features in Argument Selection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the problems that has to be dealt with by theorists of early language acquisition theory is the mismatch between semantic constructs, like Agent, and syntactic ones, like subject. It is proposed that the linguistic system is based on semantic features that are more fine-grained than thematic roles, and that selection of subject and direct object can be accounted for by merely four semantic features. These features are conceived of as properties of participants in th...

Schlesinger, Izchak M.

2013-01-01

90

Survey of semantic modeling techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

Smith, C.L.

1975-07-01

91

Semantic image understanding: from pixel to word  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of semantic image understanding is to reveal the semantic meaning behind the image pixel. This thesis investigates problems related to semantic image understanding, and have made the following contributions.

2012-01-01

92

Semantic Representatives of the Concept  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

Elena N. Tsay

2013-01-01

93

Event in Compositional Dynamic Semantics  

CERN Multimedia

We present a framework which constructs an event-style dis- course semantics. The discourse dynamics are encoded in continuation semantics and various rhetorical relations are embedded in the resulting interpretation of the framework. We assume discourse and sentence are distinct semantic objects, that play different roles in meaning evalua- tion. Moreover, two sets of composition functions, for handling different discourse relations, are introduced. The paper first gives the necessary background and motivation for event and dynamic semantics, then the framework with detailed examples will be introduced.

Qian, Sai

2011-01-01

94

Semantics and Complexity of SPARQL  

CERN Document Server

SPARQL is the W3C candidate recommendation query language for RDF. In this paper we address systematically the formal study of SPARQL, concentrating in its graph pattern facility. We consider for this study a fragment without literals and a simple version of filters which encompasses all the main issues yet is simple to formalize. We provide a compositional semantics, prove there are normal forms, prove complexity bounds, among others that the evaluation of SPARQL patterns is PSPACE-complete, compare our semantics to an alternative operational semantics, give simple and natural conditions when both semantics coincide and discuss optimizations procedures.

Pérez, J; Gutíerrez, C; Perez, Jorge; Arenas, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Claudio

2006-01-01

95

Evaluating CLASS semantic classification: Pisa Contribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report describes the different evaluation procedures adopted for testing effectiveness and validity of the semantic classes acquired by CLASS through analogy-based semantic similarity measures...

Allegrini, Paolo; Calzolari, Nicoletta; Federici, S.; Montemagni, Simonetta; Pirrelli, Vito

1999-01-01

96

Communication of Semantic Properties  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The selection of materials and planning for production play a key role for the design of physical products. Product function, appearance and expression are influenced by the chosen materials and how they are shaped. However these properties are not carried by the material itself, but by the specific way that the materials are used in the product. Selection of materials is therefore often done by looking at similar products. The product as well as its constitutive materials possesses a number of technical properties like strength, stiffness and hardness. Furthermore the product possesses a number of semantic properties associated with the meaning we read from the form, colour, texture and sound of the product. The purpose of working with these properties can be to make the use of the product more self-evident, to form or enhance the cultural meaning of the product and to give the product a distinct character. For the technical properties there exists a well developed and commonly accepted terminology that can be utilised at product search and material selection (Ashby 1996). This is not the case for the semantic properties which are important for the outcome reflecting the product design processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material search also require a clear terminology. It is not our aim to identify a new terminology but rather to identify the terminology already in use. The paper also describes different research methods for identifying such a terminology.

Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

2004-01-01

97

The semantic planetary data system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

2005-01-01

98

Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web Services (SWS) propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The m...

Javier Samper, J.; Javier Adell, F.; Leo van den Berg; Jose? Martinez, J.

2008-01-01

99

Natural language processing semantic aspects  

CERN Document Server

This book introduces the semantic aspects of natural language processing and its applications. Topics covered include: measuring word meaning similarity, multi-lingual querying, and parametric theory, named entity recognition, semantics, query language, and the nature of language. The book also emphasizes the portions of mathematics needed to understand the discussed algorithms.

Kapetanios, Epaminondas; Sacarea, Christian

2013-01-01

100

Relative/Identical Semantic Structuralization  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the teaching of Afrikaans and English to speakers of Xhosa, with semantics as the point of focus. The purpose is to aid the teaching of Afrikaans and English by introducing componential analysis in order to compare the relative/identical aspects of semantic structuralization in these languages with those in Xhosa. (Author/RM)

Stanley, George Edward

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

Skorokhodko, E. F.

1970-01-01

102

Semantic Vector Machines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an d-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural l...

Etter, Vincent

2009-01-01

103

Universal semantic communication  

CERN Multimedia

Is meaningful communication possible between two intelligent parties who share no common language or background? In this work, a theoretical framework is proposed in which it is possible to address when and to what extent such semantic communication is possible: such problems can be rigorously addressed by explicitly focusing on the goals of the communication. Under this framework, it is possible to show that for many goals, communication without any common language or background is possible using universal protocols. This work should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate-level knowled

Juba, Brendan

2011-01-01

104

"Pre-Semantic" Cognition Revisited: Critical Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are…

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

105

When the zebra loses its stripes but is still in the savannah: Results from a semantic priming paradigm in semantic dementia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

: Studies using semantic priming paradigms to measure the integrity of the features underlying concepts in semantic dementia (SD) reported differential impairment, in that functional features appeared to be more robust to brain damage than other features, such as perceptual ones. However, these prior studies were single case reports and the inclusion of too many heterogeneous features under the "functional features" heading casts doubts on their apparent preservation. To verify the robustness...

Merck, Catherine; Jonin, Pierre-yves; Laisney, Mickae?l; Vichard, He?le?ne; Belliard, Serge

2013-01-01

106

Distributed Semantic Overlay Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic Overlay Networks (SONs) have been recently proposed as a way to organize content in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The main objective is to discover peers with similar content and then form thematically focused peer groups. Efficient content retrieval can be performed by having queries selectively forwarded only to relevant groups of peers to the query. As a result, less peers need to be contacted, in order to answer a query. In this context, the challenge is to generate SONs in a decentralized and distributed manner, as the centralized assembly of global information is not feasible. Different approaches for exploiting the generated SONs for content retrieval have been proposed in the literature, which are examined in this chapter, with a particular focus on SON interconnections for efficient search. Several applications, such as P2P document and image retrieval, can be deployed over generated SONs, motivating the need for distributed and truly scalable SON creation. Therefore, recently several research papers focus on SONs as stated in our comprehensive overview of related work in the field of semantic overlay networks. A classification of existing algorithms according to a set of qualitative criteria is also provided. In spite of the rich existing work in the field of SONs, several challenges have not been efficiently addressed yet, therefore, future promising research directions are pointed out and discussed at the end of this chapter.

Doulkeridis, Christos; Vlachou, Akrivi; Nørvåg, Kjetil; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

107

Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic

Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

2010-01-01

108

On semantic underspecification examining lexeme osnova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term semantic underspecification coined by J. Pustejovsky was initially introduced in Serbian linguistics by Milka Ivic. This paper further develops the term, investigates the level of semantic underspecification of lexemes and examining Serbian lexeme osnova [base] emphasizes conceptual analysis as an appropriate semantic method for investigating lexemes with the broadest (underspecified semantics.

Dragi?evi? Rajna

2008-01-01

109

On semantic underspecification examining lexeme osnova  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term semantic underspecification coined by J. Pustejovsky was initially introduced in Serbian linguistics by Milka Ivic. This paper further develops the term, investigates the level of semantic underspecification of lexemes and examining Serbian lexeme osnova [base] emphasizes conceptual analysis as an appropriate semantic method for investigating lexemes with the broadest (underspecified) semantics.

Dragi?evi? Rajna

2008-01-01

110

Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network  

Science.gov (United States)

With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

2004-01-01

111

Neural correlates of successful semantic processing during propofol sedation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sedation has a graded effect on brain responses to auditory stimuli: perceptual processing persists at sedation levels that attenuate more complex processing. We used fMRI in healthy volunteers sedated with propofol to assess changes in neural responses to spoken stimuli. Volunteers were scanned awake, sedated, and during recovery, while making perceptual or semantic decisions about nonspeech sounds or spoken words respectively. Sedation caused increased error rates and response times, and differentially affected responses to words in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left inferior temporal gyrus (LITG). Activity in LIFG regions putatively associated with semantic processing, was significantly reduced by sedation despite sedated volunteers continuing to make accurate semantic decisions. Instead, LITG activity was preserved for words greater than nonspeech sounds and may therefore be associated with persistent semantic processing during the deepest levels of sedation. These results suggest functionally distinct contributions of frontal and temporal regions to semantic decision making. These results have implications for functional imaging studies of language, for understanding mechanisms of impaired speech comprehension in postoperative patients with residual levels of anesthetic, and may contribute to the development of frameworks against which EEG based monitors could be calibrated to detect awareness under anesthesia. Hum Brain Mapp 35:2935-2949, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24142410

Adapa, Ram M; Davis, Matthew H; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Absalom, Anthony R; Menon, David K

2014-07-01

112

Semantic understanding of Image content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large amounts of spatial data are becoming available today due to the rapid development of remote sensing techniques. Several retrieval systems are proposed to retrieve necessary, interested and effective information such as key- word based image retrieval and content based image retrieval. However, the results of these approaches are generally unsatisfactory, unpredictable and do not match human perception due to the well gap between visual features and semantic concepts. In this paper, we propose a new approach allowing semantic satellite image retrieval, describing the semantic image content and managing uncertain information. It is based on ontology model which represents spatial knowledge in order to provide semantic understanding of image content. Our retrieval system is based on two modules: ontological model merging and semantic strategic image retrieval. The first module allows developing ontological models which represent spatial knowledge of the satellite image, and managing uncertain information. The second module allows retrieving satellite images basing on their ontological model. In order to improve the quality of retrieval system and to facilitate the retrieval process, we propose two retrieval strategies which are the opportunist strategy and the hypothetic strategy. Our approach attempts to improve the quality of image retrieval, to reduce the semantic gap between visual features and semantic concepts and to provide an automatic solution for efficient satellite image retrieval.

D D Dhobale

2011-05-01

113

Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

2012-12-01

114

Search Relevance based on the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, we explore the challenge of search relevance in the context of semantic search. Specifically, the notion of semantic relevance can be distinguished from the other types of relevance in Information Retrieval (IR) in terms of employing an underlying semantic model. We propose the emerging Semantic Web data on the Web which is represented in RDF graph structures as an important candidate to become such a semantic model in a search process.

Bicer, Veli

2012-01-01

115

Qualifying Semantic graphs using Model Checking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic interoperability problems have found their solutions using languages and techniques from the Semantic Web. The proliferation of ontologies and meta-information has improved the understanding of information and the relevance of search engine responses. However, the construction of semantic graphs is a source of numerous errors of interpretation or modeling and scalability remains a major problem. The processing of large semantic graphs is a limit to the use of semantics in current inf...

Gueffaz, Mahdi; Rampacek, Sylvain; Nicolle, Christophe

2011-01-01

116

Formalizing the semantics of variants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Software Configuration Management (SCM) is the activity of controlling the evolution of a software System. Our goal is to give a precise semantics to SCM concepts in order to form a sound basis for developing improved SCM tools. We are beginning by focusing on the key notion of version. In particular, we are trying to understand the semantics of variants?versions of a configuration item that are equivalent in some context. In this paper we give a formal semantics for variants based on th...

Inverardi, Paola; Mainetto, Giovanni; Wolf, Alexander L.

1994-01-01

117

Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrate its potential by two applications. As a first application, we localize lane structures by the semantic descriptors and their relations in a Bayesian framework. As the second application, which is in the context of vision based grasping, we show how the semantic relations can be associated to actions that allow for grasping without using any object knowledge.

Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre

2008-01-01

118

Workspaces in the Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

2005-01-01

119

High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

2011-06-02

120

The UMLS® Semantic Network and the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) , an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) is being currently used in a wide variety of biomedical applications. The Semantic Network, a component of the UMLS is a structured description of core biomedical knowledge consisting of well defined semantic types and relationships between them. We investigate the expressiveness of DAML+OIL, a markup language proposed for ontologie...

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Automatic semantic facilitation in anterior temporal cortex revealed through multimodal neuroimaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

A core property of human semantic processing is the rapid, facilitatory influence of prior input on extracting the meaning of what comes next, even under conditions of minimal awareness. Previous work has shown a number of neurophysiological indices of this facilitation, but the mapping between time course and localization-critical for separating automatic semantic facilitation from other mechanisms-has thus far been unclear. In the current study, we used a multimodal imaging approach to isolate early, bottom-up effects of context on semantic memory, acquiring a combination of electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements in the same individuals with a masked semantic priming paradigm. Across techniques, the results provide a strikingly convergent picture of early automatic semantic facilitation. Event-related potentials demonstrated early sensitivity to semantic association between 300 and 500 ms; MEG localized the differential neural response within this time window to the left anterior temporal cortex, and fMRI localized the effect more precisely to the left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region previously implicated in semantic associative processing. However, fMRI diverged from early EEG/MEG measures in revealing semantic enhancement effects within frontal and parietal regions, perhaps reflecting downstream attempts to consciously access the semantic features of the masked prime. Together, these results provide strong evidence that automatic associative semantic facilitation is realized as reduced activity within the left anterior superior temporal cortex between 300 and 500 ms after a word is presented, and emphasize the importance of multimodal neuroimaging approaches in distinguishing the contributions of multiple regions to semantic processing. PMID:24155321

Lau, Ellen F; Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R

2013-10-23

122

Metaphor and Lexical Semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper shows that several sorts of expressions cannot be interpreted metaphorically, including determiners, tenses, etc. Generally, functional categories cannot be interpreted metaphorically, while lexical categories can. This reveals a semantic property of functional categories, and it shows that metaphor can be used as a probe for investigating them. It also reveals an important linguistic constraint on metaphor. The paper argues this constraint applies to the interface between the cognitive systems for language and metaphor. However, the constraint does not completely prevent structural elements of language from being available to the metaphor system. The paper shows that linguistic structure within the lexicon, specifically, aspectual structure, is available to the metaphor system.

Michael Glanzberg

2008-08-01

123

An Abundance of Riches: Cross-Task Comparisons of Semantic Richness Effects In Visual Word Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is considerable evidence (e.g., Pexman, Hargreaves, Siakaluk, Bodner, & Pope, 2008 that semantically rich words, which are associated with relatively more semantic information, are recognized faster across different lexical processing tasks. The present study extends this earlier work by providing the most comprehensive evaluation to date of semantic richness effects on visual word recognition performance. Specifically, using regression analyses to control for the influence of correlated lexical variables, we considered the impact of contextual dispersion, number of features, number of senses, semantic neighborhood density, imageability, and body-object interaction across five visual word recognition tasks: standard lexical decision, go/no-go lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, semantic classification, and progressive demasking. Semantic richness effects could be reliably detected in all tasks of lexical processing, indicating that semantic representations, particularly their imaginal and featural aspects, play a fundamental role in visual word recognition. However, there was also evidence that the strength of certain richness effects could be flexibly and adaptively modulated by task demands, consistent with an intriguing interplay between task-specific mechanisms and differentiated semantic processing.

MelvinJ.Yap

2012-04-01

124

Building a biomedical semantic network in Wikipedia with Semantic Wiki Links.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wikipedia is increasingly used as a platform for collaborative data curation, but its current technical implementation has significant limitations that hinder its use in biocuration applications. Specifically, while editors can easily link between two articles in Wikipedia to indicate a relationship, there is no way to indicate the nature of that relationship in a way that is computationally accessible to the system or to external developers. For example, in addition to noting a relationship between a gene and a disease, it would be useful to differentiate the cases where genetic mutation or altered expression causes the disease. Here, we introduce a straightforward method that allows Wikipedia editors to embed computable semantic relations directly in the context of current Wikipedia articles. In addition, we demonstrate two novel applications enabled by the presence of these new relationships. The first is a dynamically generated information box that can be rendered on all semantically enhanced Wikipedia articles. The second is a prototype gene annotation system that draws its content from the gene-centric articles on Wikipedia and exposes the new semantic relationships to enable previously impossible, user-defined queries. DATABASE URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki. PMID:22434829

Good, Benjamin M; Clarke, Erik L; Loguercio, Salvatore; Su, Andrew I

2012-01-01

125

Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS. The algorithm uses the description of the service capabilities to match the semantic values. The traditional matching has been improved using ontologies which constitute a step further in the matching algorithms. To implement the algorithm, an agent FIPA compliant architecture has been designed and developed. The results obtained are positive. The semantic web services framework developed in combination with the use of the matchmaking algorithm, which allows finding services based on their similarities.

J. Javier Samper

2008-01-01

126

Distributed semantic networks and CLIPS  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic networks of frames are commonly used as a method of reasoning in many problems. In most of these applications the semantic network exists as a single entity in a single process environment. Advances in workstation hardware provide support for more sophisticated applications involving multiple processes, interacting in a distributed environment. In these applications the semantic network may well be distributed over several concurrently executing tasks. This paper describes the design and implementation of a frame based, distributed semantic network in which frames are accessed both through C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) expert systems and procedural C++ language programs. The application area is a knowledge based, cooperative decision making model utilizing both rule based and procedural experts.

Snyder, James; Rodriguez, Tony

1991-01-01

127

Sampled Semantics of Timed Automata  

CERN Document Server

Sampled semantics of timed automata is a finite approximation of their dense time behavior. While the former is closer to the actual software or hardware systems with a fixed granularity of time, the abstract character of the latter makes it appealing for system modeling and verification. We study one aspect of the relation between these two semantics, namely checking whether the system exhibits some qualitative (untimed) behaviors in the dense time which cannot be reproduced by any implementation with a fixed sampling rate. More formally, the \\emph{sampling problem} is to decide whether there is a sampling rate such that all qualitative behaviors (the untimed language) accepted by a given timed automaton in dense time semantics can be also accepted in sampled semantics. We show that this problem is decidable.

Abdulla, Parosh Aziz; Yi, Wang

2010-01-01

128

Semantic Web for Program Administration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Typically, administrative systems involving information in an academic environment are disjoint, spread across various departments and support independent queries. The objectives in this work include investigation on integrating these independent systems to provide support to intelligent queries run on the integrated platform. A framework is proposed that enriches data in the legacy systems to provide a value-added semantic layer where annotation, query and reasoning can be carried out to support management requirements. The development of this framework with a case study of a typical engineering program is discussed to show how semantic web technologies can be used by stack holders of the program for better academic program administration. The comparative work is described to show applications where semantic web have been explored. The issues related to implementation of the semantic web to academic program administration are also highlighted and discussed.

Qurban A Memon

2010-12-01

129

Lexical Semantics and Irregular Inflection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whether a word has an irregular inflection does not depend on its sound alone: compare lie-lay (recline) and lie-lied (prevaricate). Theories of morphology, particularly connectionist and symbolic models, disagree on which nonphonological factors are responsible. We test four possibilities: (1) lexical effects, in which two lemmas differ in whether they specify an irregular form; (2) semantic effects, in which the semantic features of a word become associated with regular or irregular forms; ...

Pinker, Steven; Huang, Yi Ting

2010-01-01

130

NASA and The Semantic Web  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

Ashish, Naveen

2005-01-01

131

Semantic Description of Web Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tasks of semantic web service (discovery, selection, composition, and execution) are supposed to enable seamless interoperation between systems, whereby human intervention is kept at a minimum. In the field of Web service description research, the exploitation of descriptions of services through semantics is a better support for the life-cycle of Web services. The large number of developed ontologies, languages of representations, and integrated frameworks supporting the...

Slimani, Thabet

2013-01-01

132

Semantic wireless body area networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we introduce the concept of semantic Wireless Body Area Network (sWBAN). First the method for semantic interpretation of body sensor data is developed. This method is then illustrated for the case of ECG monitoring, providing the user with real-time monitoring and interpretation of heart activity. Finally, possible extensions of the method to data fusion and context-aware monitoring are discussed. PMID:19163441

Nimmala, Venkatarama S R; Penders, Julien; van Hyfte, Dirk; Brands, Michael; Gyselinckx, Bert

2008-01-01

133

Unsupervised induction of semantic roles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, a considerable amount of work has been devoted to the task of automatic frame-semantic analysis. Given the relative maturity of syntactic parsing technology, which is an important prerequisite, frame-semantic analysis represents a realistic next step towards broad-coverage natural language understanding and has been shown to benefit a range of natural language processing applications such as information extraction and question answering. Due to the complexit...

Lang, Joel

2012-01-01

134

Semantic Changes in Apparent Time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic changes have been scientifically studied for more than 150 years (Nerlich 1992). All along this history, successive generations of scholars have adopted at least three different theoretical frameworks (Magué 2005). Chronologically, the first trend focused on the identification of the different kinds of semantic changes a lexeme can undergo. This taxonomist trend culminates with Ullman (1962). The second trend adopts a typologist point of view and is characterized both by the advocac...

Mague?, Jean-philippe

2006-01-01

135

Proof by reflection in semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conventional approach to describe the semantics of programming language usually rely on relations, in particular inductive relations. Simulating program execution then relies on proof search tools. We describe a functional approach to automate proofs about programming language semantics. Reflection is used to take facts from the context into account. The main contribution of this work is that we developed a systematic approach to describe and manipulate unknown expressions in the symbolic com...

2004-01-01

136

Efficient computation of argumentation semantics  

CERN Document Server

Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

Liao, Beishui

2013-01-01

137

A Semantic analysis of control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis examines the use of denotational semantics to reason about control flow in sequential, basically functional languages. It extends recent work in game semantics, in which programs are interpreted as strategies for computation by interaction with an environment. Abramsky has suggested that an intensional hierarchy of computational features such as state, and their fully abstract models, can be captured as violations of the constraints on strategies in the basic functional model....

Laird, James David

1999-01-01

138

Projection semantics for rigid loops  

CERN Multimedia

A rigid loop is a for-loop with a counter not accessible to the loop body or any other part of a program. Special instructions for rigid loops are introduced on top of the syntax of the program algebra PGA. Two different semantic projections are provided and proven equivalent. One of these is taken to have definitional status on the basis of two criteria: `normative semantic adequacy' and `indicative algorithmic adequacy'.

Bergstra, Jan A

2007-01-01

139

Semantic preview benefit during reading.  

Science.gov (United States)

Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23895448

Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

2014-01-01

140

Semantic Approach for Query Explication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main focus is to add a new dimension to Internet-Searching and that is to apply semantic aspects towards it. An essential requirement of this work is one has to recognize the difference between what a user might say or do and what she or he actually meant or intended. In more simple words, “the search must be what user wish, not what he/she types”. Quering the search engine for any particular topic would retrieve the results from the internet and presented to the web users. Since there are large number of web pages on the internet and thus result obtained are also vast. User gets more than enough web links as a result produced by search engine and wastes their precious time in navigating through unwanted links, searching the needed one. The main reason for this is that the Search Engine do the indexing of the pages on the basis of text entered by user. In order to overcome this shortcoming we need to implement a method that will allow the user to find the relevant words, starting from the few words that they may actually know [5].In other words, we need to focus on the semantic of words entered by user and for this purpose a new approach that is based on some algorithms which considers semantic aspects should be included. One of such technique for the semantic analysis is the Latent Semantic analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis.

Shruti Gupta

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

A System-Level Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Game semantics is a trace-like denotational semantics for programming languages where the notion of legal observable behaviour of a term is defined combinatorially, by means of rules of a game between the term (the "Proponent") and its context (the "Opponent"). In general, the richer the computational features a language has, the less constrained the rules of the semantic game. In this paper we consider the consequences of taking this relaxation of rules to the limit, by granting the Opponent omnipotence, that is, permission to play any move without combinatorial restrictions. However, we impose an epistemic restriction by not granting Opponent omniscience, so that Proponent can have undisclosed secret moves. We introduce a basic C-like programming language and we define such a semantic model for it. We argue that the resulting semantics is an appealingly simple combination of operational and game semantics and we show how certain traces explain system-level attacks, i.e. plausible attacks that are realizable...

Ghica, Dan R

2012-01-01

142

“Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal “pre-semantic” tasks: e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and “regularisation errors” (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this ...

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T.; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

143

A Semantic Approach for Recommendations generation: some Cultural Heritage applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EnThe growing availability of data in the information systems has raised the challenging problem of distinguishing between the resources that belong to the same information context. Starting from the hypothesis that the information system is based on Semantic Web technologies, is it possible to use these technologies to make an information system more adaptive to user requirements in order to enable personalization and differentiation mechanisms in the information delivery process?This paper proposes an approach to building recommendations by using Semantic Web technologies, in order to give the users a different access to the information. The outcome is a semantic recommender engine, capable of retrieving and ranking semantically annotated resources, by using a set of domain ontologies and a semantic matching algorithm. We are showing some applications of this model in the Cultural Heritage domain in which the presented approach seems to be particularly effective, due to the richness of semantic structures and models existing for such domain.ItLa crescente quantità di dati disponibili da parte dei sistemi informativi ha sollevato il complesso problema della distinzione tra risorse appartenenti allo stesso contesto informativo. Partendo dall'ipotesi che il sistema informativo si basi sulle tecnologie proprie del Web Semantico, è possibile utilizzare tali tecnologie per rendere il sistema adattivo ai requisiti dell'utente, abilitando, in questo modo, meccanismi di personalizzazione e differenziazione?Questo articolo propone un approccio per la generazione di recommendation,  utilizzando le tecnologie del Web Semantico, al fine di fornire, ai singoli utenti, accessi differenziati alle informazioni. Il risultato è un motore di generazione di recommendation semantiche, in grado di recuperare e classificare risorse annotate semanticamente, avvalendosi di un set di ontologie di dominio e di un algoritmo di matching semantico. Saranno infine descritte alcune applicazioni di tale modello nel dominio del Cultural Heritage. In tale dominio, infatti, grazie all'enorme mole di ontologie, modelli e strutture semantiche esistenti, l'approccio presentato sembra essere particolarmente efficace.

Maurizio De Tommasi

2011-12-01

144

Different impairments of semantic cognition in semantic dementia and semantic aphasia: evidence from the non-verbal domain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disorders of semantic cognition in different neuropsychological conditions result from diverse areas of brain damage and may have different underlying causes. This study used a comparative case-series design to examine the hypothesis that relatively circumscribed bilateral atrophy of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic dementia (SD) produces a gradual degradation of core semantic representations, whilst a deficit of cognitive control produces multi-modal semantic impairment in a subset of ...

2009-01-01

145

Ontology Learning for Semantic Web using Lexical-Semantic Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, web has evolved from global information space where data has linked well. Linking Open Data project has enabled a large number of semantic datasets to be published on the web. Due to the open and distributed nature of the web both schema and instances of published datasets may have heterogeneity problems. In order to overcome these problems we use semantic technologies such as Ontology, RDF, Xml and OWL. This paper proposes how to learn an ontology and solve these heterogeneous problem. We also use taxonomic and partonomic relations to learn the ontology. This project also uses lexical semantic analysis to identify relationship. Lexical method retrieves the words which are having multiple meaning.

Senduru Srinivasulu

2014-03-01

146

SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap") is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currentl...

Dg, Gessler Damian; Schiltz Gary S; May Greg D; Avraham Shulamit; Town Christopher D; Grant David; Nelson Rex T

2009-01-01

147

Semantic Features in Argument Selection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the problems that has to be dealt with by theorists of early language acquisition theory is the mismatch between semantic constructs, like Agent, and syntactic ones, like subject. It is proposed that the linguistic system is based on semantic features that are more fine-grained than thematic roles, and that selection of subject and direct object can be accounted for by merely four semantic features. These features are conceived of as properties of participants in the lexical entries of verbs, and in this respect, too, they are unlike thematic roles, which are ascribed to NPs in sentences. Thematic roles play a part only in the realization of certain other arguments, notably, the oblique object. It is shown that this different treatment of direct and oblique objects permits a parsimonious explanation of certain linguistic regularities that have posed problems for other theories. Early language acquisition can be explained in terms of the acquisition of these semantic features, and this account thus supersedes the semantic assimilation hypothesis proposed previously to deal with the lack of congruence between thematic roles and syntactic categories.

Izchak M. Schlesinger

2013-08-01

148

Adding Semantic Support to Existing UDDI Infrastructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI) is not capable of handling semantic markups for Web services due to its flat data model and limited search capabilities. In this paper, the authors introduce an approach to support semantic service de...

J. Luo B. Montrose M. Kang

2005-01-01

149

Modeling Computations in a Semantic Network  

CERN Multimedia

Semantic network research has seen a resurgence from its early history in the cognitive sciences with the inception of the Semantic Web initiative. The Semantic Web effort has brought forth an array of technologies that support the encoding, storage, and querying of the semantic network data structure at the world stage. Currently, the popular conception of the Semantic Web is that of a data modeling medium where real and conceptual entities are related in semantically meaningful ways. However, new models have emerged that explicitly encode procedural information within the semantic network substrate. With these new technologies, the Semantic Web has evolved from a data modeling medium to a computational medium. This article provides a classification of existing computational modeling efforts and the requirements of supporting technologies that will aid in the further growth of this burgeoning domain.

Rodriguez, Marko A

2007-01-01

150

Semantic Services for Wikipedia  

Science.gov (United States)

Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

151

Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.Re...

2010-01-01

152

Semantics by Analogy for Illustrative Volume Visualization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an interactive graphical approach for the explicit specification of semantics for volume visualization. This explicit and graphical specification of semantics for volumetric features allows us to visually assign meaning to both input and output parameters of the visualization mapping. This is in contrast to the implicit way of specifying semantics using transfer functions. In particular, we demonstrate how to realize a dynamic specification of semantics which allows to flexibly exp...

Gerl, Moritz; Rautek, Peter; Isenberg, Tobias; Gro?ller, Eduard

2012-01-01

153

Studying of Semantic Similarity Methods in Ontology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Humans are able to easily judge if a pair of concepts are related in some way. Understanding of how humans are able to perform this task is not easy. Semantic similarity denotes computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not necessarily lexically similar. Semantic similarity between concepts plays an important role in Semantic Web, knowledge sharing, Web mining, semantic sense understanding and text summarization. This also is an impor...

2012-01-01

154

Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word "Semantic" refers to "meaning" - a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and result oriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding information on the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision of linking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new i...

Gupta, Siddharth; Thakur, Narina

2010-01-01

155

Building Data Warehouses with Semantic Web Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web (SW) deployment is now a realization and the amount of semantic annotations is ever increasing thanks to several initiatives that promote a change in the current Web towards the Web of Data, where the semantics of data become explicit through data representation formats and standards such as RDF/(S) and OWL. However, such initiatives have not yet been accompanied by e cient intelligent applications that can exploit the implicit semantics and thus, provide mo...

Nebot Romero, Mari?a Victoria; Berlanga Llavori, Rafael

2012-01-01

156

A Semantic web page linguistic annotation model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although with the Semantic Web initiative much research on web page semantic annotation has already been done by AI researchers, linguistic text annotation, including the semantic one, was originally developed in Corpus Linguistics and its results have been somehow neglected by AI. The purpose of the research presented in this proposal is to prove that integration of results in both fields is not only possible, but also highly useful in order to make Semantic Web pages more mac...

Aguado Cea, G.; A?lvarez Mon Rego, I.; Pareja-lora, A.; Plaza Arteche, R.

2002-01-01

157

Information retrieval with semantic memory model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Psycholinguistic theories of semantic memory form the basis of understanding of natural language concepts. These theories are used here as an inspiration for implementing a computational model of semantic memory in the form of semantic network. Combining this network with a vector-based object-relation-feature value representation of concepts that includes also weights for confidence and support, allows for recognition of concepts by referring to their features, enabling a semantic search alg...

2011-01-01

158

DSMW: Distributed Semantic MediaWiki  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DSMW is an extension to Semantic Mediawiki (SMW), it allows to create a network of SMW servers that share common semantic wiki pages. DSMW users can create communication channels between servers and use a publish-subscribe approach to manage the change propagation. DSMW synchronizes concurrent updates of shared semantic pages to ensure their consistency. It oers new collaboration modes to semantic wiki users and supports data ow-oriented processes.

2010-01-01

159

Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female) terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical meanings of the...

Azam Estaji; Fakhteh Nakhavali

2011-01-01

160

Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female) terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical meanings of...

Azam Estaji; Fakhteh Nakhavali

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics  

CERN Document Server

Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic systems and systems biology.

Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.32

2010-01-01

162

SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide W...

Anil Sharma,

2011-01-01

163

ENGLISH TO SANSKRIT MACHINE TRANSLATION SEMANTIC MAPPER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Here we propose to develop a converter which converts English Statement to Sanskrit statement Using Rule based approach of Machine Translation .The proposed method has following features: The Proposed modules are as follows:MODULE 1: LEXICAL PARSERMODULE 2: SEMANTIC MAPPERMODULE 3: ITRANSLATORMODULE 4: COMPOSERHere we would concentrate only on the Second module that is Semantic Mapper. To map the English semantic word with Sanskrit semantic word

VAISHALI M. BARKADE,

2010-10-01

164

Network Multi-layer Semantic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we studied how to extract and integrate semantic information from different layers of network. Based on Hierarchical Semantic Extraction techniques, we integrate these heterogeneous semantic information and build exUCL(extended Uniform Content Locator label to represent semantic information across different layers. We further use these established exUCL to study the network users’ behavior and interest models.

Tan Shunhua

2012-04-01

165

Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die tekskorpusmetode kan nie gebruik word vir minderheidstale waarin tekste ontbreek nie. Om in die behoefte te voorsien, het die skrywer 'n lys van 1 600 semantiese domeine opgestel wat hy suksesvol gebruik het om woorde te versamel. In 'n werksessie-omgewing kan 'n groep sprekers tot soveel as 17 000 woorde in tien dae versamel. Hierdie metode lei tot 'n geklassifiseerde woordelys wat doeltreffend uitgebrei kan word tot 'n volledige woordeboek. Die metode werk omdat die mentale leksikon 'n groot web is wat rondom sleutelbegrippe gestruktureer is. 'n Semantiese domein kan gedefinieer word as 'n belangrike kon-sep saam met die woorde wat direk daarmee verband hou vanweë leksikale verwantskappe. 'n Persoon kan die mentale web gebruik om vinnig van woord tot woord binne 'n domein te spring. Die skrywer is besig om vir elke domein 'n profiel te ontwikkel om te help met die versameling van woorde en met die beskrywing van hul semantiek. 'n Ondersoek van semantiek binne die konteks van 'n domein lewer baie insigte. Die metode laat die totstandbrenging van sowel alfabeties as semanties gerangskikte woordeboeke toe. Die lys domeine is bedoel om univer-seel in omvang en toepassing te wees. Moontlik as gevolg van universalia van menslike ervaring en universalia van taalkundige vermoë, is daar treffende ooreenkomste tussen verskillende lyste semantiese domeine wat ontwikkel is vir tale oor die hele wêreld. Die gebruik van 'n gestandaardi-seerde lys domeine om veelsoortige woordeboeke te klassifiseer, skep moontlikhede vir kruislin-guistiese navorsing oor semantiese en leksikale universalia. Sleutelwoorde: SEMANTIESE DOMEINE, SEMANTIESE VELDE, SEMANTIESE KATE-GORIEË, LEKSIKALE VERWANTSKAPPE, SEMANTIESE PRIMITIEWES, DOMEINPROFIELE, MENTALE LEKSIKON, SEMANTIESE UNIVERSALIA, MINDERHEIDSTALE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE

Ronald Moe

2011-10-01

166

Semantics for Possibilistic Disjunctive Programs  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, a possibilistic disjunctive logic programming approach for modeling uncertain, incomplete and inconsistent information is defined. This approach introduces the use of possibilistic disjunctive clauses which are able to capture incomplete information and incomplete states of a knowledge base at the same time. By considering a possibilistic logic program as a possibilistic logic theory, a construction of a possibilistic logic programming semantic based on answer sets and the proof theory of possibilistic logic is defined. It shows that this possibilistic semantics for disjunctive logic programs can be characterized by a fixed-point operator. It is also shown that the suggested possibilistic semantics can be computed by a resolution algorithm and the consideration of optimal refutations from a possibilistic logic theory. In order to manage inconsistent possibilistic logic programs, a preference criterion between inconsistent possibilistic models is defined; in addition, the approach of cuts for re...

Nieves, Juan Carlos; Cortés, Ulises

2011-01-01

167

Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

Rajab Abd al-Hamed

2007-09-01

168

Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures  

Science.gov (United States)

A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2010-01-01

169

CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998.

Haxthausen, Anne

1998-01-01

170

Analysis on the Semantics of Word Trip  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this paper lies in analyzing word semantics by taking the concrete word “trip” for example from a microscopic perspective. During which the methods such as example, classification, generalization and illustration have been effectively employed to support and prove the theory of semantics in linguistics.
Key words: Analysis; Semantics; Word; Trip

Min LEI

2011-12-01

171

Web to Semantic Web & Role of Ontology  

CERN Multimedia

In this research paper we are briefly presenting current major web problems and introducing semantic web technologies with the claim of solving existing web's problems. Furthermore we are describing Ontology as the main building block of semantic web and focusing on its contributions to semantic web progress and current limitations.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

172

Studying of Semantic Similarity Methods in Ontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Humans are able to easily judge if a pair of concepts are related in some way. Understanding of how humans are able to perform this task is not easy. Semantic similarity denotes computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not necessarily lexically similar. Semantic similarity between concepts plays an important role in Semantic Web, knowledge sharing, Web mining, semantic sense understanding and text summarization. This also is an important problem in Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval Researches. These techniques are becoming important components of most of the Information Retrieval (IR, Information Extraction (IE and other intelligent knowledge based systems. Therefore it has received considerable attention in the literature. Ontology has a good hierarchical structure of concepts. In the ontology, semantic information can be realized through the semantic relationship of concepts. Ontology-based semantic similarity techniques can estimate the semantic similarity between two hierarchically expressed concepts in a given ontology or taxonomy. Semantic similarity is usually computed by mapping concepts to ontology and by examining their relationships in it. The most popular semantic similarity methods are implemented and evaluated using WordNet and MeSH. Several algorithmic approaches for computing semantic similarity have been proposed. This paper discusses the various approaches used for identifying semantically similar concepts in ontology.

Vahideh Reshadat

2012-06-01

173

Relationship Structures and Semantic Type Assignments of the UMLS Enriched Semantic Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The Enriched Semantic Network (ESN) was introduced as an extension of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network (SN). Its multiple subsumption configuration and concomitant multiple inheritance make the ESN's relationship structures and semantic type assignments different from those of the SN. A technique for deriving the relationship structures of the ESN's semantic types and an automated technique for deriving the ESN's semantic type assignments from those of th...

2005-01-01

174

When the zebra loses its stripes: Semantic priming in early Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) or semantic dementia (SD) both exhibit deficits on explicit tasks of semantic memory. Semantic priming (SP) paradigms provide a very pure and precise implicit measurement of semantic memory impairment, and a previous study of AD (Giffard et al., 2002) using one such paradigm revealed that AD patients in the initial stages of semantic deterioration presented an abnormally large priming effect (hyperpriming) in a category-coordinate condition, c...

Laisney, Mickae?l; Giffard, Be?ne?dicte; Belliard, Serge; La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Be?atrice; Eustache, Francis

2011-01-01

175

The Underlying Mechanisms of Semantic Memory Loss in Alzheimer’s Disease and Semantic Dementia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and patients with Semantic Dementia (SD) both exhibit deficits on explicit tasks of semantic memory such as picture naming and category fluency. These deficits have been attributed to a degradation of the stored semantic network. An alternative explanation attributes the semantic deficit in AD to an impaired ability to consciously retrieve items from the semantic network. The present study used an implicit lexical-decision priming task to examine the i...

Rogers, Sean L.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

2008-01-01

176

Business Intelligence using Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computers becomes an essential thing in our day-to-day life. Currently, computers can change from single, isolated devices into entry points to exchange the information called World Wide Web(WWW. Humans are capable of using the web to carry our the task. However, a computer cannot accomplish the same task without the human direction, because web pages are designed to be read by the people, not by the machines. Usually, humans interact with the web to gather information or to improve their business intelligence. The information is accessed by giving a related keyword to search. This keyword is used by the server to provide the relevant information about the given keyword. The server provides only limited information for the given keyword. But there exists a lot of information regarding the keyword but it is not provided to the user due to the lack of word in the given keyword. So the keyword searching becomes intangible to fulfill the requirements of the user in some situation. This kind of searching is made with the presence of humans. To overcome this problem and to reduce the human effort, we propose a new method in this paper. This new method is termed as “SEMANTIC WEB”. The Semantic Web is an extension of the WWW. This is used to carry out the task directly by the computers instead of humans. The computer generates the Machine-Processable Information. The Semantic Web provides the automated schemes for gaining more relevant information by analyzing the kind of user behavior who currently use the web. With the help of Semantic Web, the user can access the web and gather more information with less effort. Semantic web is used to provide information by the web itself. This paper is used to explain the use and applications of the Semantic Web in a precise way.

S. Yasodha

2010-10-01

177

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic An...

Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza

2011-01-01

178

Enriching the structure of the UMLS semantic network.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Unified Medical Language System's (UMLS's) Semantic Network (SN)---consisting of a network of semantic types---has a two-tree structure, where each semantic type has at most one parent semantic type. This arrangement is restrictive because some semantic types are, by their definition, specializations of several parents. As a proposed enhancement to the SN, its semantic types have previously been partitioned into groups, each of which contains semantic types of some specific area. However,...

2002-01-01

179

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning.The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changingits contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of thecornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is calledSemantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as mult...

2011-01-01

180

Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

Linn, Michael D.

 
 
 
 
181

The Semantic Web in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

Ohler, Jason

2008-01-01

182

Quantifiers in Dependency Tree Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dependency Tree Semantics (DTS) is an underspecified formalism for representing quantifier scope ambiguities in natural language. DTS features a direct interface with a Dependency grammar and an incremental, constraint-based disambiguation mechanism. In this paper, we discuss the meaning of quantifier dependency in DTS by translating its well formed structures into formulae of a Second Order Logic augmented with Mostowskian generalized quantifiers.

2006-01-01

183

Semantic Artificial Immune Model for Fault Diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Applying artificial immune system to fault diagnosis is a new development direction in artificial intelligence, but the traditional artificial immune mode could not reasonably reflect the semantic similarity in the complexity problem space. For issues of semantic description of fault diagnosis, this paper introduces group cooperative mechanism of lymphocyte with a semantic tag to artificial immune system, thus solves the problem of semantic logical reasoning of fault knowledge. This paper presents a semantic-based artificial immune diagnosis model; designs an immune negative selection diagnostic in semantic environment; utilizes new coevolutionary algorithm diagnostic; and diagnoses fault in large electromechanical devices.  The experimental results show that the method used in this paper has higher classification accuracy compared with the traditional artificial immune diagnostics, at the same time, verified expression capacity of semantic-based lymphocytes, which can provide more valuable diagnostic information.

Chu-jiao Wang

2013-08-01

184

When Chinese semantics meets failed syntax.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous event-related potential studies in Indo-European languages reported a surprising finding that failed syntactic category processing appears to block lexical-semantic integration, suggesting a functional primacy of syntax over semantics. An event-related potential experiment was conducted to test whether there is such primacy in Chinese sentence reading, using sentences containing either semantic only violations, combined syntactic category and semantic violations, or no violations. Semantic only violations elicited a centro-parietal negativity and combined violations a broadly distributed, but centro-parietally focused negativity, both in the 300-500 ms window and followed by a P600, suggesting that semantic integration proceeds even when syntactic category processing fails. Thus, there is no functional primacy of syntactic category over semantic processes during Chinese sentence reading. PMID:18418250

Yu, Jing; Zhang, Yaxu

2008-05-01

185

An Experiment in Scientific Code Semantic Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, distributed expert parsers. These semantic parser are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. Results are shown for a subroutine test case and a collection of combustion code routines. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

Stewart, Mark E. M.

1998-01-01

186

Three principles of representation for semantic networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic networks are so intuitive and easy to use that they are often employed without much thought as to the phenomenon of semantic nets themselves. Since they are becoming more and more a tool of artificial intelligence and now database technology, it is appropriate to focus on the principles of semantic nets. Such focus finds a harmonious and consistent base which can increase the semantic quality and usefulness of such nets. Three rules of representation are presented which achieve greater conceptual simplicity for users, simplifications in semantic net implementations and maintenance, and greater consistency across semantic net applications. These rules, applied to elements of the net itself, reveal how fundamental structures should be organized, and show that the common labeled-edge semantic net can be derived from a more primitive structure involving only nodes and membership relationships (and special nodes which represent names). Also, the correlation between binary and n-ary relations is presented. 53 references.

Griffith, R.L.

1982-09-01

187

Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho / Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing / Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e [...] o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de val [...] idación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and ca [...] lculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulting measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

Juliana de Lima, Lopes; Luiz Antonio, Nogueira-Martins; Alexsandro Luiz de, Andrade; Alba Lucia Bottura Leite de, Barros.

188

Metaphor interpretation and use: a window into semantics in schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nature of putative semantic anomalies in schizophrenia is controversial. Metaphor interpretation and use provide a useful methodology with which to probe semantics since metaphors are critical in reasoning processes and in how conceptual knowledge is organized. The first study examined free speech for figurative language. The second study explored whether emotional versus non-emotional metaphorical language interpretation elicits differences in the tendencies to produce idiosyncratic (bizarre) or literal interpretations or use of other metaphors to describe the meaning of a metaphor. The third study examined the interpretation of time metaphors. We expected the time perspective in ambiguous sentences to be differentially influenced by previously presented unambiguous sentences of a specific perspective, either events moving relative to a stationary observer (moving-time) or an observer moving relative to a stationary event (moving-ego). First, we found that patients used a similar amount of figurative language as control participants. Second, we did not find any difference between the groups in terms of idiosyncratic interpretations, although patients did interpret more metaphors literally and controls utilized more figurative language. Third, we did not find evidence of a difference between the groups in terms of time perspectives influencing ambiguous target sentences differentially. As operationalized here, the interpretation and use of metaphors is similar in patients with schizophrenia to that of healthy control participants. To the extent that metaphors recruit semantic processes this area of cognition is generally intact in schizophrenia. PMID:21821395

Elvevåg, B; Helsen, K; De Hert, M; Sweers, K; Storms, G

2011-12-01

189

Semantic Information Units as L. Florodi’s Ideas Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes the semantic information units. They are additional to the ideas of L. Floridi, concerning the creation of semantic theory of information. The work features semantic information units, shows semantic information units structure and their distinguishing features, describes the properties of semantic information units, defined by their relative position, justifies that the proposals develop the ideas of L. Floridi.

Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

2012-07-01

190

Realization of Semantic Atom Blog  

CERN Document Server

Web blog is used as a collaborative platform to publish and share information. The information accumulated in the blog intrinsically contains the knowledge. The knowledge shared by the community of people has intangible value proposition. The blog is viewed as a multimedia information resource available on the Internet. In a blog, information in the form of text, image, audio and video builds up exponentially. The multimedia information contained in an Atom blog does not have the capability, which is required by the software processes so that Atom blog content can be accessed, processed and reused over the Internet. This shortcoming is addressed by exploring OWL knowledge modeling, semantic annotation and semantic categorization techniques in an Atom blog sphere. By adopting these techniques, futuristic Atom blogs can be created and deployed over the Internet.

Patel, Dhiren R

2009-01-01

191

Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web Services are mounting as an inventive mechanism for rendering services to subjective devices over the WWW. As a consequence of the rapid growth of Web Services applications and the plenty of Service Providers, the consumer is facing with the inevitability of selecting the “right” Service Provider. In such a scenario the Quality of Service (QoS serves as a target to differentiate Service Providers. To select the best Web Services / Service Providers, Ranking and Optimization of Web Service Compositions are challenging areas of research with significant implications for the realization of the “Web of Services” revelation. The “Semantic Web Services” use formal semantic descriptions of Web Service functionality and interface to enable automated reasoning over Web Service Compositions. This study from its experimental results revealed that the existing Semantic Web Services faces a few challenging issues such as poor prediction of best Web Services and optimized Service Providers, which leads to QoS degradation of Semantic Web. To address and overcome these identified issues, this research work is calculating the semantic similarities, utilization of various Web Services and Service Providers. After measuring these parameters, all the Web Services are ranked based on their Utilization. Finally, our proposed technique, selected best Web Services based on their ranking and placed in Web Services Composition. From the experimental results, it is established that our proposed mechanism improves the performance of Semantic Web in terms of Execution Time, Processor Utilization and Memory Management.

N.K. Sakthivel

2012-04-01

192

The importance of multiple assessments of object knowledge in semantic dementia: The case of the familiar objects task  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by a dramatic loss of conceptual knowledge about the meaning of words and the identity of objects. Previous research has suggested that SD patients’ knowledge is differentially influenced by the disease and may decline at different degrees depending on a patient’s everyday familiarity with certain items. However, no study has examined (a) semantic knowledge deterioration and (b) the potential significance of autobiographical experience for the maint...

2011-01-01

193

Realizability Toposes and Language Semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Realizability toposes are "models of constructive set theory" based on abstract notions of computability. They arose originally in the study of mathematical logic, but since then various realizability toposes (particularly the effective topos) have found their way into several areas of computer science. This thesis investigates the general theory of realizability toposes, and their application to the semantics and logic of some simple programming languages. In the earlier chapters we stud...

Longley, John R.

1995-01-01

194

Simultaneous Abstraction and Semantic Theories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I present a simple Simultaneous Abstraction Calculus, where the familiar lambda-abstraction over single variables is replaced by abstraction over whole sets of them. Terms are applied to partial assignments of objects to variables. Variants of the system are investigated and compared, with respect to their semantic and proof theoretic properties. The system overcomes the strict ordering requirements of the standard lambda-calculus,and is shown to provide the kind of "non-selective" binding ne...

Ruhrberg, Peter

1996-01-01

195

WEASEL: Vodafone Corporate Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 2006 Gartner emerging technology curve highlights the relevance of the Corporate Semantic Web as one of the most promising IT areas in the next five years. The work presented herein describes WEASEL, an initiative funded by Vodafone to apply and evaluate such technology in the context of a large multinational company. This scenario comprises a number of heterogeneous web sites containing unstructured and related, but physically decoupled, information which needs common models that provide...

Valverde, Juan Jose?; Buil-aranda, C.; Go?mez-pe?rez, Jose? Manuel

2007-01-01

196

Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning  

CERN Multimedia

In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Systems in this research paper.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

197

Semantically Enhanced Software Documentation Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-quality software documentation is a substantial issue for understanding software systems. Shorter time-to-market software cycles increase the importance of automatism for keeping the documentation up to date. In this paper, we describe the automatic support of the software documentation process using semantic technologies. We introduce a software documentation ontology as an underlying knowledge base. The defined ontology is populated automatically by analysing source code, sof...

Klieber, Werner; Granitzer, Michael; Gaisbauer, Mansuet; Tochtermann, Klaus

2010-01-01

198

The Neurobiology of Semantic Memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic memory includes all acquired knowledge about the world and is the basis for nearly all human activity, yet its neurobiological foundation is only now becoming clear. Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate two striking results: the participation of modality-specific sensory, motor, and emotion systems in language comprehension, and the existence of large brain regions that participate in comprehension tasks but are not modality-specific. These latter regions, which include the inferi...

Binder, Jeffrey R.; Desai, Rutvik H.

2011-01-01

199

A Denotational Semantics for Logic Programming  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A fully abstract denotational semantics for logic programming has not been constructed yet. In this paper we present a denotational semantics that is almost fully abstract. We take the meaning of a logic program to be an element in a Plotkin power domain of substitutions. In this way our result shows that standard domain constructions suffice, when giving a semantics for logic programming. Using the well-known fixpoint semantics of logic programming we have to consider two different fixpoints in order to obtain information about both successful and failed computations. In contrast, our semantics is uniform in that the (single) meaning of a logic program contains information about both successful, failed and infinite computations. Finally, based on the full abstractness result, we argue that the detail level of substitutions is needed in any denotational semantics for logic programming.

Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

1985-01-01

200

Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word“Semantic” refers to “meaning” – a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and resultoriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding informationon the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision oflinking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream,hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines toyield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework thenaïve approach of searching information on the syntactic web is cliché. This paper proposes an optimisedsemantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with aproposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to accessand time saving.

Siddharth Gupta

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

SRBIR: Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval by Extracting the Dominant Region and Semantic Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval (SRBIR) system that automatically segments the dominant foreground region, consisting of the semantic concept of the image, such as elephants, roses and does the semantic learning, is proposed. Approach: The system segments an image into different regions and finds the dominant foreground region in it, which is the semantic concept of that image. Then it extracts the low-level features of that domin...

Rajam, I. F.; Valli, S.

2011-01-01

202

Age effects on semantic coherence: Latent semantic analysis applied to letter fluency data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated age-related changes in the semantic distance between successively generated words in two letter fluency tasks differing with respect to demands placed on executive control. The semantic distance was measured by Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). The results show that older people have a larger semantic distance between successively generated items than young people, and that this effect is particularly pronounced in the more demanding fluency task. Taken together, our findings su...

Marklund, Petter; Sikstro?m, Sverker; Ba?a?th, Ramus

2009-01-01

203

Semantic hyperpriming in schizophrenic patients: increased facilitation or impaired inhibition in semantic association processing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies analyzing semantic priming in schizophrenic patients have reported conflicting results. In the present study, we explored semantic priming in a sample of schizophrenic patients with mild thought disorders. We wondered if distinct cognitive processes, such as facilitation and/or inhibition, underlie semantic hyperpriming and are variously impaired in schizophrenic patients. Using a lexical decision task, we evaluated semantic priming in 15 schizophrenic patients (DSM-IV) with ...

Lecardeur, Laurent; Giffard, Be?ne?dicte; Laisney, Mickael; Brazo, Perrine; Delamillieure, Pascal; Eustache, Francis; Dollfus, Sonia

2007-01-01

204

Neural correlates underlying musical semantic memory.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerous functional imaging studies have examined the neural basis of semantic memory mainly using verbal and visuospatial materials. Musical material also allows an original way to explore semantic memory processes. We used PET imaging to determine the neural substrates that underlie musical semantic memory using different tasks and stimuli. The results of three PET studies revealed a greater involvement of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Concerning clinical observations and our neur...

Groussard, Mathilde; Viader, Fausto; Landeau, Brigitte; Desgranges, Be?atrice; Eustache, Francis; Platel, Herve?

2009-01-01

205

Semantic Data Management (Dagstuhl Seminar 12171)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 12171 "Semantic Data Management". The purpose of the seminar was to have a fruitful exchange of ideas between the semantic web, database systems and information retrieval communities, organised across four main themes: scalability, provenance, dynamicity and search. Relevant key questions cutting across all of these themes were: (i) how can existing DB and IR solutions be adapted to manage semantic data; and (ii) are there...

Antoniou, Grigoris; Corcho, Oscar; Aberer, Karl; Simperl, Elena; Studer, Rudi

2012-01-01

206

Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organized, and retrieved. One pervasive finding is that when a pair of semantically related words (e.g. “cat” and “dog”) is embedded in the studied list, the related words are often recalled successively. This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering (Bousfield and Sedgewi...

Manning, Jeremy R.; Kahana, Michael J.

2012-01-01

207

Semantic Plagiarism Detection System Using Ontology Mapping  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism detection can play an important role in detecting stealing of original ideas in papers, journals and internet web sites. Checking these manually is simply impossible nowadays due to existence of large digital repository. Ontology is a way of describing documents semantics. Ontology mapping can resolve semantic heterogeneity in documents. Our paper proposes an automatic system for semantic plagiarism detection based on ontology mapping.

Manjula Shenoy K

2012-06-01

208

Semantic Hierarchies for Visual Object Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose to use lexical semantic networks to extend the state-of-the-art object recognition techniques. We use the semantics of image labels to integrate prior knowledge about inter-class relationships into the visual appearance learning. We show how to build and train a semantic hierarchy of discriminative classifiers and how to use it to perform object detection. We evaluate how our approach influences the classification accuracy and speed on the PASCAL VOC challenge 2006 da...

2007-01-01

209

The reign of typicality in semantic memory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper begins with a brief description of a theoretical framework for semantic memory, in which processing is inherently sensitive to the varying typicality of its representations. The approach is then elaborated with particular regard to evidence from semantic dementia, a disorder resulting in relatively selective deterioration of conceptual knowledge, in which cognitive performance reveals ubiquitous effects of typicality. This applies to frankly semantic tasks (like object naming), whe...

2007-01-01

210

A platform for semantic web studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web can be seen as a large, heterogeneous network of ontologies and semantic documents. Characterizing these ontologies, the way they relate and the way they are organized can help in better understanding how knowledge is produced and published online. It also provides new ways to explore and exploit this large collection of ontologies. In this paper, we present the foundation of a research platform for characterizing the Semantic Web, relying on the collection of ontologies and ...

2010-01-01

211

Social and Semantic Coevolution in Knowledge Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Socio-semantic networks involve agents creating and processing information: com- munities of scientists, software developers, wiki contributors and webloggers are, among others, examples of such knowledge networks. We aim at demonstrating that the dynam- ics of these communities can be adequately described as the coevolution of a social and a socio-semantic network. More precisely, we will ?rst introduce a theoretical frame- work based on a social network and a socio-semantic networ...

2010-01-01

212

Semantic Clustering Based Relevance Language Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How to effectively generate clusters and use the information in clusters to improve information retrieval performance are still open research questions. By viewing a document as an interaction of a set of independent hidden topics, we propose a novel semantic clustering technique using independent component analysis. Then within language modeling framework, we apply the obtained semantic topic clusters into the estimation process of relevance model. We expect that semantic clustering wi...

Qiang Pu; Daqing He

2010-01-01

213

Generating semantic analysis using constraint programming.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a new approach for the specification and generation of the semantic analysis for typed programming languages. We specify context-sensitive syntactic properties of a language by a system of semantic rules. For various imperative programming language concepts, we discuss the required semantic rules and show how they can be solved efficiently, i.e., in time O(n) where n is the program size.

Glesner, Sabine; Heberle, Andreas; Loewe, Welf

2007-01-01

214

Names, types, and static semantic analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a new approach for the specification and generation of the semantic analysis for typed programming languages. We specify context-sensitive syntactic properties of a language by a system of semantic rules. For various imperative programming language concepts, we discuss the required semantic rules. In particular, we show how overloading of programmer-defined identifiers can be handled. We propose an algorithm to solve these constraint systems efficiently, ...

Heberle, Andreas; Glesner, Sabine; Loewe, Welf

2007-01-01

215

Facilitating Requirements Engineering of Semantic applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a detailed Requirements Engineering process for the development of semantic applications. It presents the activities for requirements elicitation and analysis and shows how to follow these activities in an example case study. To facilitate its use by software engineers that are not experts in semantic technologies, several resources are provided, namely a comprehensive collection of the characteristics of semantic applications and two catalogues of use cases and system mod...

Garci?a-castro, Rau?l; Mun?oz-garci?a, O.; Go?mez-pe?rez, A.

2008-01-01

216

Exploiting Social Semantics for Multilingual Information Retrieval  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we consider how user-generated content that is assembled by different popular Web portals can be exploited for Multilingual Information Retrieval. We define the knowledge that can be derived from such portals as Social Semantics. We present to approaches, Cross-lingual Explicit Semantic Analysis and Discriminative Retrieval Models, that are able to support multilingual retrieval models by integrating Social Semantics derived from Wikipedia and Yahoo! Answers.

Sorg, Philipp

2011-01-01

217

An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web  

CERN Multimedia

We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Social Semantic Web.

Ksystra, Katerina; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

2011-01-01

218

RDF Analytics: Lenses over Semantic Graphs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of Semantic Web (RDF) brings new requirements for data analytics tools and methods, going beyond querying to semantics-rich analytics through warehouse-style tools. In this work, we fully redesign, from the bottom up, core data analytics concepts and tools in the context of RDF data, leading to the first complete formal framework for warehouse-style RDF analytics. Notably, we define i) analytical schemas tailored to heterogeneous, semantics-rich RDF graph, ii) analytical queri...

Colazzo, Dario; Goasdoue?, Franc?ois; Manolescu, Ioana; Roatis, Alexandra

2014-01-01

219

The Method of Automatic Acquisition of Semantic Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a semantic relation database, and uses the semantic relation database automatic acquisition of syntactic patterns and new relationships, and syntactic patterns to obtain a method of semantic relations.

Niguang Tian

2013-06-01

220

Peer-to-peer Semantic wikis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents SWOOKI the first peer-to-peer semantic wiki. A P2P semantic wiki combines advantages of both semantic wikis and P2P Wikis. A P2P semantic wiki network is composed of a set of interconnected autonomous servers that can dynamically join and leave the network. It is a truly decentralized unstructured P2P system which does not require any central coordination or knowledge. It relies on a symmetric communication model where every peer may act as both a server and a client. Ever...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical meanings of the female proverbs connote worse qualities than those connoted by the male proverbs.

Azam Estaji

2012-01-01

222

Semantic Clustering Based Relevance Language Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to effectively generate clusters and use the information in clusters to improve information retrieval performance are still open research questions. By viewing a document as an interaction of a set of independent hidden topics, we propose a novel semantic clustering technique using independent component analysis. Then within language modeling framework, we apply the obtained semantic topic clusters into the estimation process of relevance model. We expect that semantic clustering will filter out those noisy documents so that the estimation of relevance model is only based on relevant documents and some useful semantic information. A semantic cluster is activated to be the most similar to a user’s information need by user’s query, the documents in the activated semantic cluster and the keywords of representing the activated semantic cluster are used for the estimation of relevance model. Therefore, we obtain a semantic cluster based relevance language model that uses pseudo relevance feedback technique without requiring any relevance training information. We applied the model in experiments on five TREC data sets. The experiment results show that our model can significantly improve retrieval performance over previous language models including relevance-based language models. We think that the main contribution of the improved performance comes from the estimation of relevance model on the semantic cluster that is closely related to a user’s information need.

Qiang Pu

2010-01-01

223

WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Proc...

Ana Meštrovi?; Sanda Martin?i?-Ipši?; Mirko ?ubrilo

2007-01-01

224

Automatic Construction of Semantic Dictionary for Question Categorization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An automatic method for building a semantic dictionary from existing questions in a pattern-based question answering system is proposed for question categorization. This dictionary consists of two main parts: Semantic Domain Terms (SDT), which is a domain specific term list, and Semantic Labeled Terms (SLT), which contain common terms tagged with semantic labels. The semantic dictionary is built using the proposed method on a set of 2509 questions with semantic patterns in our system. 3390 qu...

Tianyong Hao; Xingliang Ni; Xiaojun Quan; Wenyin Liu

2009-01-01

225

Reacquisition of semantic knowledge by errorless learning in a patient with a semantic deficit and anterograde amnesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: So far 11 therapy studies have been reported which aimed to re-teach semantic knowledge in brain-damaged patients presenting with a semantic deficit consecutive to stroke, herpes encephalitis, or semantic dementia. All these semantic therapy studies but one recorded a significant improvement in the patients' performance on tasks requiring semantic processing. The exception to this pattern was the semantic therapy study by Sartori, Miozzo, and Job (1994), which yielded negative res...

Le?onard, Be?ne?dicte; Pillon, Agnesa; Partz Courtray, Marie-pierre

2008-01-01

226

HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ON SEMANTIC WEB :(SEMANTIC HIM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information technology have changed information media by networking and internet .using technology inhealth as same as another part improve efficieincy and effectivness. currently the medical document isReality-based medicine, so that is the most important ,richest and the most realistic source of medical andhealth information.Health information management systems that require systems to the storage, retrieval,storage and elimination of health records (by law, and adjust to the rules of professional. these processare difficult and time consumig for human. In the meantime semantic HIM seem best solution.KEYWORDS

Nasim Khozoie

2012-02-01

227

Modelling Semantic Association and Conceptual Inheritance for Semantic Analysis  

CERN Multimedia

Allowing users to interact through language borders is an interesting challenge for information technology. For the purpose of a computer assisted language learning system, we have chosen icons for representing meaning on the input interface, since icons do not depend on a particular language. However, a key limitation of this type of communication is the expression of articulated ideas instead of isolated concepts. We propose a method to interpret sequences of icons as complex messages by reconstructing the relations between concepts, so as to build conceptual graphs able to represent meaning and to be used for natural language sentence generation. This method is based on an electronic dictionary containing semantic information.

Vaillant, P

2001-01-01

228

Semantics in the motor system: motor-cortical beta oscillations reflect semantic knowledge of end-postures for object use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present EEG study we investigated whether semantic knowledge for object use is represented in motor-related brain areas. Subjects were required to perform actions with everyday objects and to maintain either a meaningful or a meaningless end posture with the object. Analysis of the EEG data focused on the beta-frequency band, as previous studies have indicated that the maintenance of a posture is reflected in stronger beta-oscillations. Time frequency analysis indicated that the execution of actions resulting in a meaningless compared to a meaningful end posture was accompanied by a stronger beta-desynchronization towards the end of the movement and a stronger subsequent beta-rebound after posture-onset. The effect in the beta-frequency band was localized to premotor, parietal and medial frontal areas and could not be attributed to differences in timing or movement complexity between meaningful and meaningless actions. Together these findings directly show that the motor system is differentially activated during the execution and maintenance of semantically correct or incorrect end postures. This suggests that semantic object knowledge is indeed represented in motor-related brain areas, organized around specific end postures associated with the use of objects.

HeinT Van Schie

2010-02-01

229

Semantic processing in "associative" false memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the semantic properties of a class of illusions, of which the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm is the most prominent example, in which subjects falsely remember words that are associates of studied words. We analyzed DRM materials for 16 dimensions of semantic content and assessed the ability of these dimensions to predict interlist variability in false memory. For the more general class of illusions, we analyzed pairs of presented and unpresented words that varied in associative strength for the presence of these same 16 semantic properties. DRM materials proved to be exceptionally rich in meaning, as indexed by these semantic properties. Variability in false recall, false recognition, and backward associative strength loaded on a single semantic factor (familiarity/meaningfulness), whereas variability in true recall loaded on a quite different factor (imagery/concreteness). For word association generally, 15 semantic properties varied reliably with forward or backward association between words. Implications for semantic versus associative processing in this class of illusions, for dual-process theories, and for semantic properties of word associations are discussed. PMID:19001566

Brainerd, C J; Yang, Y; Reyna, V F; Howe, M L; Mills, B A

2008-12-01

230

Should We Teach Semantic Prosody Awareness?  

Science.gov (United States)

While considerable attention has been paid to collocation, and the development of the collocational competence of L2 learners in recent years, very little has been said about a related concept in teaching journals, namely semantic prosody, and L2 learner awareness of this phenomenon. In this paper the concept of semantic prosody is introduced, and…

McGee, Iain

2012-01-01

231

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

Science.gov (United States)

Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

232

Semantic Processing of Previews within Compound Words  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested that previews of words prior to fixation can be processed orthographically, but not semantically, during reading of sentences (K. Rayner, D. A. Balota, & A. Pollatsek, 1986). The present study tested whether semantic processing of previews can occur within words. The preview of the second constituent of…

White, Sarah J.; Bertram, Raymond; Hyona, Jukka

2008-01-01

233

Multilingual Lexical Semantic Resources for Ontology Translation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe the integration of some multilingual language resources in ontological descriptions, with the purpose of providing ontologies, which are normally using concept labels in just one (natural) language, with multilingual facility in their design and use in the context of Semantic Web applications, supporting both the semantic annotation of textual documents with multilingual ontology labels and ontology extraction from multilingual text sources.

Declerck, T.; Go?mez-pe?rez, A.; Vela, O.; Gantner, Z.; Manzano-macho, D.

2006-01-01

234

Adverbials with Floating and Fixed Semantic Scope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study offers the analysis of the role of adverbials in the semantic structure of a sentence. To clarify this role new notions "Adverbials with floating and fixed semantic scope" are proposed. This classification also can clarify the role of adverbials from the point of view of the division into arguments vs. adjuncts.

Filipenko, Marina V.

2000-01-01

235

Essay Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is an automated, statistical technique for comparing the semantic similarity of words or documents. In this article, I examine the application of LSA to automated essay scoring. I compare LSA methods to earlier statistical methods for assessing essay quality, and critically review contemporary essay-scoring systems…

Miller, Tristan

2003-01-01

236

Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation is also presented.

Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

2009-01-01

237

Some Novel Techniques in Operational Semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction to the main ideas of the MSOS framework.

Mosses, Peter David

2003-01-01

238

Personalized Handling of Semantic Data with MIG  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper shows a semantically-enabled Web application named MIG used to create user profiles which enhances users accessibility by allowing the creation of an user interface adapted to the user needs, the device used, and its preferences. This approach exploits the Semantic Web technologies and the infrastructure and applications created in previous work.

Rico, Mariano; Camacho, David; Corcho, O?scar

2009-01-01

239

Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds  

Science.gov (United States)

A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

2010-01-01

240

Compositional Semantics Grounded in Commonsense Metaphysics  

CERN Multimedia

We argue for a compositional semantics grounded in a strongly typed ontology that reflects our commonsense view of the world and the way we talk about it in ordinary language. Assuming the existence of such a structure, we show that the semantics of various natural language phenomena may become nearly trivial.

Saba, Walid S

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Semantic Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilinguals' lexical mappings for their two languages have been found to converge toward a common naming pattern. The present paper investigates in more detail how semantic convergence is manifested in bilingual lexical knowledge. We examined how semantic convergence affects the centers and boundaries of lexical categories for common household…

Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert; Van Assche, Fons

2009-01-01

242

Semantics Web and Ontology Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantics Web is a vision for the future of the Web in which informati on is given explicit meaning, making it easier for machines to automatically pro cess and integrate information available on the Web. An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledg e. Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowled ge, like medicine, tool manufacturing, real es...

2013-01-01

243

A Semantic Approach to Describe Geospatial Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly using geospatial data from the Web to produce geographic information. One big challenge is to find the relevant data, which often is based on keywords or even file names. However, these approaches lack semantics. Thus, it is necessary to provide mechanisms to prepare data to help retrieval of semantically relevant data. This paper proposes an approach to attack this problem. This approach is based on semantic annotations that use geographic metadata and ontologies to describe heterogeneous geospatial data. Semantic annotations are RDF/XML files that rely on a FGDC metadata schema, filled with appropriate ontology terms, and stored in a XML database. The proposal is illustrated by a case study of semantic annotations of agricultural resources, using domain ontologies.

de Sousa, Sidney Roberto

244

Semantic Rule-Based Complex Event Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the critical success factors of event-driven systems is the capability of detecting complex events from simple and ordinary event notifications. Complex events which trigger or terminate actionable situations can be inferred from large event clouds or event streams based on their event instance sequence, their syntax and semantics. Using semantics of event algebra patterns defined on top of event instance sequences for event detection is one of the promising approaches for detection of complex events. The developments and successes in building standards and tools for semantic technologies such as declarative rules and ontologies are opening novel research and application areas in event processing. One of these promising application areas is semantic event processing. In this work we describe our research on semantic rule-based complex events processing.

Teymourian, Kia; Paschke, Adrian

245

Semantically enhanced Uyghur Information Retrieval Model  

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Full Text Available Traditional Uyghur search engine lacks semantic information, aiming to solve this problem, a semantically enhanced Uyghur information retrieval model was proposed based on the characteristics of Uyghur language. Firstly word stemming was carried out and web pages were represented by the form of 3-triples to construct the Uyghur knowledge base, then the matching between ontologies and web pages was established by computing concept similarity and relation similarity. Semantic inverted index was built to save the association between semantic entities and web pages, and user query analysis was implemented by expanding the queries and analyzing the relations between the queries, finally by combining the benefits of both keyword-based and semantic-based methods, ranking algorithm was implemented. By comparing with the Google search engine and the Lucene based method, the experiments validate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the model preliminarily.

Bo Ma

2012-06-01

246

Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion  

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Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

Cheng Wen-Huang

2006-01-01

247

Semantically-Aided Business Process Modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Enriching business process models with semantic annotations taken from an ontology has become a crucial necessity both in service provisioning, integration and composition, and in business processes management. In our work we represent semantically annotated business processes as part of an OWL knowledge base that formalises the business process structure, the business domain, and a set of criteria describing correct semantic annotations. In this paper we show how Semantic Web representation and reasoning techniques can be effectively applied to formalise, and automatically verify, sets of constraints on Business Process Diagrams that involve both knowledge about the domain and the process structure. We also present a tool for the automated transformation of an annotated Business Process Diagram into an OWL ontology. The use of the semantic web techniques and tool presented in the paper results in a novel support for the management of business processes in the phase of process modeling, whose feasibility and usefulness will be illustrated by means of a concrete example.

di Francescomarino, Chiara; Ghidini, Chiara; Rospocher, Marco; Serafini, Luciano; Tonella, Paolo

248

Latent semantics as cognitive components  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures, which we suggest might function as cognitive components for perceiving the underlying structure in lyrics.

Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten

2010-01-01

249

Semantic priming of familiar songs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities. PMID:22227862

Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

2012-05-01

250

ISBD and the Semantic Web  

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Full Text Available The possibilities of integration between ISBD and the semantic web have been examined through the work of the IFLA Study Groups, created with the task to investigate the possibilities for representing ISBD in web technologies and services. One of the main study groups is represented by the ISBD/XML Study Group, formed in 2008.The paper describes the activities developing a representation of International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD in Resource Description Framework (RDF: the research, technical, and administrative activities undertaken to make bibliographic metadata authorized by the IFLA standard available to the Semantic Web as trustworthy information.The paper discusses the ongoing representation of elements in RDF in the ISBD namespace, the treatment of aggregated statements composed of multiple elements, and the development of a Dublin Core Application Profile for ISBD. An introduction to recent initiatives within IFLA to develop representation of its models and standards in RDF, as well as an administrative and technical infrastructure to support such initiatives will be given as a background to the work on ISBD.Some European libraries such as the British Library and the Mannheim University Library, are experimenting means to transform their catalogues into tools interoperating with the web. RDF seems to be the most suitable tool for the universal bibliographic control within the libraries of the future.

Mirna Willer

2010-12-01

251

SRBIR: Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval by Extracting the Dominant Region and Semantic Learning  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The Semantic Region Based Image Retrieval (SRBIR system that automatically segments the dominant foreground region, consisting of the semantic concept of the image, such as elephants, roses and does the semantic learning, is proposed. Approach: The system segments an image into different regions and finds the dominant foreground region in it, which is the semantic concept of that image. Then it extracts the low-level features of that dominant foreground region. The Support Vector Machine-Binary Decision Tree (SVM-BDT is used for semantic learning and it finds the semantic category of an image. The low level features of the dominant region of each category image are used to find the semantic template of that category. The SVM-BDT is constructed with the help of these semantic templates. The high level concept of the query image is obtained using this SVM-BDT. Similarity matching is done between the query image and the set of images belonging to the semantic category of the query image and the top images with least distances are retrieved. Results: Experiments were conducted using the COREL dataset consisting of 10,000 images and its subset with 1000 images of 10 different semantic categories. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, compared to those of the commonly used region based image retrieval approaches. Conclusion: Efficient image searching, browsing and retrieval are required by users from various domains, such as medicine, fashion, architecture, training and teaching. The proposed SRBIR system aims at retrieving images based on their semantic content by extracting the dominant foreground region in the image and learning its semantic concept with the help of the SVM-BDT. The proposed SRBIR system provides an efficient image search based on semantics, with high accuracy and less access time.

I. F. Rajam

2011-01-01

252

Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

2011-01-01

253

Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

2011-01-01

254

The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

Yates, Mark

2012-01-01

255

Semantic Categorization: A Comparison between Deaf and Hearing Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic

Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

2010-01-01

256

Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation  

CERN Multimedia

Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word "Semantic" refers to "meaning" - a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and result oriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding information on the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision of linking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream, hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines to yield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework the na\\"ive approach of searching information on the syntactic web is clich\\'e. This paper proposes an optimised semantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with a proposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to access and time sav...

Gupta, Siddharth

2010-01-01

257

Composing Semantic Web Services with PDDL  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to solve the problem of composing semantic Web services with AI planner. Automatic semantic Web service composition is a key technique in the research of Web service. The idea of composing semantic Web services using AI planner has been presented in several studies. In our opinion, since the different application domains and the constraint of precondition that AI planners have, none of the existing planners can deal with the problem of semantic Web services composition perfectly. In this study, we present an algorithm for translating semantic Web service composition problem to AI planning problem described in PDDL. Based on this algorithm, according to the situation of the problem, we can use the most suitable AI planner to compose Web services. One of our goals is to support the claim that AI planner can be used in the domain of semantic Web service composition. The other goal of ours is that the description of semantic Web services can be translated into a description written in PDDL. There are also several key procedures of the translating algorithm in this study.

Bo Yang

2010-01-01

258

Extracting Generalized Semantic Roles from Corpus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the oldest constructs of linguistic theory is semantic role. Automatic extraction of semantic roles in a sentence is a movement towards semantic processing of texts which has been the focus of attention in recent years. Extraction of semantic roles from a text contains some essential parts. Recognition of verb(s of the sentence, recognition of noun phrases and their heads, and labeling the role of each phrase in the sentence as a semantic argument of verb are general parts of a system that does this task. There is a wide variety of definitions for semantic roles from verb specific roles to some general roles known as thematic roles, This paper focuses on a generalization of thematic roles called proto-roles or generalized semantic roles which includes two roles; actor and undergoer. In this paper we extract proto-roles in a Persian sentence exploiting POS tags. We use Peykareh as our input corpus and apply a rule based approach to extract actor and undergoer of verb(s.

Fateme Jafarinejad

2012-03-01

259

A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are playing a crucial role in enhancing traditional web search, as it is working to create machine readable data. but it will not replace traditional search engine. In this paper we made a brief survey on various promising features of some of the best semantic search engines developed so far and we have discussed the various approaches to semantic search. We have summarized the techniques, advantages of some important semantic web search engines that are developed so far.The most prominent part is that how the semantic search engines differ from the traditional searches and their results are shown by giving a sample query as input

G.Sudeepthi

2012-03-01

260

A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

Stewart, Mark E. M.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. To improve the internet service quality and increase the user click rate on a specific website, it is necessary for a web developer to know what the user really want to do, predict which pages the user is potentially interested in. In this paper, various techniques for Semantic Web mining like web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining are discussed. Our main focus is on web usage mining and its application in web personalization. Study shows that the accuracy of recommendation system has improved significantly with the use of semantic web mining in web personalization. Keywords: Navigation Pattern, Pattern Analysis, Semantic Web, Web Personalization, Web Usage Mining.

Anil Sharma

2011-07-01

262

Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation towards semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited.

MarkusKiefer

2012-08-01

263

Semantic Conflicts Reconciliation as a Viable Solution for Semantic Heterogeneity Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving semantic interoperability is a current challenge in the field of data integration in order to bridge semantic conflicts occurring when the participating sources and receivers use different or implicit data assumptions. Providing a framework that automatically detects and resolves semantic conflicts is considered as a daunting task for many reasons, it should preserve the local autonomy of the integrated sources, as well as provides a standard query language for accessing the integrated data on a global basis. Many existing traditional and ontology-based approaches have tried to achieve semantic interoperability, but they have certain drawbacks that make them inappropriate for integrating data from a large number of participating sources. We propose semantic conflicts reconciliation (SCR framework, it is ontology-based system in which all data semantics explicitly described in the knowledge representation phase and automatically taken into account through the interpretation mediation service phase, so conflicts detected and resolved automatically at the query time

Walaa S. Ismail

2013-05-01

264

Word priming in schizophrenia: Associational and semantic influences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined semantic vs. associational influences on word priming in schizophrenia. Tested on three occasions, subjects made speeded lexical decisions to three kinds of prime-word relationships: semantic-only (e.g., Deer-Pony), associated-only (e.g., Bee-Honey), or semantic-and-associated (e.g., Doctor-Nurse). Controls showed greater priming of words related via two relationships (semantic-and-associated) than for words related only semantically.. However, patients showed greater priming for ...

Nestor, Paul G.; Valdman, Olga; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Spencer, Kevin; Mccarley, Robert W.; Shenton, Martha E.

2006-01-01

265

Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construc...

Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

2010-01-01

266

Information Interaction as a Mechanism of Semantic Gap Elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article studies semantic gap as an objective phenomenon, shows that semantic gap occurs both in parallel computing and in other areas. Semantic description of the content is revealed as a set of different descriptions. Causes of semantic gap are described. The content of information exchange is explained in the article. Information interaction in the semantic field is interpreted as a mechanism to lessen the gap

Victor Y. Tsvetkov

2013-01-01

267

Performance Evaluation of Index Schemes for Semantic Cache  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In last decade of computing, a growing popularity for semantic cache schemes has been observed. Numerous techniques have been proposed for improved performance of semantic cache. Semantic cache is aimed towards reducing the network traffic load with the ability to address some queries without contacting the server. Semantic cache overcomes the limitations of previous page-caching and tuple-cache techniques. A prime concern of semantic cache includes query processing (query response-time) and ...

2013-01-01

268

SCALESEM : Evaluation of Semantic Graph based on Model Checking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic interoperability problems have found their solutions using languages and techniques from the Semantic Web. The proliferation of ontologies and meta-information has improved the understanding of information and the relevance of search engine responses. However, the construction of semantic graphs is a source of numerous errors of interpretation or modelling and scalability remains a major problem. The processing of large semantic graphs is a limit to the use of semantics in current in...

Gueffaz, Mahdi; Rampacek, Sylvain; Nicolle, Christophe

2011-01-01

269

Semantic Web search based on ontological conjunctive queries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many experts predict that the next huge step forward in Web information technology will be achieved by adding semantics to Web data, and will possibly consist of (some form of) the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Semantic Web search, called Serene, which allows for a semantic processing of Web search queries, and for evaluating complex Web search queries that involve reasoning over the Web. More specifically, we first add ontological structure and semantics to Web ...

Fazzinga, B.; Gianforme, G.; Gottlob, G.; Lukasiewicz, T.

2011-01-01

270

Video semantic content analysis based on ontology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rapid increase in the available amount of video data is creating a growing demand for efficient methods for understanding and managing it at the semantic level. New multimedia standards, such as MPEG-4 and MPEG-7, provide the basic functionalities in order to manipulate and transmit objects and metadata. But importantly, most of the content of video data at a semantic level is out of the scope of the standards. In this paper, a video semantic content analysis framework based on ontology i...

Bai, Liang; Lao, Songyang; Jones, Gareth J. F.; Smeaton, Alan F.

2007-01-01

271

Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

Ashish, Naveen

2004-01-01

272

Semantic Metrics for Analysis of Software  

Science.gov (United States)

A recently conceived suite of object-oriented software metrics focus is on semantic aspects of software, in contradistinction to traditional software metrics, which focus on syntactic aspects of software. Semantic metrics represent a more human-oriented view of software than do syntactic metrics. The semantic metrics of a given computer program are calculated by use of the output of a knowledge-based analysis of the program, and are substantially more representative of software quality and more readily comprehensible from a human perspective than are the syntactic metrics.

Etzkorn, Letha H.; Cox, Glenn W.; Farrington, Phil; Utley, Dawn R.; Ghalston, Sampson; Stein, Cara

2005-01-01

273

A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web  

CERN Multimedia

The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

Yu, Liyang

2011-01-01

274

The six challenges of the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web has attracted a diverse, but significant, community of researchers, institutes and companies, all sharing the belief that one day the Semantic Web will have as big an impact on life as currently the WWW/Internet has. We share that vision, based on the ever-increasing need to reduce information overload, and to increase task delegation to software agents. However, there is still a long way to go before the Semantic Web dream comes true. In this paper, we identify some of the m...

2002-01-01

275

A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are pla...

Sudeepthi, G.; Anuradha, G.; Surendra Prasad Babu, M.

2012-01-01

276

Emergence and progression of 'non-semantic' deficits in semantic dementia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although semantic dementia (SD) is defined as a selective disruption of conceptual knowledge, a number of group studies have now demonstrated that SD patients also show impaired performance on tasks not usually considered to have a high semantic load (e.g., reading words aloud and lexical or object decision). The aim of the current study was to document the relative deterioration, over time, of a number of semantic and so-called 'non-semantic' tasks in LF, a single case of SD for whom - by virtue of his work as a published cartoonist - we also have extensive data regarding his pre-morbid linguistic and drawing skills. In five testing rounds over a period of five years we administered semantic tests of object naming and object definition (on both of which LF was progressively impaired, as expected for a diagnosis of SD), plus verbal and non-verbal 'non-semantic' tasks of reading aloud, spelling, object and lexical decision, and delayed copy drawing. Initially, his only striking 'non-semantic' deficit was in the domain of spelling - a pronounced surface dysgraphia in an individual with demonstrably superior pre-morbid spelling skill. Over time, and in line with his declining semantic system, LF's performance gradually deteriorated on all of the 'non-semantic' tasks. The most vulnerable items on most tasks were those with low frequency and an atypical form. This report adds to the growing body of evidence that a number of cognitive processes not usually considered to be 'semantic' in their demands rely on the integrity of semantic knowledge for successful execution. Furthermore, it provides the first indication that these non-semantic deficits might emerge in an order predictable from the typicality structure of the relevant domain. PMID:19231477

Caine, Diana; Breen, Nora; Patterson, Karalyn

2009-04-01

277

Semantic Network Disorder in Schizophrenia: Semantic Priming with Simultaneous Presentation of two Primes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the automatic activation of seman-tic priming in schizophrenic patients. Method: 36 schizophrenic patients and 36 normal sub-jects participated in two experiments. In experiment one, the effect of semantic relation on iden- tification of degraded targets was examined between a series of single prime words and single target words presented in a typical semantic priming paradigm. To restrict the priming to au-tomatic processes,...

2003-01-01

278

Semantic Data Integration: Overall Architecture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The information has always been a valuable patrimony for the information systems that every company tries to capitalize as much as possible. With the web, the amount of information is increased and several problems arise for instance for the safety of the exchanged data but also to the semantic heterogeneity: the same information is very often represented in different ways in different information systems. In this paper we present an architecture of interchange of data both within the same information system and among different information systems founded on the ontologies in order to overcome the problem list of the heterogeneity. Ontologies, today, they seem to be the best tool useful to resolve the problem of heterogeneity, but that has not now been exploited fully.

Roberto Paiano

2009-12-01

279

Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures  

CERN Document Server

We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

2012-01-01

280

Lexical-semantic processing in the semantic priming paradigm in aphasic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is evidence that the explicit lexical-semantic processing deficits which characterize aphasia may be observed in the absence of implicit semantic impairment. The aim of this article was to critically review the international literature on lexical-semantic processing in aphasia, as tested through the semantic priming paradigm. Specifically, this review focused on aphasia and lexical-semantic processing, the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the semantic paradigms used, and recent evidence from neuroimaging studies on lexical-semantic processing. Furthermore, evidence on dissociations between implicit and explicit lexical-semantic processing reported in the literature will be discussed and interpreted by referring to functional neuroimaging evidence from healthy populations. There is evidence that semantic priming effects can be found both in fluent and in non-fluent aphasias, and that these effects are related to an extensive network which includes the temporal lobe, the pre-frontal cortex, the left frontal gyrus, the left temporal gyrus and the cingulated cortex. PMID:22990731

Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Holderbaum, Candice Steffen; Parente, Maria Alice Mattos Pimenta; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Ansaldo, Ana Inès

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

In the beginning was game semantics  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents an overview of computability logic -- the game-semantically constructed logic of interactive computational tasks and resources. A comprehensive online source on the subject can be found at http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html

Japaridze, G

2005-01-01

282

SEMANTIC MACRO-CATEGORY OF ADVERBIALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of mental and language ontology of the egocentric semantic macro-category of adverbiality in English on the basis of the field approach to the language means expressing adverbial meaning.

Bidagayeva Cycygma Dimchikovna

2011-06-01

283

Discrete Characterization of Domain Using Semantic Clustering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lots of approaches have been developed to understand the software source code and majority of them are focused on program structural information which results in the loss of domain semantic crucial information contained...

Sanjay Madan; Shalini Batra

2010-01-01

284

SEMANTIC TERM BASED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL USING ONTOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information Searching and retrieval is a challenging task in the traditional keyword based textual information retrieval system. In the growing information age, adding huge data every day the searching problem also augmented. Keyword based retrieval system returns bulk of junk document irrelevant to query. To address the limitations, this paper proposed query terms along with semantic terms for information retrieval using multiple ontology reference. User query sometimes reflects multiple domain of interest that persist us to collect semantically related ontologies. If no related ontology exists then WordNet ontology used to retrieve semantic terms related to query term. In this approach, classes on the ontology derived as semantic related text keywords, these keywords considered for rank the documents.

J. Mannar Mannan

2014-01-01

285

A Semantic Hierarchy for Erasure Policies  

CERN Document Server

We consider the problem of logical data erasure, contrasting with physical erasure in the same way that end-to-end information flow control contrasts with access control. We present a semantic hierarchy for erasure policies, using a possibilistic knowledge-based semantics to define policy satisfaction such that there is an intuitively clear upper bound on what information an erasure policy permits to be retained. Our hierarchy allows a rich class of erasure policies to be expressed, taking account of the power of the attacker, how much information may be retained, and under what conditions it may be retained. While our main aim is to specify erasure policies, the semantic framework allows quite general information-flow policies to be formulated for a variety of semantic notions of secrecy.

Del Tedesco, Filippo; Sands, David

2011-01-01

286

SEMANTIC GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR TAGBASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag basedrecommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases.Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevantrecommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show acomprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The studybesides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentageof the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much asit does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with suchnumber of expansions, the recommendations change considerably

Frederico Durao

2011-11-01

287

Semantic Grounding Strategies for Tagbased Recommender Systems  

CERN Document Server

Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag based recommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases. Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevant recommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show a comprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The study besides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentage of the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much as it does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with such number of expansions, the recommendations change considerably.

Durao, Frederico

2011-01-01

288

A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting logic written using techniques that support the modular development of the specification in the precise sense that every module extension is conservative. We show that the MRS of CML can be used to interpret CML programs using the rewrite engine of the Maude system, a high-performance implementation of rewriting logic, and to verify CML programs using Maude's built-in LTL model checker. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic concepts of structural operational semantics and algebraic specifications.

Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira

2004-01-01

289

Learning Semantic String Transformations from Examples  

CERN Multimedia

We address the problem of performing semantic transformations on strings, which may represent a variety of data types (or their combination) such as a column in a relational table, time, date, currency, etc. Unlike syntactic transformations, which are based on regular expressions and which interpret a string as a sequence of characters, semantic transformations additionally require exploiting the semantics of the data type represented by the string, which may be encoded as a database of relational tables. Manually performing such transformations on a large collection of strings is error prone and cumbersome, while programmatic solutions are beyond the skill-set of end-users. We present a programming by example technology that allows end-users to automate such repetitive tasks. We describe an expressive transformation language for semantic manipulation that combines table lookup operations and syntactic manipulations. We then present a synthesis algorithm that can learn all transformations in the language that...

Singh, Rishabh

2012-01-01

290

A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

2007-05-02

291

Next Generation Semantic Web and Its Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, computers are changing from single, isolated devices into entry points to a worldwide network of information exchange and business transactions called the World Wide Web (WWW. However, the success of the WWW has made it increasingly difficult to find, access, present and maintain the information required by a wide variety of users. In response to this problem, many new research initiatives and commercial enterprises have been set up to enrich the available information with machine-process able semantics. This Semantic Web will provide intelligent access to heterogeneous, distributed information, enabling software products (agents to mediate between user needs and the information sources available. In this paper we describe some areas for application of this new technology. We focus on on-going work in the fields of knowledge management and electronic commerce. We also take a perspective on the semantic web-enabled web services which will help to bring the semantic web to its full potential.

Soumyarashmi Panigrahi

2011-03-01

292

Propagating semantic information in biochemical network models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To enable automatic searches, alignments, and model combination, the elements of systems biology models need to be compared and matched across models. Elements can be identified by machine-readable biological annotations, but assigning such annotations and matching non-annotated elements is tedious work and calls for automation. Results A new method called "semantic propagation" allows the comparison of model elements based not only on their own annotations, but also on annotations of surrounding elements in the network. One may either propagate feature vectors, describing the annotations of individual elements, or quantitative similarities between elements from different models. Based on semantic propagation, we align partially annotated models and find annotations for non-annotated model elements. Conclusions Semantic propagation and model alignment are included in the open-source library semanticSBML, available on sourceforge. Online services for model alignment and for annotation prediction can be used at http://www.semanticsbml.org.

Schulz Marvin

2012-01-01

293

APPLICATION BASED SEMANTIC WEB MINING TECHNIQUE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Web is a huge read-write information space where many items such as documents, images or other multimedia can be accessed. In this context, several information technologies have been developed to help users to satisfy their searching needs on the Web, and the most used are search engines. Search engines allow users to find Web resources formulating queries (a set of terms) and reviewing a list of answers. The Semantic Web improves the Web infrastructure with formal semantics and interlink...

Mahindra Pratap Singh Dohare

2011-01-01

294

Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. This paper gives an overview of how the semantic web is used for mining the World Wide Web.

K.Ganapathi Babu

2012-07-01

295

Expressing Implicit Semantic Relations without Supervision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present an unsupervised learning algorithm that mines large text corpora for patterns that express implicit semantic relations. For a given input word pair X:Y with some unspecified semantic relations, the corresponding output list of patterns is ranked according to how well each pattern Pi expresses the relations between X and Y. For example, given X=ostrich and Y=bird, the two highest ranking output patterns are "X is the largest Y" and "Y such as the X". Th...

Turney, Peter D.

2006-01-01

296

Semantic Malware Detection by Deploying Graph Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today malware is a serious threat to our society. Several researchers are studying detection and mitigation of malware threats. On the other hand malware authors try to use obfuscation techniques for evading detection. Unfortunately usual approach (e.g., antivirus software) use signature based method which can easily be evaded. For addressing these shortcomings dynamic methods have been introduced. The aim of dynamic methods is to detect the semantic of malware family. Obfuscation of semantic...

2012-01-01

297

Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Semantic Parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such semantically-meaningful parameters.

Jones, William Henry

2005-01-01

298

Semantic technologies for distributed information systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this book we show how semantic technologies ? and in particular the use of ontologies ? can be employed to address a number of typical challenges in distributed information systems: First, we illustrate how ontologies enable the integration of information across heterogeneous nodes. Second, we show how ontology evolution allows dealing with the dynamics in the information in a consistent manner. Third, we present a model for ontologybased coordination using semantic overlay netwo...

Haase, Peter

2007-01-01

299

A semantic Grid for molecular science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The properties of molecules have very well defined semantics and allow the creation of a semantic GRID. Markup languages (CML - Chemical Markup Language) and dictionary-based ontologies have been designed to support a wide range of applications, including chemical supply, publication and the safety of compounds. Many properties can be computed by Quantum Mechanical (QM) programs and we have developed a "black-box" system based on XML wrappers for all components. This is installed on a Condor ...

Murray-rust, Peter; Glen, Robert C.; Rzepa, Henry S.; Stewart, James J. P.; Townsend, Joseph A.; Willighagen, Egon L.; Yong, Zhang

2008-01-01

300

Fuzzy description logics and the semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last decade a substantial amount of work has been carried out in the context of Description Logics (DLs). DLs are a logical reconstruction of the so-called frame-based knowledge representation languages, with the aim of providing a simple well-established Tarski-style declarative semantics to capture the meaning of the most popular features of structured representation of knowledge. Nowadays, DLs have gained even more popularity due to their application in the context of the Semantic W...

Straccia, Umberto

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Estonian Middle Semantics with Evidence from Discourse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents arguments for recognizing a middle voice in Estonian. The claim that the semantics of middle-marked verbs differs in a substantial way from the semantics of other intransitive constructions leads to the examination of the discourse pragmatics of these constructions, and the relationship between discourse patterns and their valency and argument properties. Various topicality measures show that the argument participant in middle clauses lies between that of the sole particip...

Vihman, Virve-anneli

2004-01-01

302

From semantic networks to dictionary structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates how thoughts become words, and to what degree semantic relationships between words can be captured in dictionaries. It analyses differences in the segmentation of the world by words, realisations of notions in parts of speech, and the lin- guistic appearance of event factors on the basis of five ethnic languages (Hungarian, Polish, English, French and German) as well as the planned language Esperanto. Semantic compo- sitionality as reflected in word derivation and form...

Koutny, Ilona

2012-01-01

303

Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking abou...

2010-01-01

304

Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with ...

2012-01-01

305

Semantic modelling of learning objects and instruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce an ontology-based semantic modelling framework that addresses subject domain modelling, instruction modelling, and interoperability aspects in the development of complex reusable learning objects. Ontologies are knowledge representation frameworks, ideally suited to support knowledge-based modelling of these learning objects. We illustrate the benefits of semantic modelling for learning object assemblies within the context of standards such as SCORM Sequencing and Navigation and ...

2006-01-01

306

Behavior Analysis of Semantic Data Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are many traditional models of databasepresent now a days in the form of Hierarchical model, NetworkModel, Relational model. Since they offer many advantages interms of data integrity, data storage and retrieval but there is abig disadvantage as compared to latest introduced databasemodels i.e semantic models such as Sembase, SAM, RM/T. Ourpaper presents many disadvantages of Conventional orTraditional Database Models as compared to Semantic modelsand try to find the efficient solution ...

2012-01-01

307

Measuring Semantic Similarity by Latent Relational Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper introduces Latent Relational Analysis (LRA), a method for measuring semantic similarity. LRA measures similarity in the semantic relations between two pairs of words. When two pairs have a high degree of relational similarity, they are analogous. For example, the pair cat:meow is analogous to the pair dog:bark. There is evidence from cognitive science that relational similarity is fundamental to many cognitive and linguistic tasks (e.g., analogical reasoning). In ...

Turney, Peter D.

2005-01-01

308

An Electrophysiological Investigation of Indirect Semantic Priming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In two experiments, direct and indirect semantic priming were measured using event-related potentials. In Experiment 1, participants rated the relatedness between prime and target on a seven-point scale. In Experiment 2, participants simply read the primes and targets as they monitored for a semantic category in probe filler items. Significant direct and indirect N400 priming effects were observed in both experiments. In Experiment 1, the indirect N400 priming effect remained significant when...

Kreher, Donna A.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

2006-01-01

309

FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of ...

2012-01-01

310

Semantic Aggregator of Public Professional Events  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The data on the web has been created by a large number of people and is hosted in a large number of independent resources across the globe. Therefore, there is a need to develop data aggregators to help the process of knowledge-based integration. The data without central coordination resulted in heterogeneity. The integration of data on the Internet continues to be a challenge for searching and discovery efforts. Semantic aggregators are agents for data integration using semantic web te...

2012-01-01

311

Mapping Semantic Networks to Undirected Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There exists an injective, information-preserving function that maps a semantic network (i.e a directed labeled network) to a directed network (i.e. a directed unlabeled network). The edge label in the semantic network is represented as a topological feature of the directed network. Also, there exists an injective function that maps a directed network to an undirected network (i.e. an undirected unlabeled network). The edge directionality in the directed network is represent...

Rodriguez, Marko A.

2008-01-01

312

Semantic web services for web databases  

CERN Multimedia

Semantic Web Services for Web Databases introduces an end-to-end framework for querying Web databases using novel Web service querying techniques. This includes a detailed framework for the query infrastructure for Web databases and services. Case studies are covered in the last section of this book. Semantic Web Services For Web Databases is designed for practitioners and researchers focused on service-oriented computing and Web databases.

Ouzzani, Mourad

2011-01-01

313

Data Quality Principles in the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increasing size and availability of web data make data quality a core challenge in many applications. Principles of data quality are recognized as essential to ensure that data fit for their intended use in operations, decision-making, and planning. However, with the rise of the Semantic Web, new data quality issues appear and require deeper consideration. In this paper, we propose to extend the data quality principles to the context of Semantic Web. Based on our extensive industrial expe...

2012-01-01

314

Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web  

CERN Multimedia

New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

Willer, Mirna

2013-01-01

315

Crips, fuzzy, and probabilistic faceted semantic search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation presents contributions to the development of the faceted semantic search (FSS) paradigm. First, two fundamental solutions to FSS, which have been widely used since their development are presented. The first is the projection of search facets from annotation ontologies using logical rules. The second is the logic rule-based generation of recommendation links for search items based on the semantic relations of these items.

Holi, Markus

2010-01-01

316

Knowledge Acquisition for Semantic Search Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic search extends the scope of conventional information search and retrieval paradigms from documentoriented and to entity and knowledge-centric search and retrieval. By attempting to provide direct and intuitive answers such systems alleviate information overload problem and reduce information seekers’ cognitive overhead. Ontologies and knowledge bases are fundamental cornerstones in semantic search systems based on which sophisticated search mechanisms and efficient search services ...

Wei, W.; Barnaghi, Pm; Bargiela, A.

2008-01-01

317

Conceptual graphs for semantics and knowledge processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the representational and algorithmic power of the conceptual graph model for natural language semantics and knowledge processing. Also described is a Prolog-like resolution method for conceptual graphs, which allows to perform deduction on very large semantic domains. The interpreter developed is similar to a Prolog interpreter in which the terms are any conceptual graphs and in which the unification algorithm is replaced by a specialized algorithm for conceptual graphs.

Fargues, J.; Landau, M.C.; Dugourd, A.; Catach, L.

1986-01-01

318

Adaptive Semantic Middleware for Mobile Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context-awareness is considered a key driving principle for the design and provisioning of adaptable pervasive services. Rightfully describing and interpreting context, however, is a challenging issue. Semantic technologies are emerging as effective means to describe and reason about context information and to allow unknown entities to have a common understanding of context. However, the exploitation of semantic technologies for the design/deployment of context-aware applications in pervasive environments replete with heterogeneous devices requires to address several issues. In particular, a crucial aspect is how to support semantic based service provisioning to mobile devices with limited capabilities. Novel solutions are required to transparently and dynamically adapt semantic-based service provisioning to the properties of different access devices. The paper proposes a middleware-level solution approach that exploits the visibility of two kinds of metadata (profiles and policies to support the configurability of the semantic support functionalities depending on user/device properties, and that offers a wide set of mechanisms for making viable semantic based service provisioning even to resource-constrained portable devices.

Alessandra Toninelli

2007-02-01

319

Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content providers can access Reflect programmatically using SOAP, REST (HTTP post), and JavaScript. Usage of Reflect has grown rapidly within the life sciences, and while currently only genes, protein and small molecule names are tagged, we plan to soon expand the scope to include a much broader range of terms (e.g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, â??semantics is in the eye of the end-userâ??, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic web technologies.

O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko

2010-01-01

320

Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

PENG, X.

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

Semantic Retrieval Approach for Web Documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because of explosive growth of resources in the internet, the information retrieval technology has become particularly important. However the current retrieval methods are essentially based on the full text matching of keywords approach lacking of semantic information and can’t understand the user's query intent very well. These methods return a large number of irrelevant information, and are unable to meet the user's request. Systems have been established so far failed to overcome fully the limitations of search based on keywords. Such systems are built from variations of classic models that represent information by keywords. Using Semantic Web is a way to increase the precision of information retrieval systems. In this paper, we propose the semantic information retrieval approach to extract the information from the web documents in certain domain (jaundice diseases by collecting the domain relevant documents using focused crawler based on domain ontology, and using similar semantic content that is matched with a given user’s query. Semantic retrieval approach aims to discover semantically similar terms in documents and query terms using WordNet.

Hany M. Harb

2011-09-01

322

Proceedings Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics 2011  

CERN Multimedia

This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2011, the Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics, held on the 5th of September 2011 in Aachen, Germany as an affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2011, the 22nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) provides a framework for giving operational semantics to programming and specification languages. A growing number of programming languages from commercial and academic spheres have been given usable semantic descriptions by means of structural operational semantics. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, structural operational semantics has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs, and in proving compiler correctness. Moreover, it has found application in emerging areas of computing such as probabilistic systems and systems biology. Structural operational semantics has be...

Reniers, M A; 10.4204/EPTCS.62

2011-01-01

323

Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2011-01-01

324

On the Existence of Semantic Working Memory: Evidence for Direct Semantic Maintenance  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online semantic maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with semantic working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…

Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.

2011-01-01

325

How Does Ontology Contribute in Semantic Web Development?  

CERN Multimedia

This paper investigates and briefly describes the major currently existing problems with World Wide Web .i.e., Information filtration and Security became the main reasons of semantic web's invention. The semantic web claims of providing the semantic based solutions towards current web problems. Semantic web have introduced and relies on a main building block "Ontology" to provide the information in machine processable semantic models and produce semantically modelled knowledge representation systems. This paper also describes the role, construction process and the contributions of ontology in providing some in time proposed and implemented solutions. Furthermore paper concludes with the currently existing limitations in Ontology and the areas which need improvements.

Ahmed, Zeeshan

2010-01-01

326

A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in the research on semantic web and knowledge processing and presents some recent research initiatives.

M.VENU GOPALACHARI

2013-04-01

327

Study of Semantic Web Based Library Knowledge Management System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study firstly proposes a structure of semantic grid by combining the advantage of semantic web with the research of the grid technology and discusses the key technologies and services of knowledge management un-der semantic grid environment. Then not only discusses semantic notes and knowledge discovery on the basis of ontology but also the model transformation tacit knowledge based on ontology. Then based on the above, it describes the ideas about the knowledge management model under the semantic grid environment. Lastly it analyzes this modal from application layer and semantic space layer and knowledge grid services layer and the distributed resources.

Zhang Qing-song

2013-01-01

328

SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap" is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains. The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies, providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies, and discovery servers (semantic search engines interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info" uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet". Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

Town Christopher D

2009-09-01

329

From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia  

CERN Multimedia

Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions to content enrichment. Work starts from harvesting multimedia annotations in class-room recordings, and proceeds to deriving a dense educational semantic net between eLearning Objects decorated with extended LOM relations. Special focus is drawn on the processing of recorded speech and on an Ontological Evaluation Layer that autonomously derives meaningful inter-object relations. Further on, a semantic representation of hyperlinks is developed and elaborated to the concept of semantic link contexts, an approach to manage a coherent rhetori...

Schmidt, Thomas C; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

2009-01-01

330

Semantic Visualization Mapping for Illustrative Volume Visualization  

Science.gov (United States)

Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation, texture, etc. Direct volume rendering techniques do conventionally not make use of these semantics. The transfer function actively prevents the use of these semantic parameters for the description of visualization mappings. In our work on semantic layers we propose an alternative method to achieve meaningful visualization mappings from volumetric attributes to visual appearance. Semantic parameters are used to describe meaningful intervals of data and the rendering techniques. Visualization rules are used to specify a visualization mapping from expert semantics to illustration semantics. Our method enables a multi-dimensional mapping from several volumetric attributes to multiple visual abstractions. Semantic values for volumetric attributes and for visual abstractions are represented as membership functions of fuzzy sets. Visualization rules are specified by the user to establish the semantic visualization mapping from various volume attributes to given visual abstractions. The visualization rules are interactively evaluated on modern graphics processing units using fuzzy logic arithmetics. With this approach it is possible to establish a visualization mapping between semantics from expert domains and scientific illustration techniques.

Rautek, P.; Bruckner, S.; Gröller, M. E.

2009-04-01

331

The Semantic Structure of a Set of Scales Developed for Use with Large City Pupils. A Follow-up Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous Semantic Differential study, Ayrer and Farber (1972) reported the results of a factor analysis which utilized a matrix sampling approach. Some problems were encountered (negative eigen-values). The current study did not involve matrix sampling, but the same basic results were obtained. This suggests matrix sampling may be an…

Ayrer, James E.; Farber, Irvin J.

332

Automatic Semantic Priming Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormal activation of semantic networks characterizes schizophrenia and can be studied using the N400 event-related potential (ERP). N400 is elicited by words that are not primed by the preceding context and provides a direct measure of the neural mechanisms underlying semantic priming. Semantic priming refers to facilitated semantic processing gained through pre-exposure to semantic context, which can happen automatically if the interval between the prime and target is very short. We predicted that (1) schizophrenia patients have overly inclusive semantic networks, reflected in a less negative than expected N400 to relatively unprimed words, and (2) schizophrenia patients are deficient in their use of semantic context, responding to primed words as if they were unprimed, reflected in a more negative than expected N400 to primed words. N400s were acquired from patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (n=26) and age-matched healthy comparison subjects (n=29) performing a picture-word verification (match vs. non-match) task. Word targets were presented 325ms after a picture prime, which either matched (CAMEL?”camel”), or did not match (In Category: CAMEL?”cow; Out Category: CAMEL?”candle”) the prime. N400 data suggest that both patients and controls are sensitive to the difference between primed and unprimed words, but patients are less sensitive than controls. Similarly, N400 data suggest that both groups were sensitive to the subtler difference between classes of unprimed words (In Category versus Out Category picture-word non-matches), but patients are less sensitive, especially those with prominent negative symptoms.

Mathalon, Daniel H.; Roach, Brian J.; Ford, Judith M.

2014-01-01

333

Arabic Semantic Web Applications – A Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arabic Language is the mother tongue for 23 countries and more than 350 million persons. It is the language of the Holy Quran; therefore, many non-Arabic Islamic countries, like Pakistan, teach Arabic as a second language. Nevertheless, it is observable that the Arabic content on the Web is less than what should be. The evolution of the Semantic Web (SW added a new dimension to this problem. This paper is an attempt to figure out the problem, its causes, and to open avenues to think about the solutions. The survey presented in this paper concerned with the SW applications regarding the Arabic Language in the domains of Ontology construction and utilization, Arabic WordNet (AWN exploiting and enrichment, Arabic Named Entities Extraction, Holy Quran and Islamic Knowledge semantic representation, and Arabic Semantic Search Engines. In fact, the study revealed serious deficiencies in dealing semantically with the Arabic Language. That is mainly owing to the rarity of tools that can support the Arabic script. Furthermore, the Arabic resources, if available, are not free. Moreover, there are many technical problems in the semantic dealing with the Arabic context. Therefore, most of the developed applications are not sufficiently proficient. However, due to the significance of the Arabic Language, it is inevitable to overcome these deficiencies in order to put the Arabic Language in the category of the machine-semantically-interpretable languages, rather than just the textually processable ones. This way, we can exploit the power of the Semantic Web features in extracting the essence of the knowledge residing in the Arabic web documents and going beyond dealing with its rigid texts. 

Aya M. Al-Zoghby

2013-02-01

334

WEATHER FORECAST DATA SEMANTIC ANALYSIS IN F-LOGIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the semantic analysis problem in a spoken dialog system developed for the domain of weather forecasts. The main goal of semantic analysis is to extract the meaning from the spoken utterances and to transform it into a domain database format. In this work a semantic database for the domain of weather forecasts is represented using the F-logic formalism. Semantic knowledge is captured through semantic categories a semantic dictionary using phrases and output templates. Procedures for semantic analysis of Croatian weather data combine parsing techniques for Croatian language and slot filling approach. Semantic analysis is conducted in three phases. In the first phase the main semantic category for the input utterance is determined. The lattices are used for hierarchical semantic relation representation and main category derivation. In the second phase semantic units are analyzed and knowledge slots in the database are filled. Since some slot values of input data are missing in the third phase, incomplete data is updated with missing values. All rules for semantic analysis are defined in the F-logic and implemented using the FLORA-2 system. The results of semantic analysis evaluation in terms of frame and slot error rates are presented.

Mirko ?ubrilo

2007-06-01

335

SEMANTIC BASED MULTIPLE WEB SEARCH ENGINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of information available to end users through the Web, search engines come to play ever a more critical role. Nevertheless, because of their general-purpose approach, it is always less uncommon that obtained result sets provide a burden ofuseless pages. The next-generation Web architecture, represented by the Semantic Web, provides the layered architecture possibly allowing overcoming this limitation. Several search engines have been proposed, which allow increasing information retrieval accuracy by exploiting a key content of Semantic Web resources, that is, relations. To make the Semantic Web work, well-structured data andrules are necessary for agents to roam the Web [2]. XML and RDF are two important technologies: we can create our own structures by XML without indicating what they mean; RDF uses sets of triples which express basic concepts [2]. DAML is the extension of XML and RDF The aim of this project is to develop a search engine based on ontologymatching within the Semantic Web. It uses the data in Semantic Web form such as DAML or RDF. When the user input a query, the program accepts the query and transfers it to a machine learning agent. Then the agent measures the similarity between different ontology’s, and feedback the matched item to the user.

MS.S.LATHA SHANMUGAVADIVU,

2010-08-01

336

Semantic Aggregator of Public Professional Events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data on the web has been created by a large number of people and is hosted in a large number of independent resources across the globe. Therefore, there is a need to develop data aggregators to help the process of knowledge-based integration. The data without central coordination resulted in heterogeneity. The integration of data on the Internet continues to be a challenge for searching and discovery efforts. Semantic aggregators are agents for data integration using semantic web techniques. Semantic web technologies provide the capability to more easily aggregate data and thus can be utilized to improve the efficiency of information discovery. This study describes an implementation of a semantic web infrastructure that collects and integrates data in Extensible Markup Language (XML format and utilizes the Resource Description Framework (RDF Data model as the repository. One of the main challenges addressed in this paper is the heterogeneity of existing XML schemata and semantics of websites. The proposed approach is designed to be implemented and tested on publicly available professional events.

Lama Assum

2012-01-01

337

Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW, and with values of the type NOW + D, where D is a non-variable time duration. To accommodate these semantics, three new timestamp values are introduced. Finally, implementation is explored. We show how to represent the variable NOW with columns of standard SQL data types and give a mapping from SQL on NOW-relative  data to standard SQL on these columns. The paper thereby completes the semantics, the querying, and the modification of now-relative databases.   Udgivelsesdato: DEC

Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

2004-01-01

338

FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

My Abdellah Kassimi

2012-01-01

339

Relating Weight Constraint and Aggregate Programs: Semantics and Representation  

CERN Multimedia

Weight constraint and aggregate programs are among the most widely used logic programs with constraints. In this paper, we relate the semantics of these two classes of programs, namely the stable model semantics for weight constraint programs and the answer set semantics based on conditional satisfaction for aggregate programs. Both classes of programs are instances of logic programs with constraints, and in particular, the answer set semantics for aggregate programs can be applied to weight constraint programs. We show that the two semantics are closely related. First, we show that for a broad class of weight constraint programs, called strongly satisfiable programs, the two semantics coincide. When they disagree, a stable model admitted by the stable model semantics may be circularly justified. We show that the gap between the two semantics can be closed by transforming a weight constraint program to a strongly satisfiable one, so that no circular models may be generated under the current implementation of ...

Liu, Guohua

2011-01-01

340

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

CERN Multimedia

The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality, scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages. Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systems must be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges in this domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervised learning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learn...

Hassanzadeh, Hamed; 10.5121/ijwest.2011.2203

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A Semantic Wiki on Cooperation in Public Administration in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Authorities cooperate in various ways. The Web portal www.verwaltungskooperation.eu aims to share knowledge on collaboration projects. A semantic wiki approach was used to facilitate best practice documentation with Semantic Web and Web 2.0 technology.

Bernhard Krabina

2010-01-01

342

Semantic Information Retrieval Based on Fuzzy Ontology for Electronic Commerce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information retrieval is the important work for Electronic Commerce. Ontology-based semantic retrieval is a hotspot of current research. In order to achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper applies a fuzzy ontology framework to information re...

Jun Zhai; Yiduo Liang; Yi Yu; Jiatao Jiang

2008-01-01

343

Automatic Construction of Semantic Dictionary for Question Categorization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An automatic method for building a semantic dictionary from existing questions in a pattern-based question answering system is proposed for question categorization. This dictionary consists of two main parts: Semantic Domain Terms (SDT, which is a domain specific term list, and Semantic Labeled Terms (SLT, which contain common terms tagged with semantic labels. The semantic dictionary is built using the proposed method on a set of 2509 questions with semantic patterns in our system. 3390 questions without semantic patterns are used as ground truth to test its performance. Experimental results show that the precision of question classification is improved by 7.5% in average after using the constructed semantic dictionary compared with the baseline method.

Wenyin Liu

2009-12-01

344

When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

Salvatore F. Pileggi

2012-09-01

345

Semantic search for matching user requests with profiled enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic search is an important approach that promises significant improvements for customers to identify products of their interest. To perform semantic search, enterprises need to publish semantically enriched descriptions of their offered goods and services; then a customer expresses his/her request, in an easy Google like fashion, by providing a list of desired features. If enterprise offerings and customer requests are based on the same vocabulary (i.e., ontology), they can be semantical...

2013-01-01

346

Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, "musical semantic memory" is defined as memory for "well-known" melodies without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning, while "verbal semantic memory" corresp...

Groussard, Mathilde; Viader, Fausto; Hubert, Vale?rie; Landeau, Brigitte; Abbas, Ahmed; Desgranges, Be?atrice; Eustache, Francis; Platel, Herve?

2010-01-01

347

Propose Semantic Formalization for 3D Reconstruction of Architectural  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Archi3D project is a successful practice well proved by engineering practices. In this paper, we propose to reconstruct semantics for the purpose of reconstruct 3D architecture in Archi3D fundamentally. The formalization approach starts from several hypotheses on semantics which include: there is a core mechanism of semantics which is not limited to conceptual expression level; and a complete expression of semantics necessaries the ?implicit?explicit? transition of human side knowledge,...

Cruz, Christophe; Yucong, Duan; Nicolle, Christophe

2010-01-01

348

Semantic-based subtree crossover applied to dynamic problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although many real world problems are dynamic in nature, the study of Genetic Programming in dynamic environments is still immature. This paper investigates the application of some recently proposed semantic-based crossover operators on a series of dynamic problems. The operators studied include Semantic Similarity based Crossover and the Most Semantic Similarity based Crossover. The experimental results show the advantage of using semantic based crossovers when tackling dynamic problems.

2011-01-01

349

Semantic Web Search based on Ontology Modeling using Protege Reasoner  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Semantic Web works on the existing Web which presents the meaning of information as well-defined vocabularies understood by the people. Semantic Search, at the same time, works on improving the accuracy if a search by understanding the intent of the search and providing contextually relevant results. This paper describes a semantic approach toward web search through a PHP application. The goal was to parse through a user's browsing history and return semantically relevan...

Shekhar, Monica; K, Saravanaguru Ra

2013-01-01

350

CLEARS An Education and Research Tool for Computational Semantics  

CERN Document Server

The CLEARS (Computational Linguistics Education and Research for Semantics) tool provides a graphical interface allowing interactive construction of semantic representations in a variety of different formalisms, and using several construction methods. CLEARS was developed as part of the FraCaS project which was designed to encourage convergence between different semantic formalisms, such as Montague-Grammar, DRT, and Situation Semantics. The CLEARS system is freely available on the WWW from http://coli.uni-sb.de/~clears/clears.html

Milward, D; Maier, Hans J; Pinkal, M; Milward, David; Konrad, Karsten; Maier, Holger; Pinkal, Manfred

1996-01-01

351

The semantics of old church Slavonic dobr'' and blag''  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the semantics of OCS dobr'' and blag'' in the translation of tetraeuangelion, compared with the semantics of their Greek correlates kalós, agathós and hr?stós. It points out the semantic changes which occurred in creating Slavic theological terminology. OCS dobr'' is an evaluative of the physical aspect of a notion, including its function, while blag'' through the process of semantic transposition acquired the meaning 'good in a spiritual sense'. This distinction ref...

Grkovi?-Mejdžor Jasmina

2008-01-01

352

Human Intelligence in the Process of Semantic Content Creation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite significant progress over the last years the large-scale adoption of semantic technologies is still to come. One of the reasons for this state of affairs is assumed to be the lack of useful semantic content, a prerequisite for almost every IT system or application using semantics. Through its very nature, this content can not be created fully automatically, but requires, to a certain degree, human contribution. The interest of Internet users in semantics, and in particular in creating...

Siorpaes, Katharina; Simperl, Elena

2010-01-01

353

A platform for the development of Semantic Web portals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Semantic Web portal is a Web application that offers information and services related to a specific domain, and that has been developed with Semantic Web technology. For the time being, the main difference with respect to a traditional Web portal is based on technological aspects: traditional Web portals are based on standard Web technology (HTML, XML, servlets, JSPs, etc.); semantic portals are based on that technology plus the use of Semantic Web languages like RDF, R...

Lo?pez-cima, A.; Corcho, O?scar; Go?mez-pe?rez, A.

2006-01-01

354

Verb production during action naming in semantic dementia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an action naming task based on video clips. The pattern of errors, involving a huge proportion of generic verbs (e.g. “to remove” versus “to peel”...

2012-01-01

355

Web Service Matching Based on Natural Semantic Annotation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To quickly and accurately find a needed Web service in service composition, a novel service matching method is proposed based on the nature semantic annotation in this paper. The natural semantic description is added in WSDL and the expanded WSDL is called as a WSDL-NS (WSDL with Natural Semantics). The computing method of semantic similarity is improved and the matching services are found by the service similarity. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the correctness an...

2013-01-01

356

Adaptive Semantic Interoperability Strategies for Knowledge Based Networking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge-based networking involves the forwarding of messages across a network based on semantics of the data and associated metadata of the message content. However such systems typically assume a common semantic model underpinning the routing which limits their ability to cope with heterogeneity. In contrast, the authors have developed a semantic-based publish/subscribe system that is unique in allowing several semantic models to support routing. This paper examines the content heterogenei...

2009-01-01

357

A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available in...

Li, Zedong; Duan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qingling

2013-01-01

358

Dependency-based Semantic Analysis of Natural-language Text  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Semantic roles, logical relations such as Agent or Instrument that hold between events and their participants and circumstances, need to be determined automatically by several types of applications in natural language processing. This process is referred to as semantic role labeling. This dissertation describes how to construct statistical models for semantic role labeling of English text, and how role semantics is related to surface syntax. It is generally agreed that the prob...

Johansson, Richard

2008-01-01

359

Optimizing Training Set Construction for Video Semantic Classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We exploit the criteria to optimize training set construction for the large-scale video semantic classification. Due to the large gap between low-level features and higher-level semantics, as well as the high diversity of video data, it is difficult to represent the prototypes of semantic concepts by a training set of limited size. In video semantic classification, most of the learning-based approaches require a large training set to achieve good generalization capacity, in which large amount...

Jinhui Tang; Xian-Sheng Hua; Yan Song; Tao Mei; Xiuqing Wu

2007-01-01

360

Building and Using Knowledge Models for Semantic Image Annotation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation proposes a new methodology for building and using structured knowledge models for automatic image annotation. Specifically, our first proposals deal with the automatic building of explicit and structured knowledge models, such as semantic hierarchies and multimedia ontologies, dedicated to image annotation. Thereby, we propose a new approach for building semantic hierarchies faithful to image semantics. Our approach is based on a new image-semantic similarity measure between...

Bannour, Hichem

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Semantics and Security Issues in JavaScript  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a plethora of research articles describing the deep semantics of JavaScript. Nevertheless, such articles are often difficult to grasp for readers not familiar with formal semantics. In this report, we propose a digest of the semantics of JavaScript centered around security concerns. This document proposes an overview of the JavaScript language and the misleading semantic points in its design. The first part of the document describes the main characteristics of the language itself. Th...

Ducasse, Ste?phane; Petton, Nicolas; Polito, Guillermo; Cassou, Damien

2012-01-01

362

Semantics and Security Issues in JavaScript  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a plethora of research articles describing the deep semantics of JavaScript. Nevertheless, such articles are often difficult to grasp for readers not familiar with formal semantics. In this report, we propose a digest of the semantics of JavaScript centered around security concerns. This document proposes an overview of the JavaScript language and the misleading semantic points in its design. The first part of the document describes the main characteristics of the l...

Ducasse, Ste?phane; Petton, Nicolas; Polito, Guillermo; Cassou, Damien

2012-01-01

363

Semantic Self-Formation of Communities of Peers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The formation of semantic communities of peers plays a crucial role for realizing effective query propagation mechanisms on a semantic basis. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the self-organization of autonomous communities of peers; we propose semantic handshake techniques based on semantic community aggregation and community-aware query propagation techniques exploiting dynamic ontology matching techniques for improving traditional P2P search and discovery capabilities.

Castano, Silvana; Montanelli, Stefano

2005-01-01

364

A Semantic Approach for Document Clustering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional document mining systems mainly use the presence or absence of keywords to mine texts. However, simple word counting and frequency distributions of term appearances do not capture the meaning behind the words, which results in limiting the ability to mine the texts. In this paper, the application of a semantic understanding-based approach to mine documents is presented. The approach is based on semantic notions to represent text, and to measure similarity between text documents. The representation scheme reflects existing relations between concepts and facilitates accurate similarity measurements that result in better mining performance. A document mining process, namely semantic document clustering, is investigated and tackled in various ways. The proposed representation scheme along with the proposed similarity measure were implemented as vital components of a mining system. The approach has enabled more effective document clustering than what conventional techniques would provide. The experimental work is reported, and its results are presented and analyzed.

Khaled Shaban

2009-07-01

365

A new account of rationality and semantics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how a new outlook on human cognitive abilities, and in accordance with this a different view of rationality, can influence semantics and one of the most prominent debates in this field, namely, conflict between Fregeans and non Fregean anti-indiviidualists. This new account of rationality will help us difuse some of the main motivators for Fregean view of semantics and it will help us in justifying non-Fregean anti-individualism but also in eliminating some of the apparent contradictions in Fregean anti-individualism of, e.g. Campbell and Evans. In this attempt of bringing together some of the latest insights into human cognition and semantics I will be dealing mainly with Jessica Brown's outlook on motivation for Fregean sense and Ruth Millikan's embedded view on rationality.

Milojevi? Miljana

2011-01-01

366

Symbolic and Asynchronous Semantics via Normalized Coalgebras  

CERN Multimedia

The operational semantics of interactive systems is usually described by labeled transition systems. Abstract semantics (that is defined in terms of bisimilarity) is characterized by the final morphism in some category of coalgebras. Since the behaviour of interactive systems is for many reasons infinite, symbolic semantics were introduced as a mean to define smaller, possibly finite, transition systems, by employing symbolic actions and avoiding some sources of infiniteness. Unfortunately, symbolic bisimilarity has a different shape with respect to ordinary bisimilarity, and thus the standard coalgebraic characterization does not work. In this paper, we introduce its coalgebraic models. We will use as motivating examples two asynchronous formalisms: open Petri nets and asynchronous pi-calculus. Indeed, as we have shown in a previous paper, asynchronous bisimilarity can be seen as an instance of symbolic bisimilarity.

Bonchi, Filippo

2011-01-01

367

HYPERTEXT ENTITIES’ SEMANTIC WEB-ORIENTED REENGINEERING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper’s aim is to define the concept of Hypertext Semantic Web-Oriented Reengineering (HSR as a process of distributed applications development which takes into consideration the semantic aspect in information retrieval and communication. It is virtually possible to apply the reengineering on web applications concerned being about the efficiency of the ideas of data structures and implementation than to mainly being troubled with the language or syntactic point of view. This research also brings some examples of distributed applications types, some small segments of them being mainly explained as well, in order to make our theory strongly connected with the practical work from software companies. It is very important that semantic approaches to be implemented while developing software applications, mostly when reengineering is integrated in the development process, as a step for the evolution to the next generation of web.

Cosmin TOMOZEI

2008-03-01

368

Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI to semantically find plagiarism.

Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

2013-05-01

369

A Semantic Layer for Embedded Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensor Networks progressively assumed the critical role of bridges between the real world and information systems, through always more consolidated and efficient sensor technologies that enable advanced heterogeneous sensor grids. Sensor data is commonly used by advanced systems and intelligent applications in order to archive complex goals. Processes that build high-level knowledge from sensor data are commonly considered as the key core concept. This paper proposes a semantic layer that would optimally support the knowledge building in sensor systems as well as it enables semantic interaction model at different levels (module, subsystem, system. The semantic layer proposed in the paper is currently used by several architectures and applications in the context of different domains.

Salvatore F. Pileggi

2011-06-01

370

Relational Semantics for Databases and Predicate Calculus  

CERN Multimedia

The relational data model requires a theory of relations in which tuples are not only many-sorted, but can also have indexes that are not necessarily numerical. In this paper we develop such a theory and define operations on relations that are adequate for database use. The operations are similar to those of Codd's relational algebra, but differ in being based on a mathematically adequate theory of relations. The semantics of predicate calculus, being oriented toward the concept of satisfiability, is not suitable for relational databases. We develop an alternative semantics that assigns relations as meaning to formulas with free variables. This semantics makes the classical predicate calculus suitable as a query language for relational databases.

Kelly, Philip

2012-01-01

371

Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search  

CERN Multimedia

Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search is based on "joint meaning" understood as a joint construal of the creators of the contents and the user of the contents using the faced taxonomy with the Semantic Web. A proof-of concept prototype shows how the proposed methodological approach can also be applied to existing presentation components, built with different languages and/or component technologies.

Mas, Massimiliano Dal

2012-01-01

372

Towards Semantic Clustering – A Brief Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Image clustering is an important technology which helps users to get hold of thelarge amount of online visual information, especially after the rapid growth of theWeb. This paper focuses on image clustering methods and their application inimage collection or online image repository. Current progress of image clusteringrelated to image retrieval and image annotation are summarized and some openproblems are discussed. Related works are summarized based on the problemsaddressed, which are image segmentation, compact representation of image set,search space reduction, and semantic gap. Issues are also identified in currentprogress and semantic clustering is conjectured to be the potential trend. Ourframework of semantic clustering as well as the main abstraction levels involvedis briefly discussed.

Phei-Chin Lim, Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer, Dayang NurFatimah Awg. Iskandar

2011-02-01

373

Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifically, the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%.

Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema

2006-01-01

374

THE CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF SEMANTIC STRUCTURE. FINAL REPORT.  

Science.gov (United States)

SEVERAL EXPLORATIONS WERE MADE INTO THE STRUCTURE OF MEANING IN BURMESE AND RUSSIAN. VARIOUS KINDS OF LINGUISTIC INFORMATION WERE ISOLATED BY TEXTUAL STUDY AND INTERVIEWS WITH NATIVE SPEAKERS. DISCUSSION COVERED SUCH THEORETICAL QUESTIONS AS (1) SYNCHRONY AND DIACHRONY, (2) SEMANTICS AND GRAMMAR, (3) SEMANTICS AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE, (4) SEMANTICS

BURLING, ROBBINS; FRIEDRICH, PAUL

375

Semantic Web for data harmonization in Chinese medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scientific studies to investigate Chinese medicine with Western medicine have been generating a large amount of data to be shared preferably under a global data standard. This article provides an overview of Semantic Web and identifies some representative Semantic Web applications in Chinese medicine. Semantic Web is proposed as a standard for representing Chinese medicine data and facilitating their integration with Western medicine data.

2010-01-01

376

SEMANTIC SPACE OF COMPUTER GAMES: THE ATTEMPT OF RECONSTRUCTION ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???: ???? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents an empirical psycho semantic survey with the aim to reveal implicit model categories of computer games in everyday consciousness. Semantic space contained two main psychological «dimensions» of computer games and may to explain human disposition to computer play activity. New term “semantic space of computer games” is determined

Luzakov A. A.

2012-04-01

377

Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

2008-01-01

378

Ontology-Based Exception Handling for Semantic Business Process Execution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Along with the widespread acceptance of business process management (BPM) and Semantic Web services composition technologies, Semantic Web service oriented programming is becoming an efficient way to develop modern business applications. As Semantic Web services are inherently unreliable, how to develop reliable service oriented applications is a significant and challenging problem, especially in complex, untamed and dynamic services environment. However, current business process programming ...

Kai Zhao; Linlin Zhang; Shi Ying

2012-01-01

379

Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there i...

Al-feel, Haytham T.; Magdy Koutb; Hoda Suoror

2008-01-01

380

Semantic Web and Contextual Information: Semantic Network Analysis of Online Journalistic Texts  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines why contextual information is important to actualize the idea of semantic web, based on a case study of a socio-political issue in South Korea. For this study, semantic network analyses were conducted regarding English-language based 62 blog posts and 101 news stories on the web. The results indicated the differences of the meaning structures between blog posts and professional journalism as well as between conservative journalism and progressive journalism. From the results, this study ascertains empirical validity of current concerns about the practical application of the new web technology, and discusses how the semantic web should be developed.

Lim, Yon Soo

 
 
 
 
381

User Search Personalization in Semantic Web Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behaviour (usage data in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In the first part of our Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the second part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank, a Page Rank style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query.

T.Venkata Ramana , Dr.K.Venugopala Rao

2012-05-01

382

Timed Automata Semantics for Analyzing Creol  

CERN Document Server

We give a real-time semantics for the concurrent, object-oriented modeling language Creol, by mapping Creol processes to a network of timed automata. We can use our semantics to verify real time properties of Creol objects, in particular to see whether processes can be scheduled correctly and meet their end-to-end deadlines. Real-time Creol can be useful for analyzing, for instance, abstract models of multi-core embedded systems. We show how analysis can be done in Uppaal.

Jaghoori, Mohammad Mahdi; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.8

2010-01-01

383

Semantic Integration of Knowledge Management Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ontologies are essential for a semantic integration of knowledge components which can be seen as superior pieces of intellectual capital. Knowledge structures connect individual or group knowledge elements from organizational knowledge bases that have been developed independently. This can aid search and navigation for the entire organizational knowledge base. As many knowledge processes cross boundaries of organizational units or of whole organizations, standardization of techniques for representing knowledge structures (Semantic Web technologies, play an important role in enabling organizations to share documented knowledge.

Constantin Florin Sîrbu

2008-12-01

384

Supervised Semantic Classification for Nuclear Proliferation Monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing feature extraction and classification approaches are not suitable for monitoring proliferation activity using high-resolution multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. In this paper we present a supervised semantic labeling framework based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation method. This framework is used to analyze over 120 images collected under different spatial and temporal settings over the globe representing three major semantic categories: airports, nuclear, and coal power plants. Initial experimental results show a reasonable discrimination of these three categories even though coal and nuclear images share highly common and overlapping objects. This research also identified several research challenges associated with nuclear proliferation monitoring using high resolution remote sensing images.

2010-10-13

385

Context Semantics, Linear Logic and Computational Complexity  

CERN Document Server

We show that context semantics can be fruitfully used to estimate the computational cost of proof normalization in linear logic. In particular, context semantics lets us define the weight of a proof-net in such a way that the time needed to normalize a given proof is deeply related to its weight: the time needed to normalize a proof-net is bounded by a polynomial on its weight, while there are strategies such that the weight is a lower bound to normalization time.

Lago, U D

2005-01-01

386

Supervised Semantic Classification for Nuclear Proliferation Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Existing feature extraction and classification approaches are not suitable for monitoring proliferation activity using high-resolution multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. In this paper we present a supervised semantic labeling framework based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation method. This framework is used to analyze over 120 images collected under different spatial and temporal settings over the globe representing three major semantic categories: airports, nuclear, and coal power plants. Initial experimental results show a reasonable discrimination of these three categories even though coal and nuclear images share highly common and overlapping objects. This research also identified several research challenges associated with nuclear proliferation monitoring using high resolution remote sensing images.

Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL

2010-01-01

387

Knowledge Representation in the Social Semantic Web  

CERN Multimedia

The main purpose of this book is to sum up the vital and highly topical research issue of knowledge representation on the Web and to discuss novel solutions by combining benefits of folksonomies and Web 2.0 approaches with ontologies and semantic technologies. The book contains an overview of knowledge representation approaches in past, present and future, introduction to ontologies, Web indexing and in first case the novel approaches of developing ontologies. combines aspects of knowledge representation for both the Semantic Web (ontologies) and the Web 2.0 (folksonomies). Currently there is

Weller, Katrin

2010-01-01

388

Kripke semantics for provability logic GLP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A well-known polymodal provability logic GLP is complete w.r.t. the arithmetical semantics where modalities correspond to reflection principles of restricted logical complexity in arithmetic [9, 5, 8]. This system plays an important role in some recent applications of provability algebras in proof theory [2, 3]. However, an obstacle in the study of GLP is that it is incomplete w.r.t. any class of Kripke frames. In this paper we provide a complete Kripke semantics for GLP. First...

Beklemishev, L. D.

2007-01-01

389

Behavior Analysis of Semantic Data Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many traditional models of databasepresent now a days in the form of Hierarchical model, NetworkModel, Relational model. Since they offer many advantages interms of data integrity, data storage and retrieval but there is abig disadvantage as compared to latest introduced databasemodels i.e semantic models such as Sembase, SAM, RM/T. Ourpaper presents many disadvantages of Conventional orTraditional Database Models as compared to Semantic modelsand try to find the efficient solution of these disadvantages. Thispaper also presents performance evaluation factors of differentsemantic models.

Chirag Sharma

2012-06-01

390

Semantic Web and Model-Driven Engineering  

CERN Multimedia

The next enterprise computing era will rely on the synergy between both technologies: semantic web and model-driven software development (MDSD). The semantic web organizes system knowledge in conceptual domains according to its meaning. It addresses various enterprise computing needs by identifying, abstracting and rationalizing commonalities, and checking for inconsistencies across system specifications. On the other side, model-driven software development is closing the gap among business requirements, designs and executables by using domain-specific languages with custom-built syntax and se

Parreiras, Fernando S

2012-01-01

391

Flexible recruitment of semantic richness: context modulates body-object interaction effects in lexical-semantic processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Body-object interaction (BOI) is a semantic richness variable that measures the perceived ease with which the human body can physically interact with a word's referent. Lexical and semantic processing is facilitated when words are associated with relatively more bodily experience. To date, BOI effects have only been examined in the context of one semantic categorization task (SCT; is it imageable?). It has been argued that semantic processing is dynamic and can be modulated by context. We exa...

2012-01-01

392

High performance semantic factoring of giga-scale semantic graph databases.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to bring high performance computational resources to bear on their analysis, interpretation, and visualization, especially with respect to their innate semantic structure. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multithreaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional clusters, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture, and present the results of our deploying that for the analysis of the Billion Triple dataset with respect to its semantic factors, including basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths.

al-Saffar, Sinan (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Adolf, Bob (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Haglin, David (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mackey, Greg Edward; Goodman, Eric L.; Joslyn, Cliff A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Feo, John (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory); Mizell, David (Cray, Inc.)

2010-10-01

393

Discovering Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Document and Context Aware Semantic Association Ranking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of information in the web is too large,so search engine come to play a more critical role to findrelation between input keywords. Semantic Similarity Measureis widely used in Information Retrieval (IR and also it isimportant component in various tasks on the web such asrelation extraction, community mining, document clustering,and automatic metadata extraction. An empirical method toestimate semantic similarity using page counts and text snippetsretrieved from a web search engine for two words. Specifically,define various word co-occurrence measures using page countsand integrate those with lexical patterns extracted from textsnippets. Pattern clustering is used to identify the numeroussemantic relations that exist between two given words. Theoptimal combination of page counts-based co-occurrencemeasures and lexical pattern clusters is learned using supportvector machines. The proposed method context AwareSemantic Association Ranking discovering complex andmeaningful relationships, which we call Semantic Associations.

P.Ilakiya

2013-06-01

394

SEMANTIC ASSOCIATION-BASED SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION METHOD ON THE SEMANTIC WEB PORTAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the information on the web dramatically increases, the existing web reveals more and more limitationsin information search because web pages are designed only for human consumption by mixing contentwith presentation. In order to improve this situation, the Semantic Web based on ontology comes on thestage by W3C, and it will bring a significant advancement in web search. To do this, the Semantic Webmust provide novel search and visualization methods which can help users instantly and intuitivelyunderstand why and how the results are retrieved. In this paper, we propose a semantic associationbasedsearch methodology that consists of how to find relevant information for a given user’s query in theontology, that is, a semantic network of resources and properties, and how to provide propervisualization and navigation methods on the results. From this work, users can search the semanticallyassociated resources with their query and also navigate such associations between resources.

Myungjin Lee

2010-01-01

395

Progress in The Semantic Analysis of Scientific Code  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper concerns a procedure that analyzes aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. This procedure involves taking a user's existing code, adding semantic declarations for some primitive variables, and parsing this annotated code using multiple, independent expert parsers. These semantic parsers encode domain knowledge and recognize formulae in different disciplines including physics, numerical methods, mathematics, and geometry. The parsers will automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and help locate some program semantic errors. These techniques may apply to a wider range of scientific codes. If so, the techniques could reduce the time, risk, and effort required to develop and modify scientific codes.

Stewart, Mark

2000-01-01

396

Sentence comprehension in semantic dementia: a longitudinal case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sentence comprehension abilities were investigated in a patient with semantic dementia who was administered tests of semantic knowledge and sentence comprehension over a 5-year period. Results showed that despite a severe and continual degradation in semantic knowledge, syntactic comprehension abilities remained largely intact. Evidence was also found for a codependency between semantics and syntax in a task in which knowledge about conceptual number influenced subject-verb agreement in the patient and in control participants. Results are discussed in relation to the nature of the sentence comprehension impairment in semantic dementia and with reference to the modularity of the components of the language processing system. PMID:21038208

Rochon, Elizabeth; Kave, Gitit; Cupit, Jennifer; Jokel, Regina; Winocur, Gordon

2004-03-01

397

VPOET: Using a Distributed Collaborative Platform for Semantic Web Applications  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes a distributed collaborative wiki-based platform that has been designed to facilitate the development of Semantic Web applications. The applications designed using this platform are able to build semantic data through the cooperation of different developers and to exploit that semantic data. The paper shows a practical case study on the application VPOET, and how an application based on Google Gadgets has been designed to test VPOET and let human users exploit the semantic data created. This practical example can be used to show how different Semantic Web technologies can be integrated into a particular Web application, and how the knowledge can be cooperatively improved.

Rico, Mariano; Corcho, Oscar

2008-01-01

398

A logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models into the domain of the logical correspondence.

Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian

2013-01-01

399

A Semantic Vector Retrieval Model for Desktop Documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper provides a semantic vector retrieval model for desktop documents based on the ontology. Comparing with traditional vector space model, the semantic model using semantic and ontology technology to solve several problems that traditional model could not overcome such as the shortcomings of weight computing based on statistical method, the expression of semantic relations between different keywords, the description of document semantic vectors and the similarity calculating, etc. Finally, the experimental results show that the retrieval ability of our new model has significant improvement both on recall and precision.

Sheng Li

2009-04-01

400

Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the growing amount of health information and frequent outbreaks of diseases, the retrieval of health information is given more concern. Machine understanding of spatial information can improve the interpretation of health data semantics. Most of the current research focused on the non-spatial semantics of health data, using ontologies and rules. Utilizing the spatial component of health data can assist in the understanding of health phenomena. This research proposes a semantic health information query architecture that allows the incorporation of both non-spatial semantics and geospatial semantics in health information integration and retrieval.

Gao, S.; Anton, François

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

A Novel Survey Based on Multiethnic Facial Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The face includes a number of facial features which are various in minorities. Firstly, according to the correlations of the face parts shape semantics, multiethnic facial semantic web is proposed. It represents the relationship which belongs to the same minority and the difference of that belongs to the different minorities. Secondly, multiethnic facial semantic web is reduced by the correlations between the parts of the face. The semantic web which is reduced can maintains most available information which is belong to original semantic web, reduces the complexity and indirectly analysis the national facial features. Lastly, the effectiveness of our experiment is demonstrated by some real-word data sets.  

LI Zedong

2013-09-01

402

Hypothesis of the Functional Semantic Constructions and Mathematics in the Functional Semantic Aspect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This essay contains three parts. The first part of essay focuses on the hypothesis of the functional semantic constructions (FSC-Hypothesis). This hypothesis explains that a language, a number, a money are the functional semantic constructions. In the second part the author considers the Mathematics with respect to the FSC-Hypothesis. Author turns in the solution for the following problems: Ontology of Mathematics, Objects of Mathematics, Number, Classification of the number...

Semenov, Y.

2002-01-01

403

Semantics, Sensors, and the Social Web: The Live Social Semantics Experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Live Social Semantics is an innovative application that encourages and guides social networking between researchers at conferences and similar events. The application integrates data from the Semantic Web, online social networks, and a face-to-face contact sensing platform. It helps researchers to find like-minded and influential researchers, to identify and meet people in their community of practice, and to capture and later retrace their real-world networking activities. The application...

Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; Den Broeck, Wouter; Barrat, Alain; Alani, Harith

2010-01-01

404

SEMANTIC ASSOCIATION-BASED SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION METHOD ON THE SEMANTIC WEB PORTAL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the information on the web dramatically increases, the existing web reveals more and more limitationsin information search because web pages are designed only for human consumption by mixing contentwith presentation. In order to improve this situation, the Semantic Web based on ontology comes on thestage by W3C, and it will bring a significant advancement in web search. To do this, the Semantic Webmust provide novel search and visualization methods which can help users instantly and intuit...

2010-01-01

405

Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancements of a research article.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research articles, and thereby break down present barriers to the discovery and re-use of information within traditional modes of scholarly communication. PMID:19381256

Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

2009-04-01

406

Synthesis of Spoken Messages from Semantic Representations (Semantic-Representation-to-Speech System)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A semantic-representation-to-speech system communicates orally the information given in a semantic representation. Such a system must integrate a text generation module, a phonetic conversion module, a prosodic module and a speech synthesizer. We will see how the syntactic information elaborated by the text generatlon module is used for both phonetic conversion and prosody, so as to produce the data that must be supplied to the speech synthesizer, namely a phonetic string including prosodic i...

Danlos, Laurence; Laporte, Eric; Emerard, Franc?oise

1986-01-01

407

Semantic Web on Scope: A New Architectural Model for the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Current web contains billions of documents and has many administrative problems and limitations; in addition to that the web content is still accessible only to humans. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is considered to be the extension for the current web. But there are problems facing the Semantic Web now, such as there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions created by Tim Berners-Lee, but still up to now there is no agreement for one of these visions nor is there a clear picture for the relation between different layers inside this architecture and the associated technologies. The objectives of this study were to: (i Identify the weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures and (ii Reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses. Approach: This research uses the Qualitative Analysis Approach of Taylor and Renner, presents the four versions of the Semantic Web architecture, describing the function(s and status of each layer and associated technologies, evaluates them using Gerber evaluation method and determines other design principles needed to modify and adapt this architecture as a step toward an agreement for one Semantic Web architecture. Results: The design of a new model for the Semantic Web architecture depends on the idea of previous versions. Conclusion: As a step toward a unified architecture for the Semantic Web, our study of the Semantic Web architecture highlighted some weaknesses that existed in the previous architectures, modify, adapt and reach a new architecture that corrects these weaknesses.

Haytham T. Al-Feel

2008-01-01

408

A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning.The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changingits contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of thecornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is calledSemantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality,scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages.Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systemsmust be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges inthis domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervisedlearning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learninghave been utilized. In this paper we present an inclusive layered classification of Semantic Annotationchallenges and discuss the most important issues in this field. Also, we review and analyze machinelearning applications for solving semantic annotation problems. For this goal, the article tries to closelystudy and categorize related researches for better understanding and to reach a framework that can mapmachine learning techniques into the Semantic Annotation challenges and requirements.

Hamed Hassanzadeh

2011-04-01

409

Construction of Semantic Trees for Term Definitions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of comparing the meaning of terms plays a large part in solving problems of information search (establishing a criterion os semantic correspondence). The meaning of a term may be represented through the system of its associations with other te...

L. E. Pshenichnaya

1968-01-01

410

An Action Semantics Based on Two Combinators  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a naive version of action semantics that begins with a selection of “transient” and “persistent” facets, each characterized as a partial monoid. Yielders are defined as operations on the monoids’ values, and actions extract values from the facets, give them to yielders, and place the results into facet output. Actions are composed with a primary combinator, andthen, which can be specialized for multiple facet flows, and the choice combinator, or. Using big-step-style deduction rules, we give the semantics of yielders and actions, and we introduce a weakening rule and a strengthening rule, which let us compose actions with different facet domain-codomains. We also introduce Mosses abstraction, a lambda-abstraction variant that improves the readability of action-semantics definitions. Finally, we exploit the subsort (subtype) structure within Mosses’s unified algebras to use the deduction rules as both a typing definition as well as a semantics definition. Partial evaluation techniques are applied to type check and compile programs.

Doh, Kyung-Goo; Schmidt, David A.

411

Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components are crucial to be formalized by the semantic web ontologies for adaptive web. We use examples from an eLearning domain to illustrate the principles which are broadly applicable to any information domain on the web.

Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

2007-01-01

412

Implicit Semantic Perception in Object Substitution Masking  

Science.gov (United States)

Decades of research on visual perception has uncovered many phenomena, such as binocular rivalry, backward masking, and the attentional blink, that reflect "failures of consciousness". Although stimuli do not reach awareness in these paradigms, there is evidence that they nevertheless undergo semantic processing. Object substitution masking (OSM),…

Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

2011-01-01

413

Selforganisation in a Storage for Semantic Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scalable distributed semantic storage infrastructures are hard to realize. We propose the usage of principles of selforganization for the storage and retrieval of RDF triples. We use a biology-inspired algorithm for clustering of triples based on a purely syntactical similarity measure.

Robert Tolksdorf; Anne Augustin

2009-01-01

414

Adaptive Semantic Middleware for Mobile Environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context-awareness is considered a key driving principle for the design and provisioning of adaptable pervasive services. Rightfully describing and interpreting context, however, is a challenging issue. Semantic technologies are emerging as effective means to describe and reason about context information and to allow unknown ...

Antonio Corradi; Rebecca Montanari; Alessandra Toninelli

2007-01-01

415

From Semantic Roles to Temporal Information Representation  

Science.gov (United States)

The automatic treatment of temporal elements of natural language has become a very important issue among NLP community. Recently, TimeML annotation scheme has been adopted as standard for temporal information representation by a large number of researchers. There are few TimeML resources for languages other than English whereas there exist semantic roles annotated corpora and automatic labeling tools for several languages. The objective of this paper is to study if semantic roles resources can be exploited to generate TimeML corpora. An analysis of the similarities and differences between the temporal semantic role and TimeML elements has been carried out, focusing on temporal expressions (TIMEX3). Using this analysis, an approach consisting of a set of transformation rules between semantic roles and TIMEX3 has been implemented. It has been evaluated in TIMEX3 identification for English and Spanish obtaining same quality results (76.85% F ?= 1 AVG), which suggests that it could be also valid for other languages.

Llorens, Hector; Navarro, Borja; Saquete, Estela

416

Magpie: towards a semantic web browser  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Web browsing involves two tasks: finding the right web page and then making sense of its content. So far, research has focused on supporting the task of finding web resources through ‘standard’ information retrieval mechanisms, or semantics-enhanced search. Much less attention has been paid to the second problem. In this paper we describe Magpie, a tool which supports the

2003-01-01

417

A Semantic Browser for Linked Open Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the Semantic Web was originally designed as a "web for machines", the growing wealth of information in Linked Open Data has become interesting for human users as well. Consequently, quite a few browsers for Linked Open Data have recently been developed.

2012-01-01

418

Semantic Web-based geospatial knowledge transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

Earth and space science research and applications typically involve collecting and analyzing large volumes of geospatial data much of which is derived from other existing data by applying a scientific workflow. Such a step-by-step process can be viewed as a process of geospatial knowledge transformation, which often involves hypotheses, inferences and integrations to derive user-specific data products from the knowledge of domain experts. Our research is focused on reducing the transformation effort by providing component inference and integration tools. The Semantic Web envisions a new standardized information infrastructure to enable interoperable machine-to-machine interactions and automatic or semi-automatic service chaining for deriving knowledge over networks. This paper describes a generic framework and implementation of how the Semantic Web proceeds through the life cycle of geospatial knowledge transformation, from geospatial modeling (knowledge formalization), through model instantiation (service chain) to model execution (data product). Our approach relies on semantic integrations. A number of ontologies used to capture domain knowledge are introduced in this paper as the basis of knowledge bases for describing and reasoning geospatial data and services. Also, a semantically enabled geospatial catalog service is described to enable more effective discovery, automation and integration of geospatial data and services.

Zhao, Peisheng; Di, Liping; Yu, Genong; Yue, Peng; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Wenli

2009-04-01

419

Noetica: A Tool for Semantic Data Modelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses Noetica, a tool that uses a semantic network for structuring knowledge about concepts and the relationships between them. It differs from typical information systems in that the knowledge it represents is abstract, highly connected, and includes metaknowledge. Class hierarchy, visualization, and query tools are also discussed.…

Greenhill, Stewart; Venkatesh, Svetha

1998-01-01

420

A Semantic Analysis of English Locative Prepositions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Locative prepositions are members of a small closed class of English formatives. We present here an analysis of the thirty three English locative prepositions in the context of a theory which provides a basis for extracting semantic readings for phrases c...

G. S. Cooper

1968-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Hybrid learning of Syntactic and Semantic Dependencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents our solution for jointly parsing of syntactic and semantic dependencies. The Maximum Entropy (ME classifier is selected in this system. Also the Mutual Information (MI model was utilized into feature selection of dependency labeling. Results show that the MI model allows the system to get better performance and reduce training hours.

Lin Yao

2010-10-01

422

Semantic Web : The Next Generation Web  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis work was to introduce the next generation of Web technology, a semantic Web utilizing metadata, ontology, and logic to carry out Web tasks. It is still not possible to resolve all Web problems completely using only artificial intelligence. However, it is important to recognize certain attributes of machines that point to their potential to have intelligence.

Zhang, Pengfei

2012-01-01

423

Semantic Parsing based on Verbal Subcategorization  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this work is to explore new methodologies on Semantic Parsing for unrestricted texts. Our approach follows the current trends in Information Extraction (IE) and is based on the application of a verbal subcategorization lexicon (LEXPIR) by means of complex pattern recognition techniques. LEXPIR is framed on the theoretical model of the verbal subcategorization developed in the Pirapides project.

Atserias, J; Civit, M; Rigau, G; Atserias, Jordi; Castellon, Irene; Civit, Montse; Rigau, German

2000-01-01

424

Expressing Implicit Semantic Relations without Supervision  

CERN Document Server

We present an unsupervised learning algorithm that mines large text corpora for patterns that express implicit semantic relations. For a given input word pair X:Y with some unspecified semantic relations, the corresponding output list of patterns is ranked according to how well each pattern Pi expresses the relations between X and Y. For example, given X=ostrich and Y=bird, the two highest ranking output patterns are "X is the largest Y" and "Y such as the X". The output patterns are intended to be useful for finding further pairs with the same relations, to support the construction of lexicons, ontologies, and semantic networks. The patterns are sorted by pertinence, where the pertinence of a pattern Pi for a word pair X:Y is the expected relational similarity between the given pair and typical pairs for Pi. The algorithm is empirically evaluated on two tasks, solving multiple-choice SAT word analogy questions and classifying semantic relations in noun-modifier pairs. On both tasks, the algorithm achieves s...

Turney, P D

2006-01-01

425

Selforganisation in a Storage for Semantic Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scalable distributed semantic storage infrastructures are hard to realize. We propose the usage of principles of selforganization for the storage and retrieval of RDF triples. We use a biology-inspired algorithm for clustering of triples based on a purely syntactical similarity measure.

Anne Augustin

2009-10-01

426

Auto-Generated Semantic Processing Services  

Science.gov (United States)

Auto-Generated Semantic Processing (AGSP) Services is a suite of software tools for automated generation of other computer programs, denoted cross-platform semantic adapters, that support interoperability of computer-based communication systems that utilize a variety of both new and legacy communication software running in a variety of operating- system/computer-hardware combinations. AGSP has numerous potential uses in military, space-exploration, and other government applications as well as in commercial telecommunications. The cross-platform semantic adapters take advantage of common features of computer- based communication systems to enforce semantics, messaging protocols, and standards of processing of streams of binary data to ensure integrity of data and consistency of meaning among interoperating systems. The auto-generation aspect of AGSP Services reduces development time and effort by emphasizing specification and minimizing implementation: In effect, the design, building, and debugging of software for effecting conversions among complex communication protocols, custom device mappings, and unique data-manipulation algorithms is replaced with metadata specifications that map to an abstract platform-independent communications model. AGSP Services is modular and has been shown to be easily integrable into new and legacy NASA flight and ground communication systems.

Davis, Rodney; Hupf, Greg

2009-01-01

427

What Is General Semantics?: A Personal View.  

Science.gov (United States)

Defines general semantics in accordance with the personal views of the author. Describes some guidelines, including tunnel vision, labels that limit, success and survival, beyond Aristotle, separation of word and thing, time-binding, abstracting, from experience to symbols, non-allness, and consciousness of context. Uses definitions and guidelines…

Johnston, Paul Dennithorne

1995-01-01

428

Processing Idiomatic Expressions: Effects of Semantic Compositionality  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments tested the main claims of the idiom decomposition hypothesis: People have clear intuitions on the semantic compositionality of idiomatic expressions, which determines the syntactic behavior of these expressions and how they are recognized. Experiment 1 showed that intuitions are clear only for a very restricted number of…

Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou

2008-01-01

429

Semantic Change and Heterosemy in Grammaticalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the semantical aspects of Oceanic language elements that function as directional verbs of motion (e.g., "go,""come,""return"). It is argued that human conceptualization of phenomena (viz. metaphor and metonymy) directly motivate the variety of grammaticalization processes observed with respect to these elements and supports the view…

Lichtenberk, Frantisek

1991-01-01

430

Idioms: A View from Cognitive Semantics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distinguishes among three aspects of idiomatic meaning: the general meaning, more specific aspects, and connotative aspects. The results of an informal experimental study indicate that the cognitive semantic view can facilitate the learning of idioms for nonnative speakers. (45 references) (Author/CK)

Kovecses, Zoltan; Szabo, Peter

1996-01-01

431

Fuzzy Semantic Retrieval for Traffic Information Based on Fuzzy Ontology and RDF on the Semantic Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 7.8 ? 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Information retrieval is the essential task for Traffic Information Service System in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS.  There a lot of fuzzy traffic information derived from human factor. To achieve fuzzy semantic retrieval, this paper proposes an approach using Resource Description Framework (RDF and fuzzy ontology. First, we apply RDF data model to represent traffic information on the Semantic Web. Then we present fuzzy linguistic variable ontology models and its formal representation with RDF. Introducing new data type referred as fuzzy linguistic variables to RDF data model, the semantic query expansions in SeRQL query language are constructed by order relation, equivalence relation, inclusion relation and complement relation between fuzzy concepts defined in linguistic variable ontologies. Examples show that the extended query can return all results which satisfy research requirement at semantic level without upgrading current main search algorithm, and this research facilitates the semantic retrieval of traffic information through fuzzy concepts for ITS on the Semantic Web.

Yiduo Liang

2009-09-01

432

SemantEco: a semantically powered modular architecture for integrating distributed environmental and ecological data  

Science.gov (United States)

We aim to inform the development of decision support tools for resource managers who need to examine large complex ecosystems and make recommendations in the face of many tradeoffs and conflicting drivers. We take a semantic technology approach, leveraging background ontologies and the growing body of linked open data. In previous work, we designed and implemented a semantically enabled environmental monitoring framework called SemantEco and used it to build a water quality portal named SemantAqua. Our previous system included foundational ontologies to support environmental regulation violations and relevant human health effects. In this work, we discuss SemantEco’s new architecture that supports modular extensions and makes it easier to support additional domains. Our enhanced framework includes foundational ontologies to support modeling of wildlife observation and wildlife health impacts, thereby enabling deeper and broader support for more holistically examining the effects of environmental pollution on ecosystems. We conclude with a discussion of how, through the application of semantic technologies, modular designs will make it easier for resource managers to bring in new sources of data to support more complex use cases.

Patton, Evan W.; Seyed, Patrice; Wang, Ping; Fu, Linyun; Dein, F. Joshua; Bristol, R. Sky; McGuinness, Deborah L.

2014-01-01

433

Grammar-Based Random Walkers in Semantic Networks  

CERN Multimedia

Semantic networks qualify the meaning of an edge relating any two vertices. Determining which vertices are most "central" in a semantic network is difficult because one relationship type may be deemed subjectively more important than another. For this reason, research into semantic network metrics has focused primarily on context-based rankings (i.e. user prescribed contexts). Moreover, many of the current semantic network metrics rank semantic associations (i.e. directed paths between two vertices) and not the vertices themselves. This article presents a framework for calculating semantically meaningful primary eigenvector-based metrics such as eigenvector centrality and PageRank in semantic networks using a modified version of the random walker model of Markov chain analysis. Random walkers, in the context of this article, are constrained by a grammar, where the grammar is a user defined data structure that determines the meaning of the final vertex ranking. The ideas in this article are presented within th...

Rodriguez, Marko A

2008-01-01

434

Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new techniques for discovering relationshipsacross different database, business applications and Webservices. Since this is an interdisciplinary concept in bothengineering and management; we first review web mining,semantic web, semantic web mining and finally propose anapplication of semantic web mining in human resourcemanagement.

Radhika Malik

2011-08-01

435

Altered semantic but not phonological verbal fluency in young help-seeking individuals with ultra high risk of psychosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the cognitive impairments of schizophrenia are already detectable before the onset of the disease, and could help to identify individuals at higher risk of psychosis. In patients with schizophrenia, semantic verbal fluency (VF) is more impaired than phonological fluency. We investigated whether the same profile is present in young patients at Ultra High Risk of psychosis (UHR). One hundred and fifty six young patients (15-30y.o.) consecutively seeking help at our specialized youth mental health center with no definite psychiatric diagnoses were recruited and assessed with the CAARMS. Individuals meeting the criteria for UHR were compared to the remaining patients considered as Help Seeker Controls (HSCo). UHR individuals had a lower mean total semantic fluency score than HSCo. This effect was significant for each semantic category ('animals' and 'fruits'). By contrast, there were no differences in phonological fluency scores between UHR and HSCo either in the total score or when each letter ('P' and 'R') was considered separately. Semantic but not phonological VF differentiated UHR individuals from non-psychotic help-seeking young adults. These results suggest that semantic deficits are present during the prodromal phase, prior to clinical expression of full-blown psychosis, and suggest that prodromes could be associated with alteration in temporal brain areas. PMID:20605416

Magaud, Emilie; Kebir, Oussama; Gut, Anne; Willard, Dominique; Chauchot, François; Olie, Jean-Pierre; Kazes, Mathilde; Krebs, Marie-Odile

2010-10-01

436

Age-related vulnerability in the neural systems supporting semantic processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our ability to form abstract representations of objects in semantic memory is crucial to language and thought. The utility of this information relies both on the representations of sensory-motor feature knowledge stored in long-term memory and the executive processes required to retrieve, manipulate, and evaluate this semantic knowledge in a task-relevant manner. These complementary components of semantic memory can be differentially impacted by aging. We investigated semantic processing in normal aging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young and older adults were asked to judge whether two printed object names match on a particular feature (for example, whether a tomato and strawberry have the same color. The task thus required both retrieval of relevant visual feature knowledge of object concepts and evaluating this information. Objects were drawn from either natural kinds or manufactured objects, and were queried on either color or shape in a factorial design. Behaviorally, all subjects performed well, but older adults could be divided into those whose performance matched that of young adults (better performers and those whose performance was worse (poorer performers. All subjects activated several cortical regions while performing this task, including bilateral inferior and lateral temporal cortex and left frontal and prefrontal cortex. Better performing older adults showed increased overall activity in bilateral premotor cortex and left lateral occipital cortex compared to young adults, and increased activity in these brain regions relative to poorer performing older adults who also showed gray matter atrophy in premotor cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of domain-general executive processing brain regions to semantic memory, and illustrate differences in how these regions are recruited in healthy older adults.

JonathanEPeelle

2013-09-01

437

Patterns of regional brain hypometabolism associated with knowledge of semantic features and categories in alzheimer's disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The study of semantic memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has raised important questions about the representation of conceptual knowledge in the human brain. It is still unknown whether semantic memory impairments are caused by localized damage to specialized regions or by diffuse damage to distributed representations within nonspecialized brain areas. To our knowledge, there have been no direct correlations of neuroimaging of in vivo brain function in AD with performance on tasks differentially addressing visual and functional knowledge of living and nonliving concepts. We used a semantic verification task and resting 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a group of mild to moderate AD patients to investigate this issue. The four task conditions required semantic knowledge of (1) visual, (2) functional properties of living objects, and (3) visual or (4) functional properties of nonliving objects. Visual property verification of living objects was significantly correlated with left posterior fusiform gyrus metabolism (Brodmann's area [BA] 37/19). Effects of visual and functional property verification for nonliving objects largely overlapped in the left anterior temporal (BA 38/20) and bilateral premotor areas (BA 6), with the visual condition extending more into left lateral precentral areas. There were no associations with functional property verification for living concepts. Our results provide strong support for anatomically separable representations of living and nonliving concepts, as well as visual feature knowledge of living objects, and against distributed accounts of semantic memory that view visual and functional features of living and nonliving objects as distributed across a common set of brain areas.

Zahn, R.; Garrard, P.

2006-01-01

438

Lexical-semantic processing in the semantic priming paradigm in aphasic patients Processamento léxico-semântico no paradigma de priming semântico em pacientes afásicos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is evidence that the explicit lexical-semantic processing deficits which characterize aphasia may be observed in the absence of implicit semantic impairment. The aim of this article was to critically review the international literature on lexical-semantic processing in aphasia, as tested through the semantic priming paradigm. Specifically, this review focused on aphasia and lexical-semantic processing, the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the semantic paradigms used, and recen...

Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles; Candice Steffen Holderbaum; Maria Alice Mattos Pimenta Parente; Letícia Lessa Mansur; Ana Inès Ansaldo

2012-01-01

439

APPLICATION BASED SEMANTIC WEB MINING TECHNIQUE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Web is a huge read-write information space where many items such as documents, images or other multimedia can be accessed. In this context, several information technologies have been developed to help users to satisfy their searching needs on the Web, and the most used are search engines. Search engines allow users to find Web resources formulating queries (a set of terms and reviewing a list of answers. The Semantic Web improves the Web infrastructure with formal semantics and interlinked data, enabling flexible, reusable, and open knowledge management systems. The move towards open and interlinked data on the Web and the Semantic Web results in more open systems. In contrast to traditional database-driven applications, open systems liberate the data that they operate on: sources are decentralized, data can be semi-structured with arbitrary vocabulary and contributions can be published anywhere. This thesis offers algorithms and components that simplify and support knowledge management based on Semantic Web technology. We address four areas of Semantic Web application development: programmatic access: how to program against the flexible graph-based model; data navigation: how to navigate arbitrary information spaces; data entry: how to guide users through collaborative recommendation; and data discovery: how to locate relevant data sources. Our hypothesis is that the issues of programmatic access, data navigation, data entry, and data discovery can be addressed, with acceptable results, through the sole introspection of instance data at runtime, without relying on fixed schema structures at design time. In all four areas we devise solutions that are domain independent, rely only on instance data and dynamically adjust to the available data.

Mahindra Pratap Singh Dohare

2011-04-01

440

On the implementation of automatic differentiation tools.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic differentiation is a semantic transformation that applies the rules of differential calculus to source code. It thus transforms a computer program that computes a mathematical function into a program that computes the function and its derivatives. Derivatives play an important role in a wide variety of scientific computing applications, including numerical optimization, solution of nonlinear equations, sensitivity analysis, and nonlinear inverse problems. We describe the forward and reverse modes of automatic differentiation and provide a survey of implementation strategies. We describe some of the challenges in the implementation of automatic differentiation tools, with a focus on tools based on source transformation. We conclude with an overview of current research and future opportunities.

Bischof, C. H.; Hovland, P. D.; Norris, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Aachen Univ. of Technology

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Analysis of verbal fluency ability in Alzheimer's disease: the role of clustering, switching and semantic proximities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The underlying nature of verbal fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in this study. Participants were 48 individuals with AD and 48 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performance on letter and category tasks was analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, mean cluster size, and total switches. Compared with the control group, AD participants produced fewer words and switches on both fluency tasks and had a reduced category cluster size. The AD group was differentially impaired on category compared with letter fluency and produced more repetitive responses but fewer category exemplars than controls on the category task. A multidimensional scaling approach revealed that AD participants' semantic maps were similar to controls. Overall, the data suggest that executive abilities involving search and retrieval processes and a reduced availability of semantically related words contributed to the AD group's poorer performance despite similar temporal recall and organizational patterns. PMID:24687588

Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

2014-05-01

442

Cognitive semantic networks: emotional verbs throw a tantrum but don't bite  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neuroimaging studies have over the past decades established that language is grounded in sensorimotor areas of the brain. The same neuronal circuits seem involved whether we literally pick up a ball or in a phrase refer to grasping an idea. However recent findings have demonstrated that not only leg, hand and face related but also emotional action verbs activate premotor systems in the brain. Hypothesizing that the force and spatial parameters which define action based language might also be reflected in the latent semantics of words, we select motor and emotion related verbs and apply latent semantic analysis, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering and network graph analysis to quantify their interaction and identify parameters of force and spatial differentiation which we propose cognitively relate emotions to sensorimotor action schemas.

Petersen, Michael Kai; Hansen, Lars Kai

2012-01-01

443

Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact  

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Full Text Available Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural language semantics in linguistics and in philosophy and logic. With Montague as a central but not solo player in the story, I reflect on crucial developments in the 1960's and 70's in linguistics and philosophy, and the growth of formal semantics and formal pragmatics from there. I discuss innovations, key players, and leading ideas that shaped the development of formal semantics and its relation to syntax, to pragmatics, and to the philosophy of language in its early years, and some central aspects of its early impact on those fields.ReferencesAbbott, B. 1999. ‘The formal approach to meaning: Formal semantics and its recent developments’. Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai119, no. 1: 2–20. https://www.msu.edu/~abbottb/formal.htm.Ajdukiewicz, K. 1960. Je¸zyk i Poznanie (Language and Knowledge. Warsaw.Bach, E. 1968. ‘Nouns and Noun Phrases’. In E. Bach & R.T. Harms (eds. ‘Universals in Linguistic Theory’, 90–122. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Bach, E. 1989. Informal Lectures on Formal Semantics. New York: State University of New York Press.Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954a. ‘Logical syntax and semantics’. Language 30: 230–237.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410265Bar-Hillel, Y. 1954b. ‘Indexical Expressions’. Mind 63: 359–379.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mind/LXIII.251.359Bar-Hillel, Y. 1963. ‘Remarks on Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language’. In P. A. Schilpp (ed. ‘The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap’, 519–543. LaSalle, Illinois / London: Open Court / Cambridge University Press.Barker, C. & Jacobson, P. (eds.. 2007. Direct Compositionality. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Bernstein, L. 1976. The unanswered question: six talks at Harvard: The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures 1973. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Bohnert, H. & Backer, P. 1967. ‘Automatic English-to-Logic Translation in a Simplified Model: A Study in the Logic of Grammar’. IBM Research Paper RC-1744. Yorktown Heights, NY: IBM.Burris, S. 2009. ‘The Algebra of Logic tradition’. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 Edition, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Stanford: Stanford University.http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2009/entries/algebra-logic-tradition/.Carnap, R. 1928. Der logische aufbau der welt. Berlin-Schlachtensee: Weltkreisverlag.Carnap, R. 1946. ‘Modalities and quantification’. The Journal of Symbolic Logic 11.2: 33–64.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2268610Carnap, R. 1947. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press.Carnap, R. 1956. Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. 2nd edition with supplements. Chicago: Phoenix Books, University of Chicago Press.Carnap, R. & Smeaton, A. 1937. The logical syntax of language: International library of psychology, philosophy and scientific method. London: Routledge & K. Paul Ltd.Chierchia, G. & McConnell-Ginet, S. 1990. Meaning and Grammar. An Introduction to Semantics. Cambridge: MIT Press.Chomsky, N. 1955. ‘Logical syntax and semantics: their linguistic relevance’. Language 31: 36–45.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/410891Chomsky, N. 1957. Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.Chomsky, N. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Chomsky, N. 1971. ‘Deep structure, surface structure, and semantic interpretation’. In D. Steinberg & L. Jakobovits (eds. ‘Semantics: An Interdisciplinary Reader in Philosophy, Linguistics, and Psychology’, 183–216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Chomsky, N. 1975. ‘Questions of

Barbara H. Partee

2010-12-01

444

NVL - a knowledge representation language based on semantic networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Taxonomic hierarchical networks or semantic networks have been widely used in representing knowledge in AI applications. Semantic networks have been the preferred form of representation in AI, rather than predicate logic because of the need to represent complex structured knowledge. However, the formal semantics of these networks has not been dealt with adequately in the literature. In this thesis, semantic networks are described by means of a formal relational logic called NVL. The characteristic features of NVL are limitor lists and binary predicates. Limitor lists are similar to restricted quantifiers but are more expressive. Several special binary relations are used to express the key ideas of semantic networks. NVL is based on the principles of semantic networks and taxonomic reasoning. The unification and inference mechanisms of NVL have considerable inherent parallelism which makes the language suitable for parallel implementation. The current opinion in AI is that semantic networks represent a subset of first order logic. Rather than modify predicate logic by adding features of semantic networks, the approach has been to devise a new form of logic by considering the basic principles and epistemological primitives of semantic networks such as properties, class concepts, relations, and inheritance. The syntax and semantics of NVL are first presented. Rules in the knowledge based are represented by V relation which also plays an important role in deriving inferences. The (mathematical) correctness of NVL is proved and concepts of unification of lists and inference in NVL are introduced. Parallel algorithms for unification and inference are developed.

Hudli, A.V.

1989-01-01

445

Performance Evaluation of Index Schemes for Semantic Cache  

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Full Text Available In last decade of computing, a growing popularity for semantic cache schemes has been observed. Numerous techniques have been proposed for improved performance of semantic cache. Semantic cache is aimed towards reducing the network traffic load with the ability to address some queries without contacting the server. Semantic cache overcomes the limitations of previous page-caching and tuple-cache techniques. A prime concern of semantic cache includes query processing (query response-time and cache management. The efficiency of semantic cache can be improved by using semantic indexing sachems. Semantic indexing sachems are segment based and hierarchical semantic indexing scheme. Both these sachems can improve the efficiency of query processing and cache management. In this paper, we have performed the evaluation of index schemes for Semantic Cache through the experimental study. Evaluations of these schemes are available in literature but experimental study is not available. Through this experiment, we have highlighted which technique is most suited in what kind of scenario.

Sheneela Naz

2013-03-01

446

Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

2009-01-01

447

Semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background More than in other domains the heterogeneous services world in bioinformatics demands for a methodology to classify and relate resources in a both human and machine accessible manner. The Semantic Web, which is meant to address exactly this challenge, is currently one of the most ambitious projects in computer science. Collective efforts within the community have already led to a basis of standards for semantic service descriptions and meta-information. In combination with process synthesis and planning methods, such knowledge about types and services can facilitate the automatic composition of workflows for particular research questions. Results In this study we apply the synthesis methodology that is available in the Bio-jETI workflow management framework for the semantics-based composition of EMBOSS services. EMBOSS (European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite is a collection of 350 tools (March 2010 for various sequence analysis tasks, and thus a rich source of services and types that imply comprehensive domain models for planning and synthesis approaches. We use and compare two different setups of our EMBOSS synthesis domain: 1 a manually defined domain setup where an intuitive, high-level, semantically meaningful nomenclature is applied to describe the input/output behavior of the single EMBOSS tools and their classifications, and 2 a domain setup where this information has been automatically derived from the EMBOSS Ajax Command Definition (ACD files and the EMBRACE Data and Methods ontology (EDAM. Our experiments demonstrate that these domain models in combination with our synthesis methodology greatly simplify working with the large, heterogeneous, and hence manually intractable EMBOSS collection. However, they also show that with the information that can be derived from the (current ACD files and EDAM ontology alone, some essential connections between services can not be recognized. Conclusions Our results show that adequate domain modeling requires to incorporate as much domain knowledge as possible, far beyond the mere technical aspects of the different types and services. Finding or defining semantically appropriate service and type descriptions is a difficult task, but the bioinformatics community appears to be on the right track towards a Life Science Semantic Web, which will eventually allow automatic service composition methods to unfold their full potential.

Lamprecht Anna-Lena

2011-03-01

448

Semantic role labeling for protein transport predicates  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic semantic role labeling (SRL is a natural language processing (NLP technique that maps sentences to semantic representations. This technique has been widely studied in the recent years, but mostly with data in newswire domains. Here, we report on a SRL model for identifying the semantic roles of biomedical predicates describing protein transport in GeneRIFs – manually curated sentences focusing on gene functions. To avoid the computational cost of syntactic parsing, and because the boundaries of our protein transport roles often did not match up with syntactic phrase boundaries, we approached this problem with a word-chunking paradigm and trained support vector machine classifiers to classify words as being at the beginning, inside or outside of a protein transport role. Results We collected a set of 837 GeneRIFs describing movements of proteins between cellular components, whose predicates were annotated for the semantic roles AGENT, PATIENT, ORIGIN and DESTINATION. We trained these models with the features of previous word-chunking models, features adapted from phrase-chunking models, and features derived from an analysis of our data. Our models were able to label protein transport semantic roles with 87.6% precision and 79.0% recall when using manually annotated protein boundaries, and 87.0% precision and 74.5% recall when using automatically identified ones. Conclusion We successfully adapted the word-chunking classification paradigm to semantic role labeling, applying it to a new domain with predicates completely absent from any previous studies. By combining the traditional word and phrasal role labeling features with biomedical features like protein boundaries and MEDPOST part of speech tags, we were able to address the challenges posed by the new domain data and subsequently build robust models that achieved F-measures as high as 83.1. This system for extracting protein transport information from GeneRIFs performs well even with proteins identified automatically, and is therefore more robust than the rule-based methods previously used to extract protein transport roles.

Martin James H

2008-06-01

449

SemanticEye: a semantic web application to rationalize and enhance chemical electronic publishing.  

Science.gov (United States)

SemanticEye, an ontology with associated tools, improves the classification and open accessibility of chemical information in electronic publishing. In a manner analogous to digital music management, RDF metadata encoded as Adobe XMP can be extracted from a variety of document formats, such as PDF, and managed in an RDF repository called Sesame. Users upload electronic documents containing XMP to a central server by "dropping" them into WebDAV folders. The documents can then be navigated in a Web browser via their metadata, and multiple documents containing identical metadata can then be aggregated. SemanticEye does not actually store any documents. By including unique identifiers within the XMP, such as the DOI, associated documents can be retrieved from the Web with the help of resolving agents. The power of this metadata driven approach is illustrated by including, within the XMP, InChI identifiers for molecular structures and finding relationships between articles based on their InChIs. SemanticEye will become increasingly more comprehensive as usage becomes more widespread. Furthermore, following the Semantic Web architecture enables the reuse of open software tools, provides a "semantically intuitive" alternative to search engines, and fosters a greater sense of trust in Web-based scientific information. PMID:17125182

Casher, Omer; Rzepa, Henry S

2006-01-01

450

Semantic priming revealed by mouse movement trajectories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congruency effects are taken as evidence that semantic information can be processed automatically. However, these effects are often weak, and the straightforward association between primes and targets can exaggerate congruency effects. To address these problems, a mouse movement method is applied to scrutinize congruency effects. In one experiment, participants judged whether two numbers were the same ("3?3") or different ("3?5"), preceded by briefly presented pictures with either positive or negative connotations. Participants indicated their responses by clicking a "Same" or "Different" button on the computer screen, while their cursor trajectories were recorded for each trial. The trajectory data revealed greater deviation to unselected buttons in incongruent trials (e.g., "3?5" preceded by a green traffic light picture). This effect was influenced by the type of responses but not by prime durations. We suggest that the mouse movement method can complement the reaction time to study masked semantic priming. PMID:24797040

Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi

2014-07-01

451

Semantics of Higher-Order Recursion Schemes  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher-order recursion schemes are equations defining recursively new operations from given ones called “terminals”. Every such recursion scheme is proved to have a least interpreted semantics in every Scott’s model of ?-calculus in which the terminals are interpreted as continuous operations. For the uninterpreted semantics based on infinite ?-terms we follow the idea of Fiore, Plotkin and Turi and work in the category of sets in context, which are presheaves on the category of finite sets. Whereas Fiore et al proved that the presheaf F ? of ?-terms is an initial H ? -monoid, we work with the presheaf R ? of rational infinite ?-terms and prove that this is an initial iterative H ? -monoid. We conclude that every guarded higher-order recursion scheme has a unique uninterpreted solution in R ? .

Adámek, Ji?í; Milius, Stefan; Velebil, Ji?í

452

Combination Strategies for Semantic Role Labeling  

CERN Document Server

This paper introduces and analyzes a battery of inference models for the problem of semantic role labeling: one based on constraint satisfaction, and several strategies that model the inference as a meta-learning problem using discriminative classifiers. These classifiers are developed with a rich set of novel features that encode proposition and sentence-level information. To our knowledge, this is the first work that: (a) performs a thorough analysis of learning-based inference models for semantic role labeling, and (b) compares several inference strategies in this context. We evaluate the proposed inference strategies in the framework of the CoNLL-2005 shared task using only automatically-generated syntactic information. The extensive experimental evaluation and analysis indicates that all the proposed inference strategies are successful -they all outperform the current best results reported in the CoNLL-2005 evaluation exercise- but each of the proposed approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. Sev...

Carreras, X; Marquez, L; Surdeanu, M; 10.1613/jair.2088

2011-01-01

453

Semantic Content Filtering with Wikipedia and Ontologies  

CERN Document Server

The use of domain knowledge is generally found to improve query efficiency in content filtering applications. In particular, tangible benefits have been achieved when using knowledge-based approaches within more specialized fields, such as medical free texts or legal documents. However, the problem is that sources of domain knowledge are time-consuming to build and equally costly to maintain. As a potential remedy, recent studies on Wikipedia suggest that this large body of socially constructed knowledge can be effectively harnessed to provide not only facts but also accurate information about semantic concept-similarities. This paper describes a framework for document filtering, where Wikipedia's concept-relatedness information is combined with a domain ontology to produce semantic content classifiers. The approach is evaluated using Reuters RCV1 corpus and TREC-11 filtering task definitions. In a comparative study, the approach shows robust performance and appears to outperform content classifiers based on ...

Malo, Pekka;