WorldWideScience

Sample records for semantic differential

  1. A Revised Semantic Differential Scale Distinguishing between Negative and Positive God Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Gibson, Harry M.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 755 school pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 years completed the Benson and Spilka semantic differential measure of God images. Factor analysis indicated the advantages of re-scoring the measure as an eight item unidimensional index, defining semantic space relating to God images ranging from negative affect to positive affect.…

  2. A Revised Semantic Differential Scale Distinguishing between Negative and Positive God Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Gibson, Harry M.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 755 school pupils between the ages of 11 and 18 years completed the Benson and Spilka semantic differential measure of God images. Factor analysis indicated the advantages of re-scoring the measure as an eight item unidimensional index, defining semantic space relating to God images ranging from negative affect to positive affect.…

  3. Nurses' attitudes towards people with dementia: the semantic differential technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf; Helin, Yvonne; Dahl, Annika; Hellzén, Ove; Asplund, Kenneth

    2006-05-01

    One important aspect of the nurse-patient relationship is nurses' attitudes towards their patients. Nurses' attitudes towards people with dementia have been studied from a wide range of approaches, but few authors have focused on the structure of these attitudes. This study aimed to identify a structure in licensed practical nurses' attitudes towards people with dementia. Twenty-one group dwelling units for people with dementia at 11 nursing homes participated in the study. A total of 1577 assessments of 178 patients were sent out to 181 respondents and 1237 answers were returned. The semantic differential technique was used. The scale had 57 bipolar pairs of adjectives that estimate an unknown number of dimensions of nurses' attitudes towards an identified patient. The assessments were analysed using entropy-based measures of association combined with structural plots. The analysis revealed four dimensions, which related to licensed practical nurses' opinions of the patients: an ethical and aesthetic dimension; an ability to understand; an ability to experience; and an ability for social interaction. The results of the study indicated that, on the positive to negative attitude continuum, the nurses' attitudes fell at the positive to neutral end. This is an important finding owing to the personhood perspective, from which it is reasonable to assume that, with a more positive attitude to people with dementia, the prerequisites for person-centred care will improve. PMID:16711185

  4. Differentiation of perceptual and semantic subsequent memory effects using an orthographic paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Michael C C; Liu, Karen P Y; Ting, Kin Hung; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-11-27

    This study aimed to differentiate perceptual and semantic encoding processes using subsequent memory effects (SMEs) elicited by the recognition of orthographs of single Chinese characters. Participants studied a series of Chinese characters perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining the object making sounds), and then made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Recognition performance in terms of d-prime measure in the semantic condition was higher, though not significant, than that of the perceptual condition. The between perceptual-semantic condition differences in SMEs at P550 and late positive component latencies (700-1000ms) were not significant in the frontal area. An additional analysis identified larger SME in the semantic condition during 600-1000ms in the frontal pole regions. These results indicate that coordination and incorporation of orthographic information into mental representation is essential to both task conditions. The differentiation was also revealed in earlier SMEs (perceptual>semantic) at N3 (240-360ms) latency, which is a novel finding. The left-distributed N3 was interpreted as more efficient processing of meaning with semantically learned characters. Frontal pole SMEs indicated strategic processing by executive functions, which would further enhance memory. PMID:23063888

  5. Workplace Information Literacy in the Scientific Field : an Empirical Analysis Using the Semantic Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlbacher, Susanne; Hammwöhner, Rainer; Wolff, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The study focuses on eliciting a semantic concept of Information Literacy by capturing the information worker s perception of the information process. It is presumed that this perception influences the formation and advancement of Information Literacy at the workplace. The approach is based on the creation of a semantic differential scale. Target group are scientists from the field of natural sciences. The survey shows that five partly correlated principal aspects play a major role: personal ...

  6. The Semantic Web: Differentiating between Taxonomies and Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    Explains the concept of a semantic Web where software agents perform jobs for end-users by using hierarchies, metadata, and structured vocabularies. Discusses taxonomies; defining ontologies and taxonomies; standardized language and conceptual relationships; different points of emphasis; and topic maps as new Web infrastructure. (LRW)

  7. Development and psychometric testing of a semantic differential scale of sexual attitude for the older person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Shin, Sunhwa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a semantic differential scale of sexual attitudes for older people in Korea. The scale was based on items derived from a literature review and focus group interviews. A methodological study was used to test the reliability and validity of the instrument. A total of 368 older men and women were recruited to complete the semantic differential scale. Fifteen pairs of adjective ratings were extracted through factor analysis. Total variance explained was 63.40%. To test for construct validity, group comparisons were implemented. The total score of sexual attitudes showed significant differences depending on gender and availability of sexual activity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.96. The findings of this study demonstrate that the semantic differential scale of sexual attitude is a reliable and valid instrument. PMID:26275235

  8. Combining a semantic differential with fMRI to investigate brands as cultural symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, complex cultural symbols like brands are investigated with psychological approaches. Often this is done by using semantic differentials, in which participants are asked to rate a brand regarding different pairs of adjectives. Only recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to examine brands. In the current work we used fMRI in combination with a semantic differential to cross-validate both methods and to improve the characterization of the basic factors constituting the semantic space. To this end we presented pictures of brands while recording subject's brain activity during an fMRI experiment. Results of the semantic differential arranged the brands in a semantic space illustrating their relationships to other cultural symbols. FMRI results revealed activation of the medial prefrontal cortex for brands that loaded high on the factor 'social competence', suggesting an involvement of a cortical network associated with social cognitions. In contrast, brands closely related to the factor 'potency' showed decreased activity in the superior frontal gyri, possibly related to working memory during task performance. We discuss the results as a different engagement of the prefrontal cortex when perceiving brands as cultural symbols. PMID:20080877

  9. Assessing Attitudes toward the Elderly: Polizzi's Refined Version of the Aging Semantic Differential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, Kenneth G.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=300) assessed adults aged 70-85 using a revised Aging Semantic Differential. Factor analyses indicated that addition of new adjective pairs and removal of old ones updated the instrument. Principal component analyses revealed four-factor structures for elderly men and elderly women, indicating gender differences in attitudes.…

  10. Attitudes toward Younger and Older Adults: The German Aging Semantic Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…

  11. The Case for the Semantic Differential in Organizational and Business Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Attitude measurement has been and continues to be a central component in the field of social psychology. The semantic differential technique has proven to be a well-respected measuring device of attitudes since the 1960s, particularly in the social sciences. Given the importance of attitudes in the business world with reference to preferences in…

  12. Structured Cueing on a Semantic Fluency Task Differentiates Patients with Temporal Versus Frontal Lobe Seizure Onset

    OpenAIRE

    Drane, Daniel L.; Lee, Gregory P.; Cech, Helen; Huthwaite, Justin S.; Ojemann, George A.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Loring, David W.; Meador, Kimford J.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with frontal lobe dysfunction (e.g., Huntington’s Disease) reportedly benefit more from cueing on measures of semantic fluency than do patients with damage to temporal lobe structures (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease). This differential benefit from cueing suggests that different neurocognitive functions are impaired in these two groups. Patients with frontal lobe dysfunction are presumed to have difficulty with the executive aspects of this generative fluency task while patients with temp...

  13. Integrating The Stereotype Content Model (Warmth And Competence) And The Osgood Semantic Differential (Evaluation, Potency, And Activity)

    OpenAIRE

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Susan T. Fiske; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.

    2013-01-01

    We integrate two prominent models of social perception dimensionality. In three studies, we demonstrate how the well-established semantic differential dimensions of evaluation and potency relate to the stereotype content model dimensions of warmth and competence. Specifially, using a correlational design (Study 1) and experimental designs (Studies 2 and 3), we found that semantic differential dimensions run diagonally across stereotype content model quadrants. Implications of integrating clas...

  14. Analysis of gender differences in the perception of properties: An application for differential semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Llinares

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of differential semantics to identify the semantic space (structure used by men and women to describe their perception of properties on sale. 112 men and 43 women evaluated 112 images of flats on sale at the time of the study in the city of Valencia (Spain using 60 adjectives. The set of attributes or variables which capture the user’s perception of a property in his own words (semantic axes was identified using factor analysis of principal components. The semantic space of a property was described by 15 independent axes which explained 64% of the variability for males and 17 axes which explained 72.3% of the variance for females. The connection between the subject’s emotional response, expressed through the set of axes (15 for males and 17 for females and the global evaluation in terms of the purchase decision was established. The results demonstrated significant differences in the variables used by both genders to express their perception of a property on sale and the weight of these variables on the purchase decision.

  15. Generation Y, wine and alcohol. A semantic differential approach to consumption analysis in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Nicola; Fabbrizzi, Sara; Alampi Sottini, Veronica; Sacchelli, Sandro; Bernetti, Iacopo; Menghini, Silvio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study is the elicitation of the consumer's semantic perception of different alcoholic beverages in order to provide information for the definition of communication strategies for both the private sector (and specifically the wine industry) and the public decision maker. Such information can be seen as the basis of a wider social marketing construct aimed at the promotion of responsible drinking among young consumers. The semantic differential approach was used in this study. The data collection was based on a survey to 430 consumers between 18 and 35years old in Tuscany, Italy. The database was organized in a three-way structure, indexing the data in a multiway matrix. The data were processed using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Moreover, homogeneous clusters of consumers were identified using a Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) approach. The results of the study highlight that beer and spirits are mainly perceived as "Young", "Social", "Euphoric", "Happy", "Appealing" and "Trendy" beverages, while wine is associated mostly with terms such as "Pleasure", "Quality" and "Comfortable". Furthermore, the cluster analysis allowed for the identification of three groups of individuals with different approaches to alcohol drinking. The results of the study supply a useful information framework for the elaboration of specific communication strategies that, based on the drinking habits of young consumers and their perception of different beverages, can use a language that is very close to the consumer typologies. Such information can be helpful for both private and public communication strategies. PMID:24370355

  16. Application of a methodology for categorizing and differentiating urban soundscapes using acoustical descriptors and semantic-differential attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, A F

    2013-07-01

    A subjective and physical categorization of an ambient sound is the first step to evaluate the soundscape and provides a basis for designing or adapting this ambient sound to match people's expectations. For this reason, the main goal of this work is to develop a categorization and differentiation analysis of soundscapes on the basis of acoustical and perceptual variables. A hierarchical cluster analysis, using 15 semantic-differential attributes and acoustical descriptors to include an equivalent sound-pressure level, maximum-minimum sound-pressure level, impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level, sound-pressure level time course, and spectral composition, was conducted to classify soundscapes into different typologies. This analysis identified 15 different soundscape typologies. Furthermore, based on a discriminant analysis the acoustical descriptors, the crest factor (impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level), and the sound level at 125?Hz were found to be the acoustical variables with the highest impact in the differentiation of the recognized types of soundscapes. Finally, to determine how the different soundscape typologies differed from each other, both subjectively and acoustically, a study was performed. PMID:23862885

  17. Development of an Appropriate Method for Applying the Semantic Differential to the Measurement of Affective Outcomes of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard W.

    A method for statistical analysis of semantic differential data in educational evaluation is discussed. Estimated scores for unobserved affective variables are obtained using the canonical factor regression method. This method overcomes previous prolems of bias and inefficiency in computing composite affective indices. In an application of the…

  18. The Use of Semantic Differential Scaling to Define the Multi-Dimensional Representation of Odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Pamela; Maute, Christopher; Oshida, Akiko; Hikichi, Satoshi; Izumi, Yu

    2008-01-01

    The mental representation elicited by smelling an odor often consists of multiple sensory and affective dimensions, yet, the richness of this elaboration is difficult to capture using methods to rate the intensity of these factors in isolation. Attempts to use language descriptors for olfactory experience have also been shown to be rather limited; among non-specialists, there is no universally accepted system for describing odors, leading to greater reliance on specific item associations. In this study we explored the utility of semantic differential scaling for illustrating the various dimensions of olfactory experience. 300 volunteers rated thirty distinct odorants using 50 SDS adjectives. Three factors emerged from the analysis (based on 17 adjective-pairs) accounting for 53% of the variance, and corresponding to the evaluation, potency and activity dimensions identified for other stimulus types. SD scaling appears to be a viable method for identifying the multiple dimensions of mental representation evoked when smelling an odorant and may prove a useful tool for both consumer and basic research alike. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Although numerous methods of classifying odors have been developed, little agreement has been achieved on the dimensions that are useful to both basic and consumer research. The identification of a set of Semantic Differential adjectives which are relevant to olfactory experience can become a useful tool for classifying the qualitative and affective basis on which odorants differ.. In particular, the degree to which odorants evokes multi-dimensional representations from other sensory modalities (visual, auditory, somatosensory or gustatory), can be usefully applied in the arena of product development both within and across cultures. PMID:19122880

  19. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1 are significantly down regulated. All down regulated genes in this panel were highly up regulated in most other types of cancers. These panels of proteins may represent signature biomarkers for lung cancer and will aid in lung cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring as well as in the prediction of responses to therapeutics.

  20. Assessment of the refined aging semantic differential: recommendations for enhancing validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Tan, Jing; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    The Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) by Rosencranz and McNevin (1969) is the most widely used instrument in gerontological and geriatric education to assess the stereotypic attitudes young people have toward older adults. Polizzi (2003) updated the ASD with current adjectives and reduced the instrument to a single latent factor, attitude. We examine the validity of this major instrument and describe the strengths and shortcomings. The instrument was administered to 199 medical students that participated in a national pilot project, Vital Visionaries, funded by National Institute on Aging. Confirmatory factory analysis using structural equation modeling (SEM) was used. Qualitative data captured stereotypic attitudes young people have toward older adults. SEM indexes suggest that a one-factor structure has poor fit. Qualitative analyses suggest medical students hold multiple dimensions of stereotypic attitudes toward older adults. We suggest that the latent factor, attitude, can be assessed with fewer observed items, thereby creating room for the additional latent factors. The resulting instrument could be just as short, but offer a more comprehensive assessment of young people's stereotypic attitudes toward older adults. PMID:20461618

  1. Differential activation of frontal lobe areas by lexical and semantic language tasks: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, David; Byrnes, Michelle L; Mastaglia, Frank L; Thickbroom, Gary W

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether frontal lobe regions, including Broca's area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and supplementary motor area (SMA), are differentially activated during lexical and semantic language tasks, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in eight healthy right-handed subjects silently performing two semantic tasks (adjective and verb generation) and a lexical retrieval task (noun recall). Activation was observed in Broca's area, DLPFC and SMA for all tasks. Broca's area activation was approximately doubled during the semantic tasks compared with the lexical task (verbs vs nouns: 19.1+/-4.5 vs 8.9+/-1.6 voxels, p=0.02; adjectives vs nouns 24.4+/-7.5 vs 10.1+/-2.8 voxels, p=0.04); however, there were no significant differences in the DLFPC or SMA across tasks. We conclude that Broca's area is more active during tasks that have a semantic content, whereas areas involved in preparatory processing (SMA) and memory retrieval (DLPFC) are engaged equally during both types of task. PMID:16410203

  2. Judging the other: psychiatric nurses' attitudes towards identified inpatients as measured by the semantic differential technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, L; Ordell, M; Dahl, A; Hellzén, O

    2004-10-01

    Nurses' attitudes towards psychiatric patients can be expressed in terms of either a symptom-oriented approach or a personhood-focused approach where the latter is characterized by the ambition to establish a genuine and lasting relationship, while the former places the emphasis on correcting 'defective' patient behaviour. To study whether previous typologies found in a qualitative in-depth interview study exist in a larger quantitative investigation and, if so, to identify and describe a structure for the nurses' attitudes connected to each of the identified typologies. Six psychiatric group dwellings and six acute psychiatric hospital wards participated in the study. In all, 2700 assessments of 163 patients were sent out to 160 respondents and 2436 answers were returned, that is, the external dropout rate was 9.8%. The semantic differential technique was used. This is a method for quantifying the meaning that is attached to an identified phenomenon through series of bipolar pairs of adjectives. The scale has 57 bipolar pairs of adjectives, which estimates an unknown number of dimensions of nurses' attitudes towards an identified patient. The respondents' answers were analysed through entropy-based measures of association combined with structural plots. The analysis revealed that the four typologies existed as a delimited group, especially the groups of 'good' and 'evil' patients, while the 'crazy' and 'invisible' patients existed in a more blurred form. The analysis also revealed that the two groups, 'good' and 'evil', were connected to the nurses' ethical and aesthetic attitude structure, while the 'crazy' patients were linked to the cognitive structure and the 'invisible' patients to the empathetic structure. The study indicates that the two typologies, 'good' and 'evil', could be seen as each other's antithesis and, together with the other two typologies, 'crazy' and 'invisible', they touched upon a structure of the nurses' attitudes that was closely connected to a negative view of the patient except in one case -'the good' patients, which was probably based on his/her exterior symptoms. PMID:15450021

  3. Basic semantics of product sounds:

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan Vieira, E.; van Egmond, R

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two experiments, we determined eight factors that underlie the semantic associations of product sounds (attention, roughness, smoothness, temporal constancy, (un)familiarity, unpleasantness, machinery, a...

  4. Basic semantics of product sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Egmond , R. van

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two experiments, we determined eight factors that underlie the semantic associations of product sounds (attention, roughness, smoothness, temporal constancy, (un)familiarity, unpleasantness, machinery, a...

  5. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ksjeongl@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo [Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-ro, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  6. Factor analysis on hazards for safety assessment in decommissioning workplace of nuclear facilities using a semantic differential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities must be accomplished according to its structural conditions and radiological characteristics. An effective risk analysis requires basic knowledge about possible risks, characteristics of potential hazards, and comprehensive understanding of the associated cause-effect relationships within a decommissioning for nuclear facilities. The hazards associated with a decommissioning plan are important not only because they may be a direct cause of harm to workers but also because their occurrence may, indirectly, result in increased radiological and non-radiological hazards. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities as well as during accidents. Therefore, to prepare the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the radiological and non-radiological hazards should be systematically identified and classified. With a semantic differential method of screening factor and risk perception factor, the radiological and non-radiological hazards are screened and identified.

  7. The Equal-Interval Nature of Semantic Differential Scales: An Empirical Investigation Using Fiedler's Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale and Magnitude Estimation and Case III Scaling Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriesheim, Chester A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Eighteen bipolar adjective pairs that are used in Fielder's Least Preferred (LPC) coworker instrument were examined using 2 scaling techniques with a sample of 113 respondents. Both pair-comparison treatments suggest that true bipolarity does not characterize most of the paired adjectives. Implications for LPC and semantic differential research…

  8. Research on the scenic meaning of rooftop greening with semantic differential measure and join-count statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Koshimiz, H. [Meiji Univ., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Agriculture

    2006-07-01

    Clarification of the scenic improvement effects of rooftop greening are necessary in order to promote rooftop greening as one form of urban greenery. A study was conducted in order to establish a method for quantitatively clarifying the effects of rooftop greening in improving scenery. An evaluation experiment was conducted using photographs of actual rooftop greening. This paper discussed the methods and results of this study. The study extracted factors influencing scenery using the repertory grid technique, which investigates the style in which the theme is explored. An evaluation experiment was then conducted based on the semantic differential measure, which is a psychological estimation method, using the factors as the evaluation yardstick. In order to understand the relationship between the psychological evaluation and the scenery components, a multiple regression analysis and a factor analysis were also conducted. In addition, photographs of the scenery were made into a mesh form. The layout of greenery was quantitatively analysed using join-count statistics, which can calculate the degree to which two kinds of things are mixed within a space. It was concluded that the scenery of rooftop greening varies according to the distance between the viewers and the rooftop greening, the layout of the greenery, and the form of rooftop greening and that these factors need to be taken into account when planning rooftop greening. In addition, it was concluded that the importance of the medium distance view in external scenery lies in the degree to which the greenery is mixed, and that the degree of this mixing can be effectively gauged with join-count statistics. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Semantic Multimedia

    OpenAIRE

    Staab, S; Scherp, A.; Arndt, R.; Troncy, Raphael; Grzegorzek, M.; Saathoff, C.; Schenk, S.; Hardman, Hazel Lynda

    2008-01-01

    Multimedia constitutes an interesting field of application for Semantic Web and Semantic Web reasoning, as the access and management of multimedia content and context depends strongly on the semantic descriptions of both. At the same time, multimedia resources constitute complex objects, the descriptions of which are involved and require the foundation on sound modeling practice in order to represent findings of low- and high level multimedia analysis and to make them accessible via Semantic ...

  10. Medial temporal lobe substructures differentially contribute to processing within- and between-domain associative recognition memory for semantic and non-semantic stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall Axel Dalton

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The domain dichotomy theory posits that medial temporal lobe (MTL) substructures differentially contribute to different types of associative memory processing with the hippocampus implicated in the integration of information from different perceptual or conceptual domains (between-domain [BD] memory processing) and the perirhinal cortex involved in within-domain (WD) memory processing. The aim of this study was to determine whether the neural correlates of recognition memory on ...

  11. Neuro-Semantics and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1987-01-01

    Draws distinctions between the terms semantics (dealing with such verbal parameters as dictionaries and "laws" of logic and rhetoric), general semantics (semantics, plus the complex, dynamic, organismal properties of human beings and their physical environment), and neurosemantics (names for relations-based input from the neurosensory system, and…

  12. Beneficial effects of semantic memory support on older adults' episodic memory: Differential patterns of support of item and associative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Praggyan Pam; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Ratneshwar, Srinivasan

    2016-02-01

    The effects of two types of semantic memory support-meaningfulness of an item and relatedness between items-in mitigating age-related deficits in item and associative, memory are examined in a marketing context. In Experiment 1, participants studied less (vs. more) meaningful brand logo graphics (pictures) paired with meaningful brand names (words) and later were assessed by item (old/new) and associative (intact/recombined) memory recognition tests. Results showed that meaningfulness of items eliminated age deficits in item memory, while equivalently boosting associative memory for older and younger adults. Experiment 2, in which related and unrelated brand logo graphics and brand name pairs served as stimuli, revealed that relatedness between items eliminated age deficits in associative memory, while improving to the same degree item memory in older and younger adults. Experiment 2 also provided evidence for a probable boundary condition that could reconcile seemingly contradictory extant results. Overall, these experiments provided evidence that although the two types of semantic memory support can improve both item and associative memory in older and younger adults, older adults' memory deficits can be eliminated when the type of support provided is compatible with the type of information required to perform well on the test. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26765749

  13. Automatic processing of taxonomic and thematic relations in semantic priming - Differentiation by early N400 and late frontal negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfei; Ye, Chun; Liang, Xiuling; Cao, Bihua; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2014-09-16

    Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical (plant-pine) or taxonomic categories (animal-plant). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categories, which performs external or complementary roles in the same scenario or event (bee-honey). The goal of this study was to explore the processing of hierarchical categories and thematic categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. The Evoked response potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the time course of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 300ms as participants performed a lexical decision task. Six experimental conditions were compared: hierarchical relations (offspring-grandson), internal features (gold-golden), productive relations (bee-honey), script relations (room-tenant), unrelated (star-spoon), and non-word trials (star-derf). We found faster reaction times for related prime-target pairs than unrelated pairs except for productive relations. The ERP data showed that an early N400 effect (200-400ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, a frontal negativity (400-550ms) elicited by productive relations was smaller (more positive) than other related words. We suggest that the smaller frontal negativity in the processing of productive relations indicates their increased salience in knowledge structure compared to less prominent hierarchical relations. Indeed, the allocation of attentional resources and subsequent recruitment of additional memory processing might be two of the hallmarks of thematic relations. PMID:25234647

  14. Semantic Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, Leo; Kiesel, Malte; Schumacher, Kinga; Bernardi, Ansgar

    In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie der Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft aussehen könnte und wo das Semantic Web neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Dazu werden Ansätze aus dem Bereich Semantic Web, Knowledge Representation, Desktop-Anwendungen und Visualisierung vorgestellt, die es uns ermöglichen, die bestehenden Daten eines Benutzers neu zu interpretieren und zu verwenden. Dabei bringt die Kombination von Semantic Web und Desktop Computern besondere Vorteile - ein Paradigma, das unter dem Titel Semantic Desktop bekannt ist. Die beschriebenen Möglichkeiten der Applikationsintegration sind aber nicht auf den Desktop beschränkt, sondern können genauso in Web-Anwendungen Verwendung finden.

  15. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types.......Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  16. Database Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, the first step to connect relational databases with systems consequence (Kent: "System Consequence" 2009), is concerned with the semantics of relational databases. It aims to to study system consequence in the logical/semantic system of relational databases. The paper, which was inspired by and which extends a recent set of papers on the theory of relational database systems (Spivak: "Functorial Data Migration" 2012), is linked with work on the Information Flow Framework (IFF) [ht...

  17. Development of a Bone-Conducted Ultrasonic Hearing Aid for the Profoundly Deaf: Evaluation of Sound Quality Using a Semantic Differential Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Fujiyuki, Chika; Kagomiya, Takayuki

    2013-07-01

    Bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU) is perceived even by the profoundly sensorineural deaf. A novel hearing aid using the perception of amplitude-modulated BCU (BCU hearing aid: BCUHA) has been developed. However, there is room for improvement particularly in terms of sound quality. BCU speech is accompanied by a strong high-pitched tone and contain some distortion. In this study, the sound quality of BCU speech with several types of amplitude modulation [double-sideband with transmitted carrier (DSB-TC), double-sideband with suppressed carrier (DSB-SC), and transposed modulations] and air-conducted (AC) speech was quantitatively evaluated using semantic differential and factor analysis. The results showed that all the types of BCU speech had higher metallic and lower esthetic factor scores than AC speech. On the other hand, transposed speech was closer than the other types of BCU speech to AC speech generally; the transposed speech showed a higher powerfulness factor score than the other types of BCU speech and a higher esthetic factor score than DSB-SC speech. These results provide useful information for further development of the BCUHA.

  18. Jigsaw Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts several pieces of formal semantics, in particular dynamic semantics, together again. In this paper I will try and sketch an overview of tasks, techniques, and results, which serves to at least suggest that it is possible to develop a coherent overall picture of undeniably important and structural phenomena in the interpretation of natural language. The idea is that the concept of meanings as truth conditions after all provides an excellent start for an integrated study of the meaning and use of natural language, and that an extended notion of goal directed pragmatics naturally complements this picture. None of the results reported here are really new, but we think it is important to re-collect them.ReferencesAsher, Nicholas & Lascarides, Alex. 1998. ‘Questions in Dialogue’. Linguistics and Philosophy 23: 237–309.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005364332007Borg, Emma. 2007. ‘Minimalism versus contextualism in semantics’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 339–359. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernest. 1997. ‘On an Alleged Connection between Indirect Quotation and Semantic Theory’. Mind and Language 12: pp. 278–296.Cappelen, Herman & Lepore, Ernie. 2005. Insensitive Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470755792Dekker, Paul. 2002. ‘Meaning and Use of Indefinite Expressions’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11: pp. 141–194.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017575313451Dekker, Paul. 2004. ‘Grounding Dynamic Semantics’. In Anne Bezuidenhout & Marga Reimer (eds. ‘Descriptions and Beyond: An Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays on Definite and Indefinite Descriptions and other Related Phenomena’, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Dekker, Paul. 2007. ‘Optimal Inquisitive Discourse’. In Maria Aloni, Alastair Butler & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Questions in Dynamic Semantics’, CRiSPI 17, pp. 83–101. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Frege, Gottlob. 1892. ‘Über Sinn und Bedeutung’. Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik NF 100: pp. 25–50.Ginzburg, Jonathan. 1995. ‘Resolving Questions, I & II’. Linguistics and Philosophy 18, no. 5,6: pp. 459–527 and 567–609.Ginzburg, Jonathan. To appear. The Interactive Stance: Meaning for Conversation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen. 1999. ‘The Logic of Interrogation’. In T. Matthews & D. Strolovitch (eds. ‘Proceedings of SALT IX’, Also appeared in Aloni, M., Butler, A., and Dekker, P., 2007, Questions in Dynamic Semantics, CRiSPI, Elsevier.: CLC Publications.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Roelofsen, Floris. 2009. ‘Inquisitive Semantics and Pragmatics’. In Jesus M. Larrazabal & Larraitz Zubeldia (eds. ‘Meaning, Content, and Argument: Proceedings of the ILCLI International Workshop on Semantics, Pragmatics, and Rhetoric’, Bilbao: University of the Basque Country Press.Groenendijk, Jeroen & Stokhof, Martin. 1991. ‘Dynamic Predicate Logic’. Linguistics and Philosophy 14, no. 1: pp. 39–100.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628304Hulstijn, Joris. 1997. ‘Structured Information States. Raising and Resolving Issues’. In Anton Benz & Gerhard Jäger (eds. ‘Proceedings of MunDial97’, pp. 99–117. University of Munich.Jäger, Gerhard. 1996. ‘Only Updates. On the Dynamics of the Focus Particle only’. In Martin Stokhof & Paul Dekker (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Tenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, pp. 387–405. Amsterdam: ILLC, University of Amsterdam.Lascarides, Alex & Asher, Nicholas. 2009. ‘The Interpretation of Questions in Dialogue’. In Arndt Riester & Torgrim Solstad (eds. ‘Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 13’,17–30. Stuttgart: IMS.Lewis, David. 1970. ‘General Semantics’. Synthese 22: 18–67.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00413598Montague, Richard. 1974. ‘English as a Formal Language’. In Richmond Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague’, pp. 188–221. New Haven: Yale University Press. Originally published in Bruno Visentini (et al., 1970, Linguagginella Società e nella Tecnica, Edizioni di Comunità, Milan, pp. 189–224.Pagin, Peter & Pelletier, Francis Jeffry. 2007. ‘Content, context, and composition’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism’, pp. 25–62. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Original manuscript, 2006, with abstract: http://people.su.se/~ppagin/papers/jeffandpeter10.pdf.Partee, Barbara H. 1973. ‘Some transformational extensions of Montague grammar’. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2: 509–534.Partee, Barbara H. 2004. ‘Reflections of a Formal Semanticist’. In Barbara H. Partee (ed. ‘Compositionality in Formal Semantics’, Oxford: Blackwell.Partee, B.H. 1979. ‘Semantics — mathematics of psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from different points of view’, pp. 1–14. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Quine, Willard Van Orman. 1960. ‘Translation and Meaning’. In W.V.O. Quine (ed. ‘word and Object’, Cambridge: MIT Press.Quine, Willard Van Orman. 1987. ‘Indeterminacy of Translation again’. Journal of Philosophical Logic 84: 5–10.Recanati, François. 1994. ‘Contextualism and Anti-Contextualism in the Philosophy of Language’. In S. L. Tsohatzidis (ed. ‘Foundations of Speech Act Theory: Philosophical and Linguistic Perspectives’, London and New York: Routledge. Pp. 156–66.Recanati, François. 2005. ‘Literalism and contextualism: Some varieties’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth’, pp. 171–196. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Recanati, François. 2006. ‘Crazy Minimalism’. Mind and Language 21, no. 1: pp. 21–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.2006.00303.xRoberts, Craige. 1996. ‘Information structure in discourse’. In J. H. Yoon & A. Kathol (eds. ‘Working Papers in Linguistics 49’, pp. 91–136. Ohio State University.Roberts, Craige. 2004. ‘Context in dynamic interpretation’. In Laurence Horn & Gregory Ward (eds. ‘Handbook of Contemporary Pragmatic Theory’, Blackwell.Stanley, Jason. 2005. ‘Semantics in context’. In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds. ‘Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth’, pp. 221–253. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Stokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer’. The Journal of Indian Philosophy 35: pp. 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Tarski, Alfred. 1944. ‘The Semantic Conception of Truth and the Foundations of Semantics’. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 4.Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1922. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Oxford: Routledge and Kegan. Originally appeared in 1921 as Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung in the Annalen der Naturphilosophie, 14.Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1953. Philosophische Untersuchungen/Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Blackwell. Translation by G.E.M. Anscombe.

  19. Semantic web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Stumme, Gerd; Hotho, Andreas; Berendt, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. This survey analyzes the convergence of trends from both areas: an increasing number of researchers is working on improving the results of Web Mining by exploiting semantic structures in the Web, and they make use of Web Mining techniques for building the Semantic Web. Last but not least, these techniques can be used for mining the Semantic Web itself. The Semantic Web is t...

  20. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such

  1. Jigsaw Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J. E. Dekker

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the enterprise of formal semantics has been under attack from several philosophical and linguistic perspectives, and it has certainly suffered from its own scattered state, which hosts quite a variety of paradigms which may seem to be incompatible. It will not do to try and answer the arguments of the critics, because the arguments are often well-taken. The negative conclusions, however, I believe are not. The only adequate reply seems to be a constructive one, which puts s...

  2. The semantics of biological forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Canal, Luisa; Dadam, James; Micciolo, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses how certain qualitative perceptual appearances of biological forms are correlated with expressions of natural language. Making use of the Osgood semantic differential, we presented the subjects with 32 drawings of biological forms and a list of 10 pairs of connotative adjectives to be put in correlations with them merely by subjective judgments. The principal components analysis made it possible to group the semantics of forms according to two distinct axes of variability: harmony and dynamicity. Specifically, the nonspiculed, nonholed, and flat forms were perceived as harmonic and static; the rounded ones were harmonic and dynamic. The elongated forms were somewhat disharmonious and somewhat static. The results suggest the existence in the general population of a correspondence between perceptual and semantic processes, and of a nonsymbolic relation between visual forms and their adjectival expressions in natural language. PMID:25669053

  3. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  4. Elucidating semantic disorganisation from a word comprehension task: do patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show differential processing of nouns, verbs and adjectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Susan L; Batty, Rachel A

    2008-07-01

    Memory deficits have been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the precise impact of semantic memory deficits on word comprehension, particularly across grammatical categories, has not been adequately investigated in these disorders. Furthermore, previous studies examining semantic memory have predominantly been designed so that most healthy controls perform at ceiling, questioning the validity of observed differences between patient and control groups. A new word definition task examined word comprehension across grammatical categories, i.e. nouns, verbs and adjectives, and was designed to overcome the ceiling effect. It was administered to 32 schizophrenia patients, 28 bipolar disorder patients and 32 matched healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients had a global impairment on the task but bipolar patients were only impaired on a recognition memory component. Word comprehension, however, across grammatical categories was comparable across groups. PMID:18495434

  5. Semantic relation vs. surprise: the differential effects of related and unrelated co-verbal gestures on neural encoding and subsequent recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Benjamin; Meyer, Lea; Green, Antonia; Kircher, Tilo

    2014-06-01

    Speech-associated gesturing leads to memory advantages for spoken sentences. However, unexpected or surprising events are also likely to be remembered. With this study we test the hypothesis that different neural mechanisms (semantic elaboration and surprise) lead to memory advantages for iconic and unrelated gestures. During fMRI-data acquisition participants were presented with video clips of an actor verbalising concrete sentences accompanied by iconic gestures (IG; e.g., circular gesture; sentence: "The man is sitting at the round table"), unrelated free gestures (FG; e.g., unrelated up down movements; same sentence) and no gestures (NG; same sentence). After scanning, recognition performance for the three conditions was tested. Videos were evaluated regarding semantic relation and surprise by a different group of participants. The semantic relationship between speech and gesture was rated higher for IG (IG>FG), whereas surprise was rated higher for FG (FG>IG). Activation of the hippocampus correlated with subsequent memory performance of both gesture conditions (IG+FG>NG). For the IG condition we found activation in the left temporal pole and middle cingulate cortex (MCC; IG>FG). In contrast, for the FG condition posterior thalamic structures (FG>IG) as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices were activated (FG>NG). Our behavioral and fMRI-data suggest different mechanisms for processing related and unrelated co-verbal gestures, both of them leading to enhanced memory performance. Whereas activation in MCC and left temporal pole for iconic co-verbal gestures may reflect semantic memory processes, memory enhancement for unrelated gestures relies on the surprise response, mediated by anterior/posterior cingulate cortex and thalamico-hippocampal structures. PMID:24746497

  6. Programming the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby; Taylor, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    With this book, the promise of the Semantic Web -- in which machines can find, share, and combine data on the Web -- is not just a technical possibility, but a practical reality Programming the Semantic Web demonstrates several ways to implement semantic web applications, using current and emerging standards and technologies. You'll learn how to incorporate existing data sources into semantically aware applications and publish rich semantic data. Each chapter walks you through a single piece of semantic technology and explains how you can use it to solve real problems. Whether you're writing

  7. Right Hemispheric Participation in Semantic Decision Improves Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Kiely M.; Jane B. Allendorfer; Jerzy P Szaflarski

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in healthy adults demonstrate involvement of a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions during a variety of semantic processing tasks. While these areas are believed to be fundamental to semantic processing, it is unclear if task performance is correlated with differential recruitment of these or other brain regions. The objective of this study was to identify the structures underlying improved accuracy on a semantic decision task. We...

  8. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  9. Is Semantics Physical?!

    CERN Document Server

    Koleva, Maria K

    2010-01-01

    It is demonstrated that under the hypothesis of boundedness, the semantics appears as a property of spontaneous physical processes. It turns that both semantic structure and semantic meaning have their own physical agents each of which is represented trough generic for the state space property. The boundedness sets an exclusive two-fold representation of a semantic unit: as a specific sequence of letters and as a performance of a specific engine so that their interplay serves as grounds for building a multi-layer hierarchy of semantic structures. It is established that in this setting the semantics admits both non-extensivity, permutation sensitivity and Zipf`s law. The robustness of the hierarchical organization of semantic structures is maintained by new generic form of non-local feedback that appears as a result of the necessary for sustaining boundeness matter wave emitting.

  10. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th. PMID:21388570

  11. Visualizing and Structuring Semantic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Mäenpää

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is proposed a method for representing semantic data and knowledge. The method is based two foundational concepts: semantic link network and adjacency model. The method allows graph presentations of semantic data and it preserves the semantic relationships between the concepts of the domain. Furthermore with the methodit is possible construct relational model of the semantically rich data.

  12. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    The availability of geographic and geospatial information and services, especially on the open Web has become abundant in the last several years with the proliferation of online maps, geo-coding services, geospatial Web services and geospatially enabled applications. The need for geospatial reasoning has significantly increased in many everyday applications including personal digital assistants, Web search applications, local aware mobile services, specialized systems for emergency response, medical triaging, intelligence analysis and more. Geospatial Semantics and the Semantic Web: Foundation

  13. Semantic Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Misha Mehra,; Nishant Kumar

    2011-01-01

    With changing technology, the Internet has taken a pivotal role in all kinds of applications in our daily lives. To handle flood of information on the Internet, smarter Web technology is also required. This requirement has led to the advent of newer, smarter and better Web technology called 'Semantic Web'. Semantic Web is the next step in Web evolution. High usability of Semantic Web has found significant applications in the field of life sciences, crime investigation, scientific research, li...

  14. Towards semantic web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Berendt, Bettina; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd

    2002-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. The idea is to improve, on the one hand, the results of Web Mining by exploiting the new semantic structures in the Web; and to make use of Web Mining, on overview of where the two areas meet today, and sketches ways of how a closer integration could be profitable.

  15. Enhancing medical database semantics.

    OpenAIRE

    Leão, B. de F.; A. Pavan

    1995-01-01

    Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, asso...

  16. Benchmarking Semantic Web technology

    OpenAIRE

    García-Castro, Raúl

    2008-01-01

    Semantic Web technologies need to interchange ontologies for further use. Due to the heterogeneity in the knowledge representation formalisms of the different existing technologies, interoperability is a problem in the SemanticWeb and the limits of the interoperability of current technologies are yet unknown. A massive improvement of the interoperability of current SemanticWeb technologies, or of any other characteristic of these technologies, requires continuous evaluations that should be de...

  17. Characterizing semantic web services

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano, Marcelo; Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Estevez, Elsa Clara

    2004-01-01

    Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which data contained in the web documents are machine-understandable. On the other hand, Web Services provide a new model of the web in which sites exchange dynamic information on demand. Combination of both introduces a new concept named Semantic Web Services in which semantic information is added to the different activities involved in Web Services, such as discovering, publication, composition, etc. In this paper, we analyze several ...

  18. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  19. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  20. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  1. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics. PMID:26103601

  2. Semantic search: issues and technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demich Olga Valerievna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems and general algorithm of a semantic search are considered in the paper. Distinctive features of the semantic search algorithm are described. The existing realization problems of semantic search engines are revealed.

  3. Pragmatics for formal semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal sem...

  4. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  5. Semantics of Statebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj Lervad

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Raki?, Petar Bojani?. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp.......Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Raki?, Petar Bojani?. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp....

  6. Semantic Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, A.; Henson, C.; Thirunarayan, K.

    2008-12-01

    Sensors are distributed across the globe leading to an avalanche of data about our environment. It is possible today to utilize networks of sensors to detect and identify a multitude of observations, from simple phenomena to complex events and situations. The lack of integration and communication between these networks, however, often isolates important data streams and intensifies the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to addressing this problem, the Semantic Sensor Web (SSW) [1] proposes that sensor data be annotated with semantic metadata that will both increase interoperability and provide contextual information essential for situational knowledge. Kno.e.sis Center's approach to SSW is an evolutionary one. It adds semantic annotations to the existing standard sensor languages of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) defined by OGC. These annotations enhance primarily syntactic XML-based descriptions in OGC's SWE languages with microformats, and W3C's Semantic Web languages- RDF and OWL. In association with semantic annotation and semantic web capabilities including ontologies and rules, SSW supports interoperability, analysis and reasoning over heterogeneous multi-modal sensor data. In this presentation, we will also demonstrate a mashup with support for complex spatio-temporal-thematic queries [2] and semantic analysis that utilize semantic annotations, multiple ontologies and rules. It uses existing services (e.g., GoogleMap) and semantics enhanced SWE's Sensor Observation Service (SOS) over weather and road condition data from various sensors that are part of Ohio's transportation network. Our upcoming plans are to demonstrate end to end (heterogeneous sensor to application) semantics support and study scalability of SSW involving thousands of sensors to about a billion triples. Keywords: Semantic Sensor Web, Spatiotemporal thematic queries, Semantic Web Enablement, Sensor Observation Service [1] Amit Sheth, Cory Henson, Satya S. Sahoo, "Semantic Sensor Web," IEEE Internet Computing, 12 (4), July-August 2008, pp. 78-83. http://knoesis.wright.edu/research/semsci/application_domain/sem_sensor/ [2] Amit Sheth and Matthew Perry, "Traveling the Semantic Web through Space, Time and Theme," IEEE Internet Computing, 12 (2), February-March 2008. http://knoesis.org/research/semweb/projects/stt/

  7. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  8. Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, N.; Skidmore, A.K.; Werff, H.M.A.; Groen, T.A.; de Boer, W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.; Kohi, E.; Peel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development....

  9. ELN in the semantic era

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Jeremy G.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of semantics in human-computer and computer-computer communications Capturing the laboratory processes and data in a semantically rich form at source. Implementing semantics - The use of the semantic web & grid The importance of context in the use of ELNs Publication and dissemination - Using the information obtained with ELNs

  10. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  11. Categorizing words through semantic memory navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge-Holthoefer, J.; Arenas, A.

    2010-03-01

    Semantic memory is the cognitive system devoted to storage and retrieval of conceptual knowledge. Empirical data indicate that semantic memory is organized in a network structure. Everyday experience shows that word search and retrieval processes provide fluent and coherent speech, i.e. are efficient. This implies either that semantic memory encodes, besides thousands of words, different kind of links for different relationships (introducing greater complexity and storage costs), or that the structure evolves facilitating the differentiation between long-lasting semantic relations from incidental, phenomenological ones. Assuming the latter possibility, we explore a mechanism to disentangle the underlying semantic backbone which comprises conceptual structure (extraction of categorical relations between pairs of words), from the rest of information present in the structure. To this end, we first present and characterize an empirical data set modeled as a network, then we simulate a stochastic cognitive navigation on this topology. We schematize this latter process as uncorrelated random walks from node to node, which converge to a feature vectors network. By doing so we both introduce a novel mechanism for information retrieval, and point at the problem of category formation in close connection to linguistic and non-linguistic experience.

  12. UML 2 Semantics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lano, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    A coherent and integrated account of the leading UML 2 semantics work and the practical applications of UML semantics development With contributions from leading experts in the field, the book begins with an introduction to UML and goes on to offer in-depth and up-to-date coverage of: The role of semantics Considerations and rationale for a UML system model Definition of the UML system model UML descriptive semantics Axiomatic semantics of UML class diagrams The object constraint language Axiomatic semantics of state machines A coalgebraic semantic framework for reasoning about interaction des

  13. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

  14. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  15. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  16. SEMANTIC WEB (CREATING AND QUERYING)

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya S. Dandagi; Dr. Nandini Sidna

    2016-01-01

    Semantic Web is a system that allows machines to understand complex human requests. Depending on the meaning semantic web replies. Semantics is the learning of the meanings of linguistic appearance. It is the main branch of contemporary linguistics. Semantics is meaning of words, text or a phrase and relations between them. RDF provides essential support to the Semantic Web. To represent distributed information RDF is created. Applications can use RDF created and process it in an adaptive man...

  17. Semantics for Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    van Harmelen, Frank; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Hendler, James A.; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Hitzler, Pascal; Wright State University; Janowicz, Krzysztof; University of California, Santa Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduction summarizes the seven guest-edited contributions to AI Magazine that explore opportunities and challenges arising from transferring and adapting semantic web technologies to the big data quest.

  18. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  19. "Pre-semantic" cognition revisited: critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rogers, Timothy T; Hopper, Samantha; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2010-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia show a specific pattern of impairment on both verbal and non-verbal "pre-semantic" tasks, e.g., reading aloud, past tense generation, spelling to dictation, lexical decision, object decision, colour decision and delayed picture copying. All seven tasks are characterised by poorer performance for items that are atypical of the domain and "regularization errors" (irregular/atypical items are produced as if they were domain-typical). The emergence of this pattern across diverse tasks in the same patients indicates that semantic memory plays a key role in all of these types of "pre-semantic" processing. However, this claim remains controversial because semantically impaired patients sometimes fail to show an influence of regularity. This study demonstrates that (a) the location of brain damage and (b) the underlying nature of the semantic deficit affect the likelihood of observing the expected relationship between poor comprehension and regularity effects. We compared the effect of multimodal semantic impairment in the context of semantic dementia and stroke aphasia on the seven "pre-semantic" tasks listed above. In all of these tasks, the semantic aphasia patients were less sensitive to typicality than the semantic dementia patients, even though the two groups obtained comparable scores on semantic tests. The semantic aphasia group also made fewer regularization errors and many more unrelated and perseverative responses. We propose that these group differences reflect the different locus for the semantic impairment in the two conditions: patients with semantic dementia have degraded semantic representations, whereas semantic aphasia patients show deregulated semantic cognition with concomitant executive deficits. These findings suggest a reinterpretation of single-case studies of comprehension-impaired aphasic patients who fail to show the expected effect of regularity on "pre-semantic" tasks. Consequently, such cases do not demonstrate the independence of these tasks from semantic memory. PMID:19766662

  20. Semantic Representation of Synaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Synaesthesia has multifaceted consequences for both subjective experience and cognitive performance. Here, I broach the issue of how synaesthesia is represented in semantic memory. I hypothesize that, for example, in grapheme colour synaesthesia, colour is represented as an additional feature in the semantic network that enables the formation of associations that are not present in non-synaesthetes. Thus, synaesthesia provokes richer memory representations which enable learning opportunities ...

  1. Semantic based DNS Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In network level forensics, Domain Name Service (DNS) is a rich source of information. This paper describes a new approach to mine DNS data for forensic purposes. We propose a new technique that leverages semantic and natural language processing tools in order to analyze large volumes of DNS data. The main research novelty consists in detecting malicious and dangerous domain names by evaluating the semantic similarity with already known names. This process can provide valuable information for...

  2. Semantic transfer in Verbmobil

    OpenAIRE

    Copestake, Ann

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a detailed discussion of semantic transfer in the context of the Verbmobil Machine Translation project. The use of semantic transfer as a translation mechanism is introduced and justified by comparison with alternative approaches. Some criteria for evaluation of transfer frameworks are discussed and a comparison is made of three different approaches to the representation of translation rules or equivalences. This is followed by a discussion of control of application of transfer ...

  3. Uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto: evaluación mediante diferencial semántico Use of the mirror in the second stage of labor: evaluation by means of semantic differential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio José Becerra-Maya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: examinar la actitud de la mujer y su pareja, sobre el uso del espejo en el periodo expulsivo del parto. Método: estudio descriptivo transversal, realizado en el Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón. A partir de un estudio piloto realizado sobre una muestra de 92 sujetos, se elaboró una escala de 14 ítems basada en la técnica del diferencial semántico. Una muestra de 159 sujetos completó la escala así como el cuestionario estado-rasgo (STAI. Resultados: el porcentaje de aceptación fue del 90%. Las puntuaciones medias superan el valor neutro en todos los ítems. El 88,5% (IC 95%:78,8 a 98,1 de la mujeres que experimentaron la vivencia consideraron que el uso del espejo estimula pujar frente al 73,6% (IC 95%:62,7 a 84,4 que lo manifestaron como expectativa. Conclusiones: El uso del espejo durante el periodo expulsivo es valorado favorablemente por la mayoría de las mujeres y sus parejas.Aims: To know the attitude of the woman and her partner the use of the mirror in the second stage of labor. Methods: This descriptive cross - sectional study was carried at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, Spain. The data were collected using an 14 Items scale based on the semantic differential technique developed from a pilot study with 92 subjects. A sample de 159 subjects they completed the scale, as well as the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results: The percentage of acceptance was of 90%. The mean score in the scale overcame the neutral value in all items. The 88,5% (CI 95%:78,8 a 98,1 of women who experienced the experience thought that the use of the mirror stimulates to push versus 73,6% (CI 95%:62,7 a 84,4 before the delivery. Conclusions: The use of the mirror during the second stage of labor is valued favorably by the majority of the women and her pairs.

  4. Foundations of semantic web technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Hitzler, Pascal; Rudolph, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for Semantics Building Models Calculating with Knowledge Exchanging Information Semanic Web Technologies RESOURCE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (RDF)Simple Ontologies in RDF and RDF SchemaIntroduction to RDF Syntax for RDF Advanced Features Simple Ontologies in RDF Schema Encoding of Special Data Structures An ExampleRDF Formal Semantics Why Semantics? Model-Theoretic Semantics for RDF(S) Syntactic Reasoning with Deduction Rules The Semantic Limits of RDF(S)WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) Ontologies in OWL OWL Syntax and Intuitive Semantics OWL Species The Forthcoming OWL 2 StandardOWL Formal Sem

  5. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen, Etyala Ramyasree

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the Worl...

  6. A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Denhière, Guy; Lemaire, Benoît; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is c...

  7. The Semantic SPASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Crichton, D.; Thieman, J.; Ramirez, P.; King, T.; Weiss, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) prototype demonstrates the use of semantic web technologies to capture, document, and manage the SPASE data model, support facet- and text-based search, and provide flexible and intuitive user interfaces. The SPASE data model, under development since late 2003 by a consortium of space physics domain experts, is intended to serve as the basis for interoperability between independent data systems. To develop the Semantic SPASE prototype, the data model was first analyzed to determine the inherit object classes and their attributes. These were entered into Stanford Medical Informatics' Protege ontology tool and annotated using definitions from the SPASE documentation. Further analysis of the data model resulted in the addition of class relationships. Finally attributes and relationships that support broad-scope interoperability were added from research associated with the Object-Oriented Data Technology task. To validate the ontology and produce a knowledge base, example data products were ingested. The capture of the data model as an ontology results in a more formal specification of the model. The Protege software is also a powerful management tool and supports plug-ins that produce several graphical notations as output. The stated purpose of the semantic web is to support machine understanding of web-based information. Protege provides an export capability to RDF/XML and RDFS/XML for this purpose. Several research efforts use RDF/XML knowledge bases to provide semantic search. MIT's Simile/Longwell project provides both facet- and text-based search using a suite of metadata browsers and the text-based search engine Lucene. Using the Protege generated RDF knowledge-base a semantic search application was easily built and deployed to run as a web application. Configuration files specify the object attributes and values to be designated as facets (i.e. search) constraints. Semantic web technologies provide the means to easily implement semantic search for science data archives using space science data models and metadata. It also suggests the means to support correlative search across science disciplines, missions, and instruments since multiple ontologies can be gathered together for processing . Finally broad scope interoperability can be envisioned where semantically aware software agents reason about and process distributed science data repositories.

  8. Semantic Changes of Gerund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, semantic models of gerund in the Lithuanian language are being investigated. Their productivity and the reasons of their change in the Lithuanian language are identified. The tendency to use gerund semantic structure in noun constructions is typical not only in Greek or Latin languages but also in English, Russian, etc. Regular polysemy is regarded as semantic derivation, i. e. shifting from main meanings to derivative ones. The object of this investigation is the usage patterns of gerunds which bear both the meaning of a verb and a noun. The examples for the present study have been gathered from the language of different Lithuanian dialects as well as from the Dictionary of the Lithuanian language (different volumes, etc. The research results reveal that semantic changes of object and result are the most productive, whereas mood or time semantic model proved to be not so productive. The productivity of regular models depends on the fact that there are suffix derivatives which have the meaning of a result. The research shows that scientific style and language of different dialects are rich in the use of gerund.

  9. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  10. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  11. Implicit learning of semantic preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Paciorek, Albertyna

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD dissertation examines the phenomenon of semantic implicit learning, using semantic preferences of novel verbs as a test case. Implicit learning refers to the phenomenon of learning without intending to learn or awareness that one is learning at all. Semantic preference (or selectional preference – as preferred in computational linguistics) is the tendency of a word to co-occur with words sharing similar semantic features. For example, ‘drink’ is typically fo...

  12. Implicit learning of semantic preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Paciorek, Albertyna

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD dissertation examines the phenomenon of semantic implicit learning, using semantic preferences of novel verbs as a test case. Implicit learning refers to the phenomenon of learning without intending to learn or awareness that one is learning at all. Semantic preference (or selectional preference ? as preferred in computational linguistics) is the tendency of a word to co-occur with words sharing similar semantic features. For example, ?drink? is typically fo...

  13. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  14. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  15. A Timed Semantics for SDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Simon; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Sharp, Robin

    An alternative formal semantics for describing the temporal aspects for the ITU-T specification language SDL is proposed, based on the interval temporal logic Duration Calculus (DC). It is shown how DC can be used to give an SDL semantics with a precise treatment oftemporal phenomena. The semantics...

  16. Semantic Search of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses semantic search of Web services using natural language processing. We first survey various existing approaches, focusing on the fact that the expensive costs of current semantic annotation frameworks result in limited use of semantic search for large scale applications. We then propose a vector space model based service…

  17. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  18. A semantic space for modeling children's semantic memory

    CERN Document Server

    Denhière, Guy; Bellissens, Cédrick; Jhean, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model of children's semantic memory, which is based on a corpus reproducing the kinds of texts children are exposed to. After presenting the literature in the development of the semantic memory, a preliminary French corpus of 3.2 million words is described. Similarities in the resulting semantic space are compared to human data on four tests: association norms, vocabulary test, semantic judgments and memory tasks. A second corpus is described, which is composed of subcorpora corresponding to various ages. This stratified corpus is intended as a basis for developmental studies. Finally, two applications of these models of semantic memory are presented: the first one aims at tracing the development of semantic similarities paragraph by paragraph; the second one describes an implementation of a model of text comprehension derived from the Construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988, 1998) and based on such models of semantic memory.

  19. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  20. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2016-03-01

    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory. PMID:26277459

  1. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  2. Semantic-based transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Dorna, Michael; Emele, Martin

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a new semantic-based transfer approach developed and applied within the Verbmobil Machine Translation project. We give an overview of the declarative transfer formalism together with its procedural realization. Our approach is discussed and compared with several other approaches from the MT literature. The results presented in this article have been implemented and integrated into the Verbmobil system.

  3. Universal Semantics in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenying

    2009-01-01

    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  4. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  5. Communication of Semantic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2004-01-01

    processes. This working paper argues for the need for a commonly accepted terminology used to communicate semantic product properties. Designers and others involved in design processes are dependent of a sharp and clear verbal communication. Search facilities in computer programs for product and material...

  6. An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

  7. From Data to Semantic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Floridi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  8. From Data to Semantic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2003-06-01

    There is no consensus yet on the definition of semantic information. This paper contributes to the current debate by criticising and revising the Standard Definition of semantic Information (SDI) as meaningful data, in favour of the Dretske-Grice approach: meaningful and well-formed data constitute semantic information only if they also qualify as contingently truthful. After a brief introduction, SDI is criticised for providing necessary but insufficient conditions for the definition of semantic information. SDI is incorrect because truth-values do not supervene on semantic information, and misinformation (that is, false semantic information) is not a type of semantic information, but pseudo-information, that is not semantic information at all. This is shown by arguing that none of the reasons for interpreting misinformation as a type of semantic information is convincing, whilst there are compelling reasons to treat it as pseudo-information. As a consequence, SDI is revised to include a necessary truth-condition. The last section summarises the main results of the paper and indicates the important implications of the revised definition for the analysis of the deflationary theories of truth, the standard definition of knowledge and the classic, quantitative theory of semantic information.

  9. Live Social Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Harith; Szomszor, Martin; Cattuto, Ciro; van den Broeck, Wouter; Correndo, Gianluca; Barrat, Alain

    Social interactions are one of the key factors to the success of conferences and similar community gatherings. This paper describes a novel application that integrates data from the semantic web, online social networks, and a real-world contact sensing platform. This application was successfully deployed at ESWC09, and actively used by 139 people. Personal profiles of the participants were automatically generated using several Web 2.0 systems and semantic academic data sources, and integrated in real-time with face-to-face contact networks derived from wearable sensors. Integration of all these heterogeneous data layers made it possible to offer various services to conference attendees to enhance their social experience such as visualisation of contact data, and a site to explore and connect with other participants. This paper describes the architecture of the application, the services we provided, and the results we achieved in this deployment.

  10. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    . Language has not kept pace with this development. From obvious reasons in that millions of people have to adapt to this new situation with lightning speed. That seems not to be possible. We have to use words, metaphors and comparisons containing adverse connotations, and this situation creates ways of...... media, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient......Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...

  11. Whither Experimental Semantics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to propose a methodology for the theory of reference in which experiments feature prominently. These experiments should primarily test linguistic usage rather than the folk’s referential intuitions. The proposed methodology urges the use of: (A philosophers’ referential intuitions, both informally and, occasionally, scientifically gathered; (B the corpus, both informally and scientifically gathered; (C elicited production; and, occasionally, (D folk’s referential intuitions. The most novel part of this is (C and that is where most of the experimental work should be. The secondary goal of the paper is to defend my earlier paper “Experimental Semantics” from the criticisms of Machery, Mallon, Nichols, and Stich in “If Folk Intuitions Vary, Then What?” They charge that I have seriously misunderstood their goal in “Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style” and that many of my arguments are “largely irrelevant”. I argue that these charges are baseless.

  12. Where Are the Semantics in the Semantic Web?

    OpenAIRE

    Uschold, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The most widely accepted defining feature of the semantic web is machine-usable content. By this definition, the semantic web is already manifest in shopping agents that automatically access and use web content to find the lowest air fares or book prices. However, where are the semantics? Most people regard the semantic web as a vision, not a reality -- so shopping agents should not "count." To use web content, machines need to know what to do when they encounter it, which, in turn, requires ...

  13. Semantic trajectory compression

    OpenAIRE

    F. Schmid; K. F. Richter; Laube, P

    2009-01-01

    In the light of rapidly growing repositories capturing the movement tra jectories of people in spacetime, the need for tra jectory compression becomes obvious. This paper argues for semantic trajectory compression (STC) as a means of substantially compressing the movement trajectories in an urban environment with acceptable information loss. STC exploits that human urban movement and its large–scale use (LBS, navigation) is embedded in some geographic context, typically defined by tran...

  14. Exploring Semantic Textual Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    González Agirre, Aitor

    2012-01-01

    [EN]Measuring semantic similarity and relatedness between textual items (words, sentences, paragraphs or even documents) is a very important research area in Natural Language Processing (NLP). In fact, it has many practical applications in other NLP tasks. For instance, Word Sense Disambiguation, Textual Entailment, Paraphrase detection, Machine Translation, Summarization and other related tasks such as Information Retrieval or Question Answering. In this masther thesis we study di erent appr...

  15. Semantic Web Services Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Heymans, Stijn; Hoffmann, Joerg; Marconi, Annapaola; Phlipps, Joshua; Weber, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    The research area of Semantic Web Services investigates the annotation of services, typically in a SOA, with a precise mathematical meaning in a formal ontology. These annotations allow a higher degree of automation. The last decade has seen a wide proliferation of such approaches, proposing different ontology languages, and paradigms for employing these in practice. The next chapter gives an overview of these approaches. In the present chapter, we provide an understanding of the fundamental ...

  16. Semantic Exploration of DNS

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme; Wagner, Cynthia; Engel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The DNS structure discloses useful information about the organization and the operation of an enterprise network, which can be used for designing attacks as well as monitoring domains supporting malicious activities. Thus, this paper introduces a new method for exploring the DNS domains. Although our previous work described a tool to generate existing DNS names accurately in order to probe a domain automatically, the approach is extended by leveraging semantic analysis of domain names. In par...

  17. Metaphor and Lexical Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Glanzberg

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This paper shows that several sorts of expressions cannot be interpreted metaphorically, including determiners, tenses, etc. Generally, functional categories cannot be interpreted metaphorically, while lexical categories can. This reveals a semantic property of functional categories, and it shows that metaphor can be used as a probe for investigating them. It also reveals an important linguistic constraint on metaphor. The paper argues this constraint applies to the interface betwee...

  18. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.

  19. Semantic Search Engine: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusree.ramachandran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search engines which gives the selected results which the user searching for. So here in this paper, a survey is done about the semantic search engines to revel the promising features of the semantic search engines(SSE.It deals about the description of some of the best semantic search engines

  20. Survey of semantic modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.

    1975-07-01

    The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.

  1. Towards a Semantic Grid Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Goble, Carole

    2005-01-01

    The Semantic Grid is an extension of the current Grid in which information and services are given well defined and explicitly represented meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. In the last few years, several projects have embraced this vision and there are already successful pioneering applications that combine the strengths of the Grid and of semantic technologies. However, the Semantic Grid currently lacks a reference architecture, or a systematic approach for...

  2. Semantic Games for Algorithmic Players

    OpenAIRE

    Genot, Emmanuel; Jacot, Justine

    2012-01-01

    We describe a class of semantic extensive entailment game (eeg) with algorithmic players, related to game-theoretic semantics (gts), and generalized to classical first-order semantic entailment. Players have preferences for parsimonious spending of computational resources, and compute partial strategies, under qualitative uncertainty about future histories. We prove the existence of local preferences for moves, and strategic fixpoints, that allow to map eeg game-tree to the building rules and...

  3. Archaeology and the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Leif

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the application of Semantic Web technologies to the discipline of Archaeology. Part One (Chapters 1-3) offers a discussion of historical developments in this field. It begins with a general comparison of the supposed benefits of semantic technologies and notes that they partially align with the needs of archaeologists. This is followed by a literature review which identifies two different perspectives on the Semantic Web: Mixed-Source Knowledge Representation (MSKR), whic...

  4. Semantic multimedia analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2014-01-01

    Broad in scope, Semantic Multimedia Analysis and Processing provides a complete reference of techniques, algorithms, and solutions for the design and the implementation of contemporary multimedia systems. Offering a balanced, global look at the latest advances in semantic indexing, retrieval, analysis, and processing of multimedia, the book features the contributions of renowned researchers from around the world. Its contents are based on four fundamental thematic pillars: 1) information and content retrieval, 2) semantic knowledge exploitation paradigms, 3) multimedia personalization, and 4)

  5. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-01-01

    System semantics of explanatory dictionariesSome semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hype...

  6. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionariesSome semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  7. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  8. Spatiotemporal Signatures of Lexical-Semantic Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ellen F; Weber, Kirsten; Gramfort, Alexandre; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2016-04-01

    Although there is broad agreement that top-down expectations can facilitate lexical-semantic processing, the mechanisms driving these effects are still unclear. In particular, while previous electroencephalography (EEG) research has demonstrated a reduction in the N400 response to words in a supportive context, it is often challenging to dissociate facilitation due to bottom-up spreading activation from facilitation due to top-down expectations. The goal of the current study was to specifically determine the cortical areas associated with facilitation due to top-down prediction, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings supplemented by EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic priming paradigm. In order to modulate expectation processes while holding context constant, we manipulated the proportion of related pairs across 2 blocks (10 and 50% related). Event-related potential results demonstrated a larger N400 reduction when a related word was predicted, and MEG source localization of activity in this time-window (350-450 ms) localized the differential responses to left anterior temporal cortex. fMRI data from the same participants support the MEG localization, showing contextual facilitation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus for the high expectation block only. Together, these results provide strong evidence that facilitatory effects of lexical-semantic prediction on the electrophysiological response 350-450 ms postonset reflect modulation of activity in left anterior temporal cortex. PMID:25316341

  9. A Lexical Semantic Database for Verbmobil

    OpenAIRE

    Heinecke, Johannes; Worm, Karsten L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development and use of a lexical semantic database for the Verbmobil speech-to-speech machine translation system. The motivation is to provide a common information source for the distributed development of the semantics, transfer and semantic evaluation modules and to store lexical semantic information application-independently. The database is organized around a set of abstract semantic classes and has been used to define the semantic contributions of the lemmata in ...

  10. Non-semantic contributions to "semantic" redundancy gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherdson, Peter; Miller, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Recently, two groups of researchers have reported redundancy gains (enhanced performance with multiple, redundant targets) in tasks requiring semantic categorization. Here we report two experiments aimed at determining whether the gains found by one of these groups resulted from some form of semantic coactivation. We asked undergraduate psychology students to complete choice RT tasks requiring the semantic categorization of visually presented words, and compared performance with redundant targets from the same semantic category to performance with redundant targets from different semantic categories. If the redundancy gains resulted from the combination of information at a semantic level, they should have been greater in the former than the latter situation. However, our results showed no significant differences in redundancy gain (for latency and accuracy) between same-category and different-category conditions, despite gains appearing in both conditions. Thus, we suggest that redundancy gain in the semantic categorization task may result entirely from statistical facilitation or combination of information at non-semantic levels. PMID:26339718

  11. Semantic Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    We first present our work in machine translation, during which we used aligned sentences to train a neural network to embed n-grams of different languages into an $d$-dimensional space, such that n-grams that are the translation of each other are close with respect to some metric. Good n-grams to n-grams translation results were achieved, but full sentences translation is still problematic. We realized that learning semantics of sentences and documents was the key for solving a lot of natural...

  12. Semantic and Process Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Oscar Fernández Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management systems support education at different levels of the education. This is very important for the process in which the higher education of Cuba is involved. Structural transformations of teaching are focused on supporting the foundation of the information society in the country. This paper describes technical aspects of the designing of a model for the integration of multiple knowledgemanagement tools supporting teaching. The proposal is based on the definition of an ontology for the explicit formal description of the semantic of motivations of students and teachers in the learning process. Its target is to facilitate knowledge spreading.

  13. Universal semantic communication

    CERN Document Server

    Juba, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Is meaningful communication possible between two intelligent parties who share no common language or background? In this work, a theoretical framework is proposed in which it is possible to address when and to what extent such semantic communication is possible: such problems can be rigorously addressed by explicitly focusing on the goals of the communication. Under this framework, it is possible to show that for many goals, communication without any common language or background is possible using universal protocols. This work should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate-level knowled

  14. Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

  15. Mappings for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Pérez, A.; Ramos, JA

    2008-01-01

    Mappings usually relate two similar knowledge aware resources. Mapping examples abound in thesauri, databases, and ontologies. Additionally, mapping systems can relate two different knowledge resources, such as databases and ontologies. All these mappings are operationally different and are sometimes named differently— for example, correspondences, semantic bridges, transformations, semantic relations, functions, conversions, and domain-method relations

  16. The semantic planetary data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel; Kelly, Sean; Mattmann, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a brief overview of the PDS data model and the PDS catalog. It will then describe the implentation of the Semantic PDS including the development of the formal ontology, the generation of RDFS/XML and RDF/XML data sets, and the buiding of the semantic search application.

  17. Evolutionary Self-Adaptive Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhasz, Rafael; Stern, Julio M.

    2011-03-01

    We present SASC, Self-Adaptive Semantic Crossover, a new class of crossover operators for genetic programming. SASC operators are designed to induce the emergence and then preserve good building-blocks, using meta-control techniques based on semantic compatibility measures. SASC performance is tested in a case study concerning the replication of investment funds.

  18. On Semantic Information in Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Johannsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The connection between semantic information and evolution has gained growing attention recently. Evolution in this contribution—as in others before—we consider as being driven by information. Semantic information, as we consider it, is based on energy. It follows syntactic and semantic rules. We assume syntax, semantics and pragmatics to be structural features of information in biological evolution. These features started to evolve with the very beginning of life and have become more complex and richer in the course of the unfolding biological evolution across all species. We argue that semantic information is an exclusive feature of biological evolution. We present an information model covering this which to a certain degree—it does not cover quantitative aspects—complements Shannon’s information theory and opens novel views on informational based processes in nature.

  19. Disorders of semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, R A; Warrington, E K

    1994-10-29

    It is now established that selective disorders of semantic memory may arise after focal cerebral lesions. Debate and dissension remain on three principal issues: category specificity, the status of modality-dependent knowledge, and the stability and sufficiency of stored information. Theories of category specificity have focused on the frequently reported dissociation between living things and man-made objects. However, other dimensions need theoretical integration. Impairments can be both finer-grain and broader in range. A second variable of importance is stimulus modality. Reciprocal interactive dissociations between vision and language and between animals and objects will be described. These indicate that the derivation of semantic information is constrained by input modality: we appear to have evolved separable databases for the visual and the verbal world. Thirdly, an orthogonal distinction has been drawn between degradation disorders, where representations are insufficient for comprehension, and access deficits, in which representations have become unstable. These issues may have their parallel in the acquisition of knowledge by the developing child. PMID:7886158

  20. Latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304272

  1. Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Ana Sofia; Olsson, Henrik; Schooler, Lael J.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual's semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals…

  2. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    in closely related languages can differ substantially in their semantics. In related languages, where shared lexical form does not always mean shared semantics, ethnolinguistic studies in semantic change and shifts in polysemy patterns can help to reveal and explain the roots of semantic diversity....

  3. Semantic enrichment for medical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Geller, James

    2006-04-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) contains two separate but interconnected knowledge structures, the Semantic Network (upper level) and the Metathesaurus (lower level). In this paper, we have attempted to work out better how the use of such a two-level structure in the medical field has led to notable advances in terminologies and ontologies. However, most ontologies and terminologies do not have such a two-level structure. Therefore, we present a method, called semantic enrichment, which generates a two-level ontology from a given one-level terminology and an auxiliary two-level ontology. During semantic enrichment, concepts of the one-level terminology are assigned to semantic types, which are the building blocks of the upper level of the auxiliary two-level ontology. The result of this process is the desired new two-level ontology. We discuss semantic enrichment of two example terminologies and how we approach the implementation of semantic enrichment in the medical domain. This implementation performs a major part of the semantic enrichment process with the medical terminologies, with difficult cases left to a human expert. PMID:16185937

  4. Analogical priming via semantic relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, B A; Holyoak, K J; Morrison, R G

    2001-04-01

    Research on semantic memory has often tacitly treated semantic relations as simple conduits for spreading activation between associated object concepts, rather than as integral components of semantic organization. Yet conceptual relations, and the role bindings they impose on the objects they relate, are central to such cognitive tasks as discourse comprehension, inference, problem solving, and analogical reasoning. The present study addresses the question of whether semantic relations and their bindings can influence access to semantic memory. The experiments investigated whether, and under what conditions, presenting a prime pair of words linked by 1 of 10 common semantic relations would facilitate processing of a target pair of words linked by the same relation. No effect was observed when participants merely read the prime; however, relational priming was observed under instructions to note and use the semantic relations. Participants were faster at making a lexical decision or naming a word on a related pair of target words when that pair was primed with an analogously related pair of words than when the prime pair consisted of either two unrelated words or two words linked by some other relation. This evidence of analogical priming suggests that under an appropriate strategic set, lexical decisions and naming latencies can be influenced by a process akin to analogical mapping. PMID:11407415

  5. Enhancing Web Search with Heterogeneous Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Shi, Zhongzhi

    This paper explores four kinds of semantic knowledge to improve keyword-based Web search, including thesauruses, categories, ontologies, and social annotations. These heterogeneous semantic knowledge represent meanings of Web information, thus they can be used to improve search results in respect of semantic relevance. Currently, different semantic search paradigms have been developed for different kind of semantic knowledge respectively. However, how to make the most of all heterogeneous semantic knowledge to optimize Web search is still a big challenge in practice. To these ends, this paper proposes an integrated semantic search mechanism to incorporate textual information and keyword search with heterogeneous semantic knowledge and semantic search. Experiments show that the proposed mechanism effectively integrates heterogeneous semantic knowledge to improve Web search.

  6. Semantic Web Mining: Benefits, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Farha Shazmeen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two areas Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and using mining to create semantics. Web Mining aims at discovering insights about the meaning of Web resources and their usage In Semantic Web, the semantics information is presented by the relation with others and is recorded by RDF. RDF which is semantic web technology that can be utilized to build efficient and scalable systems for Cloud. The Semantic Web enriches the World Wide Web by machine process able information which supports the user in his tasks, and also helps the users to get the exact search result .In this paper; we discuss the interplay of the Semantic Web with Web Mining, list out the benefits. Challenges, opportunities of the Semantic web are discussed.

  7. Formal Component-Based Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Madlener, Ken; van Eekelen, Marko; 10.4204/EPTCS.62.2

    2011-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions for improving the scalability of semantics of programming languages is Component-Based Semantics, introduced by Peter D. Mosses. It is expected that this framework can also be used effectively for modular meta theoretic reasoning. This paper presents a formalization of Component-Based Semantics in the theorem prover Coq. It is based on Modular SOS, a variant of SOS, and makes essential use of dependent types, while profiting from type classes. This formalization constitutes a contribution towards modular meta theoretic formalizations in theorem provers. As a small example, a modular proof of determinism of a mini-language is developed.

  8. Semantic Search Engine: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Anusree.ramachandran; Sujatha, R.

    2011-01-01

    The semantic search engines have some advantages on the web search engines from the users view. In this fast life everybody need the answer for their queries very fast .In this scenario semantic searching engines will be helpful. It deals with the actual meaning of the queries. The tremendous growth in the volume of data or the information lead the traditional search engines to get the answers syntactically correct but large in amount. That might be the reason to get into the semantic search ...

  9. Semantic Reasoning for Scene Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas; Kalkan, S.; Wörgötter, F.; Krüger, Norbert

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical architecture for representing scenes, covering 2D and 3D aspects of visual scenes as well as the semantic relations between the different aspects. We argue that labeled graphs are a suitable representational framework for this representation and demonstrate...... its potential by two applications. As a first application, we localize lane structures by the semantic descriptors and their relations in a Bayesian framework. As the second application, which is in the context of vision based grasping, we show how the semantic relations can be associated to actions...

  10. Workspaces in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the recency and relatively limited adoption of Semantic Web technologies. practical issues related to technology scaling have received less attention than foundational issues. Nonetheless, these issues must be addressed if the Semantic Web is to realize its full potential. In particular, we concentrate on the lack of scoping methods that reduce the size of semantic information spaces so they are more efficient to work with and more relevant to an agent's needs. We provide some intuition to motivate the need for such reduced information spaces, called workspaces, give a formal definition, and suggest possible methods of deriving them.

  11. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one......In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions and...

  12. Semantic acquisition games harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Å imko, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and extensive review of state-of-the-art in semantics acquisition game (SAG) design A set of design patterns for SAG designers A set of case studies (real SAG projects) demonstrating the use of SAG design patterns

  13. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  14. Adaptive semantics visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Nazemi, Kawa

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a novel approach for intelligent visualizations that adapts the different visual variables and data processing to human’s behavior and given tasks. Thereby a number of new algorithms and methods are introduced to satisfy the human need of information and knowledge and enable a usable and attractive way of information acquisition. Each method and algorithm is illustrated in a replicable way to enable the reproduction of the entire “SemaVis” system or parts of it. The introduced evaluation is scientifically well-designed and performed with more than enough participants to validate the benefits of the methods. Beside the introduced new approaches and algorithms, readers may find a sophisticated literature review in Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, Semantics and information extraction, and intelligent and adaptive systems. This book is based on an awarded and distinguished doctoral thesis in computer science.

  15. Explaining presupposition projection with dynamic semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rothschild

    2011-01-01

    Heim's (1982, 1983b) dynamic semantics provides an attractive system for capturing the basic facts about presupposition projection. A long-standing criticism of this semantics is that it requires for each connective lexical stipulations that are not determined by its truth-conditional meaning. I give a precise formulation of this criticism in terms of what I call a "rewrite semantics". Then, I use this idea of a rewrite semantics to formulate a new version of dynamic semantics. This version d...

  16. Semantic Web Services in Corporate Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Moussa; Gandon, Fabien

    2007-01-01

    We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing corporate semantic web server architecture we use to implement corporate memories. We rely on a semantic web search engine, to provide a semantic registry and automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules we also demonstrate how to compose the web services with queries on the knowledge stored in the corporate memory to automatically populate t...

  17. Model Design of Semantic Website Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Guo; Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Semantic web is an extension of the current World Wide Web. This paper proposes a new model of constructing semantic website, and takes the construction of semantic website in the field of tourism in Africa as an example, and describes an approach to build the semantic website. It is a common approach and can be applied to the construction of other semantic websites. First, analyze user’s requirements, and then build domain ontology based on them requirements, design interactive interfa...

  18. Approximating geometric crossover in semantic space

    OpenAIRE

    Krawiec, Krzysztof; Lichocki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a crossover operator that works with genetic programming trees and is approximately geometric crossover in the semantic space. By defining semantic as program's evaluation profile with respect to a set of fitness cases and constraining to a specific class of metric-based fitness functions, we cause the fitness landscape in the semantic space to have perfect fitness-distance correlation. The proposed approximately geometric semantic crossover exploits this property of the semantic f...

  19. Dissociating the effects of semantic grouping and rehearsal strategies on event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleepen, T M J; Markus, C R; Jonkman, L M

    2014-12-01

    The application of elaborative encoding strategies during learning, such as grouping items on similar semantic categories, increases the likelihood of later recall. Previous studies have suggested that stimuli that encourage semantic grouping strategies had modulating effects on specific ERP components. However, these studies did not differentiate between ERP activation patterns evoked by elaborative working memory strategies like semantic grouping and more simple strategies like rote rehearsal. Identification of neurocognitive correlates underlying successful use of elaborative strategies is important to understand better why certain populations, like children or elderly people, have problems applying such strategies. To compare ERP activation during the application of elaborative versus more simple strategies subjects had to encode either four semantically related or unrelated pictures by respectively applying a semantic category grouping or a simple rehearsal strategy. Another goal was to investigate if maintenance of semantically grouped vs. ungrouped pictures modulated ERP-slow waves differently. At the behavioral level there was only a semantic grouping benefit in terms of faster responding on correct rejections (i.e. when the memory probe stimulus was not part of the memory set). At the neural level, during encoding semantic grouping only had a modest specific modulatory effect on a fronto-central Late Positive Component (LPC), emerging around 650 ms. Other ERP components (i.e. P200, N400 and a second Late Positive Component) that had been earlier related to semantic grouping encoding processes now showed stronger modulation by rehearsal than by semantic grouping. During maintenance semantic grouping had specific modulatory effects on left and right frontal slow wave activity. These results stress the importance of careful control of strategy use when investigating the neural correlates of elaborative encoding. PMID:25242500

  20. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  1. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The advantages of the formlism are shown with respect to a grammar for a fragment of German that deals with (i) quantifier scope ambiguities triggered by scrambling and/or movement and (ii) ambiguities that arise from the collective/distributive distinction of plural NPs. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative...

  2. Improving Semantic Web Service Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Samper

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services (SWS propose to extend the traditional Web Services technologies on the way to consolidate ontologies and semantics. This makes it possible to select, integrate and invocate services dynamically. In this way, services are able to dynamically adapt themselves to changes without human intervention. The main purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for matching SWS. The algorithm uses the description of the service capabilities to match the semantic values. The traditional matching has been improved using ontologies which constitute a step further in the matching algorithms. To implement the algorithm, an agent FIPA compliant architecture has been designed and developed. The results obtained are positive. The semantic web services framework developed in combination with the use of the matchmaking algorithm, which allows finding services based on their similarities.

  3. Operational semantics for signal handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Strygin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be well suited to modelling signal handling. We integrate exception handling with our big-step semantics of signal handling, by adopting the exception convention as defined in the Definition of Standard ML. The semantics needs to capture the complex interactions between signal handling and exception handling.

  4. Comparative semantic profiles in semantic dementia and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Libon, David J.; Rascovsky, Katya; Powers, John; Irwin, David J.; Boller, Ashley; Weinberg, Danielle; McMillan, Corey T.; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, also known as semantic dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease have deficits in semantic memory. However, few comparative studies have been performed to determine whether these patient groups have distinct semantic memory impairments. We asked 15 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and 57 patients with Alzheimer’s disease to judge semantic category membership of coloured photos and printed words that are membe...

  5. An Abundance of Riches: Cross-Task Comparisons of Semantic Richness Effects In Visual Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin J. Yap

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence (e.g., Pexman, Hargreaves, Siakaluk, Bodner, & Pope, 2008 that semantically rich words, which are associated with relatively more semantic information, are recognized faster across different lexical processing tasks. The present study extends this earlier work by providing the most comprehensive evaluation to date of semantic richness effects on visual word recognition performance. Specifically, using regression analyses to control for the influence of correlated lexical variables, we considered the impact of contextual dispersion, number of features, number of senses, semantic neighborhood density, imageability, and body-object interaction across five visual word recognition tasks: standard lexical decision, go/no-go lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, semantic classification, and progressive demasking. Semantic richness effects could be reliably detected in all tasks of lexical processing, indicating that semantic representations, particularly their imaginal and featural aspects, play a fundamental role in visual word recognition. However, there was also evidence that the strength of certain richness effects could be flexibly and adaptively modulated by task demands, consistent with an intriguing interplay between task-specific mechanisms and differentiated semantic processing.

  6. Semantic information and artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    de Araújo, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    For a computational system to be intelligent, it should be able to perform, at least, basic deductions. Nonetheless, since deductions are, in some sense, equivalent to tautologies, it seems that they do not provide new information. The present article proposes a measure the degree of semantic informativity of valid deductions in a dynamic setting. Concepts of coherency and relevancy, displayed in terms of insertions and deletions on databases, are used to define semantic informativity. In thi...

  7. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  8. Semantic integration of deductive databases

    OpenAIRE

    Asirelli, Patrizia; Renso, Chiara; Turini, Franco

    1996-01-01

    A language in support of semantic integration of deductive databases is proposed. The language allows one to construct mediators by extending logic programming with a suite of operators for composing programs and message passing features. The abstract semantics and implementation techniques of the extensions are discussed, and an example of integration of databases supporting libraries and departments is used to illustrate the usefulness of the approach.

  9. Top-k Semantic Caching

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Christoph (Dipl.-Inf.)

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the intelligent caching of top-k queries in an environment with high latency and low throughput. In such an environment, caching can be used to reduce network traffic and improve response time. Slow database connections of mobile devices and to databases, which have been offshored, are practical use cases. A semantic cache is a query-based cache that caches query results and maintains their semantic description. It reuses partial matches of previous query res...

  10. Verisimilitude and strongly semantic information

    OpenAIRE

    Cevolani, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    In The Philosophy of Information, Luciano Floridi presents a theory of “strongly semantic information”, based on the idea that “information encapsulates truth” (the so-called “veridicality thesis”). Starting with Popper, philosophers of science have developed different explications of the notion of verisimilitude or truthlikeness, construed as a combination of truth and information. Thus, the theory of strongly semantic information and the theory of verisimilitude are intimatel...

  11. Semantic Ambiguity and Perceived Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Poesio, Massimo

    1995-01-01

    I explore some of the issues that arise when trying to establish a connection between the underspecification hypothesis pursued in the NLP literature and work on ambiguity in semantics and in the psychological literature. A theory of underspecification is developed `from the first principles', i.e., starting from a definition of what it means for a sentence to be semantically ambiguous and from what we know about the way humans deal with ambiguity. An underspecified language is specified as t...

  12. Are Some Semantic Changes Predictable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Steen

    2010-01-01

      Historical linguistics is traditionally concerned with phonology and syntax. With the exception of grammaticalization - the development of auxiliary verbs, the syntactic rather than localistic use of prepositions, etc. - semantic change has usually not been described as a result of regular deve...... developments, but only as specific meaning changes in individual words. This paper will suggest some regularities in semantic change, regularities which, like sound laws, have predictive power and can be tested against recorded languages....

  13. Morphological Cues for Lexical Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Light, M

    1996-01-01

    Most natural language processing tasks require lexical semantic information. Automated acquisition of this information would thus increase the robustness and portability of NLP systems. This paper describes an acquisition method which makes use of fixed correspondences between derivational affixes and lexical semantic information. One advantage of this method, and of other methods that rely only on surface characteristics of language, is that the necessary input is currently available.

  14. Operational semantics for signal handling

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim Strygin; Hayo Thielecke

    2012-01-01

    Signals are a lightweight form of interprocess communication in Unix. When a process receives a signal, the control flow is interrupted and a previously installed signal handler is run. Signal handling is reminiscent both of exception handling and concurrent interleaving of processes. In this paper, we investigate different approaches to formalizing signal handling in operational semantics, and compare them in a series of examples. We find the big-step style of operational semantics to be wel...

  15. NASA and The Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  16. Performance of Semantic Caching Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    María Arinbjarnar; Bjarnsteinn Þórsson; Björn Þór Jónsson 1967

    2006-01-01

    A caching architecture for database clients called semantic caching was proposed in 1996 and evaluated against a then-current relational database server 1998. While semantic caching was shown to perform well for a range of workloads, the relational server was not well equipped to handle complex remainder queries. Since then, hardware has become increasingly faster with considerable increases in memory size and caching capabilities. Additionally, there have also been significant performance im...

  17. Specifying attentional top-down influences on subsequent unconscious semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Kiefer, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Classical theories assume that unconscious automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher-level cognitive influences. In contrast, we propose that automatic processing depends on a specific configuration of the cognitive system by top-down control. In 2 experiments, we tested the influence of available attentional resources and previously activated task sets on masked semantic priming in a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, before masked prime presentation, participants were engaged in an easy or hard primary task that differentially afforded attentional resources. Semantic priming was attenuated when the primary task was hard, that is, when only little attentional resources were available. In Experiment 2, a semantic or perceptual induction task differentially modulated subsequent masked semantic priming. Hence, unconscious automatic processing depends on the availability of attentional resources and is susceptible to top-down control. PMID:20523850

  18. Neural Dynamics Associated with Semantic and Episodic Memory for Faces: Evidence from Multiple Frequency Bands

    OpenAIRE

    Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Kutas, Marta; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Prior semantic knowledge facilitates episodic recognition memory for faces. To examine the neural manifestation of the interplay between semantic and episodic memory, we investigated neuroelectric dynamics during the creation (study) and the retrieval (test) of episodic memories for famous and nonfamous faces. Episodic memory effects were evident in several EEG frequency bands: theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (9–13 Hz), and gamma (40–100 Hz). Activity in these bands was differentially modulated by pree...

  19. Cognitive semantic networks: emotional verbs throw a tantrum but don't bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    leg, hand and face related but also emotional action verbs activate premotor systems in the brain. Hypothesizing that the force and spatial parameters which define action based language might also be reflected in the latent semantics of words, we select motor and emotion related verbs and apply latent...... semantic analysis, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering and network graph analysis to quantify their interaction and identify parameters of force and spatial differentiation which we propose cognitively relate emotions to sensorimotor action schemas....

  20. Semantic contrastive linguistics theory and dialectological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Roszko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic contrastive linguistics theory and dialectological studiesTheoretical contrastive studies (hereinafter referred to as TCS emerged with a view to compare and contrast natural languages on the basis of a logical interlanguage. The idea of making the TCS guidelines available to science resulted in discontinuing the division into the original language and the target language when comparing and contrasting two (or more languages, and at the same time, terminating the dependence of the resulting material (i.e. form indexes in the target language on the formal structures in the original language. The TCS essence is included in the interlanguage, which is used as tertium comparationis in the studies. To get more on this topic see Koseska, Korytkowska, R. Roszko (2007. Till now, TCS have not been applied in dialectal studies. There are a lot of reasons for this conjuncture. First of all, dialectal studies usually concentrate on one code (i.e. only a single local dialect is being specified, whilst in TCS, a comparison and contrast between (at least two languages is provided. Moreover, research on the dialectal differentiation of a specific language (i.e. at least two dialects (/ local dialects are being specified together is based on demonstrating the features shared and differentiated on the level of (a lexis, (b morphology (most often narrowed to demonstrate differential morphological features and (c syntactic (relatively most rarely. Thus, dialectal studies are essentially a description of the formal conjuncture, whereas semantic aspects are out of the area of researchers interest. With this article, I am going to break the current patterns and prove that dialectal studies can be conducted in accordance with the TCS guidelines. The advantage of such dialectal studies is not only a different/new look at a specific local dialect, but also a possibility of an instant comparison and contrast between the local dialect and the standardized language or other local dialects (of one language or another on the semantic level providing the highest standard of the relevances demonstrated (i.e. similarities and differences.

  1. CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1998-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998....

  2. Process-oriented semantic web search

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, DT

    2011-01-01

    The book is composed of two main parts. The first part is a general study of Semantic Web Search. The second part specifically focuses on the use of semantics throughout the search process, compiling a big picture of Process-oriented Semantic Web Search from different pieces of work that target specific aspects of the process.In particular, this book provides a rigorous account of the concepts and technologies proposed for searching resources and semantic data on the Semantic Web. To collate the various approaches and to better understand what the notion of Semantic Web Search entails, this bo

  3. Neuromagnetic brain responses to words from semantic sub- and supercategories

    OpenAIRE

    Rockstroh Brigitte; Assadollahi Ramin

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundWe explored spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activity evoked by written words from super-ordinate and sub-ordinate semantic categories and hoped to find a differential cortical and/or temporal distribution of the brain response depending on the level of the categories. Twenty-three subjects saw 360 words belonging to six sub-ordinate categories (mammals, birds, fish, fruit, flowers, trees) within two super-ordinate categories (fauna, flora). Visually evoked magnetic fields were ...

  4. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fus...... denotational semantics in continuation style. We then compare this valuation function with that of Clinger's original denotational semantics of Scheme....

  5. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fus...... of a denotational semantics in continuation-passing style.  We then compare this valuation function with that of Clinger's original denotational semantics of Scheme....

  6. Semantic graphs and associative memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

  7. Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Kristoffer Høgsbro

    Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ......Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

  8. Semantic Services for Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haofen; Penin, Thomas; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Qiaoling; Xue, Guirong; Yu, Yong

    Wikipedia, a killer application in Web 2.0, has embraced the power of collaborative editing to harness collective intelligence. It features many attractive characteristics, like entity-based link graph, abundant categorization and semi-structured layout, and can serve as an ideal data source to extract high quality and well-structured data. In this chapter, we first propose several solutions to extract knowledge from Wikipedia. We do not only consider information from the relational summaries of articles (infoboxes) but also semi-automatically extract it from the article text using the structured content available. Due to differences with information extraction from the Web, it is necessary to tackle new problems, like the lack of redundancy in Wikipedia that is dealt with by extending traditional machine learning algorithms to work with few labeled data. Furthermore, we also exploit the widespread categories as a complementary way to discover additional knowledge. Benefiting from both structured and textural information, we additionally provide a suggestion service for Wikipedia authoring. With the aim to facilitate semantic reuse, our proposal provides users with facilities such as link, categories and infobox content suggestions. The proposed enhancements can be applied to attract more contributors and lighten the burden of professional editors. Finally, we developed an enhanced search system, which can ease the process of exploiting Wikipedia. To provide a user-friendly interface, it extends the faceted search interface with relation navigation and let the user easily express his complex information needs in an interactive way. In order to achieve efficient query answering, it extends scalable IR engines to index and search both the textual and structured information with an integrated ranking support.

  9. Canadian semantic web technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Weichang

    2010-01-01

    Introduces the most recent advanced working theories, prototypes and applicationsProvides a special focus on applications of semantic web technology on electronic healthProvides contents on semantic web technologies for both researchers and practitioners

  10. Formal Language Decomposition into Semantic Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes FÄHNDRICH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for semantic decomposition. For that we surveys languages used to enrich contextual information with semantic descriptions. Such descriptions can be e.g. applied to enable reasoning when collecting vast amounts of information. In particular, we focus on the elements of the languages that make up their semantic. To do so, we compare the expressiveness of the well-known languages OWL, PDDL and MOF with a theory from linguistic called the Natural Semantic Metalanguage. We then analyze how the semantic of the language is build up and describe how semantic decomposition based on the semantic primes can be used for a so called mental lexicon. This mental lexicon can be used to reason upon semantic service description in the research domain of service match making.

  11. A Semantic Web Blackboard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Craig; Preece, Alun; Gray, Peter

    In this paper, we propose a Blackboard Architecture as a means for coordinating hybrid reasoning over the Semantic Web. We describe the components of traditional blackboard systems (Knowledge Sources, Blackboard, Controller) and then explain how we have enhanced these by incorporating some of the principles of the Semantic Web to pro- duce our Semantic Web Blackboard. Much of the framework is already in place to facilitate our research: the communication protocol (HTTP); the data representation medium (RDF); a rich expressive description language (OWL); and a method of writing rules (SWRL). We further enhance this by adding our own constraint based formalism (CIF/SWRL) into the mix. We provide an example walk-though of our test-bed system, the AKTive Workgroup Builder and Blackboard(AWB+B), illustrating the interaction and cooperation of the Knowledge Sources and providing some context as to how the solution is achieved. We conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of the architecture.

  12. Compiling Dictionaries Using Semantic Domains*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Moe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The task of providing dictionaries for all the world's languages is prodigious, re-quiring efficient techniques. The text corpus method cannot be used for minority languages lacking texts. To meet the need, the author has constructed a list of 1 600 semantic domains, which he has successfully used to collect words. In a workshop setting, a group of speakers can collect as many as 17 000 words in ten days. This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently expanded into a full dictionary. The method works because the mental lexicon is a giant web or-ganized around key concepts. A semantic domain can be defined as an important concept together with the words directly related to it by lexical relations. A person can utilize the mental web to quickly jump from word to word within a domain. The author is developing a template for each domain to aid in collecting words and in de-scribing their semantics. Investigating semantics within the context of a domain yields many in-sights. The method permits the production of both alphabetically and semantically organized dic-tionaries. The list of domains is intended to be universal in scope and applicability. Perhaps due to universals of human experience and universals of linguistic competence, there are striking simi-larities in various lists of semantic domains developed for languages around the world. Using a standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin-guistic research into semantic and lexical universals.

    Keywords: SEMANTIC DOMAINS, SEMANTIC FIELDS, SEMANTIC CATEGORIES, LEX-ICAL RELATIONS, SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, DOMAIN TEMPLATES, MENTAL LEXICON, SEMANTIC UNIVERSALS, MINORITY LANGUAGES, LEXICOGRAPHY

    Opsomming: Samestelling van woordeboeke deur gebruikmaking van se-mantiese domeine. Die taak van die voorsiening van woordeboeke aan al die tale van die wêreld is geweldig en vereis doeltreffende tegnieke. Die tekskorpusmetode kan nie gebruik word vir minderheidstale waarin tekste ontbreek nie. Om in die behoefte te voorsien, het die skrywer 'n lys van 1 600 semantiese domeine opgestel wat hy suksesvol gebruik het om woorde te versamel. In 'n werksessie-omgewing kan 'n groep sprekers tot soveel as 17 000 woorde in tien dae versamel. Hierdie metode lei tot 'n geklassifiseerde woordelys wat doeltreffend uitgebrei kan word tot 'n volledige woordeboek. Die metode werk omdat die mentale leksikon 'n groot web is wat rondom sleutelbegrippe gestruktureer is. 'n Semantiese domein kan gedefinieer word as 'n belangrike kon-sep saam met die woorde wat direk daarmee verband hou vanweë leksikale verwantskappe. 'n Persoon kan die mentale web gebruik om vinnig van woord tot woord binne 'n domein te spring. Die skrywer is besig om vir elke domein 'n profiel te ontwikkel om te help met die versameling van woorde en met die beskrywing van hul semantiek. 'n Ondersoek van semantiek binne die konteks van 'n domein lewer baie insigte. Die metode laat die totstandbrenging van sowel alfabeties as semanties gerangskikte woordeboeke toe. Die lys domeine is bedoel om univer-seel in omvang en toepassing te wees. Moontlik as gevolg van universalia van menslike ervaring en universalia van taalkundige vermoë, is daar treffende ooreenkomste tussen verskillende lyste semantiese domeine wat ontwikkel is vir tale oor die hele wêreld. Die gebruik van 'n gestandaardi-seerde lys domeine om veelsoortige woordeboeke te klassifiseer, skep moontlikhede vir kruislin-guistiese navorsing oor semantiese en leksikale universalia. Sleutelwoorde: SEMANTIESE DOMEINE, SEMANTIESE VELDE, SEMANTIESE KATE-GORIEË, LEKSIKALE VERWANTSKAPPE, SEMANTIESE PRIMITIEWES, DOMEINPROFIELE, MENTALE LEKSIKON, SEMANTIESE UNIVERSALIA, MINDERHEIDSTALE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE

  13. Agency and the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This text looks at the construction of the Semantic Web, which will enable computers to automatically and independently consume Web-based information. With numerous programming examples, it is ideal for undergraduates and graduates in mathematics, computer science and logic and researchers interested in Multi-Agent Systems and the Semantic Web. - ;This highly topical text considers the construction of the next generation of the Web, called the Semantic Web. This will enable computers to automatically consume Web-based information, overcoming the human-centric focus of the Web as it stands at present, and expediting the construction of a whole new class of knowledge-based applications that will intelligently utilise Web content. The text is structured into three main sections on knowledge representation techniques, reasoning with multi-agent systems, and knowledge services. For each of these topics, the text provides an overview of the state-of-the-art techniques and the popular standards that have been define...

  14. Language Networks Associated with Computerized Semantic Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S

    2014-01-01

    Tests of generative semantic verbal fluency are widely used to study organization and representation of concepts in the human brain. Previous studies demonstrated that clustering and switching behavior during verbal fluency tasks is supported by multiple brain mechanisms associated with semantic memory and executive control. Previous work relied on manual assessments of semantic relatedness between words and grouping of words into semantic clusters. We investigated a computational linguistic ...

  15. Information retrieval with semantic memory model

    OpenAIRE

    Duch, Włodzisław; Szymański, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Psycholinguistic theories of semantic memory form the basis of understanding of natural language concepts. These theories are used here as an inspiration for implementing a computational model of semantic memory in the form of semantic network. Combining this network with a vector-based object-relation-feature value representation of concepts that includes also weights for confidence and support, allows for recognition of concepts by referring to their features, enabling a semantic search alg...

  16. Almost Flat Functional Semantics for Speech Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Emmanuel; Bouillon, Pierrette; Hockey, Beth Ann; Nakao, Yukie

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel semantic representation formalism, Almost Flat Functional semantics (AFF), which is designed as an intelligent compromise between linguistically motivated predicate/argument semantics and ad hoc engineering solutions based on flat feature/value lists; the central idea is to tag each semantic element with the functional marking which most closely surrounds it. We argue that AFF is well-suited for medium-vocabulary speech translation applications, and describe simple and ge...

  17. ENGLISH TO SANSKRIT MACHINE TRANSLATION SEMANTIC MAPPER

    OpenAIRE

    VAISHALI M. BARKADE,; PRAKASH R. DEVALE

    2010-01-01

    Here we propose to develop a converter which converts English Statement to Sanskrit statement Using Rule based approach of Machine Translation .The proposed method has following features: The Proposed modules are as follows:MODULE 1: LEXICAL PARSERMODULE 2: SEMANTIC MAPPERMODULE 3: ITRANSLATORMODULE 4: COMPOSERHere we would concentrate only on the Second module that is Semantic Mapper. To map the English semantic word with Sanskrit semantic word

  18. Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Gupta; Narina Thakur

    2010-01-01

    Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word "Semantic" refers to "meaning" - a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and result oriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding information on the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision of linking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream,...

  19. Database Optimization Techniques for Semantic Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Manolescu, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for efficiently managing Semantic Web data have attracted significant interest from the data management and knowledge representation communities. In particular, as RDF is the most widely used model for Semantic Web data, a great deal of effort has been invested, especially in the database community, into algorithms and tools for efficient RDF query evaluation. Semantic Web data can be seen as a colection of facts enriched with ontological schemas, or semantic constraints, based on ...

  20. SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide W...

  1. Semantic Derogation in Persian Animal Proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Estaji; Fakhteh Nakhavali

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the analysis of Persian animal proverbs is studied based on the semantic – cognitive frame. The main aim of this research is to determine if there is semantic derogation in Persian, and if there is, ascertain whether it applies equally to both sexes (male & female) terms. The analysis shows that sex and semantic derogation are not shown in Persian structures and proverbs as much as other languages, but in the cases with semantic derogation, the metaphorical mea...

  2. Proceedings Seventh Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.32

    2010-01-01

    Structural operational semantics (SOS) is a technique for defining operational semantics for programming and specification languages. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, SOS has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs and in proving compiler correctness. Recently it has been applied in emerging areas such as probabilistic systems and systems biology.

  3. Distinct loci of lexical and semantic access deficits in aphasia: Evidence from voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2015-06-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category negatively affects language production and comprehension. By most accounts, semantic interference arises when accessing lexical representations in naming (e.g., Damian, Vigliocco, & Levelt, 2001) and semantic representations in comprehension (e.g., Forde & Humphreys, 1997). Further, damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), a region implicated in cognitive control, results in increasing semantic interference when items repeat across cycles in both language production and comprehension (Jefferies, Baker, Doran, & Lambon Ralph, 2007). This generates the prediction that the LIFG via white matter connections supports resolution of semantic interference arising from different loci (lexical vs semantic) in the temporal lobe. However, it remains unclear whether the cognitive and neural mechanisms that resolve semantic interference are the same across tasks. Thus, we examined which gray matter structures [using whole brain and region of interest (ROI) approaches] and white matter connections (using deterministic tractography) when damaged impact semantic interference and its increase across cycles when repeatedly producing and understanding words in 15 speakers with varying lexical-semantic deficits from left hemisphere stroke. We found that damage to distinct brain regions, the posterior versus anterior temporal lobe, was associated with semantic interference (collapsed across cycles) in naming and comprehension, respectively. Further, those with LIFG damage compared to those without exhibited marginally larger increases in semantic interference across cycles in naming but not comprehension. Lastly, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, connecting the LIFG with posterior temporal lobe, related to semantic interference in naming, whereas the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), connecting posterior with anterior temporal regions related to semantic interference in comprehension. These neuroanatomical-behavioral findings have implications for models of the lexical-semantic language network by demonstrating that semantic interference in language production and comprehension involves different representations which differentially recruit a cognitive control mechanism for interference resolution. PMID:25880795

  4. Business Intelligence using Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yasodha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers becomes an essential thing in our day-to-day life. Currently, computers can change from single, isolated devices into entry points to exchange the information called World Wide Web(WWW. Humans are capable of using the web to carry our the task. However, a computer cannot accomplish the same task without the human direction, because web pages are designed to be read by the people, not by the machines. Usually, humans interact with the web to gather information or to improve their business intelligence. The information is accessed by giving a related keyword to search. This keyword is used by the server to provide the relevant information about the given keyword. The server provides only limited information for the given keyword. But there exists a lot of information regarding the keyword but it is not provided to the user due to the lack of word in the given keyword. So the keyword searching becomes intangible to fulfill the requirements of the user in some situation. This kind of searching is made with the presence of humans. To overcome this problem and to reduce the human effort, we propose a new method in this paper. This new method is termed as “SEMANTIC WEB”. The Semantic Web is an extension of the WWW. This is used to carry out the task directly by the computers instead of humans. The computer generates the Machine-Processable Information. The Semantic Web provides the automated schemes for gaining more relevant information by analyzing the kind of user behavior who currently use the web. With the help of Semantic Web, the user can access the web and gather more information with less effort. Semantic web is used to provide information by the web itself. This paper is used to explain the use and applications of the Semantic Web in a precise way.

  5. Bilingual Semantic Organization: A Multidimensional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, George A.

    1977-01-01

    To investigate the semantic organization of bilinguals, multi-dimensional scaling was applied to a series of direct pair comparisons among a group of symbols from both languages. Results indicate that semantic content is the primary determinant of the bilingual's semantic structure. (Author/AM)

  6. Semantic Plagiarism Detection System Using Ontology Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula Shenoy K; U Dinesh Acharya; K.C. Shet

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism detection can play an important role in detecting stealing of original ideas in papers, journals and internet web sites. Checking these manually is simply impossible nowadays due to existence of large digital repository. Ontology is a way of describing documents semantics. Ontology mapping can resolve semantic heterogeneity in documents. Our paper proposes an automatic system for semantic plagiarism detection based on ontology mapping.

  7. Semantically Driven Mutation in Genetic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Lawrence; Johnson, Colin G.

    2009-01-01

    Using semantic analysis, we present a technique known as semantically driven mutation which can explicitly detect and apply behavioural changes caused by the syntactic changes in programs that result from the mutation operation. Using semantically driven mutation, we demonstrate increased performance in genetic programming on seven benchmark genetic programming problems over two different domains.

  8. Chinese Character Decoding: A Semantic Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clay; Bever, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The effects of semantic and phonetic radicals on Chinese character decoding were examined. Our results suggest that semantic and phonetic radicals are each available for access when a corresponding task emphasizes one or the other kind of radical. But in a more neutral lexical recognition task, the semantic radical is more informative. Semantic…

  9. Studying of Semantic Similarity Methods in Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Reshadat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to easily judge if a pair of concepts are related in some way. Understanding of how humans are able to perform this task is not easy. Semantic similarity denotes computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not necessarily lexically similar. Semantic similarity between concepts plays an important role in Semantic Web, knowledge sharing, Web mining, semantic sense understanding and text summarization. This also is an important problem in Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval Researches. These techniques are becoming important components of most of the Information Retrieval (IR, Information Extraction (IE and other intelligent knowledge based systems. Therefore it has received considerable attention in the literature. Ontology has a good hierarchical structure of concepts. In the ontology, semantic information can be realized through the semantic relationship of concepts. Ontology-based semantic similarity techniques can estimate the semantic similarity between two hierarchically expressed concepts in a given ontology or taxonomy. Semantic similarity is usually computed by mapping concepts to ontology and by examining their relationships in it. The most popular semantic similarity methods are implemented and evaluated using WordNet and MeSH. Several algorithmic approaches for computing semantic similarity have been proposed. This paper discusses the various approaches used for identifying semantically similar concepts in ontology.

  10. Museum Collections and the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Nisheva-Pavlova, Maria; Spyratos, Nicolas; Stanchev, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses some current trends in the area of development and use of semantic portals for accessing heterogeneous museum collections on the Semantic Web. The presentation is focused on some issues concerning metadata standards for museums, museum collections ontologies and semantic search engines. A number of design considerations and recommendations are formulated.

  11. Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab Abd al-Hamed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An article about the semantic web, it begins with defining the semantic web and its importance, then talks about the ontology relations, then the role of the semantic web in digital libraries, and its features which will serve digital libraries.

  12. Semantic HMC for Big Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Thomas; Peixoto, Rafael; Cruz, Christophe; Bertaux, Aurlie; Silva, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing Big Data can help corporations to im-prove their efficiency. In this work we present a new vision to derive Value from Big Data using a Semantic Hierarchical Multi-label Classification called Semantic HMC based in a non-supervised Ontology learning process. We also proposea Semantic HMC process, using scalable Machine-Learning techniques and Rule-based reasoning.

  13. Bootstrapping to a Semantic Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwidder, Jens; Talbott, Tara; Myers, James D.

    2005-02-28

    The Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) is a set of components and services that enable researchers, applications, problem solving environments (PSE) and software agents to create metadata and annotations about data objects and document the semantic relationships between them. Developed starting in 2001, SAM allows applications to encode metadata within files or to manage metadata at the level of individual relationships as desired. SAM then provides mechanisms to expose metadata and relation¬ships encoded either way as WebDAV properties. In this paper, we report on work to further map this metadata into RDF and discuss the role of middleware such as SAM in bridging between traditional and semantic grid applications.

  14. Qubit semantics and quantum trees

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In the qubit semantics the \\emph{meaning} of any sentence $\\alpha$ is represented by a \\emph{quregister}: a unit vector of the $n$--fold tensor product $\\otimes^n \\C^2$, where $n$ depends on the number of occurrences of atomic sentences in $\\alpha$. The logic characterized by this semantics, called {\\it quantum computational logic} (QCL), is {\\it unsharp}, because the non-contradiction principle is violated. We show that QCL does not admit any logical truth. In this framework, any sentence $\\...

  15. Semantics as Based on Inference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2006 - (van Benthem, J.; Heinzmann, G.; Rebuschi, M.; Visser, H.), s. 25-36 ISBN 1-4020-5011-9. - (Logic, Epistemology , and the Unity of Science. 3). [Philosophical Insights into Logic and Mathematics: The History and Outcome of Alternative Semantics and Syntax. Nancy (FR), 30.09.2002-04.10.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA0009001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : formal semantics * inferentialism * logical calculi Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  16. Order effects in dynamic semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graben, Peter Beim

    2014-01-01

    In their target article, Wang and Busemeyer (2013) discuss question order effects in terms of incompatible projectors on a Hilbert space. In a similar vein, Blutner recently presented an orthoalgebraic query language essentially relying on dynamic update semantics. Here, I shall comment on some interesting analogies between the different variants of dynamic semantics and generalized quantum theory to illustrate other kinds of order effects in human cognition, such as belief revision, the resolution of anaphors, and default reasoning that result from the crucial non-commutativity of mental operations upon the belief state of a cognitive agent. PMID:24259268

  17. Linguistic Extraction for Semantic Annotation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dědek, J.; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin : Springer, 2008 - (Badica, C.; Mangioni, G.; Carchiolo, V.; Burdescu, D.), s. 85-94 ISBN 978-3-540-85256-8. - (Studies in Computational Intelligence. 162). [IDC 2008. International Symposium on Intelligent and Distributed Computing /2./. Catania (IT), 18.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517; GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic information extraction * linguistics * semantic computing * aggregation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  18. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-07-29

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  19. The Underlying Mechanisms of Semantic Memory Loss in Alzheimer’s Disease and Semantic Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Sean L.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and patients with Semantic Dementia (SD) both exhibit deficits on explicit tasks of semantic memory such as picture naming and category fluency. These deficits have been attributed to a degradation of the stored semantic network. An alternative explanation attributes the semantic deficit in AD to an impaired ability to consciously retrieve items from the semantic network. The present study used an implicit lexical-decision priming task to examine the int...

  20. Evaluation of the Project Management Competences Based on the Semantic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Nicoleta BODEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the testing and evaluation facilities of the SinPers system. The SinPers is a web based learning environment in project management, capable of building and conducting a complete and personalized training cycle, from the definition of the learning objectives to the assessment of the learning results for each learner. The testing and evaluation facilities of SinPers system are based on the ontological approach. The educational ontology is mapped on a semantic network. Further, the semantic network is projected into a concept space graph. The semantic computability of the concept space graph is used to design the tests. The paper focuses on the applicability of the system in the certification, for the knowledge assessment, related to each element of competence. The semantic computability is used for differentiating between different certification levels.

  1. Semantic embodiment, disembodiment or misembodiment? In search of meaning in modules and neuron circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-10-01

    "Embodied" proposals claim that the meaning of at least some words, concepts and constructions is grounded in knowledge about actions and objects. An alternative "disembodied" position locates semantics in a symbolic system functionally detached from sensorimotor modules. This latter view is not tenable theoretically and has been empirically falsified by neuroscience research. A minimally-embodied approach now claims that action-perception systems may "color", but not represent, meaning; however, such minimal embodiment (misembodiment?) still fails to explain why action and perception systems exert causal effects on the processing of symbols from specific semantic classes. Action perception theory (APT) offers neurobiological mechanisms for "embodied" referential, affective and action semantics along with "disembodied" mechanisms of semantic abstraction, generalization and symbol combination, which draw upon multimodal brain systems. In this sense, APT suggests integrative-neuromechanistic explanations of why both sensorimotor and multimodal areas of the human brain differentially contribute to specific facets of meaning and concepts. PMID:23932167

  2. Multimedia Semantics Metadata, Analysis and Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Troncy, Raphael; Schenk, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the latest research results in the multimedia and semantic web communities, bridging the "Semantic Gap" This book explains, collects and reports on the latest research results that aim at narrowing the so-called multimedia "Semantic Gap": the large disparity between descriptions of multimedia content that can be computed automatically, and the richness and subjectivity of semantics in user queries and human interpretations of audiovisual media. Addressing the grand challenge posed by the "Semantic Gap" requires a multi-disciplinary approach (computer science,

  3. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  4. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  5. Semantic Fission through Dialect Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Michael D.

    The linguistic atlas projects have provided much information on the regional distribution of pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax and have given important evidence for a greater understanding of problems involved in semantic change, particularly in pointing out transition areas where dialects become fused. In a study supplementary to that…

  6. Semantics as Based on Inference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2006 - (van Benthem, J.; Heinzmann, G.; Rebuschi, M.; Visser, H.), s. 25-36 ISBN 1-4020-5011-9. - (Logic, Epistemology , and the Unity of Science. 3) R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA0009001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : formal semantics * inferentialism * logical calculi Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our...

  8. The Semantic Web in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The semantic web or Web 3.0 makes information more meaningful to people by making it more understandable to machines. In this article, the author examines the implications of Web 3.0 for education. The author considers three areas of impact: knowledge construction, personal learning network maintenance, and personal educational administration.…

  9. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which ar...

  10. Learning Dependency-Based Compositional Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Percy; Klein, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Suppose we want to build a system that answers a natural language question by representing its semantics as a logical form and computing the answer given a structured database of facts. The core part of such a system is the semantic parser that maps questions to logical forms. Semantic parsers are typically trained from examples of questions annotated with their target logical forms, but this type of annotation is expensive. Our goal is to learn a semantic parser from question-answer pairs instead, where the logical form is modeled as a latent variable. Motivated by this challenging learning problem, we develop a new semantic formalism, dependency-based compositional semantics (DCS), which has favorable linguistic, statistical, and computational properties. We define a log-linear distribution over DCS logical forms and estimate the parameters using a simple procedure that alternates between beam search and numerical optimization. On two standard semantic parsing benchmarks, our system outperforms all existing...

  11. Semantics of Complex Sentences in Japanese

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, H; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Shin'ichiro

    1994-01-01

    The important part of semantics of complex sentence is captured as relations among semantic roles in subordinate and main clause respectively. However if there can be relations between every pair of semantic roles, the amount of computation to identify the relations that hold in the given sentence is extremely large. In this paper, for semantics of Japanese complex sentence, we introduce new pragmatic roles called `observer' and `motivated' respectively to bridge semantic roles of subordinate and those of main clauses. By these new roles constraints on the relations among semantic/pragmatic roles are known to be almost local within subordinate or main clause. In other words, as for the semantics of the whole complex sentence, the only role we should deal with is a motivated.

  12. Semantic Artificial Immune Model for Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-jiao Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Applying artificial immune system to fault diagnosis is a new development direction in artificial intelligence, but the traditional artificial immune mode could not reasonably reflect the semantic similarity in the complexity problem space. For issues of semantic description of fault diagnosis, this paper introduces group cooperative mechanism of lymphocyte with a semantic tag to artificial immune system, thus solves the problem of semantic logical reasoning of fault knowledge. This paper presents a semantic-based artificial immune diagnosis model; designs an immune negative selection diagnostic in semantic environment; utilizes new coevolutionary algorithm diagnostic; and diagnoses fault in large electromechanical devices.  The experimental results show that the method used in this paper has higher classification accuracy compared with the traditional artificial immune diagnostics, at the same time, verified expression capacity of semantic-based lymphocytes, which can provide more valuable diagnostic information.

  13. An overview of semantic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2010-08-01

    We live in such perceptually rich natural and manmade environments that detection and recognition of objects is mediated cerebrally by attentional filtering, in order to separate objects of interest from background clutter. In computer models of the human visual system, attentional filtering is often restricted to early processing, where areas of interest (AOIs) are delineated around anomalies of interest, then the pixels within each AOI's subtense are isolated for later processing. In contrast, the human visual system concurrently detects many targets at multiple levels (e.g., retinal center-surround filters, ganglion layer feature detectors, post-retinal spatial filtering, and cortical detection / filtering of features and objects, to name but a few processes). Intracranial attentional filtering appears to play multiple roles, including clutter filtration at all levels of processing - thus, we process individual retinal cell responses, early filtering response, and so forth, on up to the filtering of objects at high levels of semantic complexity. Computationally, image compression techniques have progressed from emphasizing pixels, to considering regions of pixels as foci of computational interest. In more recent research, object-based compression has been investigated with varying rate-distortion performance and computational efficiency. Codecs have been developed for a wide variety of applications, although the majority of compression and decompression transforms continue to concentrate on region- and pixel-based processing, in part because of computational convenience. It is interesting to note that a growing body of research has emphasized the detection and representation of small features in relationship to their surrounding environment, which has occasionally been called semantic compression. In this paper, we overview different types of semantic compression approaches, with particular interest in high-level compression algorithms. Various algorithms and approaches are considered, ranging from low-level semantic compression for text and database compaction, to high-level semantic analysis of images or video in which objects of interest have been detected, segmented, and represented compactly to facilitate indexing. In particular, we overview previous work in semantic pattern recognition, and how this has been applied to object-based compression. Discussion centers on lossless versus lossy transformations, quality of service in lossy compression, and computational efficiency.

  14. Endoscopic image analysis in semantic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwitt, R; Vasconcelos, N; Rasiwasia, N; Uhl, A; Davis, B; Häfner, M; Wrba, F

    2012-10-01

    A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as (1) recognition of important semantic concepts, (2) semantically-focused image browsing, and (3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. PMID:22717411

  15. Adopting Abstract Images for Semantic Scene Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnick, C Lawrence; Vedantam, Ramakrishna; Parikh, Devi

    2016-04-01

    Relating visual information to its linguistic semantic meaning remains an open and challenging area of research. The semantic meaning of images depends on the presence of objects, their attributes and their relations to other objects. But precisely characterizing this dependence requires extracting complex visual information from an image, which is in general a difficult and yet unsolved problem. In this paper, we propose studying semantic information in abstract images created from collections of clip art. Abstract images provide several advantages over real images. They allow for the direct study of how to infer high-level semantic information, since they remove the reliance on noisy low-level object, attribute and relation detectors, or the tedious hand-labeling of real images. Importantly, abstract images also allow the ability to generate sets of semantically similar scenes. Finding analogous sets of real images that are semantically similar would be nearly impossible. We create 1,002 sets of 10 semantically similar abstract images with corresponding written descriptions. We thoroughly analyze this dataset to discover semantically important features, the relations of words to visual features and methods for measuring semantic similarity. Finally, we study the relation between the saliency and memorability of objects and their semantic importance. PMID:26959669

  16. Realization of Semantic Atom Blog

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Dhiren R

    2009-01-01

    Web blog is used as a collaborative platform to publish and share information. The information accumulated in the blog intrinsically contains the knowledge. The knowledge shared by the community of people has intangible value proposition. The blog is viewed as a multimedia information resource available on the Internet. In a blog, information in the form of text, image, audio and video builds up exponentially. The multimedia information contained in an Atom blog does not have the capability, which is required by the software processes so that Atom blog content can be accessed, processed and reused over the Internet. This shortcoming is addressed by exploring OWL knowledge modeling, semantic annotation and semantic categorization techniques in an Atom blog sphere. By adopting these techniques, futuristic Atom blogs can be created and deployed over the Internet.

  17. The Semantics of Implicit Content

    OpenAIRE

    Zeman, Dan Cristian

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis is to give a semantic account of implicit content – the kind of content that plays a crucial role in implicit communication. Implicit communication is a species of communication in which a speaker communicates certain contents that go over and above the contents retrievable from the linguistic meaning of the words used. The focus of the thesis is a certain kind of implicit communication involving locations (when sentences such as “It is raining” are used to communic...

  18. Towards Accessible Semantic Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Lourdes; Martínez, Paloma; Contreras, Jesús; Benjamins, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The importance for Web applications to reach all kind of potential users and customers is being stressed by companies and public sectors. The standardization initiative for Web applications, WAI and the Universal Design framework establish useful rules for building accessible applications for any kind of disabled and non-disabled users. The proliferation of Semantic Web technologies and formal ontologies offer a technological opportunity for establishing automatic and advanced methods for ...

  19. Semantic Integration of Collection Description

    OpenAIRE

    Λουρδή, Ειρήνη; Παπαθεοδώρου, Χρήστος; Doerr, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the semantic metadata integration and mapping of CIDOC/Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) and Dublin Core Collections Application Profile (DCCAP) in cultural heritage domain. It notes that the mapping of the two collection models is complex because the CIDOC/CRM follows an event-based approach. It notes that there is a need to have an integration mechanism that has unified heritage information access with collection-level record focus in having metadata interoperability.

  20. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355. ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  1. Ontologies for the semantic web

    OpenAIRE

    Vallés, María Clara; Fillottrani, Pablo Rubén

    2008-01-01

    The Semantic Web attempts to reach a state in the future where everything on the Web will no longer be only machine-readable, but also machine-understandable. An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization. A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose. Every knowledge base, knowledge-based system, or knowledge-level agent is committed to some conceptualization, explicitly or implicitly. By defining shared and comm...

  2. Semantic Enrichment of Ontology Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Schema and ontology matching play an important part in the field of data integration and semantic web. Given two heterogeneous data sources, meta data matching usually constitutes the first step in the data integration workflow, which refers to the analysis and comparison of two input resources like schemas or ontologies. The result is a list of correspondences between the two schemas or ontologies, which is often called mapping or alignment. Many tools and research approaches have been propo...

  3. Flavour processing in semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Piwnica-Worms, K. E.; Omar, R.; Hailstone, J. C.; Warren, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms for the analysis of flavour information remain poorly understood. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) could potentially provide a window on these mechanisms; however, while abnormal eating behaviour and altered food preferences are common in SD, flavour processing has been little studied in this disorder. Here we undertook a detailed investigation of flavour processing in three patients at different stages of SD. One patient with a clinical syndrome of logopenic apha...

  4. Semantic Web for Program Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Memon, Qurban A.; Shakeel Khoja

    2010-01-01

    Typically, administrative systems involving information in an academic environment are disjoint, spread across various departments and support independent queries. The objectives in this work include investigation on integrating these independent systems to provide support to intelligent queries run on the integrated platform. A framework is proposed that enriches data in the legacy systems to provide a value-added semantic layer where annotation, query and reasoning can be carried out to sup...

  5. Semantic Enhancement of Lecture Material

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolay, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Today's lectures are often talks following a straight line of slides. In many lectures the process of content teaching is not as efficient as it could be. Technologies, such as smart-phones and wireless communication, enable a new level of interaction between lecturer, content and audience. We describe how current lecture material can be semantically enhanced, to interactively assist the audience during and after a lecture.

  6. Enterprise Semantic Modelling for Interoperability

    OpenAIRE

    Boudjlida, Nacer; Panetto, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of annotations is to describe the content of “something” and they may be considered as meta-data. They are used for a while for text books, articles, hypertext documents and so on. We explore their usage in semantic-based and model-based interoperability, with the aim to make explicit the meaning and the structure of given models (artefacts) to enable not only their understanding, but also their exchange (and their possible transformation) between collaborating actors (human or ma...

  7. A Survey of Semantic Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This survey gives an overview over different techniques used for pixel-level semantic segmentation. Metrics and datasets for the evaluation of segmentation algorithms and traditional approaches for segmentation such as unsupervised methods, Decision Forests and SVMs are described and pointers to the relevant papers are given. Recently published approaches with convolutional neural networks are mentioned and typical problematic situations for segmentation algorithms are examined. A taxonomy of...

  8. Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Systems in this researc...

  9. Semantic search via concept annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, Kirk A.

    2007-04-01

    Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. We define concept annealing as a lexical, syntactic, and semantic expansion capability (the removal of defects and the internal stresses that cause term- and phrase-based search failure) coupled with a directed contraction capability (semantically-related terms, queries, and concepts nucleate and grow to replace those originally deformed by internal stresses). These two capabilities are tied together in a control loop mediated by the information retrieval precision and recall metrics coupled with intuition provided by the operator. The specific representations developed have been targeted at facilitating highly efficient and effective semantic indexing and searching. This new generation of Find capability enables additional processing (i.e. all-source tracking, relationship extraction, and total system resource management) at rates, precisions, and accuracies previously considered infeasible. In a recent experiment, an order magnitude reduction in time to actionable intelligence and nearly three orderss magnitude reduction in false alarm rate was achieved.

  10. Semantic Interoperability in Electronic Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Puustjarvi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E-business refers to the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT in support of all the activities of business. The standards developed for e-business help to facilitate the deployment of e-business. In particular, several organizations in e-business sector have produced standards and representation forms using XML. It serves as an interchange format for exchanging data between communicating applications. However, XML says nothing about the semantics of the used tags. XML is merely a standard notation for markup languages, which provides a means for structuring documents. Therefore the XML-based e-business software is developed by hard-coding. Hard-coding is proven to be a valuable and powerful way for exchanging structured and persistent business documents. However, if we use hard-coding in the case of non-persistent documents and non-static environments we will encounter problems in deploying new document types as it requires a long lasting standardization process. Replacing existing hard-coded ebusiness systems by open systems that support semantic interoperability, and which are easily extensible, is the topic of this article. We first consider XML-based technologies and standards developed for B2B interoperation. Then, we consider electronic auctions, which represent a form of e-business. In particular, we represent how semantic interoperability can be achieved in electronic auctions.

  11. Semantic category word search impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurd, J M; Elvevag, B; Cortina-Borja, M

    1997-11-01

    Mechanisms of lexical retrieval within natural semantic categories are investigated in patients with schizophrenia. We predicted and found that schizophrenics show lexical retrieval impairments on word search tasks. Experiments are described in which subjects either scan through word lists for single target items (simple search), or search for members of a semantic category (semantic search). Two groups of subjects are employed: medicated schizophrenics, and a comparison group with similar age and premorbid intelligence. A significant between-group difference is reported (for both speed and accuracy) in semantic category search but not in simple search. It is known that many schizophrenic patients have word finding difficulties (Frith, 1992; Frith et al., 1991). Our results support the claim that in some schizophrenics at least, selective lexical-semantic parallel processing deficits may underlie word finding aberrations. It is possible that such dysfunctions reflect weakened connection strengths between units making up a lexical-semantic field (as characterised by proximity to a prototype). PMID:25419795

  12. Semantic WEB Services Using Clustering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Majumder,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Services, like conventional web services, are the server end of a client–server system for machine-to-machine interaction via the World Wide Web. Semantic services are a component of the semantic web because they use markup which makes data machine-readable in a detailed and sophisticated way (as compared with human-readable HTML which is usually not easily "understood" by computer programs. Semantic similarity measures are specific types of Semantic measures: mathematical tools used to estimate the strength of the semantic relationship between units of language, concepts or instances, through a numerical description obtained according to the comparison of information formally or implicitly supporting their meaning or describing their nature.

  13. Discovery and Selection of Semantic Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xia

    2013-01-01

    For advanced web search engines to be able not only to search for semantically related information dispersed over different web pages, but also for semantic services providing certain functionalities, discovering semantic services is the key issue. Addressing four problems of current solution, this book presents the following contributions. A novel service model independent of semantic service description models is proposed, which clearly defines all elements necessary for service discovery and selection. It takes service selection as its gist and improves efficiency. Corresponding selection algorithms and their implementation as components of the extended Semantically Enabled Service-oriented Architecture in the Web Service Modeling Environment are detailed. Many applications of semantic web services, e.g. discovery, composition and mediation, can benefit from a general approach for building application ontologies. With application ontologies thus built, services are discovered in the same way as with single...

  14. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.; Haag, S.; Kuhn, M.; Satagopam, V.P.; Schneider, R.; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    To date, adding semantic capabilities to web content usually requires considerable server-side re-engineering, thus only a tiny fraction of all web content currently has semantic annotations. Recently, we announced Reflect (http://reflect.ws), a free service that takes a more practical approach......: Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content.......g., Wikipedia entries). The popularity of Reflect demonstrates the use and feasibility of letting end-users decide how and when to add semantic annotations. Ultimately, ‘semantics is in the eye of the end-user’, hence we believe end-user approaches such as Reflect will become increasingly important in semantic...

  15. Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sakthivel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Web Services are mounting as an inventive mechanism for rendering services to subjective devices over the WWW. As a consequence of the rapid growth of Web Services applications and the plenty of Service Providers, the consumer is facing with the inevitability of selecting the “right” Service Provider. In such a scenario the Quality of Service (QoS serves as a target to differentiate Service Providers. To select the best Web Services / Service Providers, Ranking and Optimization of Web Service Compositions are challenging areas of research with significant implications for the realization of the “Web of Services” revelation. The “Semantic Web Services” use formal semantic descriptions of Web Service functionality and interface to enable automated reasoning over Web Service Compositions. This study from its experimental results revealed that the existing Semantic Web Services faces a few challenging issues such as poor prediction of best Web Services and optimized Service Providers, which leads to QoS degradation of Semantic Web. To address and overcome these identified issues, this research work is calculating the semantic similarities, utilization of various Web Services and Service Providers. After measuring these parameters, all the Web Services are ranked based on their Utilization. Finally, our proposed technique, selected best Web Services based on their ranking and placed in Web Services Composition. From the experimental results, it is established that our proposed mechanism improves the performance of Semantic Web in terms of Execution Time, Processor Utilization and Memory Management.

  16. Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence for the critical role of semantic control

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought and can occur as a result of mild disruption to semantic control processes, i.e., mechanisms that bias semantic processing towards task-relevant aspe...

  17. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish, Naveen; Industrial Experiences

    2005-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building systems based on Semantic-Web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic-Web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing (IT) endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific inf...

  18. Semantic Web Requirements through Web Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Semantic web has become a topic of active research in several fields of computer science and has applied in a wide range of domains such as bioinformatics, life sciences, and knowledge management. The two fast-developing research areas semantic web and web mining can complement each other and their different techniques can be used jointly or separately to solve the issues in both areas. In addition, since shifting from current web to semantic web mainly depends on the enhance...

  19. Neural correlates underlying musical semantic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Groussard, Mathilde; Viader, Fausto; Landeau, Brigitte; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Platel, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Numerous functional imaging studies have examined the neural basis of semantic memory mainly using verbal and visuospatial materials. Musical material also allows an original way to explore semantic memory processes. We used PET imaging to determine the neural substrates that underlie musical semantic memory using different tasks and stimuli. The results of three PET studies revealed a greater involvement of the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Concerning clinical observations and our neur...

  20. Episodic memory: insights from semantic dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, J R; Graham, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    Semantic dementia, also known as the temporal lobe variant of fronto-temporal dementia, results in a progressive yet relatively pure loss of semantic knowledge about words, objects and people, and is associated with asymmetric, focal atrophy of the antero-lateral temporal lobes. Semantic dementia provides a unique opportunity to study the organization of long-term memory particularly since initial observations suggested sparing of episodic memory. Recent studies reveal, however, a more comple...

  1. Semantic Plagiarism Detection System Using Ontology Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Shenoy K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism detection can play an important role in detecting stealing of original ideas in papers, journals and internet web sites. Checking these manually is simply impossible nowadays due to existence of large digital repository. Ontology is a way of describing documents semantics. Ontology mapping can resolve semantic heterogeneity in documents. Our paper proposes an automatic system for semantic plagiarism detection based on ontology mapping.

  2. Multimedia Annotations on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Stamou, G.; Ossenbruggen, van, J.R.; Pan, Jeff; Schreiber, G.

    2006-01-01

    Multimedia in all forms (images, video, graphics, music, speech) is exploding on the Web. The content needs to be annotated and indexed to enable effective search and retrieval. However, recent standards and best practices for multimedia metadata don't provide semantically rich descriptions of multimedia content. On the other hand, the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C's) Semantic Web effort has been making great progress in advancing techniques for annotating semantics of Web resources. To br...

  3. Semantic Modelling for Product Line Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    ROSHCHIN, Mikhail; Graubmann, Peter; Kamaev, Valery

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our work is to present solutions and a methodical support for automated techniques and procedures in domain engineering, in particular for variability modeling. Our approach is based upon Semantic Modeling concepts, for which semantic description, representation patterns and inference mechanisms are defined. Thus, model-driven techniques enriched with semantics will allow flexibility and variability in representation means, reasoning power and the required analysis ...

  4. Game semantics for probabilistic modal ?-calculi

    OpenAIRE

    Mio, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The probabilistic (or quantitative) modal ?-calculus is a fixed-point logic designed for expressing properties of probabilistic labeled transition systems (PLTS’s). Two semantics have been studied for this logic, both assigning to every process state a value in the interval [0, 1] representing the probability that the property expressed by the formula holds at the state. One semantics is denotational and the other is a game semantics, specified in terms of two-player stochastic...

  5. e-Science and biological pathway semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Joanne S; Stevens Robert D

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the semantic integration of these data. Semantic Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this semantic integration. Since pathway knowledge ...

  6. Mining Biomedical Texts to Generate Semantic Annotations

    OpenAIRE

    Khelif, Khaled; Dieng-Kuntz, Rose; Barbry, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on text mining in the biomedical domain for the generation of semantic annotations based on a formal model which is ontology. We start by exposing the generic methodology for the generation of annotations from texts. Then, we present a state of the art on different knowledge extraction techniques used on biomedical texts. We propose our approach based on Semantic Web Technologies and Natural Language Processing (NLP): it relies on formal ontologies to generate semantic ann...

  7. Improving Image Classification Using Semantic Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yu; Jurie, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The Bag-of-Words (BoW) model - commonly used for image classification - has two strong limitations: on one hand, visual words lack semantic meanings, on the other hand, they are often polysemous. This paper proposes to address these two limitations by introducing an intermediate representation based on the use of semantic attributes. Specifically, two different approaches are proposed. Both approaches consist of predicting a set of semantic attributes for the entire images as well as for loca...

  8. Semantic image understanding: from pixel to word

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    The aim of semantic image understanding is to reveal the semantic meaning behind the image pixel. This thesis investigates problems related to semantic image understanding, and have made the following contributions. Our first contribution is to propose the usage of histogram matching in Multiple Kernel Learning. We treat the two-dimensional kernel matrix as an image and transfer the histogram matching algorithm in image processing to kernel matrix. Experiments on various computer vision a...

  9. Semantic systems in closely related languages

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, A.; Jordan, F; Dunn, M.

    2015-01-01

    In each semantic domain studied to date, there is considerable variation in how meanings are expressed across languages. But are some semantic domains more likely to show variation than others? Is the domain of space more or less variable in its expression than other semantic domains, such as containers, body parts, or colours? According to many linguists, the meanings expressed in grammaticised expressions, such as (spatial) adpositions, are more likely to be similar across languages than me...

  10. RDF Analytics: Lenses over Semantic Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Colazzo, Dario; Goasdoué, François; Manolescu, Ioana; Roatis, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The development of Semantic Web (RDF) brings new requirements for data analytics tools and methods, going beyond querying to semantics-rich analytics through warehouse-style tools. In this work, we fully redesign, from the bottom up, core data analytics concepts and tools in the context of RDF data, leading to the first complete formal framework for warehouse-style RDF analytics. Notably, we define i) analytical schemas tailored to heterogeneous, semantics-rich RDF graph, ii) analytical queri...

  11. A Deep Architecture for Semantic Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Grefenstette, Edward; Blunsom, Phil; De Freitas, Nando; Hermann, Karl Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Many successful approaches to semantic parsing build on top of the syntactic analysis of text, and make use of distributional representations or statistical models to match parses to ontology-specific queries. This paper presents a novel deep learning architecture which provides a semantic parsing system through the union of two neural models of language semantics. It allows for the generation of ontology-specific queries from natural language statements and questions without the need for par...

  12. Semantically enhanced Uyghur Information Retrieval Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Ma; Yating Yang; Xi Zhou; Junlin Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Uyghur search engine lacks semantic information, aiming to solve this problem, a semantically enhanced Uyghur information retrieval model was proposed based on the characteristics of Uyghur language. Firstly word stemming was carried out and web pages were represented by the form of 3-triples to construct the Uyghur knowledge base, then the matching between ontologies and web pages was established by computing concept similarity and relation similarity. Semantic inverted index was...

  13. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ksystra, Katerina; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

    2011-01-01

    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Social Semantic Web.

  14. Semantic Hierarchies for Visual Object Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Marszałek, Marcin; Schmid, Cordelia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use lexical semantic networks to extend the state-of-the-art object recognition techniques. We use the semantics of image labels to integrate prior knowledge about inter-class relationships into the visual appearance learning. We show how to build and train a semantic hierarchy of discriminative classifiers and how to use it to perform object detection. We evaluate how our approach influences the classification accuracy and speed on the PASCAL VOC challenge 2006 da...

  15. Social Semantic Digital Library: The Future

    OpenAIRE

    Projes Roy,; Dipti Arora

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of classic and digital libraries into digital libraries is now passe. With evolution of technologies, classic libraries have upgraded themselves and have emerged as library and information centres. This paper discusses the integration of computer technologies with library and information science, and how semantics can be customised for library operations, and what can be the measures for converting routine tasks to semantic tasks. The paper concludes that making social semantic...

  16. An Evaluation Platform for Semantic Web Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Cécile

    2006-01-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web aims at enhancing today's Web in order to provide a more efficient and reliable environment for both providers and consumers of Web resources (i.e. information and services). To deploy the Semantic Web, various technologies have been developed, such as machine understandable description languages, language parsers, goal matchers, and resource composition algorithms. Since the Semantic Web is just emerging, each technology tends to make assumptions about differen...

  17. An Update Semantics for Defeasible Obligations

    OpenAIRE

    van der Torre, Leendert; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The deontic logic DUS is a Deontic Update Semantics for prescriptive obligations based on the update semantics of Veltman. In DUS the definition of logical validity of obligations is not based on static truth values but on dynamic action transitions. In this paper prescriptive defeasible obligations are formalized in update semantics and the diagnostic problem of defeasible deontic logic is discussed. Assume a defeasible obligation `normally A ought to be (done)' together withthe fact `A is n...

  18. Semantic Jira - Semantic Expert Finder in the Bug Tracking Tool Jira

    OpenAIRE

    Heyn, Velten; Paschke, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The semantic expert recommender extension for the Jira bug tracking system semantically searches for similar tickets in Jira and recommends experts and links to existing organizational (Wiki) knowledge for each ticket. This helps to avoid redundant work and supports the search and collaboration with experts in the project management and maintenance phase based on semantically enriched tickets in Jira.

  19. Pascal Semantics by a Combination of Denotational Semantics and High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    This paper describes the formal semantics of a subset of PASCAL, by means of a semantic model based on a combination of denotational semantics and high-level Petri nets. It is our intention that the paper can be used as part of the written material for an introductory course in computer science....

  20. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for Semantic Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol) is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP is the driving technology behind the Virtual Plant Information Network, an NSF-funded semantic w...

  1. Representations for Semantic Learning Webs: Semantic Web Technology in Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzbor, M.; Stutt, A.; Motta, E.; Collins, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work on applying semantic technologies to learning has concentrated on providing novel means of accessing and making use of learning objects. However, this is unnecessarily limiting: semantic technologies will make it possible to develop a range of educational Semantic Web services, such as interpretation, structure-visualization, support…

  2. Intrinsic Semantic Spaces for the representation of documents and semantic annotated data

    OpenAIRE

    Lastra Díaz, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces two novel semantic representation spaces for text documents and semantically annotated data, which are based in an intrinsic geometry approach,as well as other results, among which we have: (1) a novel ontology-based semantic distan

  3. A Semantics for Distributed Execution of Statemate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Niehaus, Jürgen; Metzner, Alexander; Damm, Werner

    2003-01-01

    We present a semantics for the statechart variant implemented in the Statemate product of i-Logix. Our semantics enables distributed code generation for Statemate models in the context of rapid prototyping for embedded control applications. We argue that it seems impossible to efficiently generate...... changes made regarding the interaction of distributed model parts are similar to the interaction between the model and its environment in the original semantics, thus giving designers a familiar execution model. The semantics has been implemented in Grace, a framework for rapid prototyping code generation...

  4. Social Semantic Digital Library: The Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Projes Roy,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of classic and digital libraries into digital libraries is now passe. With evolution of technologies, classic libraries have upgraded themselves and have emerged as library and information centres. This paper discusses the integration of computer technologies with library and information science, and how semantics can be customised for library operations, and what can be the measures for converting routine tasks to semantic tasks. The paper concludes that making social semantic digital library is not at and the only thing required is to reduce the gap between library and Semantic Web communities.

  5. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ganapathi Babu; A.Komali; V.Mythry; A.S.K.Ratnam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which informatio...

  6. Semantic models for adaptive interactive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Tim; Lukosch, Stephan; Ziegler, Jürgen; Calvary, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Providing insights into methodologies for designing adaptive systems based on semantic data, and introducing semantic models that can be used for building interactive systems, this book showcases many of the applications made possible by the use of semantic models.Ontologies may enhance the functional coverage of an interactive system as well as its visualization and interaction capabilities in various ways. Semantic models can also contribute to bridging gaps; for example, between user models, context-aware interfaces, and model-driven UI generation. There is considerable potential for using

  7. A Patient with Difficulty of Object Recognition: Semantic Amnesia for Manipulable Objects

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yamadori; Y. Yoneda; Yamashita, H; Sugiura, K.

    1992-01-01

    We studied a patient who had recognition difficulty for manipulable objects. MRI showed a lesion in the left occipito-parietotemporal area. Differential diagnosis of agnosia, aphasia and apraxia is discussed. We believe this “object meaning amnesia” constitutes a distinct subtype of semantic amnesia.

  8. The Method of Automatic Acquisition of Semantic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niguang Tian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a semantic relation database, and uses the semantic relation database automatic acquisition of syntactic patterns and new relationships, and syntactic patterns to obtain a method of semantic relations.

  9. Escala de diferencial semântico para avaliação da percepção de pacientes hospitalizados frente ao banho Escala de diferencial semántico para la evaluación de la percepción de pacientes hospitalizados frente al baño Semantic differential scale for assessing perceptions of hospitalized patients about bathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Lima Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir e validar uma escala de diferencial semântico que avalie a percepção dos pacientes em relação ao banho. MÉTODOS: A primeira etapa, constou da construção da escala, conforme os patamares teóricos específicos e a segunda etapa, foi composta por procedimentos de validação fatorial e o cálculo dos coeficientes de confiabilidade da medida. Participaram do estudo de validação 130 pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. RESULTADOS: A medida de diferencial semântico resultante apresentou como produto uma escala bidimensional com coeficientes de confiabilidade alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A escala pode ser considerada um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da percepção dos pacientes frente aos banhos de chuveiro e no leito.OBJETIVO: Construir y validar una escala de diferencial semántico que evalúe la percepción de los pacientes en relación al baño. MÉTODOS: La primera etapa, constó de la construcción de la escala, conforme los niveles teóricos específicos y la segunda etapa, estuvo compuesta por procedimientos de validación factorial y el cálculo de los coeficientes de confiabilidad de la medida. En el estudio de validación participaron 130 pacientes internados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. RESULTADOS: La medida del diferencial semántico resultante presentó como producto una escala bidimensional con coeficientes de confiabilidad alfa Cronbach superiores a 0,90. CONCLUSIÓN: La escala puede ser considerada un instrumento válido y confiable para la evaluación de la percepción de los pacientes frente a los baños de ducha y en la cama.OBJECTIVE: To construct and validate a semantic differential scale to assess patients' perceptions in regarding bathing. METHODS: The first stage consisted of constructing a scale, conforming to specific theoretical parameters, and the second stage consisted of factorial validation procedures and calculation of the measure of reliability coefficients. One hundred thirty patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit participated in the validation study. RESULTS: The resulting measure of semantic differential presented as a product of a two-dimensional scale with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients greater than 0.90. CONCLUSION: The scale can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' perceptions regarding showers and bed baths.

  10. A Semantic Approach for Recommendations generation: some Cultural Heritage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio De Tommasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available EnThe growing availability of data in the information systems has raised the challenging problem of distinguishing between the resources that belong to the same information context. Starting from the hypothesis that the information system is based on Semantic Web technologies, is it possible to use these technologies to make an information system more adaptive to user requirements in order to enable personalization and differentiation mechanisms in the information delivery process?This paper proposes an approach to building recommendations by using Semantic Web technologies, in order to give the users a different access to the information. The outcome is a semantic recommender engine, capable of retrieving and ranking semantically annotated resources, by using a set of domain ontologies and a semantic matching algorithm. We are showing some applications of this model in the Cultural Heritage domain in which the presented approach seems to be particularly effective, due to the richness of semantic structures and models existing for such domain.ItLa crescente quantità di dati disponibili da parte dei sistemi informativi ha sollevato il complesso problema della distinzione tra risorse appartenenti allo stesso contesto informativo. Partendo dall'ipotesi che il sistema informativo si basi sulle tecnologie proprie del Web Semantico, è possibile utilizzare tali tecnologie per rendere il sistema adattivo ai requisiti dell'utente, abilitando, in questo modo, meccanismi di personalizzazione e differenziazione?Questo articolo propone un approccio per la generazione di recommendation,  utilizzando le tecnologie del Web Semantico, al fine di fornire, ai singoli utenti, accessi differenziati alle informazioni. Il risultato è un motore di generazione di recommendation semantiche, in grado di recuperare e classificare risorse annotate semanticamente, avvalendosi di un set di ontologie di dominio e di un algoritmo di matching semantico. Saranno infine descritte alcune applicazioni di tale modello nel dominio del Cultural Heritage. In tale dominio, infatti, grazie all'enorme mole di ontologie, modelli e strutture semantiche esistenti, l'approccio presentato sembra essere particolarmente efficace.

  11. HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ON SEMANTIC WEB :(SEMANTIC HIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khozoie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information technology have changed information media by networking and internet .using technology inhealth as same as another part improve efficieincy and effectivness. currently the medical document isReality-based medicine, so that is the most important ,richest and the most realistic source of medical andhealth information.Health information management systems that require systems to the storage, retrieval,storage and elimination of health records (by law, and adjust to the rules of professional. these processare difficult and time consumig for human. In the meantime semantic HIM seem best solution.KEYWORDS

  12. Integrating dynamic resources in corporate semantic web: an approach to enterprise application integration using semantic web services

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Moussa; Gandon, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    We present our experiment in integrating semantic web services in the existing semantic web server architecture used by the ACACIA team to implement corporate memories. We rely on CORESE, a semantic web search engine, to provide web applications based on the semantic web services it can identify. Thus, CORESE is used as a semantic UDDI registry and allows us to automatically discover and invoke corporate applications wrapped into semantically annotated web services. Using rules and an extensi...

  13. Reacquisition of semantic knowledge by errorless learning in a patient with a semantic deficit and anterograde amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, Bénédicte; Pillon, Agnesa; de Partz de Courtray, Marie-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background: So far 11 therapy studies have been reported which aimed to re-teach semantic knowledge in brain-damaged patients presenting with a semantic deficit consecutive to stroke, herpes encephalitis, or semantic dementia. All these semantic therapy studies but one recorded a significant improvement in the patients' performance on tasks requiring semantic processing. The exception to this pattern was the semantic therapy study by Sartori, Miozzo, and Job (1994), which yielded negative res...

  14. When the zebra loses its stripes: Semantic priming in early Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia. : Semantic priming in AD and SD

    OpenAIRE

    Laisney, Mickaël; Giffard, Bénédicte; Belliard, Serge; de la Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) or semantic dementia (SD) both exhibit deficits on explicit tasks of semantic memory. Semantic priming (SP) paradigms provide a very pure and precise implicit measurement of semantic memory impairment, and a previous study of AD (Giffard et al., 2002) using one such paradigm revealed that AD patients in the initial stages of semantic deterioration presented an abnormally large priming effect (hyperpriming) in a category-coordinate condition, co...

  15. The Algebra of Lexical Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, András

    The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

  16. Semantic Integration in the IFF

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE P1600.1 Standard Upper Ontology (SUO) project aims to specify an upper ontology that will provide a structure and a set of general concepts upon which domain ontologies could be constructed. The Information Flow Framework (IFF), which is being developed under the auspices of the SUO Working Group, represents the structural aspect of the SUO. The IFF is based on category theory. Semantic integration of object-level ontologies in the IFF is represented with its fusion construction. The IFF maintains ontologies using powerful composition primitives, which includes the fusion construction.

  17. Semantics of (Resilient) X10

    OpenAIRE

    Crafa, Silvia; Cunningham, David; Saraswat, Vijay; Shinnar, Avraham; Tardieu, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We present a formal small-step structural operational semantics for a large fragment of X10, unifying past work. The fragment covers multiple places, mutable objects on the heap, sequencing, \\code{try/catch}, \\code{async}, \\code{finish}, and \\code{at} constructs. This model accurately captures the behavior of a large class of concurrent, multi-place X10 programs. Further, we introduce a formal model of resilience in X10. During execution of an X10 program, a place may fail for many reasons. R...

  18. Semantics Web and Ontology Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Musumbu, Kaninda

    2013-01-01

    The Semantics Web is a vision for the future of the Web in which informati on is given explicit meaning, making it easier for machines to automatically pro cess and integrate information available on the Web. An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledg e. Ontologies are used by people, databases, and applications that need to share domain information (a domain is just a specific subject area or area of knowled ge, like medicine, tool manufacturing, real es...

  19. Social, Structured, and Semantic Search

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaque, Raphaël; Cautis, Bogdan; Goasdoué, François; Manolescu, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    Social content such as blogs, tweets, news etc. is a rich source of interconnected information. We identify a set of requirements for the meaningful exploitation of such rich content, and present a new data model, called S3, which is the first to satisfy them. S3 captures social relationships between users, and between users and content, but also the structure present in rich social content, as well as its semantics. We provide the first top-k keyword search algorithm taking into account the ...

  20. A Semantic Without Syntax 1

    OpenAIRE

    Didehvar, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Here, by introducing a version of "Unexpected hanging paradox" we try to open a new way and a new explanation for paradoxes, similar to liar paradox. Also, we will show that we have a semantic situation which no syntactical logical system could support that. In the end, we propose a claim as a question. Based on this claim, having an axiomatic system for computability theory is not possible. In fact we will show that the method applied here could yields us as a generalized result, some Theori...

  1. Gazetteer Brokering through Semantic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobona, G.; Bermudez, L. E.; Brackin, R.

    2013-12-01

    A gazetteer is a geographical directory containing some information regarding places. It provides names, location and other attributes for places which may include points of interest (e.g. buildings, oilfields and boreholes), and other features. These features can be published via web services conforming to the Gazetteer Application Profile of the Web Feature Service (WFS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Against the backdrop of advances in geophysical surveys, there has been a significant increase in the amount of data referenced to locations. Gazetteers services have played a significant role in facilitating access to such data, including through provision of specialized queries such as text, spatial and fuzzy search. Recent developments in the OGC have led to advances in gazetteers such as support for multilingualism, diacritics, and querying via advanced spatial constraints (e.g. search by radial search and nearest neighbor). A challenge remaining however, is that gazetteers produced by different organizations have typically been modeled differently. Inconsistencies from gazetteers produced by different organizations may include naming the same feature in a different way, naming the attributes differently, locating the feature in a different location, and providing fewer or more attributes than the other services. The Gazetteer application profile of the WFS is a starting point to address such inconsistencies by providing a standardized interface based on rules specified in ISO 19112, the international standard for spatial referencing by geographic identifiers. The profile, however, does not provide rules to deal with semantic inconsistencies. The USGS and NGA commissioned research into the potential for a Single Point of Entry Global Gazetteer (SPEGG). The research was conducted by the Cross Community Interoperability thread of the OGC testbed, referenced OWS-9. The testbed prototyped approaches for brokering gazetteers through use of semantic web technologies, including ontologies and a semantic mediator. The semantically-enhanced SPEGG allowed a client to submit a single query (e.g. ';hills') and to retrieve data from two separate gazetteers with different vocabularies (e.g. where one refers to ';summits' another refers to ';hills'). Supporting the SPEGG was a SPARQL server that held the ontologies and processed queries on them. Earth Science surveys and forecast always have a place on Earth. Being able to share the information about a place and solve inconsistencies about that place from different sources will enable geoscientists to better do their research. In the advent of mobile geo computing and location based services (LBS), brokering gazetteers will provide geoscientists with access to gazetteer services rich with information and functionality beyond that offered by current generic gazetteers.

  2. A SHORT INTRODUCTION TO SEMANTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Nazari Bagha

    2011-01-01

    Semantics is the study of meaning. Seen by Breal, in the late 19th century, as an emerging science opposed to phonetics as a science of sounds: similarly, for Bloomfield in the 1930, it was a field covering both grammar, as one account of meaningful forms, and the lexicon. Also seen more narrowly, in a traditional lasting into the 1960s, as the study of meaning in the lexicon alone, including changes in word meaning. Later, in accounts in which the study of distributions was divorced from tha...

  3. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  4. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  5. Multilingual Lexical Semantic Resources for Ontology Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Declerck, T.; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Vela, O.; Gantner, Z; Manzano-Macho, D.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the integration of some multilingual language resources in ontological descriptions, with the purpose of providing ontologies, which are normally using concept labels in just one (natural) language, with multilingual facility in their design and use in the context of Semantic Web applications, supporting both the semantic annotation of textual documents with multilingual ontology labels and ontology extraction from multilingual text sources.

  6. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    This paper presents a new taxonomy classification method that generates classification criteria from a small number of important sentences identified through semantic annotations, e.g. cause-effect. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) is used to discover the semantics (Mann et al. 1988). Specifical...

  7. Semantic search integration to climate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Palanisamy, Giri [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Shrestha, Biva [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present how research projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using Semantic Search capabilities to help scientists perform their research. We will discuss how the Mercury metadata search system, with the help of the semantic search capability, is being used to find, retrieve, and link climate change data. DOI: 10.1109/CTS.2014.6867639

  8. Is there a critical period for semantics?

    OpenAIRE

    Slabakova, Roumyana

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews recent research on the second language acquisition of meaning with a view of establishing whether there is a critical period for the acquisition of compositional semantics. It is claimed that the functional lexicon presents the most formidable challenge, while syntax and phrasal semantics pose less difficulty to learners. Findings from the neurofunctional imaging (PET, fMRI) an...

  9. Semantique et psychologie (Semantics and Psychology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    1975-01-01

    Semantic activities constitute a sub-class of psychological activities; from this point of departure the article discusses such topics as: idiosyncrasies, meaning and causality, internal determinants, neo-associationism, componential theories, noun- and verb-formation, sentences and propositions, semantics and cognition, mnemesic compontents, and…

  10. Social Semantics for an Effective Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah; Doane, Mike

    2012-01-01

    An evolution of the Semantic Web, the Social Semantic Web (s2w), facilitates knowledge sharing with "useful information based on human contributions, which gets better as more people participate." The s2w reaches beyond the search box to move us from a collection of hyperlinked facts, to meaningful, real time context. When focused through the lens of Enterprise Search, the Social Semantic Web facilitates the fluid transition of meaningful business information from the source to the user. It is the confluence of human thought and computer processing structured with the iterative application of taxonomies, folksonomies, ontologies, and metadata schemas. The importance and nuances of human interaction are often deemphasized when focusing on automatic generation of semantic markup, which results in dissatisfied users and unrealized return on investment. Users consistently qualify the value of information sets through the act of selection, making them the de facto stakeholders of the Social Semantic Web. Employers are the ultimate beneficiaries of s2w utilization with a better informed, more decisive workforce; one not achieved with an IT miracle technology, but by improved human-computer interactions. Johnson Space Center Taxonomist Sarah Berndt and Mike Doane, principal owner of Term Management, LLC discuss the planning, development, and maintenance stages for components of a semantic system while emphasizing the necessity of a Social Semantic Web for the Enterprise. Identification of risks and variables associated with layering the successful implementation of a semantic system are also modeled.

  11. Measuring Individual Emotional Reactions and Semantic Spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jiří

    Praha : EFPA/UPA, 2007 - (Polišenská, V.; Šolc, M.; Kotrlová, J.). s. 163 ISBN 978-80-7064-017-3. [European Congress of Psychology /10./. 03.07.2007-06.07.2007, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : semantic proximity * Word Association Test * Semantic Selection Test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  12. Some Novel Techniques in Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    Several novel techniques for use in operational semantics are presented. They were developed in connection with a modular vatriant of the conventional Structural Operational Semantics framework, but can also be exploited when modularity is of no great concern. Gives a simple introduction to the...

  13. The Semantic Web and Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "Semantic Web" is an idea proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the "World Wide Web." The topic has been generating a great deal of interest and enthusiasm, and there is a rapidly growing body of literature dealing with it. This article attempts to explain how the Semantic Web would work, and explores short-term and long-term…

  14. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  15. The Semantic Web in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül Özkan

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web enables increased collaboration among computers and people by organizing unstructured data on the World Wide Web. Rather than a separate body, the Semantic Web is a functional extension of the current Web made possible by defining relationships among websites and other online content. When explicitly defined, these relationships…

  16. Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

    2009-01-01

    Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

  17. Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program...

  18. An Analysis of Semantic Aware Crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Nguyen Quang; Hoai, Nguyen Xuan; O'Neill, Michael; McKay, Bob; Galván-López, Edgar

    It is well-known that the crossover operator plays an important role in Genetic Programming (GP). In Standard Crossover (SC), semantics are not used to guide the selection of the crossover points, which are generated randomly. This lack of semantic information is the main cause of destructive effects from SC (e.g., children having lower fitness than their parents). Recently, we proposed a new semantic based crossover known GP called Semantic Aware Crossover (SAC) [25]. We show that SAC outperforms SC in solving a class of real-value symbolic regression problems. We clarify the effect of SAC on GP search in increasing the semantic diversity of the population, thus helping to reduce the destructive effects of crossover in GP.

  19. Explaining presupposition projection with dynamic semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rothschild

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Heim's (1982, 1983b dynamic semantics provides an attractive system for capturing the basic facts about presupposition projection. A long-standing criticism of this semantics is that it requires for each connective lexical stipulations that are not determined by its truth-conditional meaning. I give a precise formulation of this criticism in terms of what I call a "rewrite semantics". Then, I use this idea of a rewrite semantics to formulate a new version of dynamic semantics. This version does not require stipulations particular to individual connectives, but rather allows a derivation of the presupposition projection properties for each connective from its truth-conditional meaning. doi:10.3765/sp.4.3 BibTeX info

  20. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  1. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  2. Semantically enhanced Uyghur Information Retrieval Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Uyghur search engine lacks semantic information, aiming to solve this problem, a semantically enhanced Uyghur information retrieval model was proposed based on the characteristics of Uyghur language. Firstly word stemming was carried out and web pages were represented by the form of 3-triples to construct the Uyghur knowledge base, then the matching between ontologies and web pages was established by computing concept similarity and relation similarity. Semantic inverted index was built to save the association between semantic entities and web pages, and user query analysis was implemented by expanding the queries and analyzing the relations between the queries, finally by combining the benefits of both keyword-based and semantic-based methods, ranking algorithm was implemented. By comparing with the Google search engine and the Lucene based method, the experiments validate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the model preliminarily.

  3. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference, it is...... demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis with...... empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...

  4. Role of Ontology in Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Giri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of computers is changing from single isolated devices to entry points into a worldwide network of information exchange. Therefore, support in the exchange of data, information, and knowledge is becoming the key issue in computer technology today. The increasing volume of data available on the Web makes information retrieval a tedious and difficult task. Researchers are now exploring the possibility of creating a semantic Web, in which meaning is made explicit, allowing machines to process and integrate Web resources intelligently. The vision of the semantic Web introduces the next generation of the Web byestablishing a layer of machine-understandable data. The success of the semantic Web crucially depends on the easy creation, integration and use of semantic data, which will depend on building an ontology. This paper states the role of ontology in supporting information exchange process, particulary with semantic web.

  5. Model Design of Semantic Website Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Semantic web is an extension of the current World Wide Web. This paper proposes a new model of constructing semantic website, and takes the construction of semantic website in the field of tourism in Africa as an example, and describes an approach to build the semantic website. It is a common approach and can be applied to the construction of other semantic websites. First, analyze user’s requirements, and then build domain ontology based on them requirements, design interactive interface, and analyze the information entered by user. Then, retrieve and reason the ontology by Jena, and provide the required information and links. The proposed method takes full account of the demand of user’s interaction, facilitates obtaining the required information on the website. The example shows that the proposed model is effective.

  6. ISBD and the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Willer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of integration between ISBD and the semantic web have been examined through the work of the IFLA Study Groups, created with the task to investigate the possibilities for representing ISBD in web technologies and services. One of the main study groups is represented by the ISBD/XML Study Group, formed in 2008.The paper describes the activities developing a representation of International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD in Resource Description Framework (RDF: the research, technical, and administrative activities undertaken to make bibliographic metadata authorized by the IFLA standard available to the Semantic Web as trustworthy information.The paper discusses the ongoing representation of elements in RDF in the ISBD namespace, the treatment of aggregated statements composed of multiple elements, and the development of a Dublin Core Application Profile for ISBD. An introduction to recent initiatives within IFLA to develop representation of its models and standards in RDF, as well as an administrative and technical infrastructure to support such initiatives will be given as a background to the work on ISBD.Some European libraries such as the British Library and the Mannheim University Library, are experimenting means to transform their catalogues into tools interoperating with the web. RDF seems to be the most suitable tool for the universal bibliographic control within the libraries of the future.

  7. Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tymoshuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Interpretation of Phraseological Units in Ukrainian-Polish Electronic Phraseological DictionaryWhen compiling bi- and multilingual phraseological lexicons it is necessary to address such theoretical issues as the formulation linguistically grounded principles of selection of phraseological units and their translation, semantic interpretation based on differentiation of pictures of the world of the linguistic systems, comprehensive combination of elements of the structure and presentation of various linguistic ambiguities, rational form of dictionary entries and building of user-friendly interface in electronic dictionary systems, etc. The article addresses the principles of Ukrainian-Polish electronic phraseological dictionary, which is one of the first attempts of complex and systematic presentation of Ukrainian and Polish phraseology. The main attention is paid to the lexicographic representation of phraseological units, their semantic characterization and selection problem idiomatic equivalents.

  8. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  9. Shared Features Dominate Semantic Richness Effects for Concrete Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Ray; Lupker, Stephen J.; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    When asked to list semantic features for concrete concepts, participants list many features for some concepts and few for others. Concepts with many semantic features are processed faster in lexical and semantic decision tasks [Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Hino, Y. (2002). "The impact of feedback semantics in visual word recognition:…

  10. Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

    We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

  11. Semantic web revolutionizing knowledge discovery in the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Covers topics ranging from database, ontology, visualization, to semantic web services and workflowsFeatures the intersection of Semantic Web and Life SciencesGives examples/scenarios illustrating different Semantic Web applications in the life science domainDiscusses the limitations and obstacles that need to be overcome for Semantic Web to better meet the current and future needs of life science researchers

  12. Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word "Semantic" refers to "meaning" - a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and result oriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding information on the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision of linking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream, hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines to yield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework the na\\"ive approach of searching information on the syntactic web is clich\\'e. This paper proposes an optimised semantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with a proposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to access and time sav...

  13. A Survey on Semantic Web Search Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Sudeepthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous growth in the volume of data and with the terrific growth of number of web pages, traditional search engines now a days are not appropriate and not suitable anymore. Search engine is the most important tool to discover any information in World Wide Web. Semantic Search Engine is born of traditional search engine to overcome the above problem. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. Semantic web technologies are playing a crucial role in enhancing traditional web search, as it is working to create machine readable data. but it will not replace traditional search engine. In this paper we made a brief survey on various promising features of some of the best semantic search engines developed so far and we have discussed the various approaches to semantic search. We have summarized the techniques, advantages of some important semantic web search engines that are developed so far.The most prominent part is that how the semantic search engines differ from the traditional searches and their results are shown by giving a sample query as input

  14. Extracting Generalized Semantic Roles from Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Jafarinejad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest constructs of linguistic theory is semantic role. Automatic extraction of semantic roles in a sentence is a movement towards semantic processing of texts which has been the focus of attention in recent years. Extraction of semantic roles from a text contains some essential parts. Recognition of verb(s of the sentence, recognition of noun phrases and their heads, and labeling the role of each phrase in the sentence as a semantic argument of verb are general parts of a system that does this task. There is a wide variety of definitions for semantic roles from verb specific roles to some general roles known as thematic roles, This paper focuses on a generalization of thematic roles called proto-roles or generalized semantic roles which includes two roles; actor and undergoer. In this paper we extract proto-roles in a Persian sentence exploiting POS tags. We use Peykareh as our input corpus and apply a rule based approach to extract actor and undergoer of verb(s.

  15. Varieties of semantic 'access' deficit in Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah E; Robson, Holly; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Comprehension deficits are common in stroke aphasia, including in cases with (i) semantic aphasia, characterized by poor executive control of semantic processing across verbal and non-verbal modalities; and (ii) Wernicke's aphasia, associated with poor auditory-verbal comprehension and repetition, plus fluent speech with jargon. However, the varieties of these comprehension problems, and their underlying causes, are not well understood. Both patient groups exhibit some type of semantic 'access' deficit, as opposed to the 'storage' deficits observed in semantic dementia. Nevertheless, existing descriptions suggest that these patients might have different varieties of 'access' impairment-related to difficulty resolving competition (in semantic aphasia) versus initial activation of concepts from sensory inputs (in Wernicke's aphasia). We used a case series design to compare patients with Wernicke's aphasia and those with semantic aphasia on Warrington's paradigmatic assessment of semantic 'access' deficits. In these verbal and non-verbal matching tasks, a small set of semantically-related items are repeatedly presented over several cycles so that the target on one trial becomes a distractor on another (building up interference and eliciting semantic 'blocking' effects). Patients with Wernicke's aphasia and semantic aphasia were distinguished according to lesion location in the temporal cortex, but in each group, some individuals had additional prefrontal damage. Both of these aspects of lesion variability-one that mapped onto classical 'syndromes' and one that did not-predicted aspects of the semantic 'access' deficit. Both semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia cases showed multimodal semantic impairment, although as expected, the Wernicke's aphasia group showed greater deficits on auditory-verbal than picture judgements. Distribution of damage in the temporal lobe was crucial for predicting the initially 'beneficial' effects of stimulus repetition: cases with Wernicke's aphasia showed initial improvement with repetition of words and pictures, while in semantic aphasia, semantic access was initially good but declined in the face of competition from previous targets. Prefrontal damage predicted the 'harmful' effects of repetition: the ability to reselect both word and picture targets in the face of mounting competition was linked to left prefrontal damage in both groups. Therefore, patients with semantic aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia have partially distinct impairment of semantic 'access' but, across these syndromes, prefrontal lesions produce declining comprehension with repetition in both verbal and non-verbal tasks. PMID:26454668

  16. Semantically aided interpretation and querying of Jefferson Project data using the SemantEco framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, E. W.; Pinheiro, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We will describe the benefits we realized using semantic technologies to address the often challenging and resource intensive task of ontology alignment in service of data integration. Ontology alignment became relatively simple as we reused our existing semantic data integration framework, SemantEco. We work in the context of the Jefferson Project (JP), an effort to monitor and predict the health of Lake George in NY by deploying a large-scale sensor network in the lake, and analyzing the high-resolution sensor data. SemantEco is an open-source framework for building semantically-aware applications to assist users, particularly non-experts, in exploration and interpretation of integrated scientific data. SemantEco applications are composed of a set of modules that incorporate new datasets, extend the semantic capabilities of the system to integrate and reason about data, and provide facets for extending or controlling semantic queries. Whereas earlier SemantEco work focused on integration of water, air, and species data from government sources, we focus on redeploying it to provide a provenance-aware, semantic query and interpretation interface for JP's sensor data. By employing a minor alignment between SemantEco's ontology and the Human-Aware Sensor Network Ontology used to model the JP's sensor deployments, we were able to bring SemantEco's capabilities to bear on the JP sensor data and metadata. This alignment enabled SemantEco to perform the following tasks: (1) select JP datasets related to water quality; (2) understand how the JP's notion of water quality relates to water quality concepts in previous work; and (3) reuse existing SemantEco interactive data facets, e.g. maps and time series visualizations, and modules, e.g. the regulation module that interprets water quality data through the lens of various federal and state regulations. Semantic technologies, both as the engine driving SemantEco and the means of modeling the JP data, enabled us to rapidly align the two ontologies without needing the projects to change models and allowed us to adopt the existing software development effort invested in SemantEco as a portal for exploring Lake George's water quality data. We plan to extend the registration of modules and facets to handle climate data, hydrology data, and food web data.

  17. The Semantic eScience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Deborah; Fox, Peter; Hendler, James

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this effort is to design and implement a configurable and extensible semantic eScience framework (SESF). Configuration requires research into accommodating different levels of semantic expressivity and user requirements from use cases. Extensibility is being achieved in a modular approach to the semantic encodings (i.e. ontologies) performed in community settings, i.e. an ontology framework into which specific applications all the way up to communities can extend the semantics for their needs.We report on how we are accommodating the rapid advances in semantic technologies and tools and the sustainable software path for the future (certain) technical advances. In addition to a generalization of the current data science interface, we will present plans for an upper-level interface suitable for use by clearinghouses, and/or educational portals, digital libraries, and other disciplines.SESF builds upon previous work in the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory. The VSTO utilizes leading edge knowledge representation, query and reasoning techniques to support knowledge-enhanced search, data access, integration, and manipulation. It encodes term meanings and their inter-relationships in ontologies anduses these ontologies and associated inference engines to semantically enable the data services. The Semantically-Enabled Science Data Integration (SESDI) project implemented data integration capabilities among three sub-disciplines; solar radiation, volcanic outgassing and atmospheric structure using extensions to existingmodular ontolgies and used the VSTO data framework, while adding smart faceted search and semantic data registrationtools. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) has added explanation provenance capabilities to an observational data ingest pipeline for images of the Sun providing a set of tools to answer diverseend user questions such as ``Why does this image look bad?. http://tw.rpi.edu/portal/SESF

  18. SEMANTIC WEB MINING FOR INTELLIGENT WEB PERSONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Sharma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. To improve the internet service quality and increase the user click rate on a specific website, it is necessary for a web developer to know what the user really want to do, predict which pages the user is potentially interested in. In this paper, various techniques for Semantic Web mining like web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining are discussed. Our main focus is on web usage mining and its application in web personalization. Study shows that the accuracy of recommendation system has improved significantly with the use of semantic web mining in web personalization. Keywords: Navigation Pattern, Pattern Analysis, Semantic Web, Web Personalization, Web Usage Mining.

  19. A Semantic Analysis Method for Scientific and Engineering Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a procedure to statically analyze aspects of the meaning or semantics of scientific and engineering code. The analysis involves adding semantic declarations to a user's code and parsing this semantic knowledge with the original code using multiple expert parsers. These semantic parsers are designed to recognize formulae in different disciplines including physical and mathematical formulae and geometrical position in a numerical scheme. In practice, a user would submit code with semantic declarations of primitive variables to the analysis procedure, and its semantic parsers would automatically recognize and document some static, semantic concepts and locate some program semantic errors. A prototype implementation of this analysis procedure is demonstrated. Further, the relationship between the fundamental algebraic manipulations of equations and the parsing of expressions is explained. This ability to locate some semantic errors and document semantic concepts in scientific and engineering code should reduce the time, risk, and effort of developing and using these codes.

  20. SemanticOrganizer: A Customizable Semantic Repository for Distributed NASA Project Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Carvalho, Robert E.; Hall, David R.; Rich, Stephen J.; Sturken, Ian B.; Swanson, Keith J.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    2004-01-01

    SemanticOrganizer is a collaborative knowledge management system designed to support distributed NASA projects, including diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and accident investigators. The system provides a customizable, semantically structured information repository that stores work products relevant to multiple projects of differing types. SemanticOrganizer is one of the earliest and largest semantic web applications deployed at NASA to date, and has been used in diverse contexts ranging from the investigation of Space Shuttle Columbia's accident to the search for life on other planets. Although the underlying repository employs a single unified ontology, access control and ontology customization mechanisms make the repository contents appear different for each project team. This paper describes SemanticOrganizer, its customization facilities, and a sampling of its applications. The paper also summarizes some key lessons learned from building and fielding a successful semantic web application across a wide-ranging set of domains with diverse users.

  1. Change management for semantic web services

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xumin; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2011-01-01

    Change Management for Semantic Web Services provides a thorough analysis of change management in the lifecycle of services for databases and workflows, including changes that occur at the individual service level or at the aggregate composed service level. This book describes taxonomy of changes that are expected in semantic service oriented environments. The process of change management consists of detecting, propagating, and reacting to changes. Change Management for Semantic Web Services is one of the first books that discuss the development of a theoretical foundation for managing changes

  2. Quantifying Semantic Linguistic Maturity in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Kristina; Bååth, Rasmus; Löhndorf, Simone; Sahlén, Birgitta; Sikström, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to quantify semantic linguistic maturity (SELMA) based on a high dimensional semantic representation ofwords created from the co-occurrence of words in a large text corpus. The method was applied to oral narratives from 108 children aged 4;0–12;10. By comparing the SELMA measure with maturity ratings made by human raters we found that SELMA predicted the rating of semantic maturity made by human raters over and above the prediction made using a child’s age and number of wo...

  3. Semantic kernel learning for interactive image retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Philippe-Henri; Cord, Matthieu

    2005-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval systems still have difficulties to bridge the semantic gap between the low-level representation of images and the high level concepts the user is looking for. Rele- vance feedback methods deal with this problem using labels pro- vided by users, but only during the current retrieval session. In this paper, we introduce a semantic learning method to manage user la- bels in CBIR applications. Our approach uses a kernel matrix to represent semantic information in a st...

  4. A Modular Rewriting Semantics for CML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chalub, Fabricio; Braga, Christiano de Oliveira

    This paper presents a modular rewriting semantics (MRS) specification for Reppy's Concurrent ML (CML), based on Peter Mosses' modular structural operational semantics specification for CML. A modular rewriting semantics specification for a programming language is a rewrite theory in rewriting logic...... written using techniques that support the modular development of the specification in the precise sense that every module extension is conservative. We show that the MRS of CML can be used to interpret CML programs using the rewrite engine of the Maude system, a high-performance implementation of...

  5. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  6. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years, and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components, and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  7. Semantic matchmaking with nonmonotonic description logics

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, S

    2009-01-01

    Semantic web has grown into a mature field of research. Its methods find innovative applications on and off the World Wide Web. Its underlying technologies have significant impact on adjacent fields of research and on industrial applications. This new book series reports on the state-of-the-art in foundations, methods, and applications of semantic web and its underlying technologies. It is a central forum for the communication of recent developments and comprises research monographs, textbooks and edited volumes on all topics related to the semantic web. In this first volume several non-monoto

  8. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen

    2004-01-01

    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  9. Semantic Web Services and Its Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OWL-S, IRS, WSMF are the prominent field that are the major part for Semantic Web Services. IRS-III is the first WSMO Compliant and implemented structure to support Semantic Web Services.IRS-III is the extension of previous version of IRS-II and supporting WSMO ontology within the IRS-III Server, browser and API.IRS-III provides support for the OWL-S service descriptions by importing the description to IRS-III. This paper describes about different approaches of Semantic WebServices.

  10. A developer's guide to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Liyang

    2014-01-01

    The Semantic Web represents a vision for how to make the huge amount of information on the Web automatically processable by machines on a large scale. For this purpose, a whole suite of standards, technologies and related tools have been specified and developed over the last couple of years and they have now become the foundation for numerous new applications. A Developer's Guide to the Semantic Web helps the reader to learn the core standards, key components and underlying concepts. It provides in-depth coverage of both the what-is and how-to aspects of the Semantic Web. From Yu's presentat

  11. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  12. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-based MT. We see our approach as closely aligned with knowledge-based MT approaches (KBMT), and as a separate component that could be incorporated into existing systems. Examples and experimental results will show that, using this scheme, inexact matches can achieve correct lexical selection.

  13. Semantic Optimization of Preference Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Chomicki, J

    2004-01-01

    The notion of preference is becoming more and more ubiquitous in present-day information systems. Preferences are primarily used to filter and personalize the information reaching the users of such systems. In database systems, preferences are usually captured as preference relations that are used to build preference queries. In our approach, preference queries are relational algebra or SQL queries that contain occurrences of the winnow operator ("find the most preferred tuples in a given relation"). We present here a number of semantic optimization techniques applicable to preference queries. The techniques make use of integrity constraints, and make it possible to remove redundant occurrences of the winnow operator and to apply a more efficient algorithm for the computation of winnow. We also study the propagation of integrity constraints in the result of the winnow. We have identified necessary and sufficient conditions for the applicability of our techniques, and formulated those conditions as constraint ...

  14. Semantic Aspect Retrieval for Encyclopedia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chao, Han; Yicheng, Liu; Yu, Hao; Xiaoyan, Zhu.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of Web 2.0, more and more people contribute their knowledge to the Internet. Many general and domain-specific online encyclopedia resources become available, and they are valuable for many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, such as summarization and question-answeri [...] ng. We propose a novel encyclopedia-specific method to retrieve passages which are semantically related to a short query (usually comprises of only one word/phrase) from a given article in the encyclopedia. The method captures the expression word features and categorical word features in the surrounding snippets of the aspect words by setting up massive hybrid language models. These local models outperform the global models such as LSA and ESA in our task.

  15. The Semantic Analysis of Icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Piravivanak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available "Eikon" (Greek word or "Imago" (Latin word signifies a kind of similarity or "likeness". In Plato’s philosophy, this term implies "likeness" of appearance to pattern or symbol. In semantic analysis of icon, which is correlated with Idea, we can find factors such as "perception", "imagination", "likeness", "imitation" (Mimesis, "imaginary ideas", that is, it is not possible to reduce icon to a material picture because it is supported by cultural (symbolic, perceptual and conceptual sources. The process in which an icon is established indicates a special relation between icon and imaginary ideas that is supported by symbolic sources. Then, it is not possible to regard icon as a material picture because icon is an icon of a symbol which is able to play its role visibly in relation to a symbol.

  16. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  17. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Shuai; Wang, Fusheng; Lu, James

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of tools to ease the integration and ontology based semantic queries in biomedical databases, which are often annotated with ontology concepts. We aim to provide a middle layer between ontology repositories and semantically annotated databases to support semantic queries directly in the databases with expressive standard database query languages. We have developed a semantic query engine that provides semantic reasoning and query processing, and translates the queries into ont...

  18. Principal Semantic Components of Language and the Measurement of Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Samsonovic, Alexei V.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2010-01-01

    Metric systems for semantics, or semantic cognitive maps, are allocations of words or other representations in a metric space based on their meaning. Existing methods for semantic mapping, such as Latent Semantic Analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation, are based on paradigms involving dissimilarity metrics. They typically do not take into account relations of antonymy and yield a large number of domain-specific semantic dimensions. Here, using a novel self-organization approach, we construc...

  19. Semantic Fluency in Mild and Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkala, Seija

    2004-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an impairment of the semantic memory responsible for processing meaning-related knowledge. This study was aimed at examining how Finnish-speaking healthy elderly subjects (n = 30) and mildly (n=20) and moderately (n = 20) demented AD patients utilize semantic knowledge to performa semantic fluency task, a method of studying semantic memory. In this task subjects are typically given 60 seconds to generate words belonging to the semantic category of ...

  20. Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words Using Web Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Sheetal. A. Takale; Sushma S. Nandgaonkar

    2010-01-01

    Semantic similarity measures play an important role inthe extraction of semantic relations. Semantic similarity measuresare widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) andInformation Retrieval (IR). The work proposed here uses webbasedmetrics to compute the semantic similarity between words orterms and also compares with the state-of-the-art. For a computerto decide the semantic similarity, it should understand thesemantics of the words. Computer being a syntactic machine, it cannot unde...

  1. A SURVEY ON SEMANTIC WEB AND KNOWLEDGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    M.VENU GOPALACHARI; DR. P.SAMMULAL

    2013-01-01

    The biggest challenge in the next several years is how to effectively and efficiently find what has been requested. A normal user generally spends hours to find the exact requested information. Semantic Web Mining contributes responses to address this problem. It aims to integrate the areas of Semantic Web and Web Mining by using semantics to improve mining and mining to generate semantics. The integration of both these areas can result in making the web more ‘semantic’. This paper provides a...

  2. Comparison of Latent Semantic Analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis for Documents Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Kuta; Jacek Kitowski

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare usefulness of statistical techniques of dimensionality reduction for improving clustering of documents in Polish. We start with partitional and agglomerative algorithms applied to Vector Space Model. Then we investigate two transformations: Latent Semantic Analysis and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis. The obtained results showed advantage of Latent Semantic Analysis technique over probabilistic model. We also analyse time and memory consumption aspects of these...

  3. On the equivalence of state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Keimel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    G. Plotkin and the author have worked out the equivalence between state transformer semantics and predicate transformer semantics in a domain theoretical setting for programs combining nondeterminism and probability. Works of C. Morgan and co-authors, Keimel, Rosenbusch and Streicher, already go in the same direction using only discrete state spaces. It is the aim of this paper to exhibit a general framework in which one can hope that state transformer semantics and predicate transformer sema...

  4. Theory of mind impairments in patients with semantic dementia. : ToM in semantic dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, Céline; Bejanin, Alexandre; PIOLINO, Pascale; Laisney, Mickael; De La Sayette, Vincent; Belliard, Serge; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Semantic dementia is characterized by semantic deficits and behavioural abnormalities that occur in the wake of bilateral inferolateral and predominantly left-sided anterior temporal lobe atrophy. The temporal poles have been shown to be involved in theory of mind, namely the ability to ascribe cognitive and affective mental states to others that regulates social interactions by predicting and interpreting human behaviour. However, very few studies have examined theory of mind in semantic dem...

  5. Semantic Integration Workshop at the Second International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, AnHai; Halevy, Alon Y.; Noy, Natalya F.

    2004-01-01

    In numerous distributed environments, including today's World Wide Web, enterprise data management systems, large science projects, and the emerging semantic web, applications will inevitably use the information described by multiple ontologies and schemas. We organized the Workshop on Semantic Integration at the Second International Semantic Web Conference to bring together different communities working on the issues of enabling integration among different resources. The workshop generated a...

  6. Semantic Search in Wiki using HTML5 Microdata for Semantic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pabitha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wiki, the collaborative web authoring system makes Web a huge collection of information, as the Wiki pages are authored by anybody all over the world. These Wiki pages, if annotated semantically, will serve as a universal pool of intellectual resources that can be read by machines too. This paper presents an analytical study and implementation of making the Wiki pages semantic by using HTML5 semantic elements and annotating with microdata. And using the semantics the search module is enhanced to provide accurate results.

  7. On the merits and shortcomings of semantic primes and natural semantic metalanguage in cross-cultural translation

    OpenAIRE

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review some basic postulates of the theory of semantic primitives (semantic primes) and to evaluate the applicability of the natural semantic metalanguage in cross-cultural translation. The theory of semantic primes, formulated by Anna Wierzbicka and her colleagues, posits a universal set of cognitive primitives, lexicalized in all natural languages, which, combined into canonical sentences of basic syntactic patterns, constitute a natural semantic metalanguage...

  8. The Semantic Values of "Ser" and "Estar."

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMello, George

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the distinctions that exist among the uses of "ser" and "estar" in Spanish. They are explained with reference to the semantic values present in the three basic functions of these verbs: principal, auxiliary, and attributive. (NCR)

  9. Social Semantic Digital Library: The Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Projes Roy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of classic and digital libraries into digital libraries is now passe. With evolution of technologies, classic libraries have upgraded themselves and have emerged as library and information centres. This  paper discusses the integration of computer technologies with library and information science, and how semantics can be customised  for library operations,  and  what can be the measures for converting routine tasks to semantic tasks. The paper concludes that making social semantic digital library is not at and the only thing required is to reduce the gap between library and Semantic Web communities.http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/djlit.31.4.1101

  10. Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Courtot, Mélanie; Juty, Nick; Knüpfer, Christian; Waltemath, Dagmar; Zhukova, Anna; Dräger, Andreas; Dumontier, Michel; Finney, Andrew; Golebiewski, Martin; Hastings, Janna; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah; Douglas B. Kell; Kerrien, Samuel; Lawson, James

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. This Perspective discusses the development and use of ontologies that are designed to add semantic information to computational models and simulations.

  11. SPARK: Adapting Keyword Query to Semantic Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chong; Xiong, Miao; Wang, Haofen; Yu, Yong

    Semantic search promises to provide more accurate result than present-day keyword search. However, progress with semantic search has been delayed due to the complexity of its query languages. In this paper, we explore a novel approach of adapting keywords to querying the semantic web: the approach automatically translates keyword queries into formal logic queries so that end users can use familiar keywords to perform semantic search. A prototype system named 'SPARK' has been implemented in light of this approach. Given a keyword query, SPARK outputs a ranked list of SPARQL queries as the translation result. The translation in SPARK consists of three major steps: term mapping, query graph construction and query ranking. Specifically, a probabilistic query ranking model is proposed to select the most likely SPARQL query. In the experiment, SPARK achieved an encouraging translation result.

  12. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  13. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  14. Philosophical presuppositions of two-dimensional semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional semantics is only seemingly a unique answer to the problem of meaning. Philosophers prone to two-dimensionalism, generally agree in regard to formal deficiencies arising from intensional semantics. In order to respond to these, they created a specific formal framework including two types of intensions (as opposed to only one used to capture the meaning of terms in intensional semantics. Issues that usually arise regarding this framework independently constitute a very interesting philosophical debate, but, they can also mislead one into conclusion about the identical aims or philosophical aspirations of its participants. The similarities on the formal level, often hide insurmountable conceptual differences in the interpretation of two-dimensional framework: Kaplan uses it to show expression’s context dependence, Stalnaker to capture meta-semantic facts, while Chalmers believes this framework traces a path to the epistemic roots of meaning. In this paper I intend to spotlight these differences.

  15. Action Semantics and ASF+SDF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2002-01-01

    Modularity and tool support are crucial features for practical use of formal descriptions of programming languages. The combination of unrestricted context-free grammars with action semantics allows complete language descriptions with exceptionally good modularity. Moreover, by specifying the...

  16. SEMANTIC GROUNDING STRATEGIES FOR TAGBASED RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Durao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems usually operate on similarities between recommended items or users. Tag basedrecommender systems utilize similarities on tags. The tags are however mostly free user entered phrases.Therefore, similarities computed without their semantic groundings might lead to less relevantrecommendations. In this paper, we study a semantic grounding used for tag similarity calculus. We show acomprehensive analysis of semantic grounding given by 20 ontologies from different domains. The studybesides other things reveals that currently available OWL ontologies are very narrow and the percentageof the similarity expansions is rather small. WordNet scores slightly better as it is broader but not much asit does not support several semantic relationships. Furthermore, the study reveals that even with suchnumber of expansions, the recommendations change considerably

  17. Fuzzy knowledge management for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zongmin; Yan, Li; Cheng, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    This book goes to great depth concerning the fast growing topic of technologies and approaches of fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web. The topics of this book include fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontologies, queries of fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontology knowledge bases, extraction of fuzzy description logics and ontologies from fuzzy data models, storage of fuzzy ontology knowledge bases in fuzzy databases, fuzzy Semantic Web ontology mapping, and fuzzy rules and their interchange in the Semantic Web. The book aims to provide a single record of current research in the fuzzy knowledge representation and reasoning for the Semantic Web. The objective of the book is to provide the state of the art information to researchers, practitioners and graduate students of the Web intelligence and at the same time serve the knowledge and data engineering professional faced with non-traditional applications that make the application of conventional approaches difficult or impossible.

  18. Semantic web services advancement through evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Brian; König-Ries, Birgitta; Küster, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Including a useful overview of the latest research on implemented SWS technologies, this volume details a variety of current semantic service approaches and provides valuable material that will enhance future SWS evaluation methodologies and techniques.

  19. Next Generation Semantic Web and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyarashmi Panigrahi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, computers are changing from single, isolated devices into entry points to a worldwide network of information exchange and business transactions called the World Wide Web (WWW. However, the success of the WWW has made it increasingly difficult to find, access, present and maintain the information required by a wide variety of users. In response to this problem, many new research initiatives and commercial enterprises have been set up to enrich the available information with machine-process able semantics. This Semantic Web will provide intelligent access to heterogeneous, distributed information, enabling software products (agents to mediate between user needs and the information sources available. In this paper we describe some areas for application of this new technology. We focus on on-going work in the fields of knowledge management and electronic commerce. We also take a perspective on the semantic web-enabled web services which will help to bring the semantic web to its full potential.

  20. The gap is semantic, not epistemological

    OpenAIRE

    D'Oro, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores an alternative to the metaphysical challenge to physicalism posed by Jackson and Kripke and to the epistemological one exemplified by the positions of Nagel, Levine and McGinn. On this alternative the mind-body gap is neither ontological nor epistemological, but semantic. I claim that it is because the gap is semantic that the mind-body problem is a quintessentially philosophical problem that is not likely to wither away as our natural scientific knowledge advances.(1)

  1. Towards Ideal Semantics for Analyzing Stream Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Harald; Dao-Tran, Minh; Eiter, Thomas; Fink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The rise of smart applications has drawn interest to logical reasoning over data streams. Recently, different query languages and stream processing/reasoning engines were proposed in different communities. However, due to a lack of theoretical foundations, the expressivity and semantics of these diverse approaches are given only informally. Towards clear specifications and means for analytic study, a formal framework is needed to define their semantics in precise terms. To this end, we presen...

  2. Imputing Human Descriptions in Semantic Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Daniel; Nixon, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Human identification at a distance has received significant interest due to the ever increasing surveillance infrastructure. Biometrics such as face and gait offer a suitable physical attribute to uniquely identify people from a distance. When linking this with human perception, these biometrics suffer from the semantic gap which is the difference between how people and how biometrics represent and describe humans. Semantic biometrics bridges this gap, allowing conversions between gait biomet...

  3. Multimedia Vocabularies on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Troncy, Raphael; Hausenblas, M.; Boll, S; Bürger, T; Celma, O.; Halaschek-Wiener, C.; E. Mannens

    2007-01-01

    This document gives an overview on the state-of-the-art of multimedia metadata formats. Initially, practical relevant vocabularies for developers of Semantic Web applications are listed according to their modality scope. In the second part of this document, the focus is set on the integration of the multimedia vocabularies into the Semantic Web, that is to say, formal representations of the vocabularies are discussed.

  4. Semantic Analysis of Women Beauty Product Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    El Hainun

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement is a kind of communication processes between consumer and producer. The most important thing in communication process is the understanding about meaning that is discussed to avoid missunderstanding between hearer and speaker. The study about meaning is semantics, and through this thesis entitled “Semantic Analysis of Woman Beauty Products Advertisements”, the writer is going to explore the meaning in used that appears in the object of the analysis. The data are collected from wo...

  5. Semantic tags for generative multiview product breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Paviot, Thomas; Cheutet, Vincent; Lamouri, Samir

    2010-01-01

    The interoperability of IT systems that drive engineering and production processes (i.e. Product Data Management and Enterprise Resource Planning systems) is still an issue. The semantic meaning of product information has to be explicit in order to be able to exchange information between these systems. However, the product breakdown activity generates many disconnected product views over which the product semantics is disseminated and mostly implicit. This paper introduces a methodology allow...

  6. Semantic web technologies for business intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Berlanga, Rafael; Romero Moral, Óscar; Simitsis, Alkis; Nebot, Victoria; Pedersen, Torben; Abelló Gamazo, Alberto; Aramburu, María José

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the convergence of two of the most influential technologies in the last decade, namely business intelligence (BI) and the Semantic Web (SW). Business intelligence is used by almost any enterprise to derive important business-critical knowledge from both internal and (increasingly) external data. When using external data, most often found on the Web, the most important issue is knowing the precise semantics of the data. Without this, the results cannot be trusted. Here, ...

  7. A Walk in the Semantic Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob; Zerny, Ian

    To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions.......To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions....

  8. Controlled vocabularies and semantics in systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Courtot, Mélanie; Hucka, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational modeling to describe and analyze biological systems is at the heart of systems biology. Model structures, simulation descriptions and numerical results can be encoded in structured formats, but there is an increasing need to provide an additional semantic layer. Semantic information adds meaning to components of structured descriptions to help identify and interpret them unambiguously. Ontologies are one of the tools frequently used for this purpose. We describe here ...

  9. Personalization of tourist application using semantic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The main research question this thesis tried to answer was: Using semantic technologies and information collected from a user's social network profile, is it possible to generate a reliable model of that user's interests?" Some research has been done using semantic technologies to create user models, and social networks have been used to collect information about the user's interests in order to apply that information to recommender systems. This project however ...

  10. Digging out implicit semantics from user interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand-Maillet, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    User interaction may take many forms in multimedia systems. Current systems mainly waste this implicit and natural source of semantic knowledge and rather create tedious and unnatural interaction protocols. We advocate for a complete integration of natural interaction protocols and semantic knowledge capture, mainly thru mining interaction sessions. We assert that users possess the ability to quickly examine and summarise these documents, even subconsciously. Examples include specifyin...

  11. Knowledge Acquisition for Semantic Search Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, W.; Barnaghi, PM; Bargiela, A

    2008-01-01

    Semantic search extends the scope of conventional information search and retrieval paradigms from documentoriented and to entity and knowledge-centric search and retrieval. By attempting to provide direct and intuitive answers such systems alleviate information overload problem and reduce information seekers’ cognitive overhead. Ontologies and knowledge bases are fundamental cornerstones in semantic search systems based on which sophisticated search mechanisms and efficient search services ar...

  12. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Taheriyan, Mohsen; Knoblock, Craig A; Szekely, Pedro; Ambite, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data that can be leveraged to build and augment knowledge graphs. However, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources represent the implicit meaning of the data by specifying the concepts and the relationships within the data. Such models are the key ingredients to automatically publish the data into knowledge g...

  13. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Recchia; Michael Jones

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract c...

  14. Web Mining using Semantic Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ganapathi Babu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Web mining is to develop methods and systems for discovering models of objects and processes on the World Wide Web and for web-based systems that show adaptive performance. Web Mining integrates three parent areas: Data Mining, Internet technology and World Wide Web, and for the more recent Semantic Web. Semantic Web Mining is the outcome of two new and fast developing domains: Semantic Web and Data Mining. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. Data Mining is the nontrivial process of identifying valid, previously unknown, potentially useful patterns in data. Semantic Web Mining refers to the application of data mining techniques to extract knowledge from World Wide Web or the area of data mining that refers to the use of algorithms for extracting patterns from resources distributed over in the web. The aim of Semantic Web Mining is to discover and retrieve useful and interesting patterns from a huge set of web data. This web data consists of different kind of information, including web structure data, web log data and user profiles data. Semantic Web Mining is a relatively new area, broadly interdisciplinary, attracting researchers from: computer science, information retrieval specialists and experts from business studies fields. Web data mining includes web content mining, web structure mining and web usage mining. All of these approaches attempt to extract knowledge from the web, produce some useful results from the knowledge extracted and apply these results to the real world problems. This paper gives an overview of how the semantic web is used for mining the World Wide Web.

  15. Semantic Object Parsing with Graph LSTM

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xiaodan; Shen, Xiaohui; Feng, Jiashi; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    By taking the semantic object parsing task as an exemplar application scenario, we propose the Graph Long Short-Term Memory (Graph LSTM) network, which is the generalization of LSTM from sequential data or multi-dimensional data to general graph-structured data. Particularly, instead of evenly and fixedly dividing an image to pixels or patches in existing multi-dimensional LSTM structures (e.g., Row, Grid and Diagonal LSTMs), we take each arbitrary-shaped superpixel as a semantically consiste...

  16. Semantic interoperability framework for smart spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kiljander, J. (Jussi)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At the heart of the smart space vision is the idea that devices interoperate with each other autonomously to assist people in their everyday activities. In order to make this vision a reality, it is important to achieve semantic-level interoperability between devices. The goal of this dissertation is to enable Semantic Web technology-based interoperability in smart spaces. There are many challenges that need to be solved before this goal can be achieved. In this dissertation, ...

  17. Personalization of tourist application using semantic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The main research question this thesis tried to answer was: Using semantic technologies and information collected from a user's social network profile, is it possible to generate a reliable model of that user's interests?" Some research has been done using semantic technologies to create user models, and social networks have been used to collect information about the user's interests in order to apply that information to recommender systems. This project however contributed to the field...

  18. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Partee, Barbara H.

    2010-01-01

    Formal semantics and pragmatics as they have developed since the late 1960's have been shaped by fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration among linguists, philosophers, and logicians, among others, and in turn have had noticeable effects on developments in syntax, philosophy of language, computational linguistics, and cognitive science.In this paper I describe the environment in which formal semantics was born and took root, highlighting the differences in ways of thinking about natural langu...

  19. Semantics of probabilistic processes an operational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the semantic foundations of concurrent systems with nondeterministic and probabilistic behaviour. Particular attention is given to clarifying the relationship between testing and simulation semantics and characterising bisimulations from metric, logical, and algorithmic perspectives. Besides presenting recent research outcomes in probabilistic concurrency theory, the book exemplifies the use of many mathematical techniques to solve problems in computer science, which is intended to be accessible to postgraduate students in Computer Science and Mathematics. It can also be us

  20. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by e...

  1. Semantic verbal fluency in two contrasting languages

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkala, Seija; Goral, Mira; Hyun, JungMoon; Obler, Loraine K.; ERKINJUNTTI, TIMO; Albert, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF performance in two semantic categories (animals and clothes), in the proportions of words produced within the first half (30 seconds) of the SVF task...

  2. Bibliographic information organization in the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Willer, Mirna

    2013-01-01

    New technologies will underpin the future generation of library catalogues. To facilitate their role providing information, serving users, and fulfilling their mission as cultural heritage and memory institutions, libraries must take a technological leap; their standards and services must be transformed to those of the Semantic Web. Bibliographic Information Organization in the Semantic Web explores the technologies that may power future library catalogues, and argues the necessity of such a leap. The text introduces international bibliographic standards and models, and fundamental concepts in

  3. Semantic web services for web databases

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzzani, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web Services for Web Databases introduces an end-to-end framework for querying Web databases using novel Web service querying techniques. This includes a detailed framework for the query infrastructure for Web databases and services. Case studies are covered in the last section of this book. Semantic Web Services For Web Databases is designed for practitioners and researchers focused on service-oriented computing and Web databases.

  4. Bayesian natural language semantics and pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2015-01-01

    The contributions in this volume focus on the Bayesian interpretation of natural languages, which is widely used in areas of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and computational linguistics. This is the first volume to take up topics in Bayesian Natural Language Interpretation and make proposals based on information theory, probability theory, and related fields. The methodologies offered here extend to the target semantic and pragmatic analyses of computational natural language interpretation. Bayesian approaches to natural language semantics and pragmatics are based on methods from

  5. Building a Social Semantic Digital Library

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nisheva-Pavlova; D. Shukerov; Pavlov, P

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes some current trends of research and development in the field of digital libraries. The presentation is focused on the main features of two new generations of digital libraries – the so-called semantic digital libraries and social semantic digital libraries. The design characteristics, principles of functioning and some implementation details of a particular academic digital library have been discussed as an illustration of the suggested ideas.

  6. Semantic Awareness for Automatic Image Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Finding relations between image semantics and image characteristics is a problem of long standing in computer vision and related fields. Despite persistent efforts and significant advances in the field, today’s computers are still strikingly unable to achieve the same complex understanding of semantic image content as human users do with ease. This is a problem when large sets of images have to be interpreted or somehow processed by algorithms. This problem becomes increasingly urgent with th...

  7. Semantic Image Retrieval: An Ontology Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Manzoor; Balubaid, Mohammed A.; Bassam Zafar; Hafsa Umar; M. Shoaib Khan

    2015-01-01

    Images / Videos are major source of content on the internet and the content is increasing rapidly due to the advancement in this area. Image analysis and retrieval is one of the active research field and researchers from the last decade have proposed many efficient approaches for the same. Semantic technologies like ontology offers promising approach to image retrieval as it tries to map the low level image features to high level ontology concepts. In this paper, we have proposed Semantic Ima...

  8. How Controlled English can Improve Semantic Wikis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, T.

    2009-01-01

    The motivation of semantic wikis is to make acquisition, maintenance, and mining of formal knowledge simpler, faster, and more flexible. However, most existing semantic wikis have a very technical interface and are restricted to a relatively low level of expressivity. In this paper, we explain how AceWiki uses controlled English - concretely Attempto Controlled English (ACE) - to provide a natural and intuitive interface while supporting a high degree of expressivity. We introduce recent impr...

  9. Applying semantic web services to enterprise web

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y.; Yang, Q P; Sun, X.; Wei, P

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Web provides a convenient, extendable, integrated platform for information sharing and knowledge management. However, it still has many drawbacks due to complexity and increasing information glut, as well as the heterogeneity of the information processed. Research in the field of Semantic Web Services has shown the possibility of adding higher level of semantic functionality onto the top of current Enterprise Web, enhancing usability and usefulness of resource, enabling decision su...

  10. Executable Structural Operational Semantics in Maude

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo López, José Alberto; Martí Oliet, Narciso

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes in detail how to bridge the gap between theory and practice when implementing in Maude structural operational semantics described in rewriting logic, where transitions become rewrites and inference rules become conditional rewrite rules with rewrites in the conditions, as made possible by the new features in Maude 2.0. We validate this technique using it in several case studies: a functional language Fpl (evaluation and computation semantics, including an a...

  11. Modality and the semantics-pragmatics interface

    OpenAIRE

    Papafragou, A.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis explores certain aspects of the structure of lexical semantics and its interaction with pragmatic processes of utterance comprehension, using as a case-study a sample of the English modal verbs. Contrary to previous polysemy-based accounts, I propose and defend a unitary semantic account of the English modals, and I give a relevance-theoretic explanation of the construction of their admissible (mainly, root and epistemic) contextual interpretations. Departing from p...

  12. Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene. PMID:17405446

  13. Dynamic Metadata Management in Semantic File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The progression in data capacity and difficulty inflicts great challenges for file systems. To address these contests, an inventive namespace management scheme is in distracted need to deliver both the ease and competence of data access. For scalability, each server makes only local, autonomous decisions about relocation for load balancing. Associative access is provided by a traditional extension to present tree-structured file system conventions, and by protocols that are intended specifically for content based access.Rapid attributebased accesstofile system contents is fulfilled by instinctive extraction and indexing of key properties of file system objects. The programmed indexing of files and calendars is called “semantic” because user programmable transducers use data about the semantics of efficient file system objects to extract the properties for indexing. Tentative results from a semantic file system execution support the thesis that semantic file systems present a more active storage abstraction than do traditional tree planned file systems for data sharing and command level programming. Semantic file system is executed as a middleware in predictable file systems and works orthogonally with categorized directory trees. The semantic relationships and file groups recognized in file systems can also be used to facilitate file prefetching among other system-level optimizations. Allencompassing trace-driven experiments on our sample implementation validate the efficiency and competence.

  14. SEMANTIC INFORMATION EXTRACTION IN UNIVERSITY DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s conventional search engines hardly do provide the essential content relevant to the user’s search query. This is because the context and semantics of the request made by the user is not analyzed to the full extent. So here the need for a semantic web search arises. SWS is upcoming in the area of web search which combines Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence. The objective of the work done here is to design, develop and implement a semantic search engine- SIEU(Semantic Information Extraction in University Domain confined to the university domain. SIEU uses ontology as a knowledge base for the information retrieval process. It is not just a mere keyword search. It is one layer above what Google or any other search engines retrieve by analyzing just the keywords. Here the query is analyzed both syntactically and semantically. The developed system retrieves the web results more relevant to the user query through keyword expansion. The results obtained here will be accurate enough to satisfy the request made by the user. The level of accuracy will be enhanced since the query is analyzed semantically. The system will be of great use to the developers and researchers who work on web. The Google results are re-ranked and optimized for providing the relevant links. For ranking an algorithm has been applied which fetches more apt results for the user query.

  15. Comparison and Evaluation of Semantic Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Dorri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the performance of five semantic search engines that are available on the web, using 45 criteria, in the form of a researcher-made checklist. Criteria provided in the checklist included both common and semantic features. Common criteria or features are those applicable to all search engines and semantic ones are those only applicable to semantic search engines. Findings show that the selected search engines do not have suitable performance and expected efficiency. DuckDuckGo, has the most points, considering regular features. Cluuz is in the second place with 20 points and Hakia with 18 points was in the third place. Lexxe and Factbites, with scores of 15 and 10 were placed in the next categories in order of their points. In semantic features, DuckDuckGo, with 10/65 points was in the first place. Hakia with 9/99 points was in the second place, and then the search engines Cluuz with 8/66 Points, Lexxe with 8/65 points and Factbites with 7/32 points were allocated to the next levels. The research results also indicated that on the whole, considering ordinary and semantic features, DuckDuckGo with 31/65 points, Cluuz with 28/66, Hakia with 27/99 points, Lexxe with 23/65 points and Factbites with 17/32 points, got the highest scores out of it.

  16. Query Expansion based on Associated Semantic Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Huang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of query keywords based on semantic relations is an effective approach to improve the performance of information retrieval. Traditional methods of query expansion did not adequately make use of semantic relations between query keywords. In this paper, a novel approach for query expansion is presented. The main idea of the approach is to construct a ‘Tree of Associational Semantics Model’ and select candidate keywords from the tree. In the first step, a group of initial semantic trees for original keywords are constructed based on WordNet thesaurus. Secondly, noise nodes on the trees are removed by calculating the similarities between words. The pruned trees are subsequently assembled into a big integrated tree, i.e. Tree of Associational Semantics Model, by expanding the trees upward until finding a common root. Finally, the nodes on the integrated tree are filtered and supplemented based on Mutual Information. All words selected from the tree are assigned semantic weights which are used in computing similarity between the query and documents in internet. In addition, the distributional situation of query keywords in documents is also considered in document retrieval. Experimental results demonstrate about 14.6% precision and 13.7% prec@20 improvement over the traditional tfidf-based method.

  17. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  18. Semantic Framework for Mapping Object-Oriented Model to Semantic Web Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jezek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a~Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  19. Proceedings Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Reniers, M A; 10.4204/EPTCS.62

    2011-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SOS 2011, the Eight Workshop on Structural Operational Semantics, held on the 5th of September 2011 in Aachen, Germany as an affiliated workshop of CONCUR 2011, the 22nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory. Structural operational semantics (SOS) provides a framework for giving operational semantics to programming and specification languages. A growing number of programming languages from commercial and academic spheres have been given usable semantic descriptions by means of structural operational semantics. Because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, structural operational semantics has found considerable application in the study of the semantics of concurrent processes. It is also a viable alternative to denotational semantics in the static analysis of programs, and in proving compiler correctness. Moreover, it has found application in emerging areas of computing such as probabilistic systems and systems biology. Structural operational semantics has be...

  20. Wernicke's Aphasia Reflects a Combination of Acoustic-Phonological and Semantic Control Deficits: A Case-Series Comparison of Wernicke's Aphasia, Semantic Dementia and Semantic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia (WA) is the classical neurological model of comprehension impairment and, as a result, the posterior temporal lobe is assumed to be critical to semantic cognition. This conclusion is potentially confused by (a) the existence of patient groups with semantic impairment following damage to other brain regions (semantic dementia and…

  1. On the Existence of Semantic Working Memory: Evidence for Direct Semantic Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivde, Geeta; Anderson, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment of the importance of online semantic maintenance, there has been astonishingly little work that clearly establishes this construct. We review the extant work relevant to short-term retention of meaning and show that, although consistent with semantic working memory, most data can be accommodated in other ways.…

  2. Explaining Semantic Short-Term Memory Deficits: Evidence for the Critical Role of Semantic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with apparently selective short-term memory (STM) deficits for semantic information have played an important role in developing multi-store theories of STM and challenge the idea that verbal STM is supported by maintaining activation in the language system. We propose that semantic STM deficits are not as selective as previously thought…

  3. The Recall of Verbal Material Accompanying Semantically Well-Integrated and Semantically Poorly-Integrated Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Sheldon

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the recall of verbal material (critical material) accompanying semantically well integrated (SWI) sentences will be superior to the recall of verbal material accompanying semantically poorly integrated (SPI) sentences. This hypothesis was based upon the conclusion derived from previous research…

  4. Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

  5. Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

  6. An Intelligent Semantic E-Learning Framework Using Context-Aware Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihong; Webster, David; Wood, Dawn; Ishaya, Tanko

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments of e-learning specifications such as Learning Object Metadata (LOM), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM), Learning Design and other pedagogy research in semantic e-learning have shown a trend of applying innovative computational techniques, especially Semantic Web technologies, to promote existing content-focused…

  7. SSWAP: A Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol for semantic web services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Town Christopher D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSWAP (Simple Semantic Web Architecture and Protocol; pronounced "swap" is an architecture, protocol, and platform for using reasoning to semantically integrate heterogeneous disparate data and services on the web. SSWAP was developed as a hybrid semantic web services technology to overcome limitations found in both pure web service technologies and pure semantic web technologies. Results There are currently over 2400 resources published in SSWAP. Approximately two dozen are custom-written services for QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and mapping data for legumes and grasses (grains. The remaining are wrappers to Nucleic Acids Research Database and Web Server entries. As an architecture, SSWAP establishes how clients (users of data, services, and ontologies, providers (suppliers of data, services, and ontologies, and discovery servers (semantic search engines interact to allow for the description, querying, discovery, invocation, and response of semantic web services. As a protocol, SSWAP provides the vocabulary and semantics to allow clients, providers, and discovery servers to engage in semantic web services. The protocol is based on the W3C-sanctioned first-order description logic language OWL DL. As an open source platform, a discovery server running at http://sswap.info (as in to "swap info" uses the description logic reasoner Pellet to integrate semantic resources. The platform hosts an interactive guide to the protocol at http://sswap.info/protocol.jsp, developer tools at http://sswap.info/developer.jsp, and a portal to third-party ontologies at http://sswapmeet.sswap.info (a "swap meet". Conclusion SSWAP addresses the three basic requirements of a semantic web services architecture (i.e., a common syntax, shared semantic, and semantic discovery while addressing three technology limitations common in distributed service systems: i.e., i the fatal mutability of traditional interfaces, ii the rigidity and fragility of static subsumption hierarchies, and iii the confounding of content, structure, and presentation. SSWAP is novel by establishing the concept of a canonical yet mutable OWL DL graph that allows data and service providers to describe their resources, to allow discovery servers to offer semantically rich search engines, to allow clients to discover and invoke those resources, and to allow providers to respond with semantically tagged data. SSWAP allows for a mix-and-match of terms from both new and legacy third-party ontologies in these graphs.

  8. Semantic Visualization Mapping for Illustrative Volume Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautek, P.; Bruckner, S.; Gröller, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    Measured and simulated data is usually divided into several meaningful intervals that are relevant to the domain expert. Examples from medicine are the specific semantics for different measuring modalities. A PET scan of a brain measures brain activity. It shows regions of homogeneous activity that are labeled by experts with semantic values such as low brain activity or high brain activity. Diffusion MRI data provides information about the healthiness of tissue regions and is classified by experts with semantic values like healthy, diseased, or necrotic. Medical CT data encode the measured density values in Hounsfield units. Specific intervals of the Hounsfield scale refer to different tissue types like air, soft tissue, bone, contrast enhanced vessels, etc. However, the semantic parameters from expert domains are not necessarily used to describe a mapping between the volume attributes and visual appearance. Volume rendering techniques commonly map attributes of the underlying data on visual appearance via a transfer function. Transfer functions are a powerful tool to achieve various visualization mappings. The specification of transfer functions is a complex task. The user has to have expert knowledge about the underlying rendering technique to achieve the desired results. Especially the specification of higher-dimensional transfer functions is challenging. Common user interfaces provide methods to brush in two dimensions. While brushing is an intuitive method to select regions of interest or to specify features, user interfaces for higher-dimensions are more challenging and often non-intuitive. For seismic data the situation is even more difficult since the data typically consists of many more volumetric attributes than for example medical datasets. Scientific illustrators are experts in conveying information by visual means. They also make use of semantics in a natural way describing visual abstractions such as shading, tone, rendering style, saturation, texture, etc. Direct volume rendering techniques do conventionally not make use of these semantics. The transfer function actively prevents the use of these semantic parameters for the description of visualization mappings. In our work on semantic layers we propose an alternative method to achieve meaningful visualization mappings from volumetric attributes to visual appearance. Semantic parameters are used to describe meaningful intervals of data and the rendering techniques. Visualization rules are used to specify a visualization mapping from expert semantics to illustration semantics. Our method enables a multi-dimensional mapping from several volumetric attributes to multiple visual abstractions. Semantic values for volumetric attributes and for visual abstractions are represented as membership functions of fuzzy sets. Visualization rules are specified by the user to establish the semantic visualization mapping from various volume attributes to given visual abstractions. The visualization rules are interactively evaluated on modern graphics processing units using fuzzy logic arithmetics. With this approach it is possible to establish a visualization mapping between semantics from expert domains and scientific illustration techniques.

  9. Semantic grasping escapes Weber's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenkamp, Christian; Gärtner, Wiebke; Haus, Isabel D; Franz, Volker H

    2015-04-01

    According to Weber's law, the just noticeable difference between stimuli increases proportionally with stimulus magnitude, suggesting that perception becomes more variable when a stimulus becomes larger. Surprisingly, this basic psychophysical principle appears to be violated in grasping because the variability of grasping movements does not increase with object size. This dissociation between perception and grasping has been interpreted either as evidence for different neuronal processing of real-time visual size information [Ganel, T., Chajut, E., Algom, D. (2008a). Current Biology, 18(14), R599-R601], or for the idea that grasping ignores stimulus size and is based on position information only [Smeets, J. B. J., and Brenner, E. (2008). Current Biology, 18(23), R1089-R1090]. Both accounts assume that it is the processing of visual information that leads to the absence of Weber's law in grasping. We show that even if neither visual nor any real-time sensory information about the stimulus is presented (but only abstract, semantic information about its size), grasping does not follow Weber's law. This indicates that other mechanisms must be responsible for the unexpected behavior of grasping. PMID:25731904

  10. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  11. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

  12. Harnessing manpower for creating semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Simko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The eective information processing (e.g. search, organi-zation of the heterogeneous information spaces requiresmetadata layer above the resources. However, the acqui-sition of resource metadata and domain models are chal-lenging tasks. Here, the crowdsourcing has emerged asan alternative to expert-based and automated semanticsacquisition approaches. One of its branches are the gameswith a purpose (GWAPs which encapsulate the seman-tics acquisition tasks into the game processes. We analyzeexisting GWAPs and propose their classication. Fur-thermore we devised our own GWAP-based approaches.For acquisition of lightweight term relationship network,we devised a search query formulation game, usable alsofor specic domain models. For acquisition of (personalimage tags, we devised a card game, where players mem-orize positions of concealed cards and identify identicalpairs. For validation of music metadata, we devised amulti-choice question-based game, where players identifytag sets that are characteristic to music tracks they hear.We also looked at the GWAPs from their design per-spectives. We present a design oriented classication sys-tem for GWAPs, adress several design issues recurring inGWAPs and present new design patterns to solve them.

  13. Formal semantics for propositional attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vanderveken

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary logic is confined to a few paradigmatic attitudes such as belief, knowledge, desire and intention. My purpose is to present a general model-theoretical semantics of propositional attitudes of any cognitive or volitive mode. In my view, one can recursively define the set of all psychological modes of attitudes. As Descartes anticipated, the two primitive modes are those of belief and desire. Complex modes are obtained by adding to primitive modes special cognitive and volitive ways or special propositional content or preparatory conditions. According to standard logic of attitudes (Hintikka, human agents are either perfectly rational or totally irrational. I will proceed to a finer analysis of propositional attitudes that accounts for our imperfect but minimal rationality. For that purpose I will use a non standard predicative logic according to which propositions with the same truth conditions can have different cognitive values and I will explicate subjective in addition to objective possibilities. Next I will enumerate valid laws of my general logic of propositional attitudes. At the end I will state principles according to which minimally rational agents dynamically revise attitudes of any mode.

  14. From a Link Semantic to Semantic Links - Building Context in Educational Hypermedia

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Engelhardt, Michael; Lange, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Modularization and granulation are key concepts in educational content management, whereas teaching, learning and understanding require a discourse within thematic contexts. Even though hyperlinks and semantically typed references provide the context building blocks of hypermedia systems, elaborate concepts to derive, manage and propagate such relations between content objects are not around at present. Based on Semantic Web standards, this paper makes several contributions to content enrichment. Work starts from harvesting multimedia annotations in class-room recordings, and proceeds to deriving a dense educational semantic net between eLearning Objects decorated with extended LOM relations. Special focus is drawn on the processing of recorded speech and on an Ontological Evaluation Layer that autonomously derives meaningful inter-object relations. Further on, a semantic representation of hyperlinks is developed and elaborated to the concept of semantic link contexts, an approach to manage a coherent rhetori...

  15. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Comesaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

  16. The semantic advantage in object memorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Wick, Farahnaz; Pomplun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies (Hwang et al., 2011) indicate that our strategies for memorizing objects in naturalistic scenes can be predicted by the semantic relationships between objects in that scene. That is, we tend to make saccades to objects that are most semantically related to the object in the current fixation. A possible explanation is that consecutive inspection of semantically similar objects facilitates object memorization. Previous work in our lab has shown that indeed, characteristic objects from a specific context have a close semantic relationship that facilitates recognition. The observed high recognition rate was not induced by gist-based errors, as performance did not decline even when false recognition rates were significantly reduced. When and how does this 'semantic advantage' arise during processing? We investigated this question using a rapid serial visual presentation task, which mimics sequential eye movements. A series of eight grayscale object images on a white background were shown for 250 ms each. Subsequently, participants saw another image and indicated whether it had been in the series (same/different judgment). The object sets were randomly chosen or taken from specific contexts such as airport, park or bedroom. In three experiments, we measured recognition accuracy as we varied target position (excluding first and last image in the series) and primed participants with context labels either before or after a trial. The context labels provided for random trials were randomly chosen and misleading. Results show that the semantic advantage starts after viewing approximately three objects in the context trials when compared to random trials. Priming with context labels (either before or after the trial) diminishes this advantage and in general hurts performance. These results reveal that object memory benefits from the semantic structure established by an efficient, unconscious mechanism that is impeded by conscious category processing. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326631

  17. Semantic memory: Which side are you on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Karalyn; Kopelman, Michael D; Woollams, Anna M; Brownsett, Sonia L E; Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Wise, Richard J S

    2015-09-01

    We present two patients in whom the combination of lesion site and cognitive performance was uniquely informative about the organisation and functional anatomy of semantic memory. One had had a single lobar stroke with an unusual distribution, largely destroying the whole of the left temporal lobe ventral to the superior temporal sulcus. The other patient had had herpes simplex encephalitis with destruction that was confined to the left cerebral hemisphere. The lesion again mainly encompassed the left temporal lobe, but also extended to the left inferior frontal gyrus. Cognitive outcomes in the two patients were compared with each other and with published results from patients with semantic dementia. This is because, whereas the majority of semantic dementia patients present with more prominent atrophy of the left rostroventral temporal lobe, they invariably have a degree of atrophy in the mirror region on the right that progresses. Semantic dementia therefore provides no clear evidence about the specific role of the left rostroventral temporal lobe. The two patients showed a highly consistent cognitive profile. Their deficits were also similar in many respects to that observed in patients with mild-moderate semantic dementia, including severe anomia that was not resolved by phonological cues and impairment on non-verbal as well as verbal semantic tasks. Certain key features of the semantic dementia profile, however-including sensitivity to the familiarity and typicality of the stimulus materials-appeared only in tasks requiring verbal output in these two patients with unilateral left temporal lesions. Results in these cases provide some of the first definitive evidence regarding the specific functions of the left anterior temporal lobe. PMID:25451042

  18. Automatic semantic priming abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathalon, Daniel H; Roach, Brian J; Ford, Judith M

    2010-02-01

    Abnormal activation of semantic networks characterizes schizophrenia and can be studied using the N400 event-related potential (ERP). N400 is elicited by words that are not primed by the preceding context and provides a direct measure of the neural mechanisms underlying semantic priming. Semantic priming refers to facilitated semantic processing gained through pre-exposure to semantic context, which can happen automatically if the interval between the prime and target is very short. We predicted that (1) schizophrenia patients have overly inclusive semantic networks, reflected in a less negative than expected N400 to relatively unprimed words, and (2) schizophrenia patients are deficient in their use of semantic context, responding to primed words as if they were unprimed, reflected in a more negative than expected N400 to primed words. N400s were acquired from patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (n=26) and age-matched healthy comparison subjects (n=29) performing a picture-word verification (match vs. non-match) task. Word targets were presented 325ms after a picture prime, which either matched (CAMEL-->"camel"), or did not match (In Category: CAMEL-->"cow"; Out Category: CAMEL-->"candle") the prime. N400 data suggest that both patients and controls are sensitive to the difference between primed and unprimed words, but patients are less sensitive than controls. Similarly, N400 data suggest that both groups were sensitive to the subtler difference between classes of unprimed words (In Category versus Out Category picture-word non-matches), but patients are less sensitive, especially those with prominent negative symptoms. PMID:19995582

  19. Arabic Semantic Web Applications – A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya M. Al-Zoghby

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arabic Language is the mother tongue for 23 countries and more than 350 million persons. It is the language of the Holy Quran; therefore, many non-Arabic Islamic countries, like Pakistan, teach Arabic as a second language. Nevertheless, it is observable that the Arabic content on the Web is less than what should be. The evolution of the Semantic Web (SW added a new dimension to this problem. This paper is an attempt to figure out the problem, its causes, and to open avenues to think about the solutions. The survey presented in this paper concerned with the SW applications regarding the Arabic Language in the domains of Ontology construction and utilization, Arabic WordNet (AWN exploiting and enrichment, Arabic Named Entities Extraction, Holy Quran and Islamic Knowledge semantic representation, and Arabic Semantic Search Engines. In fact, the study revealed serious deficiencies in dealing semantically with the Arabic Language. That is mainly owing to the rarity of tools that can support the Arabic script. Furthermore, the Arabic resources, if available, are not free. Moreover, there are many technical problems in the semantic dealing with the Arabic context. Therefore, most of the developed applications are not sufficiently proficient. However, due to the significance of the Arabic Language, it is inevitable to overcome these deficiencies in order to put the Arabic Language in the category of the machine-semantically-interpretable languages, rather than just the textually processable ones. This way, we can exploit the power of the Semantic Web features in extracting the essence of the knowledge residing in the Arabic web documents and going beyond dealing with its rigid texts. 

  20. The refinement of the super generic concept: semantic challenge for product re-innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Barei; Malcolm Ross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uptake of super generic or hybrid pharmaceuticals has decelerated despite their important economic potential for the generic pharmaceutical industry. The aim of switching to these product portfolios was to enable product differentiation; however, these strategies are influenced by new semantic challenges, which have hampered the promotion of value-added pharmaceuticals or super generics in recent years. Objective: To investigate whether the use of the term ‘generic’ would reduc...

  1. Functional differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Gerald Jay

    2013-01-01

    Physics is naturally expressed in mathematical language. Students new to the subject must simultaneously learn an idiomatic mathematical language and the content that is expressed in that language. It is as if they were asked to read Les Misérables while struggling with French grammar. This book offers an innovative way to learn the differential geometry needed as a foundation for a deep understanding of general relativity or quantum field theory as taught at the college level.The approach taken by the authors (and used in their classes at MIT for many years) differs from the conventional one in several ways, including an emphasis on the development of the covariant derivative and an avoidance of the use of traditional index notation for tensors in favor of a semantically richer language of vector fields and differential forms. But the biggest single difference is the authors' integration of computer programming into their explanations. By programming a computer to interpret a formula, the student soon learn...

  2. Semantic Framework in EEG/ERP Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Ježek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Our research group specializes in research of brain activity. We widely use methods of encephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERP. Since a collection of obtained data/metadata gradually grows we had to solve their long term storage and management. As a solution we developed the EEG/ERP Portal as a core of a complete software infrastructure supporting EEG/ERP research. Since we are working on the registration of the EEG/ERP Portal as a recognizable data source within NIF we provide the stored experiments in the form of the Semantic Web structures. Since the EEG/ERP Portal is a Java-based application with the data layer using common JavaBeans we are simultaneously developing the Semantic Framework that transforms input JavaBeans into the Semantic Web languages. The Semantic Framework is being developed as a single library. It is used as a black box with the input in the form of a set of JavaBeans and the output in the form of an ontology document. The ontology document can be serialized into several supported syntaxes. We currently support RDF/XML, OWL/XML, Turtle, and abbreviated OWL/XML formats. The Semantic Framework contains three subcomponents. The first subcomponent is the Extended JenaBean. Because of semantic gaps between object-oriented and Semantic Web models we proposed and implemented an extension of common JavaBean using Java Annotations. The output of the extended JenaBean component is an internal model representation. This representation is submitted to the second, Ontology Model Creator, subcomponent. This subcomponent creates an Ontology model. The internal JenaBean model is processed and an ontology document is created by calling Jena API methods. The result model can be further processed by the last subcomponent OWL API that transforms the ontology model into the supported ontology formats. The Semantic Framework is integrated in the EEG/ERP Portal where it is controlled by a build-in timer. The timer calls the Semantic Framework API in regular intervals. The API generates the ontology document from the stored experiments. The ontology document is stored in a temporary file. When any document request appears the temporary file containing the actual set of stored experiments is immediately available. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, Project "NTIS" New Technologies for Information Society"", European Centre of Excellence, CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0090."

  3. SEMANTIC BASED MULTIPLE WEB SEARCH ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS.S.LATHA SHANMUGAVADIVU,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With the tremendous growth of information available to end users through the Web, search engines come to play ever a more critical role. Nevertheless, because of their general-purpose approach, it is always less uncommon that obtained result sets provide a burden ofuseless pages. The next-generation Web architecture, represented by the Semantic Web, provides the layered architecture possibly allowing overcoming this limitation. Several search engines have been proposed, which allow increasing information retrieval accuracy by exploiting a key content of Semantic Web resources, that is, relations. To make the Semantic Web work, well-structured data andrules are necessary for agents to roam the Web [2]. XML and RDF are two important technologies: we can create our own structures by XML without indicating what they mean; RDF uses sets of triples which express basic concepts [2]. DAML is the extension of XML and RDF The aim of this project is to develop a search engine based on ontologymatching within the Semantic Web. It uses the data in Semantic Web form such as DAML or RDF. When the user input a query, the program accepts the query and transfers it to a machine learning agent. Then the agent measures the similarity between different ontology’s, and feedback the matched item to the user.

  4. Detecting syntactic and semantic anomalies in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Andrea; Bambini, Valentina; Bosia, Marta; Anselmetti, Simona; Riccaboni, Roberta; Cappa, Stefano F; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of language in schizophrenia is to identify specific levels of the linguistic structure that might be selectively impaired. While historically a main semantic deficit has been widely claimed, results are mixed, with also evidence of syntactic impairment. This might be due to heterogeneity in materials and paradigms across studies, which often do not allow to tap into single linguistic components. Moreover, the interaction between linguistic and neurocognitive deficits is still unclear. In this study, we concentrated on syntactic and semantic knowledge. We employed an anomaly detection task including short and long sentences with either syntactic errors violating the principles of Universal Grammar, or a novel form of semantic errors, resulting from a contradiction in the computation of the whole sentence meaning. Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia were compared to 30 healthy subjects. Results showed that, in patients, only the ability to identify syntactic anomaly, both in short and long sentences, was impaired. This result cannot be explained by working memory abilities or psychopathological features. These findings suggest the presence of an impairment of syntactic knowledge in schizophrenia, at least partially independent of the cognitive and psychopathological profile. On the contrary, we cannot conclude that there is a semantic impairment, at least in terms of compositional semantics abilities. PMID:26519554

  5. Semantic Stability in Social Tagging Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Claudia; Strohmaier, Markus; Huberman, Bernardo A

    2013-01-01

    One potential disadvantage of social tagging systems is that due to the lack of a centralized vocabulary, a crowd of users may never manage to reach a consensus on the description of resources (e.g., books, users or songs) on the Web. Yet, previous research has provided interesting evidence that the tag distributions of resources may become semantically stable over time as more and more users tag them. At the same time, previous work has raised an array of new questions such as: (i) How can we assess the semantic stability of social tagging systems in a robust and methodical way? (ii) Does semantic stabilization of tags vary across different social tagging systems and ultimately, (iii) what are the factors that can explain semantic stabilization in such systems? In this work we tackle these questions by (i) presenting a novel and robust method which overcomes a number of limitations in existing methods, (ii) empirically investigating semantic stabilization processes in a wide range of social tagging systems w...

  6. Deriving Logical Consequences Using Ontological Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S. Langde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web technology enables us to specify metadata about things in the world and help us to relate this metadata using ontology databases and language. The core of the Semantic Web is Ontology, which is used to explicitly represent our conceptualizations. This paper is an efforts to improve the relevancy of results in a search system for a particular domain by exploiting the domain knowledge captured in an OWL ontology using the protégé tool. We make ontological database from static relational database using protégé. The key ingredients that make up an ontology are a vocabulary of basic terms, semantic interconnections, simple rules of inference and some logic for a particular topic. We extract semantic meaning from query entered by the user using tool and then we map this meaning into ontological database. To achieve semantic search, a search engine is needed which can interpret the meaning of a user's query and the relations among the concepts that a document contains with respect to a particular domain. Protégé is an extensible and customizable tool for constructing ontologies and for developing applications that use these ontologies. After that we display this data on user screen. The output of this project is to provide appropriate result to user for enter his queries.

  7. Developmental changes in semantic knowledge organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Layla; Fisher, Anna V; Nugent, Rebecca; Ventura, Samuel L; MacLellan, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    Semantic knowledge is a crucial aspect of higher cognition. Theoretical accounts of semantic knowledge posit that relations between concepts provide organizational structure that converts information known about individual entities into an interconnected network in which concepts can be linked by many types of relations (e.g., taxonomic, thematic). The goal of the current research was to address several methodological shortcomings of prior studies on the development of semantic organization, by using a variant of the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) to collect graded judgments of relatedness for a set of entities that can be cross-classified into either taxonomic or thematic groups. In Experiment 1, we used the cross-classify SpAM (CC-SpAM) to obtain graded relatedness judgments and derive a representation of developmental changes in the organization of semantic knowledge. In Experiment 2, we validated the findings of Experiment 1 by using a more traditional pairwise similarity judgment paradigm. Across both experiments, we found that an early recognition of links between entities that are both taxonomically and thematically related preceded an increasing recognition of links based on a single type of relation. The utility of CC-SpAM for evaluating theoretical accounts of semantic development is discussed. PMID:26974015

  8. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdellah Kassimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  9. Semantic Query Optimisation with Ontology Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Gupta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web is, without a doubt, gaining momentum in both industry and academia. The word“Semantic” refers to “meaning” – a semantic web is a web of meaning. In this fast changing and resultoriented practical world, gone are the days where an individual had to struggle for finding informationon the Internet where knowledge management was the major issue. The semantic web has a vision oflinking, integrating and analysing data from various data sources and forming a new information stream,hence a web of databases connected with each other and machines interacting with other machines toyield results which are user oriented and accurate. With the emergence of Semantic Web framework thenaïve approach of searching information on the syntactic web is cliché. This paper proposes an optimisedsemantic searching of keywords exemplified by simulation an ontology of Indian universities with aproposed algorithm which ramifies the effective semantic retrieval of information which is easy to accessand time saving.

  10. SEMANTIC INTEGRATION FOR AUTOMATIC ONTOLOGY MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham AMROUCH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ontologies have played a key technology role for information sharing and agents interoperability in different application domains. In semantic web domain, ontologies are efficiently used to face the great challenge of representing the semantics of data, in order to bring the actual web to its full power and hence, achieve its objective. However, using ontologies as common and shared vocabularies requires a certain degree of interoperability between them. To confront this requirement, mapping ontologies is a solution that is not to be avoided. In deed, ontology mapping build a meta layer that allows different applications and information systems to access and share their informations, of course, after resolving the different forms of syntactic, semantic and lexical mismatches. In the contribution presented in this paper, we have integrated the semantic aspect based on an external lexical resource, wordNet, to design a new algorithm for fully automatic ontology mapping. This fully automatic character features the main difference of our contribution with regards to the most of the existing semi-automatic algorithms of ontology mapping, such as Chimaera, Prompt, Onion, Glue, etc. To better enhance the performances of our algorithm, the mapping discovery stage is based on the combination of two sub-modules. The former analysis the concept’s names and the later analysis their properties. Each one of these two sub-modules is it self based on the combination of lexical and semantic similarity measures.

  11. A Semantic Wiki on Cooperation in Public Administration in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Krabina

    2010-01-01

    Authorities cooperate in various ways. The Web portal www.verwaltungskooperation.eu aims to share knowledge on collaboration projects. A semantic wiki approach was used to facilitate best practice documentation with Semantic Web and Web 2.0 technology.

  12. Ontology Based Semantics Checking for UML Activity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UML activity model is mainly used to model the behaviors of software system and the quality of activity model will influence the quality of software system. But because the UML activity model lacks strictly formal semantics, it is difficult to make formal semantics analysis and checking for activity model. An ontology based method of semantics checking for activity model is proposed. The semantics of activity model is divided into static semantics and dynamic semantics. The static semantics is transformed into OWL DL by an algorithm, and the dynamic semantics is described by DL-Safe rules. Then the consistency of UML activity model is analyzed and some model checking rules are defined, which enables model consistency checking by using an ontology reasoning tool.

  13. A Machine Learning Based Analytical Framework for Semantic Annotation Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; 10.5121/ijwest.2011.2203

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning. The perspective of Semantic Web is to promote the quality and intelligence of the current web by changing its contents into machine understandable form. Therefore, semantic level information is one of the cornerstones of the Semantic Web. The process of adding semantic metadata to web resources is called Semantic Annotation. There are many obstacles against the Semantic Annotation, such as multilinguality, scalability, and issues which are related to diversity and inconsistency in content of different web pages. Due to the wide range of domains and the dynamic environments that the Semantic Annotation systems must be performed on, the problem of automating annotation process is one of the significant challenges in this domain. To overcome this problem, different machine learning approaches such as supervised learning, unsupervised learning and more recent ones like, semi-supervised learning and active learn...

  14. Relating Weight Constraint and Aggregate Programs: Semantics and Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guohua

    2011-01-01

    Weight constraint and aggregate programs are among the most widely used logic programs with constraints. In this paper, we relate the semantics of these two classes of programs, namely the stable model semantics for weight constraint programs and the answer set semantics based on conditional satisfaction for aggregate programs. Both classes of programs are instances of logic programs with constraints, and in particular, the answer set semantics for aggregate programs can be applied to weight constraint programs. We show that the two semantics are closely related. First, we show that for a broad class of weight constraint programs, called strongly satisfiable programs, the two semantics coincide. When they disagree, a stable model admitted by the stable model semantics may be circularly justified. We show that the gap between the two semantics can be closed by transforming a weight constraint program to a strongly satisfiable one, so that no circular models may be generated under the current implementation of ...

  15. Semantic fluency: cognitive basis and diagnostic performance in focal dementias and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Cherubini, Paolo; Baldinelli, Sara; Luzzi, Simona

    2014-05-01

    Semantic fluency is widely used both as a clinical test and as a basic tool for understanding how humans extract information from the semantic store. Recently, major efforts have been made to devise fine-grained scoring procedures to measure the multiple cognitive processes underlying fluency performance. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how many and which independent components are necessary to thoroughly describe performance on the fluency task. Furthermore, whether a combination of multiple indices can improve the diagnostic performance of the test should be assessed. In this study, we extracted multiple indices of performance on the semantic fluency test from a large sample of healthy controls (n = 307) and patients (n = 145) suffering from three types of focal dementia or Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that five independent components underlie semantic fluency performance. We argue that these components functionally map onto the generation and application of a search strategy (component 2), to the monitoring of the overall sequence to avoid repetitions (component 3) and out-of-category items (component 4), and to the full integrity of the semantic store (component 5). The integrated and effective work of all these components would relate to a "general effectiveness" component (component 1). Importantly, while all the focal dementia groups were equally impaired on general effectiveness measures, they showed differential patterns of failure in the other components. This finding suggests that the cognitive deficit that impairs fluency differs among the three focal dementia groups: a semantic store deficit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA), a strategy deficit in the non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfv-PPA), and an initiation deficit in the behavioural variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD). Finally, we showed that the concurrent use of multiple fluency indices improves the diagnostic accuracy of semantic fluency both for focal dementias and for AD. More generally, our study suggests that a formal evaluation of fine-grained patterns of performance would improve the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests. PMID:24681692

  16. When the Social Meets the Semantic: Social Semantic Web or Web 2.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The social trend is progressively becoming the key feature of current Web understanding (Web 2.0. This trend appears irrepressible as millions of users, directly or indirectly connected through social networks, are able to share and exchange any kind of content, information, feeling or experience. Social interactions radically changed the user approach. Furthermore, the socialization of content around social objects provides new unexplored commercial marketplaces and business opportunities. On the other hand, the progressive evolution of the web towards the Semantic Web (or Web 3.0 provides a formal representation of knowledge based on the meaning of data. When the social meets semantics, the social intelligence can be formed in the context of a semantic environment in which user and community profiles as well as any kind of interaction is semantically represented (Semantic Social Web. This paper first provides a conceptual analysis of the second and third version of the Web model. That discussion is aimed at the definition of a middle concept (Web 2.5 resulting in the convergence and integration of key features from the current and next generation Web. The Semantic Social Web (Web 2.5 has a clear theoretical meaning, understood as the bridge between the overused Web 2.0 and the not yet mature Semantic Web (Web 3.0.

  17. Control Deficit Subjects are Superior for Man-Made Objects on a Verbal Semantic Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roncero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When semantic deficits occur following brain damage, the subjects generally show anomia as well as deficits on semantic matching tasks such as the Camels and Cactus test. Such individuals can be further characterized as demonstrating either a semantic control deficit or a storage deficit (Jeffries & Lambon Ralph, 2006. Semantic control subjects show improved performance when responses are constrained, but storage subjects do not. In the present study, we categorized 17 subjects with neurodegenerative diseases – Alzheimer’s disease and Primary Progressive Aphasia - as Semantic Storage or Semantic Control patterns of deficit, based on their performance on three semantic tasks—Naming, Cued Naming, and Word-to-Picture Matching. This was done independent of both the subject’s localization of brain damage and clinical diagnosis. Subjects who demonstrated impaired performance on the Naming task, but showed normal performance on Cued Naming and Word-to-Picture Matching, were classified as showing a control deficit (N = 8, while subjects who were impaired on all three semantic tasks were classified as anomic subjects with a storage deficit (N = 9. Despite only using these three semantic tasks, the identified sub-groups demonstrated different patterns of semantic knowledge consistent with either a control deficit or a storage deficit. The identified sub-groups, for example, were comparable for letter fluency, but subjects with a storage deficit were significantly worse for animal fluency. Accessing subjects’ semantic knowledge with the word and picture versions of the Camels and Cactus test, we also found that storage deficit subjects’ performance was equally poor on both versions compared to normal elderly participants, whereas control deficit subjects were relatively impaired only in the word version. Finally, comparing FDG PET scans for these subjects, we noted storage deficit subjects typically had bilateral temporal damage—all but one participant—whereas control deficit subjects’ temporal lobe damage was more severe in the left hemisphere and typically unilateral. Therefore, these results suggest our three tasks were sufficient for differentiating anomic subjects with either a control deficit or a storage deficit. Also, considering the worse performance by control deficit subjects for the verbal version of the Camels and Cactus test, the results are consistent with previous arguments that the left temporal lobe is more specialized for verbal knowledge whereas the right temporal lobe is more specialized for visual knowledge (Gainotti, 2014. We also found, however, that this difference on the word version was isolated to living objects only. For manmade objects, control deficit subjects’ answers were similar to normal elderly controls. Therefore, the results suggest that animacy effects may be less related to a loss of visual semantic knowledge, as predicted by the sensory-functional hypothesis, because control deficit subjects performed well on the visual Camels and Cactus Test. Instead, animacy effects may be more related to the location of atrophy within the left temporal lobe.

  18. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...... provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional...... means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components are...

  19. Discovering Recurrent Image Semantics from Class Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jesse S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supervised statistical learning has become a critical means to design and learn visual concepts (e.g., faces, foliage, buildings, etc. in content-based indexing systems. The drawback of this approach is the need of manual labeling of regions. While several automatic image annotation methods proposed recently are very promising, they usually rely on the availability and analysis of associated text descriptions. In this paper, we propose a hybrid learning framework to discover local semantic regions and generate their samples for training of local detectors with minimal human intervention. A multiscale segmentation-free framework is proposed to embed the soft presence of discovered semantic regions and local class patterns in an image independently for indexing and matching. Based on 2400 heterogeneous consumer images with 16 semantic queries, both similarity matching based on individual index and integrated similarity matching have outperformed a feature fusion approach by 26% and 37% in average precisions, respectively.

  20. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalil A. Bispo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks, which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS.

  1. Semantically Detecting Plagiarism for Research Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kharat, Preeti M. Chavan, Vaibhav Jadhav, Kuldeep Rakibe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism means copying of published work without proper acknowledgement of source. Plagiarism is a major concern, in an academic environment, which affects both the credibility of institutions as well as its ability to ensure quality of its student. Plagiarism detection of research papers deals with checking similarities with other research papers. Manual methods cannot be used for checking research papers, as the assigned reviewer may have inadequate knowledge in the research disciplines. They may have different subjective views, causing possible misinterpretations. Therefore, there was an urgent need for an effective and feasible approach to check the submitted research papers with support of automated software. A method like- text mining method came into picture to solve the problem of automatically checking the research papers semantically. Our proposed system uses Term Frequency- Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI to semantically find plagiarism.

  2. Semantic technologies in a decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and semantic technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on semantic data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based semantic closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).

  3. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In formal semantics intuition plays a key role, in two ways. Intuitions about semantic properties of expressions are the primary data, and intuitions of the semanticists are the main access to these data. The paper investigates how this dual role is related to the concept of competence and the role that this concept plays in semantics. And it inquires whether the self-reflexive role of intuitions has consequences for the methodology of semantics as an empirical discipline.ReferencesBaggio, Giosuè, van Lambalgen, Michiel & Hagoort, Peter. 2008. ‘Computing and recomputing discourse models: an ERP study of the semantics of temporal connectives’. Journal of Memory and Language 59, no. 1: 36–53.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.02.005Chierchia, Gennaro & McConnell-Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. second ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Cresswell, Max J. 1978. ‘Semantic competence’. In F. Guenthner & M. Guenther-Reutter (eds. ‘Meaning and Translation’, 9–27. Duckworth, London. de Swart, Henriëtte. 1998. Introduction to Natural Language Semantics. Stanford: CSLI.Dowty, David, Wall, Robert & Peters, Stanley. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics. Dordrecht: Reidel.Heim, Irene & Kratzer, Angelika. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Larson, Richard & Segal, Gabriel. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Lewis, David K. 1975. ‘Languages and Language’. In Keith Gunderson (ed. ‘Language, Mind and Knowledge’, 3–35. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Montague, Richard. 1970. ‘Universal Grammar’. Theoria 36: 373–98.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1970.tb00434.xPartee, Barbara H. 1979. ‘Semantics – Mathematics or Psychology?’ In Rainer Bäuerle, Urs Egli & Arnim von Stechow (eds. ‘Semantics from Different Points of View’, 1–14. Berlin: Springer.Partee, Barbara H. 1980. ‘Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds. ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

  4. Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

  5. Relational Semantics for Databases and Predicate Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The relational data model requires a theory of relations in which tuples are not only many-sorted, but can also have indexes that are not necessarily numerical. In this paper we develop such a theory and define operations on relations that are adequate for database use. The operations are similar to those of Codd's relational algebra, but differ in being based on a mathematically adequate theory of relations. The semantics of predicate calculus, being oriented toward the concept of satisfiability, is not suitable for relational databases. We develop an alternative semantics that assigns relations as meaning to formulas with free variables. This semantics makes the classical predicate calculus suitable as a query language for relational databases.

  6. Robust Semantic Framework for web search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Swamy Naidu #1 , S.Narayana #2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . However, in order to rank results, most of the existing solutions need to work on the whole annotated knowledge base. In the existing system a relation-based page rank algorithm to be used in conjunction with Semantic Web search engines that simply relies on information that could be extracted from user queries and on annotated resources. This system retrieves all matching results that are based on minimum spanning nodes and fails to represent the owl and rdf structure in graphical representation.Proposed system overcomes all the drawbacks by introducing a new framework to represent the web semantic results based on the query. This system uses OWL , logic programming in order to get effective semantic search results. This proposed system represents all the OWL structure relationships in graphical node representation.

  7. Faceted Semantic Search for Personalized Social Search

    CERN Document Server

    Mas, Massimiliano Dal

    2012-01-01

    Actual social networks (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, ...) need to deal with vagueness on ontological indeterminacy. In this paper is analyzed the prototyping of a faceted semantic search for personalized social search using the "joint meaning" in a community environment. User researches in a "collaborative" environment defined by folksonomies can be supported by the most common features on the faceted semantic search. A solution for the context-aware personalized search is based on "joint meaning" understood as a joint construal of the creators of the contents and the user of the contents using the faced taxonomy with the Semantic Web. A proof-of concept prototype shows how the proposed methodological approach can also be applied to existing presentation components, built with different languages and/or component technologies.

  8. Towards Semantic Clustering – A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phei-Chin Lim, Narayanan Kulathuramaiyer, Dayang NurFatimah Awg. Iskandar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Image clustering is an important technology which helps users to get hold of thelarge amount of online visual information, especially after the rapid growth of theWeb. This paper focuses on image clustering methods and their application inimage collection or online image repository. Current progress of image clusteringrelated to image retrieval and image annotation are summarized and some openproblems are discussed. Related works are summarized based on the problemsaddressed, which are image segmentation, compact representation of image set,search space reduction, and semantic gap. Issues are also identified in currentprogress and semantic clustering is conjectured to be the potential trend. Ourframework of semantic clustering as well as the main abstraction levels involvedis briefly discussed.

  9. Semantic Web Approach towards E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Kiran Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Web Technologies enable machines to interpret data published in a machine-interpretable form on the web. The existing e-commerce web data can be understandable to humans to read but machines cannot process it due to lack of semantics. To gain the advantage of using online shopping, consumer needs to search different e-commerce websites for a better price of product. Hence searching plays a crucial role in e-commerce to overcome information asymmetry and price dispersion. In this paper, we explained the basics of e-commerce with advantage, disadvantages and where the semantic web technologies can be applied is given for the benefit of consumer.

  10. The Semantic Richness of Abstract Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Recchia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NF, contextual dispersion (CD, and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept’s physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations.

  11. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kalil A; Rosa, Nelson S; Cunha, Paulo R F

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  12. Semantic Business Intelligence - a New Generation of Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu AIRINEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.

  13. Patterns of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Joubert; Olivier Felician; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Mira Didic; Michel Poncet; Mathieu Ceccaldi

    2008-01-01

    Although the semantic memory impairment has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease, little is known about semantic memory in the preclinical phase of the disease (Mild Cognitive Impairment). The purpose of this study was to document the nature of semantic breakdown using a battery of tests assessing different aspects of conceptual knowledge: knowledge about common objects, famous people and famous public events. Results indicate that all domains of semantic memory were impaired in MCI...

  14. Semantic priming, schizophrenia and the ketamine model of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanovic, A.

    2009-01-01

    The central aim of the studies presented in my thesis was to investigate the modulation of semantic memory function and its neural correlates in relation to schizophrenia. Semantic information is stored information that is impersonal, and includes knowledge of words and their meaning, and general knowledge about the world. Semantic memory deficits are thought to underlie core symptoms of schizophrenia, including delusions, thought disorder and alogia. The semantic priming (S...

  15. Musical and verbal semantic memory: two distinct neural networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Groussard, Mathilde; Viader, Fausto; Hubert, Valérie; Landeau, Brigitte; Abbas, Ahmed; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Platel, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Semantic memory has been investigated in numerous neuroimaging and clinical studies, most of which have used verbal or visual, but only very seldom, musical material. Clinical studies have suggested that there is a relative neural independence between verbal and musical semantic memory. In the present study, "musical semantic memory" is defined as memory for "well-known" melodies without any knowledge of the spatial or temporal circumstances of learning, while "verbal semantic memory" corresp...

  16. Optimizing Training Set Construction for Video Semantic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuqing Wu; Tao Mei; Yan Song; Xian-Sheng Hua; Jinhui Tang

    2007-01-01

    We exploit the criteria to optimize training set construction for the large-scale video semantic classification. Due to the large gap between low-level features and higher-level semantics, as well as the high diversity of video data, it is difficult to represent the prototypes of semantic concepts by a training set of limited size. In video semantic classification, most of the learning-based approaches require a large training set to achieve good generalization capacity, in which large amount...

  17. Automatic and Intelligent Decision Making In Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Shrutika Kulkarni; Pradeep Chouskey; Gajendra Vaiker

    2012-01-01

    Concepts like "semantic computing" and "semantic search" refer to computational techniques that use knowledge representation and deep linkage into the referents of information tokens in language dictionaries, thesauri and ontology’s) and in data resources (libraries, databases and web-based repositories). Perhaps the best-known sense is in the "semantic web", it is also reviews the technologies that make up the SW with the implications of these technologies Semantic Intelligence, Defined Sema...

  18. SEMANTIC QUERIES IN DISTRIBUTED RELATIONAL DATABASE USING GLOBAL ONTOLOGY CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    R. Megala; K. Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    Semantic web refers to the extension of the World Wide Web and it will provide a common framework which makes data available for reusing and sharing. Ontology is the backbone of Semantic web which is used to access relational database in Semantic web. This paper proposes a new approach which enables Semantic web application to access distributed relational databases. The method involves two main phases. In the first phase, have focus to construct one or more local ontologies. In the second ph...

  19. Relating Weight Constraint and Aggregate Programs: Semantics and Representation

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Guohua; You, Jia-Huai

    2011-01-01

    Weight constraint and aggregate programs are among the most widely used logic programs with constraints. In this paper, we relate the semantics of these two classes of programs, namely the stable model semantics for weight constraint programs and the answer set semantics based on conditional satisfaction for aggregate programs. Both classes of programs are instances of logic programs with constraints, and in particular, the answer set semantics for aggregate programs can be applied to weight ...

  20. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i...... artifacts lies in them not having been designed from scratch and then proved correct: instead, they were mechanically inter-derived....

  1. Semantic Web Mining and its application in Human Resource Mgt

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Malik; Udayan Ghose

    2011-01-01

    The Semantic Web is a project and vision of the World WideWeb Consortium to extend the current Web, so that informationis given a well-defined meaning and structure, enhancingcomputers and people to work in cooperation. Semantic webmining is the combination of web mining and semantic web. Theknowledge of semantic web makes web mining easier to achieveand can also improve the effectiveness of web mining. Semanticweb mining technologies are being added to enterprise solutionsto accommodate new ...

  2. VPOET: Using a Distributed Collaborative Platform for Semantic Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rico, Mariano; Camacho, David; Corcho, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative wiki-based platform that has been designed to facilitate the development of Semantic Web applications. The applications designed using this platform are able to build semantic data through the cooperation of different developers and to exploit that semantic data. The paper shows a practical case study on the application VPOET, and how an application based on Google Gadgets has been designed to test VPOET and let human users exploit the semantic...

  3. Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Ansari, Aftab 2012. Semantic Web Portals: Design and Development Technologies and Tools: Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 67. Semantic Web is one important and relevant research area in computer science. A growing research attention to this field can be explained by the opportunities the Semantic Web could provide by representing and reasoning about semantic information. The objective of this thesis is to study the technologies for...

  4. Exploring Words with Semantic Correlations from Chinese Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Huang, Kaiyan; Tsuchiya, Seiji; Ren, Fuji; Zhong, Yixin

    In this paper, we work on semantic correlation between Chinese words based on Wikipedia documents. A corpus with about 50,000 structured documents is generated from Wikipedia pages. Then considering of hyper-links, text overlaps and word frequency, about 300,000 word pairs with semantic correlations are explored from these documents. We roughly measure the degree of semantic correlations and find groups with tight semantic correlations by self clustering.

  5. Scalable algorithms for cloud-based Semantic Web data management

    OpenAIRE

    Zampetakis, Stamatis

    2015-01-01

    In order to build smart systems, where machines are able to reason exactly like humans, data with semantics is a major requirement. This need led to the advent of the Semantic Web, proposing standard ways for representing and querying data with semantics. RDF is the prevalent data model used to describe web resources, and SPARQL is the query language that allows expressing queries over RDF data. Being able to store and query data with semantics triggered the development of many RDF data manag...

  6. Ontology-Driven Query Reformulation in Semantic Search

    OpenAIRE

    Solskinnsbakk, Geir

    2007-01-01

    Semantic search is a research area in which the goal is to understand the users intended meaning of the query. This requires disambiguation of the user query and interpreting the semantics of the query. Semantic search would thus improve the users search experience through more precise result sets. Moreover, ontologies are explicit conceptualizations of domains, defining concepts, their properties, and the relations among them. This makes ontologies semantic representations of specific...

  7. Propose Semantic Formalization for 3D Reconstruction of Architectural

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Christophe; Yucong, Duan; Christophe NICOLLE

    2010-01-01

    Archi3D project is a successful practice well proved by engineering practices. In this paper, we propose to reconstruct semantics for the purpose of reconstruct 3D architecture in Archi3D fundamentally. The formalization approach starts from several hypotheses on semantics which include: there is a core mechanism of semantics which is not limited to conceptual expression level; and a complete expression of semantics necessaries the ―implicitexplicit‖ transition of human side knowledge, etc. ...

  8. Semantic Part Segmentation using Compositional Model combining Shape and Appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianyu; Yuille, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of semantic part segmentation for animals. This is more challenging than standard object detection, object segmentation and pose estimation tasks because semantic parts of animals often have similar appearance and highly varying shapes. To tackle these challenges, we build a mixture of compositional models to represent the object boundary and the boundaries of semantic parts. And we incorporate edge, appearance, and semantic part cues into the compositional...

  9. User Search Personalization in Semantic Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Venkata Ramana , Dr.K.Venugopala Rao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web site to the needs of specific users, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the user’s navigational behaviour (usage data in correlation with other information collected in the Web context, namely, structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has gained great momentum both in the research and commercial areas. To provide personalized support in on-line course resources system, a semantic web-based personalized learning service is proposed to enhance the learner's learning efficiency. When a personalization system relies solely on usage-based results, however, valuable information conceptually related to what is finally recommended may be missed. Moreover, the structural properties of the web site are often disregarded. In the first part of our Paper, we present a personalize Web search system, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. In the second part of our work we present Semantic Web Personalization, a personalization system that integrates usage data with content semantics, expressed in ontology terms, in order to compute semantically enhanced navigational patterns and effectively generate useful recommendations. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed technique is the only semantic web personalization system that may be used by non-semantic web sites. In the part of our work, we present a novel approach for enhancing the quality of recommendations based on the underlying structure of a web site. We introduce UPR (Usage-based Page Rank, a Page Rank style algorithm that relies on the recorded usage data and link analysis techniques based on user interested domains and user query.

  10. e-Science and biological pathway semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Joanne S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of e-Science presents a major set of opportunities and challenges for the future progress of biological and life scientific research. Major new tools are required and corresponding demands are placed on the high-throughput data generated and used in these processes. Nowhere is the demand greater than in the semantic integration of these data. Semantic Web tools and technologies afford the chance to achieve this semantic integration. Since pathway knowledge is central to much of the scientific research today it is a good test-bed for semantic integration. Within the context of biological pathways, the BioPAX initiative, part of a broader movement towards the standardization and integration of life science databases, forms a necessary prerequisite for its successful application of e-Science in health care and life science research. This paper examines whether BioPAX, an effort to overcome the barrier of disparate and heterogeneous pathway data sources, addresses the needs of e-Science. Results We demonstrate how BioPAX pathway data can be used to ask and answer some useful biological questions. We find that BioPAX comes close to meeting a broad range of e-Science needs, but certain semantic weaknesses mean that these goals are missed. We make a series of recommendations for re-modeling some aspects of BioPAX to better meet these needs. Conclusion Once these semantic weaknesses are addressed, it will be possible to integrate pathway information in a manner that would be useful in e-Science.

  11. The Semantic Web: From Representation to Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn R.; Spivack, Nova; Wissner, James M.

    A semantically-linked web of electronic information - the Semantic Web - promises numerous benefits including increased precision in automated information sorting, searching, organizing and summarizing. Realizing this requires significantly more reliable meta-information than is readily available today. It also requires a better way to represent information that supports unified management of diverse data and diverse Manipulation methods: from basic keywords to various types of artificial intelligence, to the highest level of intelligent manipulation - the human mind. How this is best done is far from obvious. Relying solely on hand-crafted annotation and ontologies, or solely on artificial intelligence techniques, seems less likely for success than a combination of the two. In this paper describe an integrated, complete solution to these challenges that has already been implemented and tested with hundreds of thousands of users. It is based on an ontological representational level we call SemCards that combines ontological rigour with flexible user interface constructs. SemCards are machine- and human-readable digital entities that allow non-experts to create and use semantic content, while empowering machines to better assist and participate in the process. SemCards enable users to easily create semantically-grounded data that in turn acts as examples for automation processes, creating a positive iterative feedback loop of metadata creation and refinement between user and machine. They provide a holistic solution to the Semantic Web, supporting powerful management of the full lifecycle of data, including its creation, retrieval, classification, sorting and sharing. We have implemented the SemCard technology on the semantic Web site Twine.com, showing that the technology is indeed versatile and scalable. Here we present the key ideas behind SemCards and describe the initial implementation of the technology.

  12. Semantic Web and Contextual Information: Semantic Network Analysis of Online Journalistic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yon Soo

    This study examines why contextual information is important to actualize the idea of semantic web, based on a case study of a socio-political issue in South Korea. For this study, semantic network analyses were conducted regarding English-language based 62 blog posts and 101 news stories on the web. The results indicated the differences of the meaning structures between blog posts and professional journalism as well as between conservative journalism and progressive journalism. From the results, this study ascertains empirical validity of current concerns about the practical application of the new web technology, and discusses how the semantic web should be developed.

  13. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  14. Semantic Associations in Business English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the semantic associations of words found in the business lexical environment by using a one-million word corpus of both spoken and written Business English. The key method of analysis is that of semantic prosody or semantic association; the notion that words associate with collocates that are themselves related, often either…

  15. Auditory Distraction in Semantic Memory: A Process-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate auditory-semantic distraction in tests of memory for semantic category-exemplars. The effects of irrelevant sound on category-exemplar recall are shown to be functionally distinct from those found in the context of serial short-term memory by showing sensitivity to: The lexical-semantic, rather than acoustic,…

  16. Semantic memory impairment in the earliest phases of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Gade, Anders; Stokholm, Jette; Waldemar, Gunhild

    The presence and the nature of semantic memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been widely debated. This study aimed to determine the frequency of impaired semantic test performances in mild AD and to study whether incipient semantic impairments could be identified in predementia AD...

  17. Simulation Preorder Semantics for Traceability Relations in Enterprise Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes a formal semantics for traceability relations in enterprise architecture. The proposed semantics requires that traceability relations should be simulation preorders, a requirement on abstraction relations widely used in program verification. The effectiveness of the proposed semantics is illustrated on a well-known enterprise architecture model from the military domain.

  18. The Verbmobil semantic formalism (Version 1.3)

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Johan; Mastenbroek, Elsbeth; McGlashan, Scott; Millies, Sebastian; Pinkal, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the semantic formalism developed at Saarbrücken University as part of the Verbmobil project. The formalism is based upon DRT with additional functionality to meet the requirements on semantic construction arising from spoken dialogue translation. We define the syntax of the formalism and illustrate the semantic composition process in detail.

  19. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  20. Ontology-Based Exception Handling for Semantic Business Process Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Zhao; Linlin Zhang; Shi Ying

    2012-01-01

    Along with the widespread acceptance of business process management (BPM) and Semantic Web services composition technologies, Semantic Web service oriented programming is becoming an efficient way to develop modern business applications. As Semantic Web services are inherently unreliable, how to develop reliable service oriented applications is a significant and challenging problem, especially in complex, untamed and dynamic services environment. However, current business process programming ...