WorldWideScience
1

Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

Hohreiter, D.W.

1980-05-01

2

Bioaccumulation factors for radionuclides in freshwater biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report analyzes over 200 carefully selected papers to provide concise data sets and methodology for estimation of bioaccumulation factors for tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, iodine, manganese, and cobalt in major biotic components of freshwater environments. Bioaccumulation factors of different tissues are distinguished where significant differences occur. Since conditions in the laboratory are often unnatural in terms of chemical and ecological relationships, this review was restricted as far as possible to bioaccumulation factors determined for natural systems. Because bioaccumulation factors were not available for some shorter-lived radionuclides, a methodology for converting bioaccumulation factors of stable isotopes to those of shorter-lived radionuclides was derived and utilized. The bioaccumulation factor for a radionuclide in a given organism or tissue may exhibit wide variations among bodies of water that are related to differences in ambient concentrations of stable-element and carrier-element analogues. To account for these variations, simple models are presented that relate bioaccumulation factors to stable-element and carrier-element concentrations in water. The effects of physicochemical form and other factors in causing deviations from these models are discussed. Bioaccumulation factor data are examined in the context of these models, and bioaccumulation factor relations for the selected radionuclides are presented

3

Application of the ERICA Assessment Tool to freshwater biota in Finland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years there has been growing international interest in the assessment of doses and risks from ionising contaminants to biota. In this study the ERICA Tool, developed within the EC 6th Framework Programme, was applied to estimate incremental dose rates to biota in freshwater ecosystems in Finland mainly resulting from exposure to the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Data sets consisting of measured activity concentrations in fish, aquatic plants, lake water and sediment for three selected lakes located in a region with high {sup 137}Cs deposition were applied in the assessment. The dose rates to most species studied were clearly below the screening level of 10 muGy h{sup -1}, indicating no significant impact of the Chernobyl fallout on these species. However, the possibility of higher dose rates to certain species living on or in the bottom sediment cannot be excluded based on this assessment.

Vetikko, Virve, E-mail: virve.vetikko@stuk.f [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O. Box 14 (Laippatie 4), FI-00881, Helsinki (Finland); Saxen, Ritva, E-mail: ritva.saxen@stuk.f [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O. Box 14 (Laippatie 4), FI-00881, Helsinki (Finland)

2010-01-15

4

Application of the ERICA Assessment Tool to freshwater biota in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years there has been growing international interest in the assessment of doses and risks from ionising contaminants to biota. In this study the ERICA Tool, developed within the EC 6th Framework Programme, was applied to estimate incremental dose rates to biota in freshwater ecosystems in Finland mainly resulting from exposure to the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr. Data sets consisting of measured activity concentrations in fish, aquatic plants, lake water and sediment for three selected lakes located in a region with high 137Cs deposition were applied in the assessment. The dose rates to most species studied were clearly below the screening level of 10 ?Gy h-1, indicating no significant impact of the Chernobyl fallout on these species. However, the possibility of higher dose rates to certain species living on or in the bottom sediment cannot be excluded based on this assessment.

5

Radionuclide transfer to freshwater biota species: review of Russian language studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Around 130 publications reporting studies on radionuclide transfer to freshwater biota species conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide the concentration ratio values. None of these studies were available up to now in the English language reviews or publications. The values derived have been compared with the CR values used for freshwater systems in the International reviews. For some radionuclides reviewed in this paper, the data are in good agreement with the mean CR values presented earlier, however for some of them, in particular, for {sup 241}Am (bivalve molluscs, gastropods and pelagic fish), {sup 60}Co (gastropods, benthic fish and insect larvae), {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs (benthic fish and zooplankton), the mean values given here are substantially different from those presented earlier. The data reported in this paper for thirty five radionuclides and eleven groups of freshwater species markedly improve the extent of available data for evaluation of radiation impact on freshwater species. - Research highlights: {yields} The paper provides information on concentration ratios to freshwater biota species for 35 radionuclides. Many of the data are for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. {yields} For the majority of radionuclides reviewed in this paper, the CR values are in good agreement with those given in the recent International reviews. {yields} For {sup 241}Am (bivalve molluscs, gastropods and pelagic fish), {sup 60}Co (gastropods, benthic fish and insect larvae), {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs (benthic fish and zooplankton), the mean values based on review of the Russian language publications are substantially different from those presented in the International reviews. {yields} Information presented in the paper significantly increases the availability of data on radionuclide accumulation in freshwater species.

Fesenko, S., E-mail: s.fesenko@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, NAAL, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Fesenko, J.; Sanzharova, N.; Karpenko, E.; Titov, I. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15

6

Radionuclide transfer to freshwater biota species: review of Russian language studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Around 130 publications reporting studies on radionuclide transfer to freshwater biota species conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide the concentration ratio values. None of these studies were available up to now in the English language reviews or publications. The values derived have been compared with the CR values used for freshwater systems in the International reviews. For some radionuclides reviewed in this paper, the data are in good agreement with the mean CR values presented earlier, however for some of them, in particular, for 241Am (bivalve molluscs, gastropods and pelagic fish), 60Co (gastropods, benthic fish and insect larvae), 90Sr and 137Cs (benthic fish and zooplankton), the mean values given here are substantially different from those presented earlier. The data reported in this paper for thirty five radionuclides and eleven groups of freshwater species markedly improve the extent of available data for evaluation of radiation impact on freshwater species. - Research highlights: ? The paper provides information on concentration ratios to freshwater biota species for 35 radionuclides. Many of the data are for 90Sr and 137Cs. ? For the majority of radionuclides reviewed in this paper, the CR values are in good agreement with those given in the recent International reviews. ? For 241Am (bivalve molluscs, gastropods and pelagic fish), 60Co (gastropogic fish), 60Co (gastropods, benthic fish and insect larvae), 90Sr and 137Cs (benthic fish and zooplankton), the mean values based on review of the Russian language publications are substantially different from those presented in the International reviews. ? Information presented in the paper significantly increases the availability of data on radionuclide accumulation in freshwater species.

7

Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h-1 (1 rad d-1). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h-1 to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE's recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h-1 will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted

8

Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} (1 rad d{sup {minus}1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE`s recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h{sup {minus}1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; O`Neal, B.R.

1993-08-01

9

Toxicity of 35 trace elements in coal to freshwater biota: a data base with automated retrieval capabilities. [313 references  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data are tabulated on the toxicity to freshwater biota of 35 trace elements with the potential for release to the environment from coal conversion effluents. The entire data base is presented on a microfiche appended to the document, in the interest of portability and accessibility. The data were gathered from a variety of research papers, compendia, and reviews. Details of water chemistry and test conditions are presented when available from the documents consulted. The data base may be used by referring directly to the tabulated data as they appear on the microfiche, or, with appropriate computer facilities, by manipulation (sorting, subsetting, or merging) of the data to meet the particular needs of the investigator. The data may be used as they appear in the data base, or the data base may be used to index the cited original papers.

Cushman, R. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.; Strand, R. H.; Anderson, R. M.

1977-06-01

10

An international model validation exercise on radionuclide transfer and doses to freshwater biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) programme, activity concentrations of 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H in Perch Lake at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories site were predicted, in freshwater primary producers, invertebrates, fishes, herpetofauna and mammals using eleven modelling approaches. Comparison of predicted radionuclide concentrations in the different species types with measured values highlighted a number of areas where additional work and understanding is required to improve the predictions of radionuclide transfer. For some species, the differences could be explained by ecological factors such as trophic level or the influence of stable analogues. Model predictions were relatively poor for mammalian species and herpetofauna compared with measured values, partly due to a lack of relevant data. In addition, concentration ratios are sometimes under-predicted when derived from experiments performed under controlled laboratory conditions representative of conditions in other water bodies.

11

An international model validation exercise on radionuclide transfer and doses to freshwater biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) programme, activity concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 3}H in Perch Lake at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories site were predicted, in freshwater primary producers, invertebrates, fishes, herpetofauna and mammals using eleven modelling approaches. Comparison of predicted radionuclide concentrations in the different species types with measured values highlighted a number of areas where additional work and understanding is required to improve the predictions of radionuclide transfer. For some species, the differences could be explained by ecological factors such as trophic level or the influence of stable analogues. Model predictions were relatively poor for mammalian species and herpetofauna compared with measured values, partly due to a lack of relevant data. In addition, concentration ratios are sometimes under-predicted when derived from experiments performed under controlled laboratory conditions representative of conditions in other water bodies.

Yankovich, T L [AREVA Resources Canada, 817-45th Street West, Saskatoon, SK, S7K 3X5 (Canada); Vives i Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S [Environmental Science, Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J [Radioecology Group, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Beaugelin-Seiller, K [Environment and Emergency Operations Division (DEI), Batiment 159 Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) Centre de Cadarache, BP 3 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Brown, J E; Hosseini, A [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini Naeringspark 13, PO Box 55, N-1332, Oesteraas (Norway); Cheng, J-J; Kamboj, S [Radiological Health Risk Section, Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Copplestone, D [Radioactive Substances, Chemicals Team Science Department, The Environment Agency, PO Box 12, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom); Heling, R [Department of Radiation and Environment, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), PO Box 9035, Utrechseweg, 310 6800 ES, Arnhem (Netherlands); Kryshev, A I [State Enterprise Scientific Production Association (SPA), ' Typhoon' , 82 Lenin Avenue, 249038, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Nedveckaite, T [Institute of Physics, Radiation Protection, Savanoriu Avenue 231, LT-02053 Vilnius (Lithuania); Smith, J T, E-mail: tamara.yankovich@areva.c [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3QL (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15

12

Non-effect of water hardness on the accumulation and toxicity of copper in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum): how useful are hardness-modified copper guidelines for protecting freshwater biota?  

Science.gov (United States)

Several nations have adopted hardness-modified copper (Cu) guidelines for protecting freshwater biota. However, there is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of Cu to freshwater biota, particularly macrophytes. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (35, 90 and 335 mg CaCO(3)/l, added as Ca and Mg chloride in a 1:1 mole ratio) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (96 h growth (biomass and stem length) and photosynthetic pigment inhibition) of Cu in the free-floating submerged macrophyte, Ceratophyllum demersum, in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (16 mg CaCO(3)/l) and pH (7.0). There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in the cell surface binding affinity, accumulation or toxicity of Cu in C. demersum with a 10-fold increase in water hardness from 35 to 335 mg CaCO(3)/l. The mean 96 h EC(50) values (and 95% confidence intervals) for biomass, the most sensitive endpoint, were 8.4 (7.6-9.2), 8.9 (8.0-9.8) and 9.9 (9.1-10.7) microg/l Cu for 35, 90 and 335 mg CaCO(3)/l, respectively. Speciation calculations indicated only very small (1-6%) differences in the percentage distribution (i.e. bioavailability) of Cu over the hardness range. These collective results indicate no apparent competition between Cu and Ca/Mg for binding sites on the cell surface. Given that the mechanism of Cu uptake (via Cu-specific and Na-linked transporters) is fundamentally different to that of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn (via Ca transporters), for which other hardness-dependent algorithms have been developed, it is doubtful whether a hardness-modified Cu guideline value will be sufficiently protective of sensitive freshwater biota, such as C. demersum, particularly in medium-hard fresh surface waters with low levels of dissolved organic carbon. The biotic ligand model offers a more flexible and mechanistic approach for deriving site-specific Cu (metal) guidelines for protecting freshwater biota. PMID:16735056

Markich, Scott J; King, Angus R; Wilson, Scott P

2006-12-01

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Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

Gjelsvik, R.; Brown, J.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Saxen, R.; Outola, I.

2012-01-15

14

Conserving Freshwater Biota in Highly Managed Freshwater Ecosystems: The Challenge of Knowing What We Have, What We've Lost, and How to Restore Valued Aquatic Resources  

OpenAIRE

Freshwater ecosystems are perhaps the most threatened ecosystems on earth; and the geomorphic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological alterations in streams and rivers of the Great Salt Lake Basin (GSLB) typify the alterations that have occurred throughout the western United States and the world as a whole. Managing these systems to conserve what is left and restore aquatic resources to acceptable levels requires knowledge of the ecological status of existing ecosystems, what has been lost, and...

Hawkins, Charles P.; Vinson, Mark

2006-01-01

15

Transitions in ancient inland freshwater resource management in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations in and around coastal lagoons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing anthropogenic pressure on natural environments results in impacts that affect tropical forest areas and their biodiversity. Adverse impacts on terrestrial and oceanic environments often compound in the intertidal area, where mangrove forest ecosystems thrive. In tropical coastal areas of many developing countries where people depend on wood and other mangrove forest products and services, forest degradation leads to socioeconomic problems. At the same time, increasing freshwater needs in these areas are expected to cause additional problems. On the basis of remote sensing and ground truthing complemented by colonial archival material from the Dutch East India Company (1602-1800), we report that changes to the historic system of inland freshwater management have increased dramatically in recent times. Hydrological changes, such as interbasin transfers, have resulted in a qualitative ecological and socioeconomic degradation in three coastal lagoons in southern Sri Lanka. Variations in river hydrology have caused changes in the areas suitable as mangrove habitat and, thus, have resulted in an altered distribution. However, increases in mangrove area can mask the degradation of the site in terms of floristic composition, significance of the species, and biodiversity (this effect is termed "cryptic ecological degradation"). It is important that such changes be carefully monitored to ensure biological and socioeconomic sustainability. PMID:15797030

Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Hettiarachchi, S; Lo Seen, D; Batelaan, O; Sooriyarachchi, S; Jayatissa, L P; Koedam, N

2005-03-29

16

Concentration ratios of stable elements for selected biota in Japanese estuarine areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the estimation of radiation doses to organisms, concentration ratios (C ( R )s) of radionuclides are required. In the present study, C(R)s of various elements were obtained as analogues of radionuclides for algae, molluscs, and crustaceans, in eight estuarine areas around Japan. The elements measured were Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Pb, and U. The geometric mean (GM) values of C(R)s (GM-C(R)s) for alkali and alkaline earth elements, Mo, and U for all biota, as well as V for crustaceans, were less than 100 L/kg, while GM-C(R)s for the other elements were higher. When the obtained GM-C(R)s were compared with the C(R)s recommended in IAEA Technical Report Series 422 for marine organisms, no big differences between them were found; however, several elements (i.e. Cd and U for algae, Mn for molluscs, and Pb for crustaceans) were lower than the recommended C(R)s. In the present study, conversion factors (the ratio of C(R) for the whole body to that for muscle) for molluscs and crustaceans were also calculated, since data on edible parts of these organisms are generally available in the literature. For crustaceans, GM conversion factors of all the elements were more than one. For molluscs, GM conversion factors of rare earth elements and U were slightly higher than those for crustaceans, while GM conversion factors of the other elements were almost the same and less than 10. These results indicate that some elements tend to be concentrated in the internal organs of biota collected in the estuarine areas. For environmental radiological assessment, conversion factors from tissue to whole-body C(R) values are useful parameters. PMID:20711600

Takata, H; Aono, T; Tagami, K; Uchida, S

2010-11-01

17

Exposure of biota in the cooling pond of Ignalina NPP: hydrophytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological assessment of non-human biota is now accepted by a number of international bodies. In this connection the scientific basis to assess and evaluate biota internal and external radiation exposure is required. This paper presents the comparison of freshwater biota (hydrophyte species) exposure due to discharged anthropogenic radionuclides with that due to natural background radiation. The radionuclides from Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Lithuania) are discharged into cooling pond - Druksiai Lake. Submerged hydrophytes were selected as biota exposure indicators because they represent the largest biomass in this lake and have comparatively high radionuclide activity concentrations. The detailed methodology evaluation of the submerged hydrophyte dose rate is presented. The ionizing radiation exposure dose rates to submerged hydrophyte roots and above sediment parts due to the major radionuclides (54Mn, 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr) discharged into the INPP cooling pond - Druksiai Lake were 0.044 ?Gy h-1 and 0.004 ?Gy h-1, respectively. The internal exposure dose rate due to natural background ?-emitters (210Po,238U, 226Ra) was estimated to be 1.24 ?Gy h-1, as compared with that of anthropogenic ?-emitter 240Pu - 0.04 ?Gy h-1, whereas the external exposure was 0.069 ?Gy h-1. The presented data deeper the knowledge about th data deeper the knowledge about the concentration of radionuclides and submerged hydrophytes' exposure dose rates in European freshwater ecosystems

18

Selective predation by perch (Perca fluviatilis) on a freshwater isopod, in two macrophyte substrates.  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies show that populations of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus L. can rapidly become locally differentiated when submerged stonewort (Chara spp.) vegetation expands in lakes. In the novel Chara habitat, isopods become lighter pigmented and smaller than in the ancestral reed stands. In this study, I used laboratory experiments to investigate if selective predation by fish could be a possible explanation for these phenotypic changes. Predation from fish is generally considered ...

Andersson, Magnus

2010-01-01

19

Thermal and biocidal (chlorine) effects on select freshwater plankton.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impact of select levels of temperature, individually and in combination, with different initial chlorine concentrations on the growth and reproduction of phytoplankter Chlorella vulgaris and zooplankton C. reticulata, C. viridis, and Diaptomus forbesi was evaluated. During the experiment, optimum growth temperature for the alga was estimated as 26 degrees C, even though alga showed considerable growth up to 36 degrees C. However, initial chlorine at concentrations >or=0.25 mg l(-1) adversely affected growth (P or=33 degrees C. However, the percent growth rates of zooplankters at 26 degrees C were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those at 31 degrees C, 33 degrees C, and 36 degrees C. Initial chlorine levels of 0.5 and 0.25 mg l(-1) were lethal to zooplankton; however, zooplankton survival was not affected at 0.06 mg l(-1) chlorinated water at all selected temperatures. PMID:17549550

Zargar, S; Ghosh, T K

2007-08-01

20

Natural selection in the water: freshwater invasion and adaptation by water colour in the Amazonian pufferfish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural selection and ecological adaptation are ultimately responsible for much of the origin of biodiversity. Yet, the identification of divergent natural selection has been hindered by the spatial complexity of natural systems, the difficulty in identifying genes under selection and their relationship to environment, and the confounding genomic effects of time. Here, we employed genome scans, population genetics and sequence-based phylogeographic methods to identify divergent natural selection on population boundaries in a freshwater invader, the Amazonian pufferfish, Colomesus asellus. We sampled extensively across markedly different hydrochemical settings in the Amazon Basin and use 'water colour' to test for ecological isolation. We distinguish the relative contribution of natural selection across hydrochemical gradients from biogeographic history in the origin and maintenance of population boundaries within a single species and across a complex ecosystem. We show that spatially distinct population structure generated by multiple forces (i.e. water colour and vicariant biogeographic history) can be identified if the confounding effects of genetic drift have not accumulated between selective populations. Our findings have repercussions for studies aimed at identifying engines of biodiversity and assessing their temporal progression in understudied and ecologically complex tropical ecosystems. PMID:22551113

Cooke, G M; Chao, N L; Beheregaray, L B

2012-07-01

21

A low-density SNP array for analyzing differential selection in freshwater and marine populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has become an important model species for studying both contemporary and parallel evolution. In particular, differential adaptation to freshwater and marine environments has led to high differentiation between freshwater and marine stickleback populations at the phenotypic trait of lateral plate morphology and the underlying candidate gene Ectodysplacin (EDA). Many studies have focused on this trait and candidate gene, although other genes involved in marine-freshwater adaptation may be equally important. In order to develop a resource for rapid and cost efficient analysis of genetic divergence between freshwater and marine sticklebacks, we generated a low-density SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) array encompassing markers of chromosome regions under putative directional selection, along with neutral markers for background. Results: RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing of sixty individuals representing two freshwater and one marine population led to the identification of 33,993 SNP markers. Ninety-six of these were chosen for the low-density SNP array, among which 70 represented SNPs under putatively directional selection in freshwater vs. marine environments, whereas 26 SNPs were assumed to be neutral. Annotation of these regions revealed several genes that are candidates for affecting stickleback phenotypic variation, some of which have been observed in previous studies whereas others are new. Conclusions: We have developed a cost-efficient low-density SNP array that allows for rapid screening of polymorphisms in threespine stickleback. The array provides a valuable tool for analyzing adaptive divergence between freshwater and marine stickleback populations beyond the well-established candidate gene Ectodysplacin (EDA).

Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Pedersen, Susanne H.

2014-01-01

22

Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas, and measured selected water-quality properties in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the course of the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to environmental flow prescriptions for Big Cypress Bayou, Black Cypress Bayou, and Little Cypress Bayou. Data collection and analysis were done at mesohabitat- and reach-specific scales, where a mesohabitat is defined as a discrete area within a stream that exhibits unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Biological and physical characteristic data were collected from two sites on Big Cypress Bayou, and one site on both Black Cypress Bayou and Little Cypress Bayou. The upstream reach of Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346015 Big Cypress Bayou at confluence of French Creek, Jefferson, Texas) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 02 site. The downstream site on Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346017 Big Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 01 site and was sampled exclusively for mussels. The sites on Black Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346044 Black Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) and Little Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346071 Little Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) are hereinafter referred to as the Black Cypress and Little Cypress sites, respectively. A small range of streamflows was targeted for data collection, including a period of low flow during July and August 2010 and a period of very low flow during July 2011. This scenario accounts for variability in the abundance and distribution of fish and mussels and in the physical characteristics of mesohabitats present during different flow conditions. Mussels were not collected from the Little Cypress site. However, a quantitative survey of freshwater mussels was conducted at Big Cypress 01. Of the three reaches where physical habitat data were measured in 2010, Big Cypress 02 was both the widest and deepest, with a mean width of 62.2 feet (ft) and a mean depth of 5.5 ft in main-channel mesohabitats. Little Cypress was the second widest and deepest, with a mean width of 49.9 ft and a mean depth of 4.5 ft in main-channel mesohabitats. Black Cypress was by far the narrowest of the three reaches, with a mean width of 29.1 ft and a mean depth of 3.3 ft in main-channel mesohabitats but it had the highest mean velocity of 0.42 feet per second (ft/s). Appreciably more fish were collected from Big Cypress 02 (596) in summer 2010 compared to Black Cypress (273) or Little Cypress (359), but the total number of fish species collected among the three reaches was similar. Longear sunfish was the most abundant fish species collected from all three sites. The total number of fish species was largest in slow run mesohabitats at Big Cypress 02, fast runs at Black Cypress, and slow runs at Little Cypress. The catch-per-unit-effort of native minnows was largest in fast runs at Big Cypress 02. More species of native minnows, including the ironcolor and emerald shiner, were collected from Little Cypress relative to all other mesohabitats at all sites. Fifteen species and 182 individuals of freshwater mussels were collected, with 69.8 percent of the individual mussels collected from Big Cypress 02, 23.6 percent collected from Big Cypress 01, and 6.6 percent collected from Black Cypress. Big Cypress 01was the most species rich site with 13 species, and washboards were the most abundant species overall. Mussels were not collected from Little Cypress because th

Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

2013-01-01

23

The partial monitoring system BIOTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The partial monitoring system BIOTA included three sub-systems: - plants; - animals; - biotopes. Monitoring aimed on 19 species of plants and 8 species of animals. All monitored species are classified in Red Red Data List of plants of the Slovak Republic and in Decree No. 24/2003 Coll. Laws, by which is realised the law No. 543/2002 Coll. Laws about the nature and landscape protection. This project comes out from implementation of European agreements and directives into national legislative. The subject of monitoring are selected plant and animal species which are significant from European or national aspect. They are mainly endemic, critically endangered, diminishing and rare species. Also species which are bio-indicating responsible were included into monitoring. From 50 monitored plant and animal species, 45 belong among European significant, included in some of supplements of Directive about birds or Directive about biotopes

24

Reanalysis of uranium toxicity data for selected freshwater organisms and the influence of dissolved organic carbon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reanalyzed 46 existing uranium (U) chronic toxicity datasets for four freshwater species to generate consistent toxicity measures and explore relationships between U toxicity and key physicochemical variables. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was consistently the best predictor of U toxicity based on 10% inhibitory concentration (IC10) and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values, with water hardness also being a significant co-predictor of IC50 concentrations for one species. The influence of DOC on acute and chronic U toxicity was further characterized using existing data for five species, and was found to vary depending on species, DOC source, and exposure duration (acute vs chronic). The slopes of the relationships between DOC and (normalized) acute and chronic U toxicity were modeled using cumulative probability distributions. From these, slopes were selected for which to correct acute or chronic U toxicity values or hazard estimates based on the aquatic DOC concentration. The fifth percentiles of these cumulative probability distributions for acute and chronic exposure data were 0.064 and 0.090, respectively, corresponding to a 6.4 and 9.0% reduction in U toxicity relative to the toxicity at the base DOC concentration for each 1 mg/L increase in DOC concentration (over the DOC range 0-30 mg/L). Algorithms were developed to enable the adjustment of U toxicity values and U hazard estimates, depending on DOC concentrations. These algorithms will significantly enhance the environmental relevance of water quality/risk assessments for U in fresh surface waters. PMID:22893585

van Dam, R A; Trenfield, M A; Markich, S J; Harford, A J; Humphrey, C L; Hogan, A C; Stauber, J L

2012-11-01

25

Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010-11  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment in 2010-11 of physical characteristics and selected aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas for which environmental flows have been prescribed. Mesohabitats are visually distinct units of habitat within the stream with unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Mesohabitats in reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous were evaluated to gain an understanding of how fish communities and mussel populations varied by habitat. Selected water-quality properties were also measured in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of the prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to the prescribed environmental flows.

Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

2013-01-01

26

Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment and source apportionment of selected metals in source freshwater Khanpur Lake, Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected metals (calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, lead, strontium and zinc) were measured in water samples from a source freshwater Lake. Average levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium and lead in the waters were significantly higher than the guideline values. Health risk assessment was then carried out to determine health risk via oral route and dermal contact. Hazard quotient (via ingestion) levels of cadmium, cobalt, chromium and lead were higher than unity; suggesting potential adverse effects on local residents. Principal component analysis revealed considerable anthropogenic contributions of the metals in the water reservoir. PMID:22120698

Iqbal, Javed; Tirmizi, Syed A; Shah, Munir H

2012-02-01

27

Sources and pathways of selected organochlorine pesticides to the Arctic and the effect of pathway divergence on HCH trends in biota: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical global usage and emissions for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), toxaphene and endosulfan, are presented. Relationships between the air concentrations of these OCPs and their global emissions are also discussed. Differences between the pathways of ?- and ?-HCH to the Arctic Ocean are described in the context of environmental concentrating and diluting processes. These concentrating and diluting processes are shown to control the temporal and spatial loading of northern oceans and that the HCH burdens in marine biota from these oceans respond accordingly. The HCHs provide an elegant example of how hemispheric-scale solvent switching processes can alter the ocean into which an HCH congener partitions, how air-water partitioning controls the pathway for HCHs entering the Arctic, and how the various pathways impact spatial and temporal trends of HCH residues in arctic animals feeding out of marine and terrestrial foodwebs

28

Analysis of selected antibiotics in surface freshwater and seawater using direct injection in liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging contaminants such as antibiotics have received recent attention as they have been detected in natural waters and health concerns over potential antibiotic resistance. With the purpose to investigate fast and high-throughput analysis, and eventually the continuous on-line analysis of emerging contaminants, this study presents results on the analysis of seven selected antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, lincomycin, tylosin) in surface freshwater and seawater using direct injection of a small sample volume (20?L) in liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Notably, direct injection of seawater in the LC-ESI-MS/MS was made possible on account of the post-column switch on the system, which allows diversion of salt-containing solutions flushed out of the column to the waste. Mean recoveries based on the isotope dilution method average 95±14% and 96±28% amongst the compounds for spiked freshwater and seawater, respectively. Linearity across six spiking levels was assessed and the response was linear (r(2)>0.99) for all compounds. Direct injection concentrations were compared for real samples to those obtained with the conventional SPE-based analysis and both techniques concurs on the presence/absence and levels of the compounds in real samples. These results suggest direct injection is a reliable method to detect antibiotics in both freshwater and seawater. Method detection limits for the direct injection technique (37pg/L to 226ng/L in freshwater, and from 16pg/to 26ng/L in seawater) are sufficient for a number of environmental applications, for example the fast screening of water samples for ecological risk assessments. In the present study of real samples, this new method allowed for example the positive detection of some compounds (e.g. lincomycin) down to the sub ng/L range. The direct injection method appears to be relatively cheaper and faster, requires a smaller sample size, and is more robust to equipment cross-contamination as compared to the conventional SPE-based method. PMID:24642398

Bayen, Stéphane; Yi, Xinzhu; Segovia, Elvagris; Zhou, Zhi; Kelly, Barry C

2014-04-18

29

Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to organic matter in sediment and soils, it is particularly important to determine their effects on freshwater mussels and other freshwater benthic invertebrates in contact with sediments, as available toxicity studies with pelagic species, mainly Daphnia magna, may not be representative of these benthic organisms. Finally, there is a critical need for studies of the chronic effects of fungicides on reproduction, immunocompetence, and ecosystem function; sublethal endpoints with population and community-level relevance.

Elskus, Adria A.

2012-01-01

30

Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well

31

Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

1986-09-01

32

Alpha radiation weighting factors for biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well know that the potential for radiation effects on living organisms depends not only on the absorbed dose and dose-rate, in the tissue or organ of interest, but also on the type and energy of the radiation causing the dose among other factors. For example, alpha particles and neutrons can produce observable damage at lower absorbed doses than gamma radiation. This observation has lead to the practice of multiplying the absorbed dose by a modifying factor commonly referred to as relative biological effectiveness or RBE, and other terms such as quality factor, radiation weighting factor and for non-human biota, ecodosimetry weighting factor. For human dosimetry, ICRP 60 recommends radiation weighting factors of 1 for beta and gamma rays, 10 for neutrons and 20 for alpha radiation. To distinguish from the radiation weighting factors for humans, we adopt the provisional term 'ecodosimetry radiation weighting factor' eR for application to non-human biota. The selection of an ecological relevant eR must not be considered in isolation but rather, it must be the consequence of an integrated evaluation which includes the selection of the relevant biological endpoint, the approach to calculating relevant dose, and the selection of the most appropriate ecodosimetry radiation weighting factor. This paper reviews the selection of ecologically relevant endpoints for alpha radiation, the corresponding estimation of dose, and the selection of ecodosimetn of dose, and the selection of ecodosimetry radiation weighting factors. Overall, a nominal eR of about 10 for population relevant deterministic endpoints, with a range from about 5 to about 20 is recommended. Sources of uncertainty in this estimate are discussed. (author)

33

Modelling global freshwater resources using WaterGAP 2.2 - model overview, selected results and applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The estimation of global freshwater flows and storages and their dynamics is essential for the assessment of historical and future water availability both for mankind and ecosystems. WaterGAP 2 is a state-of-the-art water model covering the entire global land area (except Antarctica) on a 0.5° by 0.5° grid. WaterGAP consists of a set of water use models and a hydrological model. Five global water use models representing the sectors irrigation, domestic water demand, manufacturing industries, livestock farming and cooling of thermal power plants inform the sub-model GWSWUSE which calculates net water abstractions distinguishing surface water and groundwater sources. Water flows and storages are simulated by the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM). WGHM is calibrated against measured discharge for basins covering around 50 % of global land area. Since the original development of WaterGAP in the late 1990s, new input data and refined process algorithms have led to a significant improvement of the results. We present the current version WaterGAP 2.2 including selected results (e.g. discharge seasonality, water storage) and the global water balance for the time period 1971-2000. In addition, some examples of the application of WaterGAP output, e.g. within the GRACE community and for global environmental assessments are shown, reflecting the importance of global hydrology modeling in our globalized world.

Müller Schmied, Hannes; Adam, Linda; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Güntner, Andreas; Kynast, Ellen; Portmann, Felix T.; Riedel, Claudia; Schneider, Christoph; Song, Qi; Wattenbach, Martin; Zhang, Jing

2014-05-01

34

Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico.  

OpenAIRE

The Ediacaran biota is the earliest diverse community of macroscopic animals and protoctists. Body and trace fossils in the Clemente Formation of northwestern Sonora extend downward the geologic range of Ediacaran forms. Taxa present in the Clemente Formation include cf. Cyclomedusa plana, Sekwia sp., an erniettid (bearing an air mattress-like "pneu" body construction), and the trace fossils Lockeia ichnosp. and Palaeophycus tubularis. The trace fossils confirm the presence of sediment-dwelli...

Mcmenamin, M. A.

1996-01-01

35

Biota of North America Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the Biota of North America Program (BONAP) is to develop a unified digital system for assessing the North American biota. BONAP's database now includes assessment for all vascular plants and vertebrate animals (native, naturalized, and adventive) of North America north of Mexico, and it maintains the most current taxonomy, nomenclature, and biogeographic data for all members of the biota. The Synthesis of the North American Flora, published in 1999, is available for purchase as a CD-ROM (ordering information is provided); a 1mb demonstration version for Windows is available through the BONAP site. The Synthesis includes taxonomic, nomenclatural, and biogeographic data and images, enabling users to produce species checklists, distribution summaries, and species assessments for morphology, rarity, endemism, nativity, and other biological attributes. It consists of three parts: the "Lexicon," which provides the underlying nomenclature and taxonomy; the "Atlas," which displays distribution maps for each of the accepted taxa; and the "Biological Attributes," which provides summaries of morphological and other specialized data (rarity and endemism, nativity, weediness, habit, habitat, and others).

36

The selective breeding of the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for growth in salinity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to be utilized for biofuel production was strengthened by developing it for growth in elevated salinity via the selective breeding method of genome shuffling. A population was constructed via random mutagenesis and subjected to multiple rounds of sex and growth in increasing salinity. This sexual line was capable of growth in up to 700mM NaCl, unlike its progenitor, which could only grow in 300mM NaCl. An asexual control line was capable of growth in 500mM NaCl. Palmelloid aggregations increased in size and the concentration of final biomass decreased as a function of NaCl concentration, which poses considerations for future strain development. The sexual line maintained sexual efficiencies of up to 50% over the course of selection. This investigation achieved significant strain improvement of C. reinhardtii and demonstrated the clear advantage of its ability to participate in laboratory controlled and reproducible high efficiency sex. PMID:25466995

Takouridis, Simon J; Tribe, David E; Gras, Sally L; Martin, Gregory J O

2014-10-31

37

Antibacterial properties of extracts from selected planktonic freshwater cyanobacteria--a comparative study of bacterial bioassays.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqueous and methanol extracts from five selected cyanobacteria were examined for antibacterial properties in six different bacterial bioassays. All five cyanobacteria revealed antibacterial properties. Methanol extracts made from Tychonema bourrellyi, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii showed the most pronounced inhibitory effects, Aqueous extracts made from Microcystis aeruginosa and T. bourrellyi possessed evident antibacterial properties. The bacterial bioassays were based on agar diffusion tests and included pour-plate methods commonly used to detect residues of antibacterial substances in food. In addition, a pourplate bioassay with Aeromonas hydrophila was developed and described. Antibacterial effects were observed in five of the six bacterial bioassays. No antibacterial effect was observed in the Micrococcus luteus bioassay. Bioassays based on Aer. hydrophila, Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis grown in Antibiotic Medium 8, pH5.85, seemed to be sensitive and suitable. The MIC value of diluted MeOH extracts made from C. raciborskii and T. bourrellyi against Aer. hydrophila corresponded to 38 mg freeze-dried cyanobacteria. Bacillus subtilis was more sensitive when grown in a culture medium with pH 5.85 than 7.9. The antibacterial properties of extracts from the cyanobacteria examined differed from defined cyanotoxins and antibacterial substances. The pattern of inhibition in the bacterial bioassays indicated that various antibacterial substances are involved. PMID:9717298

Ostensvik, O; Skulberg, O M; Underdal, B; Hormazabal, V

1998-06-01

38

Effects of selected organic compounds on radionuclide adsorption to sediments in freshwater systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The roles of selected organic compounds on K/sub d/ (distribution coefficients) values of radionuclides in laboratory sediment-water systems was evaluated. The radionuclides 57Co, 106Ru, 137Cs, and 241Am were used as tracers in the experiments. Five organic compounds: 1)1-nitroso-2-naphthol; 2)1,10-phenanthroline; 3)acetic acid; 4)salicylic acid; and 5)EDTA were evaluated for their effects on the distribution coefficients of the four radionuclides. The results of the study confirmed that organic compounds can affect sediment-water distribution coefficients of radionuclides, however, the magnitudes and directions of these K/sub d/ effects are functions of both the physico-chemical properties of the radionuclide and the specific interactions of the radionuclide and organic compound within a given sediment-water system. The results emphasize the complex variety of interacting factors that can effect sediment-water distributions of radionuclides. Therefore, it is necessary in any adsorption study to characterize, as fully as possible, the chemical parameters of water and sediment that can contribute to the eventual results in any given system

39

Growth responses of selected freshwater algae to trace elements and scrubber ash slurry generated by coal-fired power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development and implementation of standard toxicity tests is a necessity if consistent and reliable data are to be obtained for water quality criteria. The adapted EPA AAPBT is an ideal static algal toxicity test system. The algal test medium has a chemical composition similar to natural unpolluted waters of low ionic strength. It is appropriate to use MATC water quality criteria when assessing the potential impact of pollutants generated by coal-fired power stations because these energy-generated pollutants typically enter aquatic systems in small quantities over long periods. The MATC water quality criteria are estimates of trace element and SASE levels, based on the most sensitive alga investigated, that will not cause significant changes in naturally-functioning algal populations. These levels are 0.016f mg L/sup -1/ As(V), 0.001 mg L/sup -1/ Cd(II), 0.004 mg L/sup -1/ Hg(II), 0.006 mg L/sup -1/ Se(VI), and 0.344% SASE. To provide viable working water quality criteria, an extrapolation from the laboratory to the natural environment must be made. Therefore, those oxidation states of the trace elements were selected which are the dominant states occurring in natural, unpolluted, slightly alkaline freshwaters. It must be pointed out that these MATC values are based on algal responses to single toxicants and no allowance is made for synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships which could occur in natural aquatic systems. Additionally, natural chelation may influence toxicity. The highly toxic nature of potential pollutants from coal-fired generating plants emphasizes the need for minimizing stack effluent pollutants and retaining scrubber ash slurry for proper disposal in an effort to maintain trace elements in concentration ranges compatible with naturally-functioning ecosystems.

Vocke, R.W.

1979-01-01

40

BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY AND ESSENTIAL METALS IN THE SELECTED FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES FROM PREUMAL LAKE CUDDALORE DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted to determine the heavy and essential metals, chromium, cadmium, copper, lead, iron, zinc and manganese concentrations in gill, liver, kidney, intestine and muscle of the available freshwater fish Mystus vittatus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Glossogobius giuris, Notopterous notopterous and Tilapia mossambica of the Perumal lake Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India collected during the January 2011- December 2011. Heavy and essential metals concentrati...

Ambedkar, G.; Muniyan, M.

2013-01-01

41

Bioconcentration of TNT and RDX in Coastal Marine Biota.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was measured for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in seven different marine species of varying trophic levels. Time series and concentration gradient treatments were used for water column and tissue concentrations of TNT, RDX, and their environmentally important derivatives 2-amino-4,6-dintrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT). BCF values ranged from 0.0031 to 484.5 mL g(-1) for TNT and 0.023 to 54.83 mL g(-1) for RDX. The use of log K ow value as an indicator was evaluated by adding marine data from this study to previously published data. For the munitions in this study, log K ow value was a good indicator in the marine environment. The initial uptake and elimination rates of TNT and RDX for Fucus vesiculosus were 1.79 and 0.24 h(-1) for TNT and 0.50 and 0.0035 h(-1) for RDX respectively. Biotransformation was observed in all biota for both TNT and RDX. Biotransformation of TNT favored 4-ADNT over 2-ADNT at ratios of 2:1 for F. vesiculosus and 3:1 for Mytilus edulis. Although RDX derivatives were measureable, the ratios of RDX derivatives were variable with no detectable trend. Previous approaches for measuring BCF in freshwater systems compare favorably with these experiments with marine biota, yet significant gaps on the ultimate fate of munitions within the biota exist that may be overcome with the use stable isotope-labeled munitions substrates. PMID:25451633

Ballentine, Mark; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Smith, Richard; Cooper, Christopher

2014-12-01

42

Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

Marter, W.L.

2001-03-28

43

Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the “dose rate – effects” relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d?1 for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d?1 for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d?1 for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale “dose rate – effects” and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. - Highlights: ? Comparative analysis of dose rates to biota in different water bodies was performed. ? A numerical scale on the dose rates – effects relationships for fish was formulated. ? Results of assessment of exposure ent of exposure to biota were compared with the dose rates – effects scale. ? In the most contaminated water bodies the doses were high enough to cause radiobiological effects in fish. ? Current dose rates to biota in all considered water bodies are below the safety level of 1 mGy/day.

44

Selection of Probiotic Bacteria and In vitro Evaluation of Alginate as a Prebiotic for Freshwater Lobster (Cerax quadricarinatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of probiotic affects the aquatic animals’ immune response and growth performance. This study aimed to isolate bacteria from freshwater lobster’s intestines and observe in vitro the isolate’s ability in utilizing alginate from brown alga (Sargassum sp. as a prebiotic. The bacteria was isolated from the freshwater lobster (Cerax quadricarinatus intestine’s and the water of the lobster habitat. The lobster were collected from four stations i.e., Makassar, Bantimurung, Maros and Mandalle. The results of the study showed that after being soaked in a physiological solution with a pH of 2, there were 30 species of bacterial isolates discovered. The antagonistic test of inhibition zone against the pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila showed the isolates of MDL7, MKS4 and MKS3 might inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila. While co-culture antagonistic test revealed that the isolates MDL1, MDL3, MDL6, BTL5, MRS4 and MRS5 could inhibit the growth of the pathogenic bacteria A. hydrophila. In vitro culture of alginate as prebiotic with the four best isolates as probiotic candidates, namely MDL7, MKS4, BTL5 and MRS5 demonstrated that the probiotic bacteria could grow and utilized prebiotic optimally, especially the MRS5 and BTL5 probiotic bacteria. Therefore, alginate as a prebiotic and MRS5 and BTL5 as probiotic bacteria have a great potential to be a symbiotic.

Amrullah

2014-01-01

45

Vulnerability of stream biota to climate change in mediterranean climate regions: a synthesis of ecological responses and conservation challenges  

OpenAIRE

Freshwater species worldwide are experiencing dramatic declines partly attributable to ongoing climate change. It is expected that the future effects of climate change could be particularly severe in mediterranean climate (med-) regions, which host many endemic species already under great stress from the high level of human development. In this article, we review the climate and climate-induced changes in streams of med-regions and the responses of stream biota, focusing on both observed and ...

Filipe, A. F.; Lawrence, J. E.; Bonada I Caparro?s, Nu?ria

2013-01-01

46

Part 7: Monitoring of biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present state of the biota, in respect to the previous state and in respect to the development after the realised technical measures on both sides, was evaluated according to the data included in the Slovak-Hungarian joint monitoring covering the period from 1992 to 1996. The river branch water supply on the Slovak side was introduced in May 1993 through the intake structure at Dobrohost. On the Hungarian side the water supply is accomplished by the underwater weir put into operation in June 1995. The biological monitoring on the Slovak side was performed at six monitoring areas, where all the groups agreed in the joint monitoring were monitored. On the Hungarian side each group were monitored on different monitoring sites. The water supply introduced on the Hungarian side by the underwater weir operation has no impact on the Slovak side. Similar impact as it is now observed on the Hungarian side has been observed on the Slovak side since introduction of water supply in 1993. The increased amount of water discharged to the Danube was reflected by changes of the habitat of aquatic communities. The water supply on the Hungarian side was accomplished by the construction of the underwater weir and therefore a connection of the river branch system with the Danube at two factors have had very significant influence on the bio-tops existing in the river branch system and subsequently to the fauna and flora. Generally large amount of water became available, which was reflected in change of stagnant or slowly flowing water into water flow with higher velocity or in increase of the water surface. In some locations the water level returned to the state before damming, in others new bio-tops were created, and in some locations the previous bio-tops disappeared. To these changed conditions the aquatic fauna reacted the most rapidly.The terrestrial communities prove the necessity of flooding and raising of ground water level on some of the inundation areas, because in spite of the good soil moisture conditions on some of the monitoring area gradual changes in terrestrial communities were observed

47

Host-Specificity and Dynamics in Bacterial Communities Associated with Bloom-Forming Freshwater Phytoplankton  

OpenAIRE

Many freshwater phytoplankton species have the potential to form transient nuisance blooms that affect water quality and other aquatic biota. Heterotrophic bacteria can influence such blooms via nutrient regeneration but also via antagonism and other biotic interactions. We studied the composition of bacterial communities associated with three bloom-forming freshwater phytoplankton species, the diatom Aulacoseira granulata and the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis ra...

Bagatini, Inessa Lacativa; Eiler, Alexander; Bertilsson, Stefan; Klaveness, Dag; Tessarolli, Leticia Piton; Henriques Vieira, Armando Augusto

2014-01-01

48

Freshwater fish of the Wilderness National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fish in the Wilderness National Park. Fish assemblages in the Touw and Duiwe rivers were sampled in 1997 and 1998, with a total of 327 fish from nine species recorded. Indigenous species included two freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Sandelia capensis, two catadromous species (Anguilla mossambicus, Myxus capensis, and two estuarine species (Monodactylusfalciformis, Caffrogobius multifasciatus. Three of the nine recorded species were alien (Micropterus dolomieu, Micropterus salmoides, Gambusia affinis, with the Micropterus spp., in particular, likely to have a substantial negative influence on indigenous species. A further one indigenous species, two translocated indigenous species, and five estuarine species could potentially be recorded in these rivers. River catchment management actions to restore perennial flow to the Duiwe River, to prevent the attenuation of floods, and to prevent further establishment and spread of alien and translocated biota are required to conserve indigenous fish assemblages.

I.A. Russell

1999-01-01

49

Temporal trends of Hg in Arctic biota, an update  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A statistically robust method was applied to 83 time-series of mercury in Arctic biota from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems with the purpose of generating a 'meta-analysis' of temporal trend data collected over the past two to three decades, mostly under the auspices of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP). Sampling locations ranged from Alaska in the west to northern Scandinavia in the east. Information from recently published temporal trend studies was tabulated to supplement the results of the statistical analyses. No generally consistent trend was evident across tissues and species from the circumpolar Arctic during the last 30years or so. However, there was a clear west-to-east gradient in the occurrence of recent increasing Hg trends, with larger numbers and a higher proportion of biotic datasets in the Canadian and Greenland region of the Arctic showing significant increases than in the North Atlantic Arctic. Most of the increasing datasets were for marine species, especially marine mammals. A total of 16 (19%) out of the 83 time-series could be classified as "adequate", where adequate is defined as the number of actual monitoring years in a time-series being equal to or greater than the number of years of sampling required to detect a 5% annual change in Hg concentrations, with a significance level of P

Rigét, Frank; Braune, Birgit

2011-01-01

50

A comparison of diel nest temperature and nest site selection for two sympatric species of freshwater turtles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diel nest temperature profiles were recorded form natural nests of eastern mud turtles (Kinosternon subrubrum) and Florida cooters (Pseudemys floridana) to determine whether nest microhabitat selection compensates for the effect of interspecific differences in nest depth on nest temperature. Kinosternon subrubrum nest depths were significantly shallower than those of P. floridana (t = 2.93, P < 0.01). We predicted that differences in nest depth would result in K. subrubrum nests being cooler at night and warmer during daylight than the deeper P. floridana nests. Diel temperature patterns agreed with out predictions at night, but P. floridana nest temperatures were not lower than K. subrubrum nest temperatures during the day. Soil composition, slope and soil moisture were similar for the nest of both species. However, the amount of sunlight reaching the soil above K. subrubrum nest sites was substantially less than the amount above P. floridana nest sites. We suggest that these species select habitats for oviposition that differ in the amount and types of vegetative cover, which in turn affect exposure to sunlight and ultimately nest temperature. 27 refs., 2 figs.

Bodie, J.R.; Burke, V.J. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, K.R. [Southeastern Louisiana Univ., Hammond, LA (United States)

1996-07-01

51

Radiological dose conversion factors for non-human biota for Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, transport models are used to predict radionuclide movement from an underground vault to the surface environment. Potential radiological doses to humans are calculated and used as a criterion to assess the safety and acceptability of the concept. However, protection of the environment is also a key issue in the permanent disposal of used nuclear fuel. Hence, an estimate of radiological doses to non-human biota is needed to assess the environmental impact. In this report, we present dose conversion factors for calculation of radiological doses to non-human biota. Four generic organisms have been identified, representing animals and plants related to the human food chain: a freshwater fish, a terrestrial plant, a terrestrial mammal, and a terrestrial bird. We calculate the dose converson factors for both internal and external radiation sources, for the radionuclides 14-C, 99-Tc, 129-I, and 137-Cs, which are of key importance. (auth)

Amiro, B.D.

1992-01-15

52

Synthesis, pathways, effects, and fate of chlorination by-products in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Annual report, September 10, 1976--September 30, 1977  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study is composed of analytical chemistry and biological divisions with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objective of the analytical phase is to identify those chemical compounds, other than the free and combined available halogen, which result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater. The objectives of the biological studies are to investigate the immediate and relatively long-term toxicity of several chlorination by-products to selected aquatic biota; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification. Initial analytical experimentation has been directed toward isolating and identifying nonpolar, lipophylic organohalogens that might be expected to be absorbed and biomagnified in the lipids of aquatic biota. Chlorinated natural fresh and marine water samples were obtained from Task IIa and b. Organic components were concentrated by forcing chlorinated and unchlorinated water through columns of XAD-2 resin using a positive displacement pump. Ether extracts of the XAD-2 columns were analyzed for haloforms by gas chromatography. Bromoform was found to be the major constituent in all chlorinated sea water samples. In contrast, chloroform was the only haloform produced from chlorinated freshwater. The Freshwater Biology 6-month chronic bioassay on rainbow trout has produced several results. The mortality rate, although low, indicated an interesting trend in response to increasing concentration of chlorination by-products. In addition to observed mortality, concentration was inversely related to other fish losses which are hypothesized to result from decreased aggressiveness. Fish length and weight at six months was also significantly reduced with increasing concentrations of chlorination by-products. A chronic bioassay of chlorination by-products was conducted with little-neck clams in the marine phase of the program.

Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I.; Thatcher, T.O.

1978-06-01

53

Acute toxicity of pharmaceutical and personal care products on freshwater crustacean (Thamnocephalus platyurus) and fish (Oryzias latipes).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter aquatic environments via sewage treatment facilities and their potentially toxic effects on biota, particularly aquatic organisms, are of considerable concern. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of selected PPCPs on a freshwater crustacean (Thamnocephalus platyurus) and a fish species (Oryzias latipes). The 24-hr median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, indometacin, carbamazepine, propranolol, ifenprodil, clarithromycin and triclosan for T. platyurus were estimated to be 19.59, 3.95, 16.14, > 100, 10.31, 4.43, 94.23 and 0.47 mg/l respectively. Conversely, the 96-hr LC(50) values for these PPCPs were estimated at > 100, 8.04, 81.92, 45.87, 11.40, 8.71, > 100 and 0.60 mg/l for O. latipes, respectively. The toxic sensitivity of T. platyurus to these PPCPs, except for carbamazepine, was therefore higher than for O. latipes. No acute toxicity effects were associated with PPCPs, such as atenolol, disopyramide, famotidine, fluconazole, erythromycin and levofloxacin, in the two aquatic organisms at the concentrations tested in this study (> 100 mg/l). These findings may help us to understand the potential biological effects and risks associated with PPCP exposure in aquatic organisms. Further long-term studies are required to fully assess the growth and reproduction of these compounds on aquatic biota. PMID:19336980

Kim, Joon-Woo; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Ryoko; Ichikawa, Nobuhiro; Takao, Yuji; Hirano, Masashi; Koga, Minoru; Arizono, Koji

2009-04-01

54

The U.S. Department of Energy's graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to aquatic and terrestrial biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has in place a radiation dose limit for the protection of aquatic organisms, and has considered dose limits for terrestrial biota. These limits are: 10 mGy/d for aquatic animals, 10 mGy/d for terrestrial plants, and 1 mGy/d for terrestrial animals. Guidance on suitable approaches to implementation of these and other proposed limits for protection of biota is needed. In response to this need, we have developed methods, models and guidance within a graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to biota. DOE's multi-tiered process is described in a technical standard document. Methods are encoded in a series of electronic spreadsheets termed the RAD-BCG Calculator to assist the user in progressing through the evaluation process. A key component of the graded approach is a screening methodology that provides limiting concentrations of radionuclides, termed Biota Concentration Guides (BCGs), for use in screening water, sediment, and soil media to determine if dose limits for biota are likely to be exceeded. The graded approach provides flexibility and the ability to iterate through the evaluation process. User-selected biota dose limits can be entered in place of default dose limits. Parameter values, radiation weighting factors, and organism residence times can be modified within site-specific screening and site-specific analysis phases of the graded approach. The methodology, available since 2000, was developed usin, available since 2000, was developed using an interdisciplinary team approach that included both 'developers' and 'users' through the Department's Biota Dose Assessment Committee (BDAC). DOE's graded approach framework provides a practical and effective tool for demonstrating protection of biota relative to Dose Rate Guidelines, and for conducting ecological screening assessments of radiological impact. It provides a needed evaluation tool that can be employed within an international framework for protection of the environment. (author)

55

A Silurian soft-bodied biota  

Science.gov (United States)

A new Silurian (Llandoverian) biota from Wisconsin with a significant soft-bodied and lightly sclerotized component is dominated by arthropods and worms. The fauna includes the earliest well-preserved xiphosure, a possible marine uniramian, three new arthropods of uncertain affinity, and possibly the first Paleozoic leech. This may be only the second locality to yield a conodont animal. Lack of a normal shelly fauna suggests an unusual environment. The discovery adds significantly to the few such exceptionally preserved faunas known from Lower Paleozoic rocks.

Mikulic, D.G.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Kluessendorf, J.

1985-01-01

56

Biota-sediment accumulation factors for radionuclides and sediment associated biota of the Ottawa River  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As Ottawa River contamination is historical and resides in sediment, ecological risk and trophic transfer depend on linkages between sediment and biota. One of the ways in which this linkage is quantified is through the use of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). In this study, we present the first field estimates of BSAF for a number of radionuclides. The strongest and most consistent BSAFs were those for {sup 137}Cs in deposit feeding taxa, suggesting that sediment concentrations rather than dissolved concentrations drive uptake. For crayfish and unionid bivalves that do not feed on sediment, biota radionuclide concentrations were not related to sediment concentrations, but rather reflected concentrations in water. BSAFs would not be appropriate for these non-deposit feeding biota. BSAFs for {sup 137}Cs were not significantly different among deposit feeding taxa, suggesting similar processes for ingestion, assimilation and elimination. These data also show that the concentration factor approach used for guidance would have led to spurious results in this study for deposit feeding benthic invertebrates. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in Hexagenia downstream of the CRL process outfall range by about 2-orders of magnitude, in comparison to relatively uniform water concentrations. The concentration factor approach would have predicted a single value downstream of CRL, underestimating exposure to Hexagenia by almost 2-orders of magnitude at sites close to the CRL process outfall. (author)

Rowan, D.; Silke, R.; Carr, J., E-mail: rowand@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

2013-12-15

57

Biota-sediment accumulation factors for radionuclides and sediment associated biota of the Ottawa River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As Ottawa River contamination is historical and resides in sediment, ecological risk and trophic transfer depend on linkages between sediment and biota. One of the ways in which this linkage is quantified is through the use of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). In this study, we present the first field estimates of BSAF for a number of radionuclides. The strongest and most consistent BSAFs were those for 137Cs in deposit feeding taxa, suggesting that sediment concentrations rather than dissolved concentrations drive uptake. For crayfish and unionid bivalves that do not feed on sediment, biota radionuclide concentrations were not related to sediment concentrations, but rather reflected concentrations in water. BSAFs would not be appropriate for these non-deposit feeding biota. BSAFs for 137Cs were not significantly different among deposit feeding taxa, suggesting similar processes for ingestion, assimilation and elimination. These data also show that the concentration factor approach used for guidance would have led to spurious results in this study for deposit feeding benthic invertebrates. Concentrations of 137Cs in Hexagenia downstream of the CRL process outfall range by about 2-orders of magnitude, in comparison to relatively uniform water concentrations. The concentration factor approach would have predicted a single value downstream of CRL, underestimating exposure to Hexagenia by almost 2-orders of magnitude at sites close to the CRL process outfall. (author)

58

Radiation dose to human and non-human biota in the republic of Korea resulting from the Fukushima nuclear accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the radiation doses to human and non-human biota in the Republic of Korea, as a result of the Fukushima nuclear accident. By using the measured airborne activity and ground deposition, the effective and thyroid doses of five human age groups (infant, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult) were estimated by the ECOSYS code, and the whole body absorbed dose rate of the eight Korean reference animals and plants (RAPs) was estimated by the K-BIOTA (the Korean computer code to assess the risk of radioactivity to wildlife). The first-year effective and thyroid human doses ranged from 5.7E-5 mSv in the infant group to 2.0E-4 mSv in the 5 years group, and from 5.0E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.4E-3 mSv in the 5 years group, respectively. The life-time (70 years) effective and thyroid human doses ranged from 1.5E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.0E-4 mSv in the 5 years group, and from 6.0E-4 mSv in the infant group to 3.5E-3 mSv in the 5 years group, respectively. The estimated maximum whole body absorbed dose rate to the Korean RAPs was 6.7E-7 mGy/d for a snake living in soil (terrestrial biota), and 2.0E-5 mGy/d for freshwater fish (aquatic biota), both of which were far less than the generic dose criteria to protect biota from ionizing radiation. Also, the screening level assessment for ERICA's (Environmental Risks from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessments and management) limiting organisms showed that the risk quotient (RQ) for the estimated maximum soil and water activity was significantly less than unity for both the terrestrial and freshwater organisms. Conclusively, the radiological risk of the radioactivity released into the environment by the Fukushima nuclear accident to the public and the non-human biota in the republic of Korea is considered negligible.

Keum, Dong Kwon; Jun, In; Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2013-02-15

59

The uptake of radiationless by some fresh water aquatic biota review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work presented in this paper reviews many studies carried out by the authors along the last thirty years. The behaviour of the radionuclides in the aquatic ecology of Ismailia Canal stream is of great interest for the evaluation of the possible hazards that may occur to man through the movement of such radionuclides via food chain. Laboratory investigations have been carried out in order to understand the accumulation and release of some radionuclide by some aquatic biota (aquatic macrophyte aquatic plants, some snails species and some fish species) inhabiting this fresh water stream. Different parameters such as water ph, contact time, water salinity, etc. were used in these investigations. The kinetic analysis of the uptake process of some radio nuclides by certain biota was performed. From this analysis, it was possible (through the statistical methods) to investigate that the uptake process proceeded through different steps with different rates depending on the radionuclide and the biota species. It was possible to conclude that some of the selected biota can be used as biological indicators for certain radionuclides

60

Interactions of radionuclides with marine biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uptake of radioactivity by marine biota can occur through consumption of radioactive food or via direct incorporation from the seawater. As uptake occurs, radioactivity begins to distribute into and onto various body tissues, or ''compartments'', at different rates. A composite uptake curve therefore is curvilinear with time. Elimination can occur via various pathways, including fecal deposition, molting, and excretion of dissolved substances, and therefore a composite loss curve also is curvilinear. Uptake and elimination can occur simultaneously, and under constant conditions over a long time period a steady-state body burden will be achieved. Many factors can affect uptake and loss rates, as well as steady-state body burdens, and some major ones are discussed. Design of radioactivity experiments involving marine biota is explored, and a case study of a ''natural experiment'' involving both reactor-produced and fallout radionuclides in a coastal environment is presented to show how much nuclide introductions can be used to learn about nuclide biomagnification, trophic level relationships, and biological distribution of radioactivity in the sea. (author)

61

Sensitivity of hypogean and epigean freshwater copepods to agricultural pollutants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Widespread pollution from agriculture is one of the major causes of the poor freshwater quality currently observed across Europe. Several studies have addressed the direct impact of agricultural pollutants on freshwater biota by means of laboratory bioassays; however, as far as copepod crustaceans are concerned, the ecotoxicological research is scarce for freshwater species and almost nonexistent for the hypogean ones. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the available literature data on the sensitivity of freshwater copepods to agricultural pollutants. We also assessed the acute and chronic sensitivity of a hypogean and an epigean species, both belonging to the Crustacea Copepoda Cyclopoida Cyclopidae, to two N-fertilizers (urea and ammonium nitrate) and two herbicides (ARIANE(TM) II from Dow AgroSciences LLC, and Imazamox), widely used for cereal agriculture in Europe. According to the literature review, freshwater copepods are sensitive to a range of pesticides and N-fertilizers. Ecotoxicological studies on hypogean species of copepods account only one study. There are no standardized protocols available for acute and chronic toxicity tests for freshwater copepods, making comparisons about sensitivity difficult. From our experiments, ionized ammonia proved to be more toxic than the herbicide Imazamox, in both short and chronic bioassays. Urea was the less toxic chemical for both species. The hypogean species was more sensitive than the epigean one to all chemicals. For both species and for all tested chemicals, acute lethality and chronic lethality were induced at concentrations higher than the law limits of good water body quality in Europe, except for ionized ammonia, which provoked the chronic lethality of the hypogean species at a lower concentration. The hazardous concentration (HC) of un-ionized ammonia for 5 % of freshwater copepods, obtained by a species sensitivity distribution, was 92 ?g l(-1), significantly lower than the HC computed for traditional test species from freshwater environments. PMID:24352541

Di Lorenzo, T; Di Marzio, W D; Sáenz, M E; Baratti, M; Dedonno, A A; Iannucci, A; Cannicci, S; Messana, G; Galassi, D M P

2014-03-01

62

Whole-body to tissue concentration ratios for use in biota dose assessments for animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental monitoring programs often measure contaminant concentrations in animal tissues consumed by humans (e.g., muscle). By comparison, demonstration of the protection of biota from the potential effects of radionuclides involves a comparison of whole-body doses to radiological dose benchmarks. Consequently, methods for deriving whole-body concentration ratios based on tissue-specific data are required to make best use of the available information. This paper provides a series of look-up tables with whole-body:tissue-specific concentration ratios for non-human biota. Focus was placed on relatively broad animal categories (including molluscs, crustaceans, freshwater fishes, marine fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) and commonly measured tissues (specifically, bone, muscle, liver and kidney). Depending upon organism, whole-body to tissue concentration ratios were derived for between 12 and 47 elements. The whole-body to tissue concentration ratios can be used to estimate whole-body concentrations from tissue-specific measurements. However, we recommend that any given whole-body to tissue concentration ratio should not be used if the value falls between 0.75 and 1.5. Instead, a value of one should be assumed. PMID:20931337

Yankovich, Tamara L; Beresford, Nicholas A; Wood, Michael D; Aono, Tasuo; Andersson, Pål; Barnett, Catherine L; Bennett, Pamela; Brown, Justin E; Fesenko, Sergey; Fesenko, J; Hosseini, Ali; Howard, Brenda J; Johansen, Mathew P; Phaneuf, Marcel M; Tagami, Keiko; Takata, Hyoe; Twining, John R; Uchida, Shigeo

2010-11-01

63

Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale environmental changes on the aquatic biota will be compared and discussed.

Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

2013-04-01

64

Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river

65

Effects of the new wildlife transfer factors on RESRAD-BIOTA's screening Biota Concentration Guides and previous model comparison studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RESRAD-BIOTA Level 1 default Biota Concentration Guides (BCGs) are generic screening environmental medium concentrations based on reasonably conservative concentration ratios (CRs). These CRs had been identified from available literature for a variety of biota organisms. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Report Series (TRS) handbook on radionuclide transfer to wildlife was recently published with data that can be compared with the RESRAD-BIOTA values. In addition, previous IAEA Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) II Biota Working Group model comparison results are examined by comparing them with those obtained using the new TRS CR values for wildlife. Since the CR affects only internal doses, the effect on the overall dose depends on the relative contribution from internal and external exposure pathways

66

A study on the radioactivity profile of Polonium-210 in different freshwater habitats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study is an attempt to understand the distribution pattern of Polonium-210, a natural alpha emitter in three distinct freshwater systems namely lotic (running water), lentic (standing water) and semi-lentic (impounded water) of the Kaveri river system, Tiruchirappalli (10.48 degN latitude and 78.42 degE longitude). Measurements were made on the 210Po levels of water, sediment and selected biota (net plankton, weed, snail, bivalve, prawn and fish) collected from the three different habitats. Analysis of the results indicate that a lentic system tends to accumulate 210Po at a relatively higher level compared to a lotic system in all environmental matrices tested. The semi-lentic system maintained an intermediate level between the lotic and the lentic habitat. In water, dissolved concentrations of 210Po ranged from 0.77 mBq.l-1 (lotic system) to 1.8 mBq.l-1 (lentic system). As in water, 210Po concentration in sediment was also significantly higher in lentic habitat (59.9 Bq.kg-1 dry wt.) than in lotic habitat (20.8 Bq.kg-1 dry wt.). The aquatic organisms demonstrated differential accumulation of 210Po with enhanced bioaccumulation in soft tissues and muscle. The 210Po activity in the biota fell within the range 1.6 to 140.1 Bq.kg-1 wet wt. The bivalve mollusca, Parrevsia favidens was identified to concentrate higher levels of 210oncentrate higher levels of 210Po in their soft tissues, suggesting, that these organisms could serve as sentinel organisms for 210Po in a riverine system. The significance of the results of 210Po in the abiotic and biotic components are discussed. (author)

67

Freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta) as a bioaccumulator of selected heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Pb) and alkaline earth metals (Ca and Mg).  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the ability of freshwater taxa of the genus Ulva (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) to serve as bioindicators of metal in lakes and rivers. Changes in heavy metal (Ni, Cd and Pb) and alkaline earth metal (Ca and Mg) concentrations in freshwater Ulva thalli were investigated during the period from June to August 2010. The study was conducted in two ecosystems in Western Poland, the Malta lake (10 sites) and the Nielba river (six sites). Three components were collected for each sample, including water, sediment and Ulva thalli. The average concentrations of metals in the water sample and in the macroalgae decreased in the following order: Ca>Mg>Ni>Pb>Cd. The sediment revealed a slightly altered order: Ca>Mg>Pb>Ni>Cd. Ca and Mg were found at the highest concentrations in thalli due to the presence of carbonate on its surface. Among the examined heavy metals in thalli, Ni was in the highest concentration, and Cd found in the lowest concentration. There were statistically significant correlations between the levels of metals in macroalgae, water and sediment. Freshwater populations of Ulva exhibited a greater efficiency to bioaccumulate nickel as compared to species derived from marine ecosystems. PMID:22726424

Rybak, Andrzej; Messyasz, Beata; ??ska, Bogus?awa

2012-11-01

68

Effect of chronic selenium exposure on the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Selenium is essential for most of living organisms. In oxic to moderately oxic fresh-waters, Se exists predominantly in the (+VI) and (+IV) oxidation states as selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) respectively, whereas in the biota it is incorporated as Se(-II) into seleno-proteins or amino-acids, or as elemental selenium Se(0). At low concentrations, it acts against oxidative damages mainly as the glutathione peroxidase seleno-dependant, but it may be toxic at higher levels (for example, by replacing sulphur in important biomolecules). In filter feeders, such as the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea, selected as biological model, the ventilation activity is a primary limiting step that controls the water influx and therefore the delivery of contaminants. Consequently, a series of short-term experiments were performed to study the effects of different dissolved Se concentrations and forms (selenite; selenate; selenomethionine) on the ventilation activity of Corbicula fluminea and Se tissular distribution. The modification of the ventilation activity of the Se-exposed groups, in comparison to this of reference groups (not exposed to Se) varied greatly according to the form and the concentrations of the Se used. Se concentrations in tissues indicated that selenite was the less bioavailable form whereas selenomethionine displayed the opposite trend. On the basis of this set of experiments, a limited number of conditions have been selected to provide highly contrasting ventilation flow rates and selenium bioaccumulation levels, in order to study the effects of long term exposures, i) at the molecular level, by measuring bio-markers of oxidative stress (forms of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and bio-marker of genotoxicity (comet assay), ii) at the (sub)cellular level by analysing Se micro-localisation in target organs and iii) at the individual level by monitoring the variation in the ventilatory flow rate. (author)

Fournier, E.; Adam, C.; Massabuau, J.C.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2004-07-01

69

Effect of chronic selenium exposure on the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Selenium is essential for most of living organisms. In oxic to moderately oxic fresh-waters, Se exists predominantly in the (+VI) and (+IV) oxidation states as selenate (SeO42-) and selenite (SeO32-) respectively, whereas in the biota it is incorporated as Se(-II) into seleno-proteins or amino-acids, or as elemental selenium Se(0). At low concentrations, it acts against oxidative damages mainly as the glutathione peroxidase seleno-dependant, but it may be toxic at higher levels (for example, by replacing sulphur in important biomolecules). In filter feeders, such as the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea, selected as biological model, the ventilation activity is a primary limiting step that controls the water influx and therefore the delivery of contaminants. Consequently, a series of short-term experiments were performed to study the effects of different dissolved Se concentrations and forms (selenite; selenate; selenomethionine) on the ventilation activity of Corbicula fluminea and Se tissular distribution. The modification of the ventilation activity of the Se-exposed groups, in comparison to this of reference groups (not exposed to Se) varied greatly according to the form and the concentrations of the Se used. Se concentrations in tissues indicated that selenite was the less bioavailable form whereas selenomethionine displayed the opposite trend. On the basis of this set of experiments, a limited number of conditions have been selected to provide highly contrasting ventilation flow rates and selenium bioaccumulation levels, in order to study the effects of long term exposures, i) at the molecular level, by measuring bio-markers of oxidative stress (forms of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and bio-marker of genotoxicity (comet assay), ii) at the (sub)cellular level by analysing Se micro-localisation in target organs and iii) at the individual level by monitoring the variation in the ventilatory flow rate. (author)

70

Rationale for WFD Freshwater Classification  

SCPinfonet

Rationale for Water Framework Directive (WFD) Freshwater Classification RIVER AND LAKES CLASSIFICATIONS Introduction This text describes how WFD Freshwater Classification has been established. It describes the ...

71

Transient Changes in the Biosphere as a Result of Freshwater Hosing  

Science.gov (United States)

The influx of large amounts of freshwater into the North Atlantic Ocean over the course of deglaciation after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has been linked with abrupt climactic shifts like the Heinrich 1 and the Younger Dryas stadials. Using the Minnesota Earth System Model for Ocean biogeochemistry (MESMO-2E), an earth system model of intermediate complexity, we evaluate the effects of a range of volumes of freshwater upon terrestrial and marine biota in equilibrated states of both LGM and modern pre-industrial boundary conditions. Preliminary analysis of the model outputs reveals a qualitative similarity between simulations that started from significantly different initial states. Additional sensitivity experiments determining the relative contributions of climate indicators (e.g. temperature and precipitation) to the success of marine and terrestrial biota will be presented.

dePolo, P.; Morel, V.; Matsumoto, K.

2013-12-01

72

Phytochemical and Antibacterial Study of Five Freshwater Algal Species  

OpenAIRE

A phytochemical study of five freshwater algal species isolated from an Egyptian water station and comparing their inhibition activities against three selected bacterial pathogens in order to correlate the biological activity and the chemical constituents of the algae. Five freshwater algal species, Anabaena sphaerica, Chroococcus turgidus, Oscillatoria limnetica and Spirulina platensis (blue-green algae, Cyanobacteria) and Cosmarium leave (green algae) were...

Ali, G. H.; El Din, R. A. S.; Samhan, F. A.; Hetta, M. H.; Abdo, S. M.

2012-01-01

73

Lixiviados de biosólidos sobre la biota dulceacuícola  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es conocer los efectos que producen los lixiviados de los biosólidos sobre diversos representantes de la biota dulceacuícola. Los efectos sobre el crecimiento o la mortalidad(CL50 en las diferentes especies se evalúan a través de diversos bioensayos. Nannochloris oculata resultó afectada en su crecimiento por concentraciones mayores a 500 ppm de lixiviados.Las CL50, a las 48 h., para las especies de la fauna fueron 8.6%, 42.4% y >80% para Oreochromis niloticus, Lecane quadridentata y Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, respectivamente. Los drenajes del suelo adicionado con biosólidos también afectaron a N. oculata, mientras que las CL50, a las 48 h; para la fauna acuática fueron 90 t/ha, 206t/ha y 432 t/ha para las especies ya mencionadas.Las concentraciones obtenidas en los bioensayos son altas y difícilmente se presentarán en la naturaleza, a menos que por descuido en el manejo de los biosólidos se concentren loslixiviados en el campo, lleguen y permanezcan en los ecosistemas dulceacuícolas.

Eduardo Andrés Flores Salinas

2010-04-01

74

Effects of thermal discharges on aquatic biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary objective of this research is to determine the effect of sudden thermal stress on the exercise physiology of rainbow trout. Metabolic activity of fish is influenced by many factors. Two of the most important are temperature and exercise. The experiments reported here are designed to assess the simultaneous interactions of these two environmental features. In these studies, the tolerance of the fish to thermal stress is evaluated by measuring the blood glucose levels. Fish respond to environmental stress by exhibiting an elevation of the blood sugar level. The metabolic effects of exercise are determined by measuring the production of lactic acid in muscle tissue and determining the level of this metabolite in the circulating blood. Bioassays involving gradual and abrupt cold shock are required for development of criteria applicable to assessment of potential impact on biota inhabiting mixing zones following termination of heated discharges. Thermal conditions in such areas are highly variable. Any detrimental effect is related to such features as original acclimation temperature and resistance to cold of the different species involved, as well as temperature decline rates, prevailing minimum temperatures, and durations of exposure to that minimum

75

Life-cycle and population ecology of the freshwater mysid Limnomysis benedeni  

OpenAIRE

The numbers of alien species in freshwater systems and their detrimental impacts on the stability of ecosystems and global species diversity are increasing. The introduction of alien species leads to changes in species composition inter alia. Functional traits of the biota thereby also change, which in turn will likely alter ecosystem processes, e.g. by modifying the availability, capture, and use of nutrients or by affecting the feeding relationships (trophic structure) within a community. T...

Hanselmann, Almut

2012-01-01

76

Zooplankton and diatoms of temporary and permanent freshwater pans in the Mpumalanga Highveld region, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides a description of the zooplankton and epiphytic diatom communities of permanent and temporary freshwater pans in the Mpumalanga Highveld region of South Africa. Few studies have investigated the biota of pans in this area, which is seriously threatened by mining and agricultural development. Nineteen pan sites within a 20 km radius covering a wide range of water chemistries were sampled once for zooplankton, epiphytic diatoms and water physico-chemical data in 2009. Collect...

Riato, Luisa; Ginkel, Carin; Taylor, Jonathan C.

2014-01-01

77

Plant communtiy development is affected by nutrients and soil biota  

OpenAIRE

Plant community development depends to a great extent on the availability of soil nutrients, but recent studies underline the role of symbiotic, herbivorous and pathogenic soil biota. We tested for interactions between these biotic and abiotic factors by studying the effects of additional nutrients and the removal of soil biota on the replacement of grassland plant species typical of different successional stages. … Species representing each of the early, mid and target phases of secondar...

Deyn, G. B.; Raaijmakers, C. E.; Putten, W. H.

2004-01-01

78

Mudflat biota since the 1930s: change beyond return?  

Science.gov (United States)

Where, since the 1980s, patchy and variable green algal mats are prevailing, distinct belts of an amphipod ( Corophium volutator) and seagrass ( Zostera spp.) had dominated in the 1930s. The zonation between tide marks has been mapped in a sheltered sedimentary bay in the Wadden Sea near the island of Sylt (coastal eastern North Sea). Maps on vegetation from 1924 and on selected macrobenthos from 1932 and 1934 are compared with biannual surveys conducted from 1988 to 2006. Rising high water levels and eutrophication are suggested to be major causes of the observed long-term changes. In front of a saltmarsh, a sandy beach developed and partly displaced former cyanobacterial mats. Advancing sandiness may have inhibited C. volutator and facilitated lugworms, Arenicola marina, in the upper tidal zone. A variable occurrence of green algal mats arising in the 1980s affected infauna and seagrass by smothering the biota underneath. This dissolved a coherent belt of Zostera noltii. In the lower tidal zone, natural disturbances had lasting effects on the occurrence of mussels with attached fucoid algae. The spectrum of species became enriched by alien species (13% of macrobenthic taxa). A reversal to habitat structure and biotic zonation of the 1920-1930s does not seem possible. Aliens, in combination with climate change, are expected to further divert the ecological pattern to new configurations.

Reise, Karsten; Herre, Elisabeth; Sturm, Manfred

2008-03-01

79

The biology and functional morphology of Macoma biota (Bivalvia: Tellinidae: Macominae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005, is a recently described species known only from the intertidal zone of Praia da Cidade, Caraguatatuba Bay, in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main purpose of the present paper is to describe the biology of M. biota, beginning with a detailed analysis of its anatomy and functional morphology and how these attributes are correlated with its habitat and life history. The morphology of the organs in the pallial cavity and their sorting devices indicate that this species has efficient mechanisms to process large amounts of particles that enter this cavity via the inhalant current. M. biota can rapidly select the material suitable for ingestion and direct the undesired excess to the rejection mantle tracts. These characteristics along with the siphon's behavior and the digestive tract configuration reveal that this species can be classified primarily as a deposit feeder, like other species of the genus; however, it can also behave as a suspension feeder, depending on the environmental conditions.

Pedro Ribeiro Piffer

2011-06-01

80

The biology and functional morphology of Macoma biota (Bivalvia: Tellinidae: Macominae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005, is a recently described species known only from the intertidal zone of Praia da Cidade, Caraguatatuba Bay, in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main purpose of the present paper is to describe the biology of M. biota, beginning with a detailed a [...] nalysis of its anatomy and functional morphology and how these attributes are correlated with its habitat and life history. The morphology of the organs in the pallial cavity and their sorting devices indicate that this species has efficient mechanisms to process large amounts of particles that enter this cavity via the inhalant current. M. biota can rapidly select the material suitable for ingestion and direct the undesired excess to the rejection mantle tracts. These characteristics along with the siphon's behavior and the digestive tract configuration reveal that this species can be classified primarily as a deposit feeder, like other species of the genus; however, it can also behave as a suspension feeder, depending on the environmental conditions.

Pedro Ribeiro, Piffer; Eliane Pintor de, Arruda; Flávio Dias, Passos.

2011-06-01

81

Establishing a database of radionuclide transfer parameters for freshwater wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental assessments to evaluate potentials risks to humans and wildlife often involve modelling to predict contaminant exposure through key pathways. Such models require input of parameter values, including concentration ratios, to estimate contaminant concentrations in biota based on measurements or estimates of concentrations in environmental media, such as water. Due to the diversity of species and the range in physicochemical conditions in natural ecosystems, concentration ratios can vary by orders of magnitude, even within similar species. Therefore, to improve model input parameter values for application in aquatic systems, freshwater concentration ratios were collated or calculated from national grey literature, Russian language publications, and refereed papers. Collated data were then input into an international database that is being established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The freshwater database enables entry of information for all radionuclides listed in ICRP (1983), in addition to the corresponding stable elements, and comprises a total of more than 16,500 concentration ratio (CRwo-water) values. Although data were available for all broad wildlife groups (with the exception of birds), data were sparse for many organism types. For example, zooplankton, crustaceans, insects and insect larvae, amphibians, and mammals, for which there were CRwo-water values for less than eight elements. Coverage was most comprehensive for fish, vascular plants, and molluscs. To our knowledge, the freshwater database that has now been established represents the most comprehensive set of CRwo-water values for freshwater species currently available for use in radiological environmental assessments. PMID:23103210

Yankovich, T; Beresford, N A; Fesenko, S; Fesenko, J; Phaneuf, M; Dagher, E; Outola, I; Andersson, P; Thiessen, K; Ryan, J; Wood, M D; Bollhöfer, A; Barnett, C L; Copplestone, D

2013-12-01

82

Establishing a database of radionuclide transfer parameters for freshwater wildlife  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental assessments to evaluate potentials risks to humans and wildlife often involve modelling to predict contaminant exposure through key pathways. Such models require input of parameter values, including concentration ratios, to estimate contaminant concentrations in biota based on measurements or estimates of concentrations in environmental media, such as water. Due to the diversity of species and the range in physicochemical conditions in natural ecosystems, concentration ratios can vary by orders of magnitude, even within similar species. Therefore, to improve model input parameter values for application in aquatic systems, freshwater concentration ratios were collated or calculated from national grey literature, Russian language publications, and refereed papers. Collated data were then input into an international database that is being established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The freshwater database enables entry of information for all radionuclides listed in ICRP (1983), in addition to the corresponding stable elements, and comprises a total of more than 16,500 concentration ratio (CRwo-water) values. Although data were available for all broad wildlife groups (with the exception of birds), data were sparse for many organism types. For example, zooplankton, crustaceans, insects and insect larvae, amphibians, and mammals, for which there were CRwo-water values for less than eight elements. Coverage was most comprehensive for fish, vascular plants, and molluscs. To our knowledge, the freshwater database that has now been established represents the most comprehensive set of CRwo-water values for freshwater species currently available for use in radiological environmental assessments

83

Water hardness reduces the accumulation and toxicity of uranium in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of uranium (U) to freshwater biota. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (20, 75, 150, 275 and 400 mg CaCO3 L?1) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (growth inhibition) of U in a submerged, rootless, macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (13 mg CaCO3 L?1) and pH (6.2) over 7 days. A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity (median effect concentration (EC50) = 134 ?g L?1 U at 20 mg CaCO3 L?1 hardness, increasing to 547 ?g L?1 U at 400 mg CaCO3 L?1 hardness), cell surface binding affinity (log K = 6.25 at 20 mg CaCO3 L?1 hardness, decreasing to log K = 5.64 at 400 mg CaCO3 L?1 hardness) and accumulation (the concentration factor decreased from 63 at 20 mg CaCO3 L?1 hardness to 15 at 400 mg CaCO3 L?1 hardness) of U. Calcium provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U accumulation and toxicity compared to Mg. Speciation calculations indicated negligible differences in the percentages of key U species (UO22+, UO2OH+, UO2(OH)2) over the range of water hardness tested. The inhibition of U binding at the cell surface, and subsequent uptake, by C. demersum, with increasing Ca and/or Mg concentration, may be explained in terms of (i) competition between Ca2+/Mg2+ and UO22+ (and/or UO2OH+) for physiologically active sites at the cell surface, and/or (ii) reduced negative charge (electrical potential) at the cell surface, resulting in a decrease in the activity of UO22+ (and/or UO2OH+) at the plant/water interface (boundary layer), and consequently, less U bound to physiologically active cell surface sites. In the absence of a biotic ligand model for U, the results of this study (together with previous work) reinforce the need for a more flexible, hardness-dependent, U guideline for the protection of selected freshwater biota. - Highlights: ? Effect of water hardness on U toxicity and accumulation in a freshwater macrophyte was studied. ? A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity and accumulation. ? Ca provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U toxicity and accumulation than Mg. ? Negligible differences in the percentages of key U species with increased water hardness ? Mechanisms of competition and/or electrostatic effects at the cell surface are proposed

84

Water hardness reduces the accumulation and toxicity of uranium in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of uranium (U) to freshwater biota. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (20, 75, 150, 275 and 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup ?1}) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (growth inhibition) of U in a submerged, rootless, macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (13 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup ?1}) and pH (6.2) over 7 days. A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity (median effect concentration (EC50) = 134 ?g L{sup ?1} U at 20 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup ?1} hardness, increasing to 547 ?g L{sup ?1} U at 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup ?1} hardness), cell surface binding affinity (log K = 6.25 at 20 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup ?1} hardness, decreasing to log K = 5.64 at 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup ?1} hardness) and accumulation (the concentration factor decreased from 63 at 20 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup ?1} hardness to 15 at 400 mg CaCO{sub 3} L{sup ?1} hardness) of U. Calcium provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U accumulation and toxicity compared to Mg. Speciation calculations indicated negligible differences in the percentages of key U species (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}OH{sup +}, UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}) over the range of water hardness tested. The inhibition of U binding at the cell surface, and subsequent uptake, by C. demersum, with increasing Ca and/or Mg concentration, may be explained in terms of (i) competition between Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} (and/or UO{sub 2}OH{sup +}) for physiologically active sites at the cell surface, and/or (ii) reduced negative charge (electrical potential) at the cell surface, resulting in a decrease in the activity of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} (and/or UO{sub 2}OH{sup +}) at the plant/water interface (boundary layer), and consequently, less U bound to physiologically active cell surface sites. In the absence of a biotic ligand model for U, the results of this study (together with previous work) reinforce the need for a more flexible, hardness-dependent, U guideline for the protection of selected freshwater biota. - Highlights: ? Effect of water hardness on U toxicity and accumulation in a freshwater macrophyte was studied. ? A 20-fold increase in water hardness resulted in a 4-fold decrease in U toxicity and accumulation. ? Ca provided a 4-fold greater protective effect against U toxicity and accumulation than Mg. ? Negligible differences in the percentages of key U species with increased water hardness ? Mechanisms of competition and/or electrostatic effects at the cell surface are proposed.

Markich, Scott J., E-mail: smarkich@optusnet.com.au

2013-01-15

85

Ecodosimetry weighting factor (eR) for non-human biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ICRP's radiological protection guidance for humans recognizes that equal absorbed doses of different types of radiation can have different biological effects in humans. ICRP publication 60 thus prescribes radiation weighting factors, wR values, to modify the absorbed dose (Gy) to effective dose (Sv) to enable the risk from different types of radiation to be compared on an equivalent basis. The wR values are selected on the basis of various considerations, including the linear energy transfer of the radiation and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values (which are the ratios of the absorbed dose of reference to test radiation that produce an equivalent level of effect, for a given endpoint, system and dose level). There is no similar factor for non-human biota. It would be useful to have one: assessment of possible impacts on non-human biota (particularly from alpha-emitters and tritium beta-rays) is important for Canadian nuclear facilities. We propose a radiation equivalency factor 'eR' for biota to fulfill a role equivalent to that occupied by wR in human radiation protection. RBE values for deterministic effects such as reproduction, fecundity and survival in biota are the critical bases for selection of eR values. These deterministic effects in populations are far more relevant to the assessment endpoints in ecological risk assessment than are stochastic effects, to which RBE values in human radiatiocts, to which RBE values in human radiation protection relate. For tritium ?-rays, most determinations support RBE values of 2-3 for deterministic effects when referenced to gamma radiation but little more than unity when x-rays are the reference radiation. This is because x-rays themselves have RBE -2 if referenced to gamma rays. Despite this, the ICRP assigns a wR of 1 to all electrons and all photons, including tritium beta-rays. Therefore, if eR is constrained to an integer, 1 is more appropriate than a value of 2 for tritium beta-rays. An RBE factor of 200-300 for alpha particles in radiation protection of non-human biota has been suggested in Canada, but in two studies that reported RBE values of about 250, the dosimetry for alpha particles was uncertain. Furthermore, RBE value of 20 for non-human biota is indefensible because it relates to stochastic effects in individuals. For deterministic effects, most animal studies report RBE values (for population-based endpoints) in the range of 5-10. Since ecological risk to biota generally appears only when doses are moderately high, the most logical and reasonable choice of eR for ?-emitters is not the larger, limiting value of RBE value observed at low doses, but rather a value around 5. (author)

86

Bioaccumulation and distribution of sup(95m)Tc in an experimental freshwater pond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the distribution of sup(95m)C in the components of the ecosystem and (2) to determine the concentration in freshwater biota. Prior to the release of sup(95m)Tc, the pond was stocked with aquatic macrophytes, fish, and invertebrates. All components of the pond were sampled for a period of 37 days. Analyses of filtered and unfiltered water samples showed that sup(95m)Tc did not sorb significantly to particulates suspended in the water but remained dissolved. Sediments accumulated sup(95m)Tc slowly as the experiment progressed. In the biota, periphyton accumulated sup(95m)Tc rapidly, reaching the highest concentration (3482 dis/min per g dry wt) 4 hours after the release and maintaining a relatively high concentration throughout the experiment. Fish and invertebrates accumulated sup(95m)Tc gradually. Elimination studies and tissue analyses showed that a large percentage of the body burden was in the digestive system of all fish, suggesting that fish were accumulating sup(95m)Tc through the food chain. Biological half-lives determined from elimination studies for carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 2.5, 4.3, and 21.3 days, respectively. Calculated concentration factors for the same species were 11 for carp, 75 for mosquitofish, and 121 for snails. The estimated sizes of the biomass components in the ecosystem in descending order were: periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrateere: periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and algae. Based on biomass estimates and concentrations of the sup(95m)Tc in the aquatic biota, approximately 1% of the sup(95m)Tc accumulated in the biota. Thus, most of the technetium released into a freshwater pond ecosystem remained dissolved in the water with only a small percentage accumulating in the biota and sediments

87

Bioaccumulation and distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in an experimental freshwater pond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An acute release of /sup 95m/Tc was made to a small experimental freshwater pond to determine the behavior of technetium in a freshwater ecosystem. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the distribution of /sup 95m/Tc in the components of the ecosystem and (2) to determine the concentration in freshwater biota. Prior to the release of /sup 95m/Tc, the pond was stocked with aquatic macrophytes, fish, and invertebrates. All components of the pond were sampled for a period of 37 d. Analyses of filtered and unfiltered water samples showed that /sup 95m/Tc did not sorb significantly to particulates suspended in the water but remained dissolved. Sediments accumulated /sup 95m/Tc slowly as the experiment progressed. In the biota, periphyton accumulated /sup 95m/Tc rapidly, reaching the highest concentration (3482 dpm/g dry wt) 4 h after the release and maintaining a relatively high concentration throughout the experiment. Fish and invertebrates accumulated /sup 95m/Tc gradually. Elimination studies and tissue analyses showed that a large percentage of the body burden was in the digestive system of all fish, suggesting that fish were accumulating /sup 95m/Tc through the food chain. Biological half-lives determined from elimination studies for carp (Cyprinus carpio), mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and snails (Helisoma sp.) were 2.5, 4.3, and 21.3 d, respectively. Calculated concentration factors for the same species were 11 for carp, 75 for mosquito fish, and 12111 for carp, 75 for mosquito fish, and 121 for snails. The estimated size of the biomass components in the ecosystem in descending order were: periphyton, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and algae. Based on biomass estimates and concentrations of the /sup 95m/Tc in the aquatic biota, approximately 1% of the /sup 95m/Tc accumulated in the biota

88

Radio biophysical studies on some fresh water biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study includes biophysical measurements of uptake and release of Co-60 by aquatic biota, water hyacinth plant (Eichhronia Crassipes ) and biomphalaria alexandrina snails placed in ismailia canal water. The uptake of co-60 was studied under different experimental conditions, namely the effect of contact time, variation of p H of the cobalt solution, the presence of competing ions and variation of cobalt carrier concentration. The experimental results of Co-60 uptake and release by the aquatic biota are described using the compartmental model, and also using the well known freudlich isotherm equation model

89

Enhanced activities of organically bound tritium in biota samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot study aimed on possible occurrence of elevated activity of non-exchangable organically bound tritium (NE-OBT) in biota was performed. The first results showed a significant surplus of NE-OBT activity in biota of the valley of Mohelno reservoir and Jihlava river. The liquid releases of HTO from the nuclear power plant Dukovany is the source of tritium in this area. This area can be a source of various types of natural samples for future studies of tritium pathways. PMID:24582481

Svetlik, I; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L

2014-11-01

90

Freshwater and fish  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland's surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and 90Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG)

91

Radiation protection of humans and biota in the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An increase in the natural radiation background, development of nuclear power engineering, heavy radiation accidents with the release of radionuclides into the environment, need for the remediation of areas affected by previous anthropogenic activity (both military and peaceful) all made the problem of the environmental protection against radiation extremely urgent. The problems of radiation protection of biota can be solved in two ways -through the system of basic principles of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) according to which if the radiation standards protect man, biota are also protected against ionizing radiation (Publication 60). The basis for justification of the thesis 'protected is man, protected are biota' is the fact that man is the most radiosensitive living organism. Besides, protection of human health is the highest priority. At the same time, in recent years increasing in popularity is the view point according to which the analysis of radiation protection of man, on the one hand, and biota, on the other hand, must be independent. It should be noted that there may be situations where man is not present or there are no food chains leading to man (eg, at sites of radwastes burial). For these situations independent standards on permissible exposure levels need to be developed. An essential aspect of radiation protection of biota is a nonequidosal irradiation of plants and animals, on the one hand, and man on the other hand inthe one hand, and man on the other hand in the same radiological situations, with biota receiving in most cases significantly higher absorbed doses. An anthropocentric approach to the environmental protection against ionizing radiation (protected is man, protected are biota), developed by ICRP, requires experimental evidence that biota are really protected (it is insufficient to state this only a priori). The main ICRP principles of radiation protection of man were analyzed. Special features of biota protection against ionizing radiation were described. According to the Declaration on Environment adopted at the conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, special attention should be paid to maintain biodiversity in nature and sustainable environmental conditions of growing anthropogenic burdens. At present, in a number of countries, standards on the permissible exposure of biota have been legislatively introduced. Arguments in favour of an independent analysis of radiation protection of the environment versus man were analyzed. A viewpoint was put forward that radiation protection of man and biota need to be based on a unified system of conceptual representations ensuring a simultaneous radiation safety of man and living organisms as connected components of ecosystems. This suggests a rational use of theoretically justificated and tested by the longtime practice basic ICRP approaches providing the radiation protection of humans. It is important that principles of the environmental protection from ionizing radiation should be compatible with principles of the environmental protection against other pollutants. (author)

92

Origin and behaviour of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the sediment-water-biota system of Strangford Lough  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strangford Lough, located on the NE coast of Ireland, is a marine nature reserve of considerable ecological importance. Here, we report selected features from a recent (September 1997) detailed study of the radioecological status of the lough, including the spatial distribution of radionuclides in sea water, sediment and biota within the lough, the chemical speciation of Pu in lough waters and measured Pu concentrations through the narrows at ebb and flood tide

93

Community structure and decadal changes in macrozoobenthic assemblages in Lake Poyang, the largest freshwater lake in China  

OpenAIRE

Lake Poyang is the largest freshwater lake in China and contains unique and diverse biota within the Yangtze floodplain ecosystem. However, knowledge of its macrozoobenthic assemblages remains inadequate. To characterize the current community structure of these assemblages and to portray their decadal changes, quarterly investigations were conducted at 15 sites from February to November 2012. A total of 42 taxa were recorded, and Corbicula fluminea, Limnoperna fortunei, Gammaridae sp., Nephty...

Cai Y. J.; Lu Y. J.; Wu Z. S.; Chen Y. W.; Zhang L.; Lu Y

2014-01-01

94

Invasive species and habitat degradation in Iberian streams: an analysis of their role in freshwater fish diversity loss  

OpenAIRE

Mediterranean endemic freshwater fish are among the most threatened biota in the world. Distinguishing the role of different extinction drivers and their potential interactions is crucial for achieving conservation goals. While some authors argue that invasive species are a main driver of native species declines, others see their proliferation as a co-occurring process to biodiversity loss driven by habitat degradation. It is difficult to discern between the two potential causes given that fe...

Hermoso, Virgilio; Clavero, Miguel; Blanco-garrido, F.; Prenda, J.

2011-01-01

95

Assessment of doses to biota in the river system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Doses to aquatic biota in the hydrological system Techa - Ob are estimated.The following water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination are considered: industrial reservoirs, Techa, Iset, Tobol and Irtysh Rivers. Doses to biota are calculated using the observed data on the content of radionuclides in various ennmental components, with consideration for geometric characteristics of the organisms and the exposure sources. The following groups of the river biota are considered: aquatic plants, mollusks and fish. Simplified geometric models (ellipsoids) are used in the internal dose calculations for fish and mollusks. Aquatic plants are approximated either with spheres or with a layer of finite depth. For the external doses assessment the water was considered as an infinite source with the uniform distribution of radionuclides. Sediments were represented as a source with the uniformly distributed activity. Concentration factor of scattered radiation was taken into account for gamma emitters. Sources and levels of radioactive contamination of the Techa - Ob system are analyzed. Data on the activity concentration of radionuclides in water, bottom sediments and aquatic biota are used for the dose assessment. Assessment of doses to biota in the Techa -Ob river system in the period from 1949 to the present time are performed.The highest doses (over 0.01 Gy/day) were received by aquatic organisms in the upper reaches of the Techa River in the period of maximum discharges of radionuclides (1950-1951). In that period, a major contribution to the dose to aquatic organisms was due to the incorporated radionuclides: 89 Sr, 90 Sr, 106 Ru,137 Cs, 144 Ce and others. During 1950-1951, the doses to aquatic organisms were estimated, on average, at 0.003-0.1 Gy/day. After the cessation of intensive radioactive discharges and the construction of a system of protective water bodies, the doses to aquatic biota noticeably decreased. Current levels of exposure to fish in the Techa River are estimated as 3 x 10-4 Gy/day in the upper reaches of Techa River, 6 x 10-6 Gy/day in the Techa River mouth, 9 x 10-7 Gy/day in the Iset River, 10-7 Gy/day in the Tobol River and 6 x 10-8 Gy/day in the Irtysh River; the major contributors to the doses are 90 Sr and 137 Cs. It is shown that exposure to aquatic biota noticeably decreased with distance frhe site of discharges. (authors)

Kryshev, I.; Kryshev, A.; Sazykina, T. [SPA ' Typhoon' , Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01

96

Assessment of doses to biota in the river system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Doses to aquatic biota in the hydrological system Techa - Ob are estimated.The following water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination are considered: industrial reservoirs, Techa, Iset, Tobol and Irtysh Rivers. Doses to biota are calculated using the observed data on the content of radionuclides in various environmental components, with consideration for geometric characteristics of the organisms and the exposure sources. The following groups of the river biota are considered: aquatic plants, mollusks and fish. Simplified geometric models (ellipsoids) are used in the internal dose calculations for fish and mollusks. Aquatic plants are approximated either with spheres or with a layer of finite depth. For the external doses assessment the water was considered as an infinite source with the uniform distribution of radionuclides. Sediments were represented as a source with the uniformly distributed activity. Concentration factor of scattered radiation was taken into account for gamma emitters. Sources and levels of radioactive contamination of the Techa - Ob system are analyzed. Data on the activity concentration of radionuclides in water, bottom sediments and aquatic biota are used for the dose assessment. Assessment of doses to biota in the Techa -Ob river system in the period from 1949 to the present time are performed.The highest doses (over 0.01 Gy/day) were received by aquatic organisms in the upper reaches of the Techa River in the period of maximum discharges of radionuclides (1950-1951). In that period, a major contribution to the dose to aquatic organisms was due to the incorporated radionuclides: 89 Sr, 90 Sr, 106 Ru,137 Cs, 144 Ce and others. During 1950-1951, the doses to aquatic organisms were estimated, on average, at 0.003-0.1 Gy/day. After the cessation of intensive radioactive discharges and the construction of a system of protective water bodies, the doses to aquatic biota noticeably decreased. Current levels of exposure to fish in the Techa River are estimated as 3 x 10-4 Gy/day in the upper reaches of Techa River, 6 x 10-6 Gy/day in the Techa River mouth, 9 x 10-7 Gy/day in the Iset River, 10-7 Gy/day in the Tobol River and 6 x 10-8 Gy/day in the Irtysh River; the major contributors to the doses are 90 Sr and 137 Cs. It is shown that exposure to aquatic biota noticeably decreased with distance from the site of discharges. (authors)

97

Comparison of dose estimate results from radioecological risk assessment models RESRAD-BIOTA, ERICA Tool and SENES Risk Model using a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many software programs designed to estimate the risk to non-human biota from exposure to radioactivity. Three models have been selected for comparison in this study: US DOE RESRAD-BIOTA Model, EC ERICA Tool and SENES Risk Model. It appears that the methodology for these models is similar, whereas the parameters used to model a case study are different, creating different outputs. Issues surrounding combined or 'lumped' parameters were identified with implications on the transparency and uncertainty of results. These issues are explored so that they may be avoided by choosing the appropriate model and implementation for a given scenario. (author)

98

Comparison of dose estimate results from radioecological risk assessment models RESRAD-BIOTA, ERICA Tool and SENES Risk Model using a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many software programs designed to estimate the risk to non-human biota from exposure to radioactivity. Three models have been selected for comparison in this study: US DOE RESRAD-BIOTA Model, EC ERICA Tool and SENES Risk Model. It appears that the methodology for these models is similar, whereas the parameters used to model a case study are different, creating different outputs. Issues surrounding combined or 'lumped' parameters were identified with implications on the transparency and uncertainty of results. These issues are explored so that they may be avoided by choosing the appropriate model and implementation for a given scenario. (author)

Garisto, N.; Kovacs, R.; Janes, A. [SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario (Canada)

2010-07-01

99

Davis Pond Freshwater Prediversion Biomonitoring Study: Freshwater Fisheries and Eagles  

Science.gov (United States)

In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate pesticides and other contaminants. Biomarker data on individual fish, generated at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center (Lafayette, La.), included percent white blood cells in whole blood, spleen weight to body weight ratio, liver weight to body weight ratio, condition factor, splenic macrophage aggregates, and liver microsomal 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Fish age was estimated by comparing total lengths with values from the same species in the Southeast United States as determined from the literature. Contaminant analyses were coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Analytical Control Facility (Laurel, Md.), where residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), and trace elements were determined. The organic contaminant data were generated at the Mississippi State University Chemical Lab (Mississippi State, Miss.), and the inorganic contaminant data were generated by the Texas A&M University Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (College Station, Tex.). Statistical tests were performed to assess relationships among contaminants, fish age, fish species, and collection sites.

Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

2008-01-01

100

Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples: method validation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulatory authorities are expected to measure concentration of contaminants in foodstuffs, but the simple determination of total amount cannot be sufficient for fully judging its impact on the human health. In particular, the methylation of metals generally increases their toxicity; therefore validated analytical methods producing reliable results for the assessment of methylated species are highly needed. Nowadays, there is no legal limit for methylmercury (MeHg) in food matrices. Hence, no standardized method for the determination of MeHg exists within the international jurisdiction. Contemplating the possibility of a future legislative limit, a method for low level determination of MeHg in marine biota matrixes, based on aqueous-phase ethylation followed by purge and trap and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Py-AFS) detection, has been developed and validated. Five different extraction procedures, namely acid and alkaline leaching assisted by microwave and conventional oven heating, as well as enzymatic digestion, were evaluated in terms of their efficiency to extract MeHg from Scallop soft tissue IAEA-452 Certified Reference Material. Alkaline extraction with 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with 5M HCl and enzymatic digestion with protease XIV yielded the highest extraction recoveries. Standard addition or the introduction of a dilution step were successfully applied to overcome the matrix effects observed when microwave-assisted extraction using 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol or 25% (w/v) aqueous TMAH were used. ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines were followed to perform the validation of the methodology. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration curve, linearity (0.9995), working range (1-800pg), recovery (97%), precision, traceability, limit of detection (0.45pg), limit of quantification (0.85pg) and expanded uncertainty (15.86%, k=2) were assessed with Fish protein Dorm-3 Certified Reference Material. The major contributions to the expanded uncertainty, i.e. 86.1%, arose from the uncertainty associated with recovery, followed by the contribution from fluorescence signal. Additional validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison with the values reported for MeHg in the IAEA-452 inter-laboratory comparison exercise. PMID:24720970

Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

2014-05-01

101

Derivation of transfer parameters for use within the ERICA Tool and the default concentration ratios for terrestrial biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ability to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in biota is a requirement of any method assessing the exposure of biota to ionising radiation. Within the ERICA Tool fresh weight whole-body activity concentrations in organisms are estimated using concentration ratios (the ratio of the activity concentration in the organism to the activity concentration in an environmental media). This paper describes the methodology used to derive the default terrestrial ecosystem concentration ratio database available within the ERICA Tool and provides details of the provenance of each value for terrestrial reference organisms. As the ERICA Tool considers 13 terrestrial reference organisms and the radioisotopes of 31 elements, a total of 403 concentration ratios were required for terrestrial reference organisms. Of these, 129 could be derived from literature review. The approaches taken for selecting the remaining values are described. These included, for example, assuming values for similar reference organisms and/or biogeochemically similar elements, and various simple modelling approaches.

Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.; Scott, W.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Brown, J.E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini naeringspark 13, Post Box 55, NO-1332 Osteras (Norway); Copplestone, D. [Environment Agency, Richard Fairclough House, Knutsford Road, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 1HG (United Kingdom)

2008-09-15

102

Derivation of transfer parameters for use within the ERICA Tool and the default concentration ratios for terrestrial biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ability to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in biota is a requirement of any method assessing the exposure of biota to ionising radiation. Within the ERICA Tool fresh weight whole-body activity concentrations in organisms are estimated using concentration ratios (the ratio of the activity concentration in the organism to the activity concentration in an environmental media). This paper describes the methodology used to derive the default terrestrial ecosystem concentration ratio database available within the ERICA Tool and provides details of the provenance of each value for terrestrial reference organisms. As the ERICA Tool considers 13 terrestrial reference organisms and the radioisotopes of 31 elements, a total of 403 concentration ratios were required for terrestrial reference organisms. Of these, 129 could be derived from literature review. The approaches taken for selecting the remaining values are described. These included, for example, assuming values for similar reference organisms and/or biogeochemically similar elements, and various simple modelling approaches

103

The use of reference gene selection programs to study the silvering transformation in a freshwater eel Anguilla australis: a cautionary tale  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR has been the method of choice for the quantification of mRNA. Due to the various artifactual factors that may affect the accuracy of qPCR, internal reference genes are most often used to normalize qPCR data. Recently, many studies have employed computer programs such as GeNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder in selecting reference genes, but very few statistically validate the outcomes of these programs. Thus, in this study, we selected reference genes for qPCR of liver and ovary samples of yellow (juvenile, migratory (silver and 11-KT treated juveniles of New Zealand shortfinned eels (Anguilla australis using the three computer programs and validate the selected genes statistically using REST 2009 software and the Mann-Whitney test. We also tested for the repeatability of use for the best reference genes by applying them to a data set obtained in a similar experiment conducted the previous year. Results Out of six candidate genes, the combination of 18 s and eef1 was found to be the best statistically validated reference for liver, while in ovary it was l36. However, discrepancies in gene rankings were found between the different programs. Also, statistical validation procedures showed that several genes put forward as being the best by the programs were in fact, regulated, making them unsuitable as reference genes. Additionally, eef1 which was found to be a suitable - though not the top ranked - reference gene for liver tissues in one year, was regulated in another. Conclusions Our study highlights the need for external validations of reference gene selections made by computer programs. Researchers need to be vigilant in validating and reporting the rationale for the use of reference gene in published studies.

Lokman P Mark

2010-09-01

104

TRACKING FRESHWATER DIVERSIONS AND ALGAL BLOOMS THAT IMPACT THE NEW ORLEANS STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREA -  

Science.gov (United States)

This project will monitor selected water quality parameters, including water temperature, turbidity, salinity, and algal blooms to assess the impacts of freshwater diversions for several selected areas within the New Orleans metropolitan area. The specific areas of study include ...

105

What are the toxicological effects of mercury in Arctic biota?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This review critically evaluates the available mercury (Hg) data in Arctic marine biota and the Inuit population against toxicity threshold values. In particular marine top predators exhibit concentrations of mercury in their tissues and organs that are believed to exceed thresholds for biological effects. Species whose concentrations exceed threshold values include the polar bears (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), pilot whale (Globicephala melas), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), a few seabird species, and landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Toothed whales appear to be one of the most vulnerable groups, with high concentrations of mercury recorded in brain tissue with associated signs of neurochemical effects. Evidence of increasing concentrations in mercury in some biota in Arctic Canada and Greenland is therefore a concern with respect to ecosystem health.

Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

2013-01-01

106

What are the toxicological effects of mercury in Arctic biota?  

Science.gov (United States)

This review critically evaluates the available mercury (Hg) data in Arctic marine biota and the Inuit population against toxicity threshold values. In particular marine top predators exhibit concentrations of mercury in their tissues and organs that are believed to exceed thresholds for biological effects. Species whose concentrations exceed threshold values include the polar bears (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), pilot whale (Globicephala melas), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), a few seabird species, and landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Toothed whales appear to be one of the most vulnerable groups, with high concentrations of mercury recorded in brain tissue with associated signs of neurochemical effects. Evidence of increasing concentrations in mercury in some biota in Arctic Canada and Greenland is therefore a concern with respect to ecosystem health. PMID:23231888

Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Basu, Niladri; Braune, Birgit; O'Hara, Todd; Letcher, Robert J; Scheuhammer, Tony; Andersen, Magnus; Andreasen, Claus; Andriashek, Dennis; Asmund, Gert; Aubail, Aurore; Baagøe, Hans; Born, Erik W; Chan, Hing M; Derocher, Andrew E; Grandjean, Philippe; Knott, Katrina; Kirkegaard, Maja; Krey, Anke; Lunn, Nick; Messier, Francoise; Obbard, Marty; Olsen, Morten T; Ostertag, Sonja; Peacock, Elizabeth; Renzoni, Aristeo; Rigét, Frank F; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Stern, Gary; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitch; Wiig, Øystein; Wilson, Simon; Aars, Jon

2013-01-15

107

Functionally and phylogenetically diverse plant communities key to soil biota  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies assessing the role of biological diversity for ecosystem functioning indicate that the diversity of functional traits and the evolutionary history of species in a community, not the number of taxonomic units, ultimately drives the biodiversity–ecosystem-function relationship. Here, we simultaneously assessed the importance of plant functional trait and phylogenetic diversity as predictors of major trophic groups of soil biota (abundance and diversity), six years from the onse...

Milcu, Alexandru; Allan, Eric; Roscher, Christiane; Jenkins, Tania; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Flynn, Dan; Bessler, Holger; Buscot, Franc?ois; Engels, Christof; Gubsch, Marle?n; Ko?nig, Stephan; Lipowsky, Annett; Loranger, Jessy; Renker, Carsten; Scherber, Christoph

2013-01-01

108

Conversion ratios for the foodstuffs and biota environmental surveillance program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The foodstuffs and biota monitoring programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) comprises two of the five Environmental Surveillance Programs mandated by Department of Energy Orders, and LANL has conducted these studies since the early 1970s (ESR 1997). Because foodstuffs and biota commonly contain very small amounts of radionuclides in the edible portions of the tissue, samples are commonly ashed to concentrate the radioisotope(s) in order to adequately detect the element; therefore, results are usually reported in units per gram of ash. To compensate for the differing water contents in various matrices (gram of ash are usually two to four orders of magnitude higher than live weights), units in gram of ash are converted to units of gram of dry material--the standard representation of data. Further, results in units per gram dry weight are converted to units of wet weight in order to estimate radiation doses to the public from the ingestion of these products. This paper reports the mean ash to dry and dry to wet weight moisture conversion ratios for a variety of foodstuffs and biota that have been collected as part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at LANL from 1990 to present.

Fresquez, P.R.; Ferenbaugh, J.K.

1998-09-01

109

Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refugees based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refugees can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refugees. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have little thermal or hydrological buffering. Accordingly, conservation planning must focus on maintaining meta-population processes, especially through dynamic connectivity between aquatic habitats at a landscape scale. PMID:23526791

Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

2013-07-01

110

Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30 km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 105) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well

111

Consideration of biota dose assessment methodology in preparation of environmental impact statements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been working with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on developing methods, models, and guidance within a graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to biota. This effort has been headed by DOE and is predominately a screening tool to demonstrate compliance with dose to biota standards at existing DOE facilities. The graded approach does, however, have the capability of incorporating site specific pathway and biota data to estimate doses to biota. Two questions under consideration by the NRC are: is a biota dose assessment methodology needed in the existing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) framework and how should a biota dose assessment methodology be incorporated into the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The paper discusses the protection of biota in context of the existing framework of NEPA and the Endangered Species Act, and how protection of biota is typically addressed in EISs prepared by the NRC. The paper also discusses whether the proposed biota dose methodology needs to be considered in preparation of NEPA documents, given the protection afforded under these Acts. The paper also identifies circumstances where an NRC NEPA document would use the dose methodology for impact assessment to biota. (author)

112

Burgess shale-type biotas were not entirely burrowed away  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Burgess Shale-type biotas occur globally in the Cambrian record and offer unparalleled insight into the Cambrian explosion, the initial Phanerozoic radiation of the Metazoa. Deposits bearing exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils are unusually common in Cambrian strata; more than 40 are now known. The well-documented decline of soft-bodied preservation following the Middle Cambrian represents the closure of a taphonomic window that was only intermittently open in marine environments thereafter. The prevailing hypothesis for this secular shift in taphonomic conditions of outer shelf environments is that soft-bodied biotas were literally burrowed away from the fossil record by increasing infaunal activity in muddy substrate environments; this would have affected geochemical gradients and increased the efficiency of organic matter recycling in sediments. New and recently published data, however, suggest a more complex scenario. Ichnologic and microstratigraphic data from Burgess Shale-type deposits indicatethat (1) bioturbation exerts a limiting effect on soft-bodied preservation; (2) the observed increase in the depth and extent or bioturbation following the Middle Cambrian would have restricted preservation of Burgess Shale type biotas in a number of settings; but (3) increasing depth and extent of bioturbation would not have affected preservation in many other settings, including the most richly fossiliferous portions of the Chengjiang (China) deposit and the Greater Phyllopod Bed of the Burgess Shale (Canada). Therefore, increasing bioturbation cannot account for the apparent loss of this pathway from the fossil record, and requires that other circumstances, including, but not limited to, widespread benthic anoxia, facilitated widespread exceptional preservation in the Cambrian.

Gaines, Robert R.; Droser, Mary L.

2012-01-01

113

Substantial Alterations of the Cutaneous Bacterial Biota in Psoriatic Lesions  

OpenAIRE

For psoriasis, an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the skin, the microbial biota has not been defined using cultivation-independent methods. We used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR for archaea and bacteria to examine the microbiota of normal and psoriatic skin. From 6 patients, 19 cutaneous samples (13 from diseased skin and 6 from normal skin) were obtained. Extracted DNA was subjected to the broad range PCR, and 1,925 cloned products were compared with 2,038 products previously reported from he...

Gao, Zhan; Tseng, Chi-hong; Strober, Bruce E.; Pei, Zhiheng; Blaser, Martin J.

2008-01-01

114

Dose modelling comparison for terrestrial biota: IAEA EMRAS II Biota Working Group's Little Forest Burial Ground scenario  

OpenAIRE

Radiological doses to terrestrial biota have been examined in a model inter-comparison study that emphasised the identification of factors causing variability in dose estimation. Radiological dose rates were modelled for ten species representing a diverse range of terrestrial plant and animals with varying behavioural and physical attributes. Dose to these organisms may occur from a range of gamma (Co-60, Cs-137), beta (Sr-90) and alpha (Th-232, U-234 and U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239/240 and Am-24...

Johansen, M. P.; Barnett, C. L.; Beresford, N. A.; Brown, J. E.; C?erne, M.; Howard, B. J.; Kamboj, S.; Keum, D-k; Smodis?, B.; Twining, J. R.; Vandenhove, H.; Vives I Batlle, J.; Wood, M. D.; Yu, C.

2011-01-01

115

Modelling Radiation Exposure and Radionuclide Transfer for Non-human Species. Report of the Biota Working Group of EMRAS Theme 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Internationally, the ICRP, IAEA and European Commission (EC) are addressing environmental protection as an element of their revision of Recommendations and Basic Safety Standards. Some countries already have requirements and guidelines for the protection of non-human biota. For instance, in England and Wales, the requirement to assess impacts affecting Natura 2000 sites has been interpreted to include ionising radiation. In the USA, biota protection guidelines and dose rates are contained in USDOE Orders 5400.5 and 450.1. In response to these developments, a number of models and approaches have been developed specifically to estimate the exposure of non-human biota to ionising radiations. Some countries (e.g. Canada, Finland, England and Wales, and the USA) are now using these within their national regulatory frameworks for (existing and proposed) nuclear and other sites that may release radioactivity to the environment. Software and/or documentation for some of these approaches are readily available and hence third parties are able to use them when conducting assessments. The Biota Working Group (BWG) of the IAEA Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety programme was formed in 2004 to address the relative lack of validation and intercomparison of the different models and approaches. The primary objective of the BWG, was: 'to improve Member State's capabilities for protection of the environment by comparing and validating models being used, or developed, for biota dose assessment (that may be used) as part of regulatory process of licensing and compliance monitoring of authorised releases of radionuclides'. Group members included modellers, regulators, industry and researchers. In total, 15 models and approaches were applied to one or more of the four exercises conducted by the BWG. The models/approaches applied encompass those being developed, and in some instances, used in a regulatory context, in Belgium, Canada, France, Lithuania, Russia, the UK and the USA, as well as the outputs of recent EC EURATOM programmes. The participating models included those freely available to any interested users. The four intercomparison exercises included evaluations of the basic components of the models assuming 1 Bq per unit media or 1 Bq kg-1 in the organism, and two scenario (one freshwater and one terrestrial) applications in which model predictions were compared to available field measurements. The work of the BWG has clearly demonstrated that the largest contribution to variability between model predictions, and comparison with available data, is the parameterisation of the models transfer components. The methods used to determine absorbed dose rate contribute relatively little to variability between model outputs. The report concludes with recommendations for future activities within the EMRAS II programme.

116

Assessing impacts of ionizing radiation on non-human biota : The ERICA Tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been significant developments in the last few years concerning methods to explicitly quantify impacts on the environment arising from exposure by ionising radiation. Central to the ERICA integrated approach is the quantification of environmental risk whereby data on environmental transfer and dosimetry are combined to provide a measure of exposure which is compared to exposure levels at which detrimental effects are known to occur. In view of the large data sets underpinning the assessment approach and the potential to introduce errors when performing numerous calculations manually, a supporting computer-based tool (the ERICA Tool) has been developed. The ERICA Tool is a computerised, flexible software system that has a structure based upon the ERICA Integrated Assessment tiered approach to assessing the radiological risk to biota. The user is guided through the assessment process, recording information and decisions as the assessment progresses. The tool allows the necessary calculations to be performed to estimate risks to selected biota. Tier 1 assessments use pre-calculated environmental media concentration limits to estimate risk quotients and require inputs in the form of media concentrations. At Tier 2 dose-rates are calculated but at this stage, the user is allowed to examine and edit most of the parameters used in the calculation. For Tier 3 assessments, the same flexibility as Tier 2 is allowed but assessments may be run probabilistically if the uents may be run probabilistically if the underling parameter probability distribution functions are defined. Results from the Tool can be put into context using incorporated data on dose-effects relationships and background dose-rates. (author)

117

Assessing impacts of ionizing radiation on non-human biota: the ERICA tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been significant developments in the last few years concerning methods to explicitly quantify impacts on the environment arising from exposure by ionising radiation. Central to the ERICA integrated approach is the quantification of environmental risk whereby data on environmental transfer and dosimetry are combined to provide a measure of exposure which is compared to exposure levels at which detrimental effects are known to occur. In view of the large data sets underpinning the assessment approach and the potential to introduce errors when performing numerous calculations manually, a supporting computer-based tool (the ERICA Tool) has been developed. The ERICA Tool is a computerised, flexible software system that has a structure based upon the ERICA Integrated Assessment tiered approach to assessing the radiological risk to biota. The user is guided through the assessment process, recording information and decisions as the assessment progresses. The tool allows the necessary calculations to be performed to estimate risks to selected biota. Tier 1 assessments use pre-calculated environmental media concentration limits to estimate risk quotients and require inputs in the form of media concentrations. At Tier 2 dose-rates are calculated but at this stage, the user is allowed to examine and edit most of the parameters used in the calculation. For Tier 3 assessments, the same flexibility as Tier 2 is allowed but assessments may be run probability if the underling parameter probability distribution functions are defined. Results from the tool can be put into context using incorporated data on dose-effects relationships and background dose-rates. (author)

118

Complementary nontargeted and targeted mass spectrometry techniques to determine bioaccumulation of halogenated contaminants in freshwater species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing the toxicological significance of complex environmental mixtures is challenging due to the large number of unidentified contaminants. Nontargeted analytical techniques may serve to identify bioaccumulative contaminants within complex contaminant mixtures without the use of analytical standards. This study exposed three freshwater organisms (Lumbriculus variegatus, Hexagenia spp., and Pimephales promelas) to a highly contaminated soil collected from a recycling plant fire site. Biota extracts were analyzed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and mass defect filtering to identify bioaccumulative halogenated contaminants. Specific bioaccumulative isomers were identified by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRToF). Targeted analysis of mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/PXDFs, X = Br and Cl) was performed by atmospheric pressure gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS). Relative sediment and biota instrument responses were used to estimate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). Bioaccumulating contaminants varied among species and included polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), chlorinated and mixed brominated/chlorinated anthracenes/phenanthrenes, and pyrenes/fluoranthenes (Cl-PAHs and X-PAHs, X = Br and Cl), as well as PXDD/PXDFs. Bioaccumulation potential among isomers also varied. This study demonstrates how complementary high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques identify persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants (and specific isomers) of environmental concern. PMID:25365627

Myers, Anne L; Watson-Leung, Trudy; Jobst, Karl J; Shen, Li; Besevic, Sladjana; Organtini, Kari; Dorman, Frank L; Mabury, Scott A; Reiner, Eric J

2014-12-01

119

Nekton response to freshwater inputs in a temperate European estuary with regulated riverine inflow.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this 12-year study was to assess the nekton (fish, decapod crustaceans) response to freshwater inputs (rainfall, dam discharges) in a temperate estuary with regulated riverine inflow. Although interannual variability in river discharges to the Guadalquivir estuary has been extremely high since the construction of a dam in 1930, a significant decreasing trend in the dam's discharges has been observed in the last 80 years. During this study, an alternation of wet, standard and dry years occurred in the estuarine area but no significant long-term trend was observed. River discharge, in turn, showed a considerable interannual variability and a significantly decreasing long-term trend. Freshwater inputs had an immediate effect on estuarine salinity and turbidity, and consequently on prey availability (mysids). Although 124 nektonic species were collected, only 47 of them (adding up to 99.7% of total abundance) were regularly present in the estuary: 32 marine migrants, 13 estuarine species and 2 diadromous species. Well-defined temporal changes in species composition and abundance yielded clear seasonal patterns in the estuarine nektonic community. Considerable intermonth and interannual changes were occasionally observed relating to freshwater inputs, mainly in winter/autumn of wet years. Thus, within each two-month period, some significant interannual differences in the nektonic community were also observed, with marine migrants tending to be more abundant in dry years. However, changes in the studied nektonic community did not show long-term trends. In conclusion, natural and human-controlled freshwater inputs currently play a significant role in determining the physicochemical conditions and the biota of the Guadalquivir estuary. However, although freshwater input seemed to transitorily affect the estuarine nekton, either directly (flushing out) or indirectly (through changes in salinity, turbidity and prey availability), a quick reestablishment of the estuarine nekton (strong resilience) was observed following freshwater inputs together with the recovery of environmental conditions within the estuary. PMID:22795595

González-Ortegón, E; Subida, M D; Arias, A M; Baldó, F; Cuesta, J A; Fernández-Delgado, C; Vilas, C; Drake, P

2012-12-01

120

Marine and freshwater concentration ratios (CRwo-water): review of Japanese data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water-to-organism (whole body) concentration ratio (CRwo-water), which is defined as the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in the biota (Bq kg?1 fresh weight) to that in water (Bq L?1), has been used in mathematical models for environmental radiation protection. In the present paper, published global fallout 90Sr, 137Cs, 106Ru, 144Ce and 239+240Pu activity concentration data and stable element concentration data for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn for organisms living in freshwater or seawater areas in Japan were collated. The data suitable for obtaining CRwo-water values were identified. CRwo-water values of 137Cs were similar for pelagic fish, benthic fish and whitebait (immature, small fish) with respective geometric means of 30 (range: 4.4–69), 32 (range: 15–54) and 33 (range: 13–84). The calculated CRwo-water values of the other radionuclides and stable elements were generally similar to other previously reported values; with the exception that those for Ce were lower for marine biota and those of Cu were higher for freshwater fish

121

Spatiotemporal variability of chemistry and biota in boreal surface waters  

OpenAIRE

This thesis focuses on the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of freshwater communities in relation to spatial variability and changes of the abiotic environment (i.e. water chemistry). The importance of geographic position, regional- and local-scale factors as drivers of the natural variability of lake and stream water chemistry was quantified and compared by variance partitioning using partial redundancy analysis. A major part of surface water chemistry was explained by interaction...

Stendera, Sonja

2005-01-01

122

The levels of heavy metals in water and all aquatic in Ismailia canal, (Egypt) compared with the international permissible limits and accumulative studies for these metals in biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zu, Ni, Fe and Mn were determined in water, and in different organs of fishes, bivalves, snails and plants in Ismailia canal, Egypt. Moreover, accumulation of the investigated heavy metals by aquatic biota in Ismailia canal and the concentration factor values for this accumulation were calculated to qualify the degree of pollution and compare these levels with the international permissible limits. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn were exceeded the permissible limits especially in the industrial area of Abu- Zaabal, Kalubia governorate. The relative order of heavy metal levels in the canal water was: Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd>Cu.Accumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic biota was determined. The accumulation of heavy metals by common snails, namely physa acuta and biomphalaria alexandrina and the bivalve oyster Caelatura (caelatura) companyoi was found mainly in the edible parts (soft parts), whereas, the accumulation by their shells, which are mainly formed of calcium carbonate was via adsorption and surface complexation, since all the accumulated heavy metals were released by adding 0.1 M HCl for few minutes . Moreover, accumulation of heavy metals by common plants namely water hyacinth plant (Eichhornia crassipes) and freshwater weeds were determined. It was found that the accumulation of heavy metals was higher in roots than in leaves. On the other hand, the accumulation of heavy metals by common fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nmmon fish namely, Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) was measured in its organs : muscles, liver, gills and gonads. It was found that there is variation of distribution of heavy metals among fish organs. Since the high accumulation of heavy metals among the investigated biota, they can be used as biological indicator for pollution of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem . The average values and standard deviation for all measurements were determined. Data obtained were compared with the permissible concentrations of the environmental protection agency on water quality criteria (W.Q.C.)

123

Nearctic freshwater tardigrades: a review  

OpenAIRE

The distribution and ecology of limno-terrestrial Tardigrada in the Nearctic realm remain poorly known. This is especially true of freshwater tardigrades (i.e., species found in permanently submerged habitats), which have received much less attention than terrestrial species. We reviewed the literature on Nearctic freshwater tardigrades. Of 204 Nearctic limno-terrestrial tardigrade species, 44 have been collected from sediments and aquatic vegetation of streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, groundwa...

Hinton, Juliana G.; Meyer, Harry A.; Mcfatter, Mitchell M.

2007-01-01

124

Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan

125

Agrochemical residue-biota interactions in soil and aquatic ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two FAO/IAEA coordinated research programmes are concerned with isotopic tracer-aided studies of agrochemical residue-biota interactions in soils and aquatic ecosystems. They currently involve 18 studies in 14 countries: Brazil, Canada, Egypt, F.R. Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, USA and USSR. The aim was to develop, standardize and apply labelled substrate techniques for comparative assays of primary autotrophic and microheterotrophic production and decay, and complementary tracer techniques to determine the fate, persistence and bioconcentration of trace contaminants. Comparable data were studied concerning the current status of water bodies and likely changes due to contaminants. Soil capacity to decompose undesirable contaminants and residues, and to promote desirable transformations were studied. The techniques were also applied as a diagnostic and prognostic tool, with priority given to rice ecosystems

126

Quantifying the effect of catchment land-use and water nutrient concentrations on freshwater river and stream biodiversity  

OpenAIRE

A major threat to freshwater taxon diversity is the alteration of natural catchment Land use into agriculture, industry or urban areas and the associated eutrophication of the water. In order to stop freshwater biodiversity loss, it is essential to quantify the relationships between freshwater diversity and catchment Land use and water nutrient concentrations. 2. A literature survey was carried out on biodiversity data from rivers and streams. Fish and macroinvertebrates were selected as foc...

Weijters, M. J.; Janse, J. H.; Alkemade, J. R. M.; Verhoeven, J. T. A.

2009-01-01

127

Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

2008-10-09

128

RÉGIMEN DE CAUDAL ECOLÓGICO, HERRAMIENTA DE GESTIÓN PARA CONSERVAR LA BIOTA ACUÁTICA / ECOLOGICAL FLOW REGIMEN, MANAGEMENT TOOLTO PRESERVE ACUATIC BIOTA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN En el presente artículo de revisión se consolidó información sobre el Régimen de Caudal Ecológico, al constituirse en una herramienta de gestión en la conservación de la Biota Acuática. De esta manera, se considera relevante informar a la comunidad académica y actores de gestión, sobre la im [...] portancia de la gestión del recurso hídrico, el análisis de conceptos sobre el caudal ambiental y ecológico, la descripción de las diferentes metodologías que permiten su determinación y la normatividad ambiental que lo protege. Finalmente, se hace especial énfasis, en la metodología ecohidráulica en la que se aplica el modelo IFIM-PHABSIM, considerada la modelación del hábitat fluvial, que precisa de información sobre la relación entre la densidad de organismos acuáticos y variables hidráulicas de velocidad, profundidad y sustrato; obteniendo como resultado curvas de idoneidad de hábitat e índices de idoneidad, que permitirán entender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas acuáticos, utilizando dicha información en el manejo y planificación del recurso hídrico. Abstract in english ABSTRACT In this review article was consolidated information about ecological flow regime to become a management tool in the conservation of aquatic biota. This way is considered important to inform the academic community and development actors on the importance of water resource management, the ana [...] lysis of the environmental and ecological flow concepts the description of the different methodologies allowing his determination and environmental regulations related to water management and ecological flow. Finally emphasizing in the methodologies ecohydraulic, implementing of IFIM-PHABSIM model ,considered the methodology of the fluvial habitat modeling, which is required in the relationship information between the density of aquatic organisms and the hydraulic, speed variable, depth and substrate composition. Obtaining as a result habitat suitability curves and indices of suitability which will allow understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, using that information in the management and planning of water resources.

Mónica Lucía, Izquierdo Santacruz; Sandra Milena, Madroñero Palacios.

2013-06-01

129

Korttermynbedreigings vir varswater-Mollusca in die Olifantsrivier en enkele sytakke Short-term threats for the sustained survival of freshwater Mollusca in the Olifants River and selected tributaries.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die bewaringstatus van minder as 2% van die ongeveer 7000 molluskspesies bekend wêreldwyd, is tot dusver behoorlik geassesseer. Gevolglik is die algemene vlak van bedreiging vir molluske power gedokumenteer en hoogs waarskynlik onderskat. Varswatermolluske is permanente waterbewoners wat oor beperkte voortbewegingsvermoë beskik en aan ’n verskeidenheid van antropogeniese afvalstowwe blootgestel word omdat waterbronne dikwels as stortplek vir ’n groot verskeidenheid van nadelige besoedelstowwe gebruik word. Die Olifantsrivier word dikwels as een van die mees getransformeerde riviere in Suider-Afrika beskryf en word toenemend aan uitermate hoë druk onderwerp betreffende natuurlike hulpbronne en die geassosieerde landelike versteurings, asook besoedeling. Omdat min inligting oor die diversiteit van Mollusca in die Olifantsrivier op rekord is, is in die huidige studie vier opnames tydens twee opeenvolgende jare gemaak van die molluske in die Olifantsrivier en geselekteerde sytakke by onderskeidelik drie lokaliteite op die Hoëveld en vier in die Laeveld. Die pH en elektriese geleidingsvermoë van die water is by elk van die lokaliteite bepaal en het gewissel tussen 6.93 en 9.50, en 110 µS en 1336 µS, vir pH en geleidingsvermoë onderskeidelik. ’n Totaal van 25 molluskspesies is tydens die vier opnames versamel wat die eksotiese indringerspesies Lymnaea columella, Physa acuta, Aplexa marmorata en Tarebia granifera insluit. Laasgenoemde spesie het verreweg die grootste getal eksemplare in totaal opgelewer, hoofsaaklik by ’n lokaliteit wat as grootliks getransformeerd beskryf kan word. Die resultate van hierdie ondersoek kan as basis vir toekomstige opnames dien om die impak van antropogeniese versteurings op die diversiteit van die Mollusca in die Olifantsrivier- en opvanggebied te evalueer.The conservation status of less than 2% of the more or less 7000 mollusk species known worldwide have been properly assessed. Consequently the general level of imperilment is poorly documented and almost certainly underestimated. Freshwater mollusks live permanently in water, have limited means of movement and are exposed to a variety of anthropogenic waste products due to the fact that waterbodies often act as sinks for a large array of harmful pollutants. The Olifants River is often described as one of the most polluted rivers in Southern Africa and is progressively subjected to extremely high pressure with regard to natural resources and associated rural transformation and pollution. Little is on record regarding the diversity of the Mollusca in the Olifants River; therefore, in the present study, four surveys of the molluscs were conducted in this river and selected tributaries during two consecutive years at three localities situated on the Highveld and four localities situated in the Lowveld respectively. The pH and electric conductivity of the water were determined during each survey at each one of the localities and values ranged from 6.93 to 9.50, and 110 µS to 1336 µS, for pH and conductivity respectively. A total of 25 mollusk species were collected during the four surveys which included the exotic invader species Lymnaea columella, Physa acuta, Aplexa marmorata and Tarebia granifera. The latter species yielded the highest number of specimens by far, mainly at a locality which could be described as largely transformed. The results of this investigation can serve as a point of departure for future surveys to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the mollusc diversity in the Olifants River and catchment.

Kenné N. de Kock

2013-02-01

130

Temporal and spatial variation in landscape connectivity for a freshwater turtle in a temporally dynamic wetland system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inter-wetland connectivity, defined here as the movement of biota among discrete water bodies, can have important population- and community-level consequences in aquatic systems. We examined inter-wetland connectivity in a southeastern Australian national park by intensively monitoring the movements of freshwater turtles (Chelodina longicollis) via capture-mark-recapture over a three-year period, and more sporadically for 25 years. A high percentage (33%) of turtles moved between wetlands, suggesting that single wetlands should not represent the minimum habitat unit harboring a C. longicollis population. Distance was the only structural landscape metric correlated with inter-patch transition probability, with probability declining as inter-wetland distance increased. Movements also appear to be strongly influenced by shifting resource quality gradients between temporary wetlands and permanent lakes according to drought and flood cycles, a pattern more consistent with migration between critical resource patches than occasional interpopulational dispersal. Rare dispersal events of up to 5.2 km were known to occur. Captures at a terrestrial drift fence suggest that small and immature turtles moved between wetlands more frequently than our aquatic sampling indicated. We caution that measures of actual (or functional) connectivity can be biased by sampling methods and the temporal scale of sampling and must also be interpreted in the context of factors that motivate animal movements. This requires some understanding of spatial and temporal variation in intra-patch processes (e.g., quality and extent) and the expected movement responses of animals (e.g., habitat selection) over extended time frames, information that can potentially yield more important insight on connectivity than measures of landscape structural features alone. PMID:19688935

Roe, John H; Brinton, Alicia C; Georges, Arthur

2009-07-01

131

Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in terrestrial biota from the Canadian Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twelve years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper summarizes results from that program from 1998 to 2003 with respect to terrestrial animals in the Canadian Arctic. The arctic terrestrial environment has few significant contaminant issues, particularly when compared with freshwater and marine environments. Both current and historical industrial activities in the north may have a continuing effect on biota in the immediate area, but effects tend to be localized. An investigation of arctic ground squirrels at a site in the Northwest Territories that had historically received applications of DDT concluded that DDT in arctic ground squirrels livers was the result of contamination and that this is an indication of the continuing effect of a local point source of DDT. Arsenic concentrations were higher in berries collected from areas around gold mines in the Northwest Territories than from control sites, suggesting that gold mining may significantly affect arsenic levels in berries in the Yellowknives Dene traditional territory. Although moose and caribou from the Canadian Arctic generally carry relatively low contaminant burdens, Yukon moose had high renal selenium concentrations, and moose and some woodland caribou from the same area had high renal cadmium levels, which may put some animals at risk of toxicological effects. Low hepatic copper levels in some caribou herds mayic copper levels in some caribou herds may indicate a shortage of copper for metabolic demands, particularly for females. Similarities in patterns of temporal fluctuations in renal element concentrations for moose and caribou suggest that environmental factors may be a major cause of fluctuations in renal concentrations of some elements. Concentrations of persistent organochlorines and metals in beaver and muskrat from the Northwest Territories, and carnivores from across the Canadian Arctic were very low and considered normal for terrestrial wildlife. Two new classes of persistent fluorinated contaminants, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were found in arctic carnivores and were most abundant in arctic fox and least abundant in mink. Although trace element concentrations in king and common eider ducks were low and not of toxicological concern, the number of nematode parasites in common eiders was positively correlated with total and organic mercury concentrations. Future research should focus on cadmium in moose and caribou, mercury in caribou, and emerging contaminants, with an effort to sample moose and caribou annually where possible to explore the role of naturally occurring cycles in apparent temporal trends

132

Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in terrestrial biota from the Canadian Arctic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twelve years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper summarizes results from that program from 1998 to 2003 with respect to terrestrial animals in the Canadian Arctic. The arctic terrestrial environment has few significant contaminant issues, particularly when compared with freshwater and marine environments. Both current and historical industrial activities in the north may have a continuing effect on biota in the immediate area, but effects tend to be localized. An investigation of arctic ground squirrels at a site in the Northwest Territories that had historically received applications of DDT concluded that DDT in arctic ground squirrels livers was the result of contamination and that this is an indication of the continuing effect of a local point source of DDT. Arsenic concentrations were higher in berries collected from areas around gold mines in the Northwest Territories than from control sites, suggesting that gold mining may significantly affect arsenic levels in berries in the Yellowknives Dene traditional territory. Although moose and caribou from the Canadian Arctic generally carry relatively low contaminant burdens, Yukon moose had high renal selenium concentrations, and moose and some woodland caribou from the same area had high renal cadmium levels, which may put some animals at risk of toxicological effects. Low hepatic copper levels in some caribou herds may indicate a shortage of copper for metabolic demands, particularly for females. Similarities in patterns of temporal fluctuations in renal element concentrations for moose and caribou suggest that environmental factors may be a major cause of fluctuations in renal concentrations of some elements. Concentrations of persistent organochlorines and metals in beaver and muskrat from the Northwest Territories, and carnivores from across the Canadian Arctic were very low and considered normal for terrestrial wildlife. Two new classes of persistent fluorinated contaminants, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were found in arctic carnivores and were most abundant in arctic fox and least abundant in mink. Although trace element concentrations in king and common eider ducks were low and not of toxicological concern, the number of nematode parasites in common eiders was positively correlated with total and organic mercury concentrations. Future research should focus on cadmium in moose and caribou, mercury in caribou, and emerging contaminants, with an effort to sample moose and caribou annually where possible to explore the role of naturally occurring cycles in apparent temporal trends.

Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, YT, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Braune, Birgit [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Davey, Eric [Athabasca Tribal Council, Environmental Affairs, 9206 McCormick Drive, Fort McMurray, AB, T9H 1C7 (Canada); Elkin, Brett [Northwest Territories Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Yellowknife, NT X1A 3S8 (Canada); Hoekstra, Paul F. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Kennedy, David [Northwest Territories Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, Yellowknife, NT X1A 3S8 (Canada); Macdonald, Colin [Northern Environmental Consulting, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Muir, Derek [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Nirwal, Amar [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Wayland, Mark [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Region, 115 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

2005-12-01

133

Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in terrestrial biota from the Canadian Arctic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twelve years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper summarizes results from that program from 1998 to 2003 with respect to terrestrial animals in the Canadian Arctic. The arctic terrestrial environment has few significant contaminant issues, particularly when compared with freshwater and marine environments. Both current and historical industrial activities in the north may have a continuing effect on biota in the immediate area, but effects tend to be localized. An investigation of arctic ground squirrels at a site in the Northwest Territories that had historically received applications of DDT concluded that DDT in arctic ground squirrels livers was the result of contamination and that this is an indication of the continuing effect of a local point source of DDT. Arsenic concentrations were higher in berries collected from areas around gold mines in the Northwest Territories than from control sites, suggesting that gold mining may significantly affect arsenic levels in berries in the Yellowknives Dene traditional territory. Although moose and caribou from the Canadian Arctic generally carry relatively low contaminant burdens, Yukon moose had high renal selenium concentrations, and moose and some woodland caribou from the same area had high renal cadmium levels, which may put some animals at risk of toxicological effects. Low hepatic copper levels in some caribou herds may indicate a shortage of copper for metabolic demands, particularly for females. Similarities in patterns of temporal fluctuations in renal element concentrations for moose and caribou suggest that environmental factors may be a major cause of fluctuations in renal concentrations of some elements. Concentrations of persistent organochlorines and metals in beaver and muskrat from the Northwest Territories, and carnivores from across the Canadian Arctic were very low and considered normal for terrestrial wildlife. Two new classes of persistent fluorinated contaminants, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were found in arctic carnivores and were most abundant in arctic fox and least abundant in mink. Although trace element concentrations in king and common eider ducks were low and not of toxicological concern, the number of nematode parasites in common eiders was positively correlated with total and organic mercury concentrations. Future research should focus on cadmium in moose and caribou, mercury in caribou, and emerging contaminants, with an effort to sample moose and caribou annually where possible to explore the role of naturally occurring cycles in apparent temporal trends. PMID:16109438

Gamberg, Mary; Braune, Birgit; Davey, Eric; Elkin, Brett; Hoekstra, Paul F; Kennedy, David; Macdonald, Colin; Muir, Derek; Nirwal, Amar; Wayland, Mark; Zeeb, Barbara

2005-12-01

134

Reconstructing Long Island Sound Environmental Changes and Thier Influence on the Biota  

Science.gov (United States)

Long Island Sound (LIS) is a large urban estuary. Its environmental problems include algal blooms, leading to hypoxia and die-off of submerged aquatic vegetation and, in the last few years, significant die-off of lobsters, particularly in western LIS. We use a combination of geochemical, isotope and micropaleontological data (benthic foraminifera) on cores from Long Island Sound to investigate the environmental changes since western European settlement and industrialization, and their effects on biota. Age models are based on 210Pb, 137Cs, and pollen profiles. In LIS, seawater from the Atlantic Ocean is mixed with freshwater from the Connecticut River, Housatonic River and Thames River, resulting in salinities from 22 to 32 per mille. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are marginally marine, and dominated by Elphidium excavatum. In the deeper parts of LIS Buccella frigida is common, and since the 1960s Ammonia beccarii has strongly increased in abundance in western LIS and shallow waters close to river mouths. The carbonate tests of Elphidium excavatum reflect a combination of salinity and temperature in their ? 18O, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca values. The ? 13C of carbonates reflects the isotopic values of dissolved carbonate in LIS waters, which depend on the mixing proportions of river and sea water, the ? 13C of carbonate in river water, and the degree of oxidation of organic carbon in the Sound. The latter process is responsible for the seasonal hypoxia in LIS. We hypothesize that the ? 13C in foraminiferal calcite can be used as a tracer for the degree of hypoxia that was prevalent when shells were being formed, and foraminiferal assemblages in the same samples will reveal whether faunal changes occurred coeval with changes in degree of hypoxia. We established a mixing model for modern LIS through analyses of river and LIS water samples for salinity, ? 18O, dissolved carbonate, ? 13C in dissolved carbonate and Ca, Mg and Sr. Bottom water oxygen contents and temperatures were measured at the time of collection of living foraminifera. We calibrated the elemental and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonates for salinity and temperature using field measurements. We determined the difference between measured and predicted ? 13C, which is a measure of the amount of oxidized organic matter in the system. Our field results in the western part of LIS show that when oxygen levels are at or below 4mg/l, significantly lighter carbon isotopic compositions are observed than those predicted. Results from the mixing model calibrations will be applied to carbonates from 4 short cores to establish changes in temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen in LIS over the last 400 years, and correlate these with faunal assemblage changes observed in the same samples.

Thomas, E.; Lugolobi, F.; Abramson, I.; Varekamp, J. C.

2001-12-01

135

Desalination - an alternative freshwater resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global water constitutes 94 percent salt water that is from the oceans and 6% is in the form of freshwater. Out of this 6% freshwater approximately 27% is trapped in glaciers and 72% is underground. The sea water is important for transportation, fisheries. Oceans regulate climate through air sea interaction. However direct consumption of sea water is too salty to sustain human life. Water with a dissolved solids (salt) content generally below about 1000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) is considered acceptable for human consumption. The application of desalting technologies over the past 50 years have been in many of the arid zone where freshwater is available. Pakistan lies in the Sun Belt. It is considered a wide margin coastal belt (990 km), having an Exclusive Economic Zone of 240,000 km/sup 2/, that strokes trillion cubic meters of sea water that can be made available as freshwater source to meet the shortfall in the supply of domestic water through desalination along the coastal belt of Pakistan. The freshwater obtained from the other desalination processes is slightly expensive, but the cost of desalination can be considerably reduced provided that the available inexpensive or free waste energy is utilized mainly. (author)

136

Compartmentalisation Strategies for Hydrocarbon-based Biota on Titan  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of our study is to determine the nature of compartimentalisation strategies for any organisms inhabiting the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan (the largest moon of Saturn). Since receiving huge amounts of data via the Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system astrobiologists have speculated that exotic biota might currently inhabit this environment. The biota have been theorized to consume acetylene and hydrogen whilst excreting methane (1,2) leading to an anomalous hydrogen depletion near the surface; and there has been evidence to suggest this depletion exists (3). Nevertheless, many questions still remain concerning the possible physiological traits of biota in these environments, including whether cell-like structures can form in low temperature, low molecular weight hydrocarbons. The backbone of terrestrial cell membranes are vesicular structures composed primarily of a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic head groups arranged around the periphery and are thought to be akin to the first protocells that terrestrial life utilised (4). It my be possible that reverse vesicles composed of a bilayer with the hydrophilic head groups arranged internally and a nonpolar core may be ideal model cell membranes for hydrocarbon-based organisms inhabiting Titan's hydrocarbon lakes (5). A variety of different surfactants have been used to create reverse vesicles in nonpolar liquids to date including; non-ionic ethers (7) and esters (6, 8); catanionic surfactant mixtures (9); zwitterionic gemini surfactants (10); coblock polymer surfactants (11); and zwitterionic phospholipid surfactants (12). In order to discover whether certain phospholipids can exhibit vesicular behaviour within hydrocarbon liquids, and to analyse their structure, we have carried out experimental studies using environmental conditions that are increasing comparable to those found on the surface of Titan. Experimental methods that have been used to determine the presence of vesicles include the use of microscopy, the presence of the Tyndall scattering effect, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) , small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). These studies are currently being anaylzed, however, some results have indcated the presence of reverse vesicles in certain systems. Compounds that are shown to form reverse vesicles in conditions comparable to those of Titan's lakes could be potential 'biomarkers' and searched for in future missions to Titan. References [1] Schulze-Makuch D et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 36, 324 (2006). [2] McKay C P et al. Icarus 178, 274 (2005). [3] Strobel D F. Icarus 208, 878 (2010). [4]. Fiordemondo D et al. Chem. Bio. Chem. 8, 1965 (2007). [5] Norman L H et al. A&G 52, 39 (2011). [6] Mollee H et al. J Pharm Sci 89, 930 (2000). ). [7] Kunieda H et al. Langmuir 15, 3118 (1999). [8] Shrestha L K et al. Langmuir 22, 1449 (2006). [9] Li H G et al. Chem. Lett 36, 702 (2007). [10] Peresypkin A et al. Mendeleev Commun. 17, 82 (2007). [11] Rangelov S et al. J. Phys. Chem B 108, 7542 (2004). [12] Tung S H et al. J. Am. Chem. 130, 8813 (2008).

Norman, L.; Fortes, A. D.; Skipper, N.; Crawford, I.

2013-05-01

137

Fukushima nuclear accident: preliminary assessment of the risks to non-human biota.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assesses the 'radio-ecological' impacts of Fukushima nuclear accident on non-human biota using the ERICA Tool, which adopts an internationally verified methodology. The paper estimates the impacts of the accident on terrestrial and marine biota based on the environmental data reported in literature for Japan, China, South Korea and the USA. Discernible impacts have been detected in the marine biota around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This study confirms that the Fukushima accident had caused heavier damage to marine bionts compared with terrestrial flora and fauna, in Japan. PMID:24827576

Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Liman, Muhammad Sanusi

2015-02-01

138

approach to revoked directives freshwater fish  

SCPinfonet

River Basin Management Plans Water Framework Directive –An approach to the Revoked Freshwater Fish Directive December 2014 2 Water Framework Directive - An approach to the Revoked Freshwater Fish Directive Summary This ...

139

Making sense of ocean biota: how evolution and biodiversity of land organisms differ from that of the plankton.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oceans cover 70% of the planet's surface, and their planktonic inhabitants generate about half the global primary production, thereby playing a key role in modulating planetary climate via the carbon cycle. The ocean biota have been under scientific scrutiny for well over a century, and yet our understanding of the processes driving natural selection in the pelagic environment - the open water inhabited by drifting plankton and free-swimming nekton - is still quite vague. Because of the fundamental differences in the physical environment, pelagic ecosystems function differently from the familiar terrestrial ecosystems of which we are a part. Natural selection creates biodiversity but understanding how this quality control of random mutations operates in the oceans - which traits are selected for under what circumstances and by which environmental factors, whether bottom-up or top-down - is currently a major challenge. Rapid advances in genomics are providing information, particularly in the prokaryotic realm, pertaining not only to the biodiversity inventory but also functional groups. This essay is dedicated to the poorly understood tribes of planktonic protists (unicellular eukaryotes) that feed the ocean's animals and continue to run the elemental cycles of our planet. It is an attempt at developing a conceptually coherent framework to understand the course of evolution by natural selection in the plankton and contrast it with the better-known terrestrial realm. I argue that organism interactions, in particular co-evolution between predators and prey (the arms race), play a central role in driving evolution in the pelagic realm. Understanding the evolutionary forces shaping ocean biota is a prerequisite for harnessing plankton for human purposes and also for protecting the oceanic ecosystems currently under severe stress from anthropogenic pressures. PMID:22922185

Smetacek, Victor

2012-09-01

140

Biologically transformed zinc and its subsequent availability to marine biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of experiments performed to define the mode of formation of the complexed zinc fraction using radiotracers and to discern if this fraction, once formed by biological means, is available for accumulation by marine biota, are discussed. Fractionation of excreted 65Zn by shrimp Lysmata seticaudata and mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis for excretion periods ranging from 0 to 47 days are measured and respective percentage of total 65Zn excreted and retained on 0.45? filters, percentage filtrate on resin and in eluate are calculated. Zinc-65 transformations in waters conditioned by the presence of dead shrimp during the time range of 1 to 218 days and respective percentages of 65Zn labelled and non-labelled shrimp, on filter, on chelex and in eluate are reported. It is also observed that 65Zn accumulation by shell is virtually unaffected by the different forms of radiozinc, whereas the discrimination between the forms occurs in the soft parts and especially the highly metabolically active byssus

141

Assessment of mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and biota in Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, Colusa County, California  

Science.gov (United States)

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we performed a study during April–July 2010 to characterize mercury (Hg), monomethyl mercury (MMeHg), and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota at the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, located in neighboring subwatersheds of Sulphur Creek, Colusa County, California. This study was in support of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - Removal Site Investigation. The investigation was in response to an abatement notification from the California Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board to evaluate the release of Hg from the Clyde and Elgin mines. Samples of water, sediment, and biota (aquatic macroinvertebrates) were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the two mine sites to evaluate the level of Hg contamination contributed by each mine to the aquatic ecosystem. Physical parameters, as well as dissolved organic carbon, total Hg (HgT), and MMeHg were analyzed in water and sediment. Other relevant geochemical constituents were analyzed in sediment, filtered water, and unfiltered water. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates from each mine were analyzed for HgT and MMeHg. The presence of low to moderate concentrations of HgT and MMeHg in water, sediment, and biota from the Freshwater Branch of Sulphur Creek, and the lack of significant increases in these concentrations downstream from the Clyde Mine indicated that this mine is not a significant source of Hg to the watershed during low flow conditions. Although concentrations of HgT and MMeHg were generally higher in samples of sediment and water from the Elgin Mine compared to the Clyde Mine, concentrations in comparable biota from the two mine areas were similar. It is likely that highly saline effluent from nearby hot springs contribute more Hg to the West Fork of Sulphur Creek than the mine waste material at the Elgin Mine.

Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2013-01-01

142

Toxicity to freshwater organisms from oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory microcosms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toxicity of oil and diesel fuel to freshwater biota may be increased by use of oil spill cleaning agents. - Toxicity and temporal changes in toxicity of freshwater-marsh-microcosms containing South Louisiana Crude (SLC) or diesel fuel and treated with a cleaner or dispersant, were investigated using Chironomus tentans, Daphnia pulex, and Oryzias latipes. Bioassays used microcosm water (for D. pulex and O. latipes) or soil slurry (for C. tentans) taken 1,7, 31, and 186 days after treatment. SLC was less toxic than diesel, chemical additives enhanced oil toxicity, the dispersant was more toxic than the cleaner, and toxicities were greatly reduced by day 186. Toxicities were higher in the bioassay with the benthic species than in those with the two water-column species. A separate experiment showed that C. tentans' sensitivity was intermediate to that of Tubifex tubifex and Hyallela azteca. Freshwater organisms, especially benthic invertebrates, thus appear seriously effected by oil under the worst-case-scenario of our microcosms. Moreover, the cleaner and dispersant tested were poor response options under those conditions.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Klerks, P.L.; Nyman, J.A

2003-04-01

143

Toxicity to freshwater organisms from oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory microcosms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toxicity of oil and diesel fuel to freshwater biota may be increased by use of oil spill cleaning agents. - Toxicity and temporal changes in toxicity of freshwater-marsh-microcosms containing South Louisiana Crude (SLC) or diesel fuel and treated with a cleaner or dispersant, were investigated using Chironomus tentans, Daphnia pulex, and Oryzias latipes. Bioassays used microcosm water (for D. pulex and O. latipes) or soil slurry (for C. tentans) taken 1,7, 31, and 186 days after treatment. SLC was less toxic than diesel, chemical additives enhanced oil toxicity, the dispersant was more toxic than the cleaner, and toxicities were greatly reduced by day 186. Toxicities were higher in the bioassay with the benthic species than in those with the two water-column species. A separate experiment showed that C. tentans' sensitivity was intermediate to that of Tubifex tubifex and Hyallela azteca. Freshwater organisms, especially benthic invertebrates, thus appear seriously effected by oil under the worst-case-scenario of our microcosms. Moreover, the cleaner and dispersant tested were poor response options under those conditions

144

Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters

145

New occurence of the Cambrian (Stage 4, Series 2 Guanshan Biota in Huize, Yunnan, South China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Typical elements of the Guanshan Biota are reported from the Cambrian Stage 4 Wulongqing Formation of Huize, Qujing, South China, approximately 100 km north of the Guanshan fossil sites previously reported. Lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the current Zhujiaqing section are also discussed herein. Representatives of various phyla recovered therein include not only previously described sponges, palaeoscolecids, arthropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, and vetulicolians, but also some potential new taxa, e.g. a new species of Vetulicola. This new occurrence not only expands the palaeogeographic distribution of the Guanshan Biota, but also strengthens the ties between the younger Chengjiang Biota and the older Kaili Biota (and also the coeval Burgess Shale community

Liu J N

2012-02-01

146

Dynamic modelling of radionuclide uptake by Fukushima coastal biota - Dynamic modelling of radionuclide uptake by marine biota: application to Fukushima assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological assessments to non-human marine biota are usually carried out by assuming that the activity concentration in an organism is proportional to the activity concentration in an adjacent volume of water, via a concentration factor (CF). It is also assumed that radionuclides in the water are in isotopic equilibrium with the sediments via a sediment distribution coefficient (Kd). These assumptions are not valid in accidental situations where the biota and the sediments react with a time delay to large variations of activity concentration in seawater. A simple dynamic model was developed to factorise the dynamics of radionuclide uptake and turnover in biota and sediments, as determined by a balance between the residence time of radionuclides in seawater/sediments and the biological half-life of elimination in the biota. The model calculates activity concentration of 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr in seabed sediment, fish, crustaceans, molluscs and macro-algae from surrounding activity concentrations in seawater, with which to derive internal and external dose rates. A central element of this new model is the inclusion of sediment processes in dynamic transfer modelling. The model is adapted to include depletion of radionuclides adsorbed onto suspended particulates (particle scavenging), molecular diffusion, pore water mixing and bioturbation (modelled effectively as a diffusive process) represented by a simple set of differential equations that is coupled with the biological uptake/turnover processes. In this way, the model is capable of reproducing activity concentration in sediment to give a more realistic calculation of the external dose to biota compared with the simpler approach based on CF and Kd values used in previous assessments. The model is applied to the assessment of the radiological impact of the Fukushima accident on marine biota in the early phase of the accident. It is shown that previous assessment of the external doses to marine biota using a Kd assumption for the sediment contribution are largely overestimated compared with using the dynamic sediment model, as shown by comparison with actual monitoring data for sediments. Likewise, it is also shown that the activity concentration in the biota (and, consequently, the internal dose rate) is better predicted by a dynamic model than with the simpler concentration factor approach. (authors)

147

Nearctic freshwater tardigrades: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The distribution and ecology of limno-terrestrial Tardigrada in the Nearctic realm remain poorly known. This is especially true of freshwater tardigrades (i.e., species found in permanently submerged habitats, which have received much less attention than terrestrial species. We reviewed the literature on Nearctic freshwater tardigrades. Of 204 Nearctic limno-terrestrial tardigrade species, 44 have been collected from sediments and aquatic vegetation of streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, groundwater and cryoconite holes. Of these, 17 are hydrophilous species found exclusively or primarily in aquatic environments. Most of the remainder are probably washed in accidentally from terrestrial substrates. Among the hydrophilous species, five are endemic to the Nearctic realm and three cosmopolitan. Hypsibius dujardini is the most widely-distributed hydrophilous species. There are no regional collections of Nearctic freshwater tardigrades comparable to those for terrestrial species. Aquatic tardigrades are benthic, and are found in sediments and on aquatic vegetation. Hypsibius dujardini and other widespread species are found in both substrates, and there is thus no evidence of substrate specificity. Numerically, tardigrades usually comprise a minor component of benthic invertebrate communities. Nothing is known of their trophic relationships or dispersal in these habitats. The density of Nearctic freshwater tardigrade species peaks in the spring and/or fall. Future research should increase the spatial and temporal scale of study, and employ adequate replication.

Juliana G. HINTON

2007-09-01

148

International Year of Freshwater 2003  

Science.gov (United States)

Near the conclusion of the year 2000, the United Nations General Assembly created a resolution to proclaim 2002 as the International Year of Freshwater. Given the importance of freshwater to all human, plant, and animal life, this designation seems altogether fitting and timely. As the resolution notes, it is hoped that many governments and political actors will use the year to increase awareness of the importance of sustainable freshwater use, management, and protection. To this end, this helpful Web site provides a host of online resources designed to educate the web-browsing public about various events related to this overriding theme, along with presenting an online library of publications about freshwater. Visitors can read the online newsletter, Splash, along with browsing a water library, organized by themes (such as water and society and ecosystems), and geographic regions. Another compelling feature are the water proverbs taken from a number of areas, including the Middle East and Latin America. Given the global mission of the site it is refreshing to note that many of the materials are also available in French and Spanish. [KMG

2003-01-01

149

Modelling potential impacts of effective dispersant use on aquatic biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil spill transport and fate modelling was used to evaluate maximum potential water column hydrocarbon concentrations with dispersant use. Oil spill modelling was performed with SIMAP, and used wind data, current data, and transport and weathering algorithms to calculate the mass of oil components in various environmental compartments; oil pathway over time; surface oil distribution; and concentrations of the oil components in water and sediments. Simulations assuming no dispersant use were compared to simulations where dispersant was applied after 8 or 16 hours of weathering for 2 wind conditions. With 2.5 m/s winds and no dispersant, the concentration plume was relatively small and short-lived. In 7.5 m/s winds, natural dispersion was considerable, and the application of dispersant at 80 per cent efficiency during the same wind conditions increased the volume affected by a factor of 4-6. In 2.5 m/s winds, dispersant use at 80 per cent efficiencies decreased the water volume affected proportionately. Results indicated that the highest water column impacts occurred when chemical dispersant was applied under light wind conditions where dilution was relatively slow. For the oil volume examined and assuming no dispersant use, wildlife impacts would occur on the scale of 100s km2, whereas water column effects with dispersant use in a worst case scenario would occur on the scale of 1 km2 in the upper mixed layer. An exception to the support of disperser. An exception to the support of dispersant use would be if sensitive water column biota are present in the area of the slick. The conclusions applied to unconfined water bodies that were at least 10 metres deep. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

150

Natural radioactivity in some specimens of the marine biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marine environment contamination by natural radionuclides (uranium and 238U daughters) is evaluated using marine -fauna and flora elements concentrating fission - and radioactivated products released by nuclear facilities. Total alpha and beta radiometry is done in the the biota to determine the radionuclide concentration. Uranium, 226Ra and 210PO assay is done to estimate their contribution to natural radioactivity in the chosen biological indicators. Several analytical techniques required by each radionuclide are used. Potassium assay is done to evaluate the contribution of 40K to the natural radioactivity, and calcium assay to determine Ra/Ca and U/Ca ratios in the samples. For total alpha radiometry in algae the higher average value is detected in Phaeophyta (84.1 pCi/kg fresh weight); maximum concentration in animals is registered in Bunodosoma caissarum (43.1 pCi/kg fresh weight). For algae, the higher average total beta radiometry detected is in Chlorophyta (6.9 nCi/kg fresh weight); the maximum value found in animals refers to Thais Haemastoma (7.54 nCi/kg fresh weight). Potassium higher average ratio for algae occurs in Chlorophyta (12.77% ashes); for animals, the maximum value is found in Bunodosoma caissarum (13.80% ashes). The uranium concentration factor is maximum in Perna perna bissus (684) while the minimum is registered in Thais haemastoma and Sargassum vulgare (44). The 226Ra concentration factor is maximum in Sargassum vulgare (2143) and minimum in Bunodosoma caissarum (32). Maximum average ratio for 210PO in algae occurs in Phaephyta (11.5 pCi/g dry weight) and the maximum concentration for animals in Perna perna (31.5 pCi/g dry weight). The techniques employed proved to be efficient for the objectives aimed at. (Author)

151

Background and anthropogenic radionuclide derived dose rates to freshwater ecosystem - Nuclear power plant cooling pond - Reference organisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiological assessment of non-human biota to demonstrate protection is now accepted by a number of international and national bodies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a scientific basis to assess and evaluate exposure of biota to ionizing radiation. Radionuclides from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Lithuania) were discharged into Lake Druksiai cooling pond. Additional radionuclide migration and recharge to this lake from a hypothetical near-surface, low-level radioactive waste disposal, to be situated 1.5 km from the lake, had been simulated using RESRAD-OFFSITE code. This paper uses ERICA Integrated Approach with associated tools and databases to compare the radiological dose to freshwater reference organisms. Based on these data, it can be concluded that background dose rates to non-human biota in Lake Druksiai far exceed those attributable to anthropogenic radionuclides. With respect the fishery and corresponding annual committed effective human dose as a result of this fish consumption Lake Druksiai continues to be a high-productivity water body with intensive angling and possible commercial fishing. - Highlights: > Dose rates to the reference organisms are lower than expected from the background radioactivity. > Pelagic fish part of adult human annual committed effective dose would be as small as a few {mu}Sv y{sup -1}. > With respect the fishery Lake Druksiai continues to be a high-productivity water body.

Nedveckaite, T., E-mail: tatjana@cablenet.lt [Institute of Physics of the Center of Physical Science and Technology, Savanoriu av, 231, LT-02300, Vilnius (Lithuania); Filistovic, V. [Institute of Physics of the Center of Physical Science and Technology, Savanoriu av, 231, LT-02300, Vilnius (Lithuania); Marciulioniene, D. [Institute of Botany, Zaliuju ezeru 49, LT-08406, Vilnius (Lithuania); Prokoptchuk, N.; Plukiene, R.; Gudelis, A.; Remeikis, V. [Institute of Physics of the Center of Physical Science and Technology, Savanoriu av, 231, LT-02300, Vilnius (Lithuania); Yankovich, T. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., P.O. Box 9204, 817-45th Street West, Saskatoon, SK S7K 3X5 (Canada); Beresford, N.-A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

2011-08-15

152

Background and anthropogenic radionuclide derived dose rates to freshwater ecosystem - Nuclear power plant cooling pond - Reference organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological assessment of non-human biota to demonstrate protection is now accepted by a number of international and national bodies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a scientific basis to assess and evaluate exposure of biota to ionizing radiation. Radionuclides from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Lithuania) were discharged into Lake Druksiai cooling pond. Additional radionuclide migration and recharge to this lake from a hypothetical near-surface, low-level radioactive waste disposal, to be situated 1.5 km from the lake, had been simulated using RESRAD-OFFSITE code. This paper uses ERICA Integrated Approach with associated tools and databases to compare the radiological dose to freshwater reference organisms. Based on these data, it can be concluded that background dose rates to non-human biota in Lake Druksiai far exceed those attributable to anthropogenic radionuclides. With respect the fishery and corresponding annual committed effective human dose as a result of this fish consumption Lake Druksiai continues to be a high-productivity water body with intensive angling and possible commercial fishing. - Highlights: ? Dose rates to the reference organisms are lower than expected from the background radioactivity. ? Pelagic fish part of adult human annual committed effective dose would be as small as a few ?Sv y-1. ? With respect the fishery Lake Druksiai continues to be a high-productivity water body.

153

Deriving freshwater quality criteria for copper, cadmium, aluminum and manganese for protection of aquatic life in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freshwater quality criteria for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia, which were Macrobrachiumlanchesteri (prawn), two fish -Poeciliareticulata and Rasborasumatrana, Melanoidestuberculata (snail), Stenocyprismajor (ostracod), Chironomusjavanus (midge larvae), Naiselinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynusmelanostictus (tadpole), to determine 96-h LC50 values for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn. The final acute values (FAVs) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn were 2.5, 3.0, 977.8, and 78.3 ?gL(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a Criterion Maximum Concentration (CMC) and a criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn of 1.3, 1.5, 488.9, and 39.1 ?gL(-1) and 0.3, 0.36, 117.8, and 9.4 ?gL(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that R.sumatrana, M.lanchesteri, C.javanus, and N.elinguis were the most sensitive to Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn, respectively. PMID:23246727

Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Nadzifah, Y; Nur-Amalina, R; Umirah, N S

2013-03-01

154

CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FRESHWATER MICROALGAL STRAINS TOWARD BIOFUEL PRODUCTION  

OpenAIRE

Fifty-three algal cultures were isolated from freshwater lakes in Hainan, China. Four microalgal isolates were selected because they could be successfully cultivated at high density and demostrated a strong fluorescence after being stained with nile red. These cultures were identified as strains of Chlorella sp. C11, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii C22, Monoraphidium dybowskii C29, and Chlorella sp. HK12 through microscopic and 18S rDNA analysis. Under similar conditions, the lipid productivity of ...

Xun Yang; Pinghuai Liu,; Zongdi Hao,; Jie Shi; Seng Zhang

2011-01-01

155

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523

de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

2010-12-01

156

Adiciones a la Biota de Uredinales (fungi) de Colombia / Addictions to the Uredinales Biota (fungi) in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Colecciones de plantas con síntomas de hongos royas (Uredinales, Basidiomycota) realizadas en los últimos años en los departamentos de Amazonas, Antioquia, Caldas, Cundinamarca, Tolima y Valle del Cauca han sido estudiadas y depositadas en el Museo Micológico de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, [...] Sede Medellín (MMUNM). Entre las novedades encontradas, se registran por primera vez para Colombia las royas: Puccinia investita, Sphenospora pallida, Crossopsora piperis, Uredo psychotriicola y Pucciniosira solani. Se adiciona la familia botánica Dioscoreaceae para la Biota de Uredinales colombianos. Se hace la corrección del nombre anamórfico Uredo parthenii publicado para Colombia en 2003, por el nombre teliomorfico válido Puccinia schileana. Son registrados seis nuevos hospedantes parasitados por royas en Colombia, entre estos reviste importancia la colección sobre Origanum vulgare L. una planta aromática y medicinal cultivada mundialmente. Abstract in english Plant collections with symptoms of rusts fungi (Uredinales, Basidiomycota) made during recent years in provinces of Amazonas, Antioquia, Caldas, Cundinamarca, Tolima and Valle del Cauca have been studied and deposited in Museo Micológico of Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín (MMUNM). Th [...] e rusts species Puccinia investita, Sphenospora pallida, Crossopsora piperis, Uredo psychotriicola and Pucciniosira solani are new records for Colombia. A first record for this country of rust fungi in plants of family Dioscoreaceae has been also made. The anamorphic name Uredo parthenii published in 2003 in Colombia, has been corrected by the valid teleomorph Puccinia schileana. Finally, six new hosts parasitized by rusts are recorded, including Origanum vulgare L. a world-wide important aromatic and medicinal plant.

Katherin Maritza, Vanegas Berrouet; Mauricio, Salazar Yepes.

2011-12-01

157

Evolution of growth by genetic accommodation in Icelandic freshwater stickleback.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical Darwinian adaptation to a change in environment can ensue when selection favours beneficial genetic variation. How plastic trait responses to new conditions affect this process depends on how plasticity reveals to selection the influence of genotype on phenotype. Genetic accommodation theory predicts that evolutionary rate may sharply increase when a new environment induces plastic responses and selects on sufficient genetic variation in those responses to produce an immediate evolutionary response, but natural examples are rare. In Iceland, marine threespine stickleback that have colonized freshwater habitats have evolved more rapid individual growth. Heritable variation in growth is greater for marine full-siblings reared at low versus high salinity, and genetic variation exists in plastic growth responses to low salinity. In fish from recently founded freshwater populations reared at low salinity, the plastic response was strongly correlated with growth. Plasticity and growth were not correlated in full-siblings reared at high salinity nor in marine fish at either salinity. In well-adapted lake populations, rapid growth evolved jointly with stronger plastic responses to low salinity and the persistence of strong plastic responses indicates that growth is not genetically assimilated. Thus, beneficial plastic growth responses to low salinity have both guided and evolved along with rapid growth as stickleback adapted to freshwater. PMID:24132309

Robinson, Beren W

2013-12-01

158

Water quality for freshwater fish  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

Howells, G. (ed.) (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01

159

Methane emission from freshwater marshes  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes the results of a four-year study into the CH4 cycle of freshwater marshes dominated by reed and bulrush. This research was conducted in the framework of the research theme carbon and nutrient dynamics in vegetated littoral systems of the department of Littoral Vegetation of the Centre for Estuarine and Coastal Ecology (Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Yerseke). Emphasis is given to the biogeochemical processes involved in the production, oxidation and transport of CH4...

Nat, Frans-jaco Willy Anthony

2000-01-01

160

Studies on the estimation of radiation dose to typical non human biota around Kaiga nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is necessary to prove exclusively that biota is sufficiently protected from ionizing radiation since pathway leading to biota exposure is quite different compared to that for human being and non human biota has access to contaminated areas while human access is limited. The radiation from purely natural sources may be a useful benchmark since radiation at these levels is tolerated by biota. This paper presents the estimation of radiation dose to typical members of biota around Kaiga site, which includes a herbivorous mammalian species (cow), one avio fauna (pigeon), one burrowing animal (earthworm) and an aquatic animal (fish). The internal and external doses to species from naturally occurring radio nuclides were evaluated from concentrations of radio nuclides in soil, air, water and dietary items and the relevant concentration factors. An attempt is made for the evaluation of dose to above biota from reactor originated radio nuclides. The study identifies the most significant radionuclide, most significant pathway leading to radiological risk to member of biota from natural sources and reactor-produced radionuclides. From the computed dose to biota per unit release from reactor, study identifies the significant radionuclide and pathways for reactor produced radionuclides. The study conclusively proves that biota dose from reactor produced radionuclides from KGS is negligible. (author)

161

Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) (Indonesia)

2014-03-24

162

Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34

163

Hanford's West Lake and the Biota Dose Assessment Committee's screening methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radionuclide data collected at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation's West Lake (a small seepage pond) was used to test the utility of the U.S. Department of Energy's Biota Dose Assessment Screening Methodology for protection of plants and animals from ionizing radiation. The Hanford Site environmental surveillance database was queried for all 1999 data on radionuclides in surface water, soil and sediment. Maximum and mean radionuclide concentrations were determined for each combination of radionuclide + media. These data were entered into the Biota Dose Assessment Committee's 'Biota Concentration Guide Calculator', a semi-automated tool used to determine compliance with proposed biota dose limits for shorebirds (riparian animals with a proposed dose limit of 0.1 rad/day). Concentrations in the aquatic environment did not pass the screen. Further review of the data indicated that a water sample taken from the lake exceeded the limiting water concentration for uranium. As a consequence of the assessment, a limited biota monitoring effort was established to determine the potential exposure of wildlife at West Lake. The effort involved determining residence time of breeding shorebirds and actual tissue burdens of radionuclides in the birds. In the final analysis, West Lake was determined to be in compliance with proposed radiological dose limits. The application of this methodology has helped to identify a potential exposure problem and provide direction for the sae problem and provide direction for the sampling program. (author)

164

Freshwater for resilience: a shift in thinking.  

OpenAIRE

Humanity shapes freshwater flows and biosphere dynamics from a local to a global scale. Successful management of target resources in the short term tends to alienate the social and economic development process from its ultimate dependence on the life-supporting environment. Freshwater becomes transformed into a resource for optimal management in development, neglecting the multiple functions of freshwater in dynamic landscapes and its fundamental role as the bloodstream of the biosphere. The ...

Folke, Carl

2003-01-01

165

Radionuclides in biota collected near a dicalcium phosphate plant, southern Catalonia, Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial waste containing radioactive U-decay series isotopes was released into the Ebro River, Spain, over a period of >20 years from a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant. This release raised activities of several natural radionuclides (e.g. 238U, 234U, 230Th, 232Th and 226Ra) in biota taken from the area near the DCP plant. Plants and animals selected for this study included the green algae (Cladophora glomerata), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the scavenger catfish (Silurus glanis) because they are all common in the area. Multiple sampling points were chosen for this study: (1) a site in the Riba-Roja Reservoir, above the DCP plant's area of influence, (2) four sites in the area surrounding the DCP plant, close to the town of Flix, and (3) a location in the Ebro Delta Estuary in Fangar Bay. Significant differences in the activities (in Bq kg-1 of dry weight) for the radioisotopes included in this study among samples were attributed to sample location and the species evaluated. For instance, relatively high activities for uranium and radium were obtained in algae collected around the DCP plant, compared to results obtained for algae samples taken from the unimpacted Riba-Roja Reservoir. In contrast, for zebra mussels, enhanced activities were observed for all radionuclides and, in particular, for thorium and radium isotopes within the area of influence. Am isotopes within the area of influence. Among catfish samples, activity values from different locations were not significantly different, though slightly higher activities were observed at the sampling point just downstream of the DCP factory. (author)

166

STUDI ANALISIS PENGUJIAN LOGAM BERAT PADA BADAN AIR, BIOTA DAN SEDIMEN DI PERAIRAN MUARA DAS BARITO  

OpenAIRE

This research aimed to determine heavy metal content at water body, sediment and biota, determining plankton what overflows and parameter of water quality which not fulfill standard criterion quality of water in Estuary of Barito River. Result of research showed that heavy metal rate at body of water especially Hg (0,2753 mg/l), and Pb (0,17667 mg/l) residing at biota (Giant Prawn have accumulate by heavy metal of Hg. Pb, Cu, As, Cr6+ and Cd. Sediment residing at Estuary of Barito River have ...

Ichsan Ridwan; Abdur Rahman; Dini Sofarini

2010-01-01

167

Plutonium and americium concentration along fresh-water food chains of the Great Lakes, U. S. A. Progress report, July 1976--September 30, 1977  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary purpose of studying the biogeochemical behavior of transuranic radionuclides in large freshwater lakes began with studies of the distribution of these radionuclides, essentially introduced from the fallout of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, in Lake Ontario. The recognition that an additional source of supply of these nuclides to Lake Ontario (subsequent to their release into Lake Erie) existed in the form of leakage from the Nuclear Fuel Services reprocessing plant at Springville, New York, led to expansion of the program to include sampling at the eastern end of Lake Erie. Much of the program is devoted to studies of the distribution of these nuclides in the lake sediments as they appear to be a major repository for transuranics in freshwater lakes. The extent to which this is a temporary or permanent repository is illuminated by studies of transuranic distributions in the lake waters and biota.

Bowen, V.T.

1977-01-01

168

A mitogenic view on the evolutionary history of the Holarctic freshwater gadoid, burbot (Lota lota).  

Science.gov (United States)

Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene epoch had a dramatic impact on the distribution of biota in the northern hemisphere. In order to trace glacial refugia and postglacial colonization routes on a global scale, we studied mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in a freshwater fish (burbot, Lota lota; Teleostei, Gadidae) with a circumpolar distribution. The subdivision of burbot in the subspecies Lota lota lota (Eurasia and Alaska) and Lota lota maculosa (North America, south of the Great Slave Lake) was reflected in two distinct mitochondrial lineages (average genetic distance is 2.08%). The lota form was characterized by 30 closely related haplotypes and a large part of its range (from Central Europe to Beringia) was characterized by two widespread ancestral haplotypes, implying that transcontinental exchange/migration was possible for cold-adapted freshwater taxa in recent evolutionary time. However, the derived mitochondrial variants observed in peripheral populations point to a recent separation from the core group and postglacial recolonization from distinct refugia. Beringia served as refuge from where L. l. lota dispersed southward into North America after the last glacial maximum. Genetic variation in the maculosa form consisted of three mitochondrial clades, which were linked to at least three southern refugia in North America. Two mitochondrial clades east of the Continental Divide (Mississippian and Missourian clades) had a distinct geographical distribution in the southern refuge zones but intergraded in the previously glaciated area. The third clade (Pacific) was exclusively found west of the Continental Divide. PMID:15969726

Van Houdt, J K J; De Cleyn, L; Perretti, A; Volckaert, F A M

2005-07-01

169

Estimation of Freshwater Flow to Joe Bay, South Florida.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last century, drainage canals were constructed as part of the Central and Southern Flood Control (C&SF) project. Flood control was achieved but degradation to the Everglades ecosystem was evident. Problems related to Florida Bay include sea grass die off, algae blooms, and extreme salinity conditions. Modifications to the C&SF project are proposed as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). One objective of CERP is to improve the timing and distribution of freshwater flow within the Everglades ecosystem and to Florida Bay. Several CERP projects propose changes to the existing canal network that borders Everglades National Park (ENP) in southern Miami-Dade County. An examination of flows to Joe Bay, a small embayment on the northeastern shores of Florida Bay, has provided baseline information on current spatial and temporal water deliveries prior to CERP modifications. Understanding the existing complex water delivery system and the effects the system has on Everglades hydrology will provide a necessary benchmark against which to measure restoration success. The study was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in May 1999 to estimate creek flows to Joe Bay and determine the relative amounts derived from Taylor Slough and overflow from the C-111 Canal. It is important to understand the source of freshwater to Joe Bay before it enters Florida Bay. Taylor Slough transports freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northwest while overflow from the C-111 Canal provides freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northeast. Joe Bay, receives part of the freshwater from each of these sources via sheet flow and small estuarine creeks, and subsequently discharges southward to northeastern Florida Bay via Trout Creek. Trout Creek contributes approximately 50 percent of the total freshwater flow to northeastern Florida Bay (Hittle 2001). Eight non-gaged creeks entering Joe Bay were selected for acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements. The ADCP discharge measurements were then correlated with computed real-time discharge measurements from nearby USGS flow stations. Regression analysis was used to estimate flow at the Joe Bay creeks from June 1999 to April 2000. The R2 values for the estimated flow at eight Joe Bay creeks ranged between 0.51 and 0.93. From June 1999 to April 2000, flow volumes to eastern and western Joe Bay equaled 6.8 x 107m3 and 5.6 x 107 m3 respectively; flow into eastern Joe Bay was 21 percent greater than flow into western Joe Bay. Maximum freshwater discharge to Florida Bay occurred following Tropical Storm Harvey and Hurricane Irene, which occurred on September 21 1999, and October 15, 1999, respectively. Flow into western Joe Bay (3.5 x 107 m3) during the storms was 26 percent greater than flow into eastern Joe Bay (2.7 x 107 m3). However, dry season flow (January to April 2000) into eastern Joe Bay (2.6 x 107 m3) which was supplied primarily by the C-111 Canal, was much greater than flow into western Joe Bay (2.5 x 106 m3). Thus, the total flow into eastern Joe Bay exceeded total flow into western Joe Bay, even though western Joe Bay received more freshwater during storm events. During the storms, the S-197 structure was opened to allow the C-111 Canal to discharge outside of Florida Bay. This reduced the overflow from the C-111 Canal to both Joe and northeastern Florida Bays. Hittle, C.D., Patino, E, and Zucker, M. 2000, Freshwater Flow From Estuarine Creeks into Northeastern Florida Bay. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation 01-4164,p.32.

Zucker, M. A.; Hittle, C. D.

2002-05-01

170

Investigation on applicability of Biota dose assessment model to Japanese environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined applicability of established assessment tools to Japanese environment, which are developed to evaluate radiological impact for biota. In this study, we chose two assessment tools, the one is RESRAD-BIOTA which was developed by US-DOE, and the other is ERICA assessment tools which developed by EURATOM. We considered paddy field as the typical Asian environment and used maximum of global fallout nuclide concentrations which were monitored in Joetsu. From our trial calculation for general screening, Tier 1 of ERICA suggested that concentration of 137Cs in aquatic systems is exceeded the screening level. On the other hand, RESRAD-BIOTA, concentration of 90Sr, and terrestrial systems in ERICA were less than screening levels. Thus, we proceeded to apply the ERICA Tier 2 using with same parameter set in Tier 1, and found that each species was not exceeded the screening level. Finally, we calculated dosimetries of considerable species living in paddy field. We tested both tools and we adopted ERICA because of flexibility in body dimensions of adding organism. From our calculation, we concluded that graded approaches which are adopted in RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA are effective to apply Japanese environment. (author)

171

ENANTIOMERIC OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. RIVER SEDIMENT AND BIOTA  

Science.gov (United States)

River sediment and biota (fish, bivalves) from throughout the continental U.S. were analyzed for chiral organochlorine compounds (o,p'-DDT and DDD, some chlordane compounds, PCB atropisomers) to assess spatial trends in environmental chirality. Chiral PCB enantiomers were racemic...

172

Biological responses to a resumption in river flow in a freshwater-deprived, permanently open Southern African estuary  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Kariega Estuary is a freshwater-deprived system due to numerous impoundments in the catchment. This system has had little or no horizontal salinity gradient over the last 15 years, with hypersaline conditions sometimes predominating in the upper reaches. Following high rainfall events in the cat [...] chment during the spring of 2006, including a flood event (approximate 1:10 year) in August 2006, a series of riverine pulses entered the estuary and a horizontal salinity gradient was established. This study examined the influence of this freshwater pulse on four components of the biota within the estuary, namely the zooplankton, and larval, littoral and demersal fishes. The study demonstrated that in three of these components elevated densities were recorded following the riverine input, with only the littoral fishes retaining an almost constant density. In addition, changes in the relative contributions of the estuarine utilisation classes for all three fish groups examined indicated that freshwater input into these systems positively influences the abundances. This has significant implications for water managers as it demonstrates the importance of an Ecological Reserve (defined as 'the water required to protect the aquatic ecosystems of the water resource') for this system.

Paul D, Vorwerk; P William, Froneman; Angus W, Paterson; Nadine A, Strydom; Alan K, Whitfield.

2008-10-01

173

Using growth measures in the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica as biomarkers of Roundup® pollution of South African freshwater systems  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been global concern about the effect of toxic chemicals on aquatic biota due to the upsurge in contamination of aquatic ecosystems by these chemicals, which includes pesticides. Roundup® and other glyphosate-based herbicides are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These bio-active chemicals ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. However, there is no South African water quality guideline to protect indigenous freshwater non-target organisms from the toxic effects of glyphosate-based herbicides. This study evaluated the possible use of growth measures in Caridina nilotica as biomarkers of Roundup® pollution as part of developing glyphosate water quality guideline for the protection of aquatic life in South Africa. Using static-renewal methods in a 25-day growth toxicity test, 40 days post hatch shrimps were exposed to different sub-lethal Roundup® concentrations of 0.0 (control), 2.2, 2.8, 3.4, 4.3 and 5.4 mg/L. Shrimps were fed daily with TetraMin® flake food and test solutions changed every third day. Shrimp total lengths and wet weights were measured every fifth day. These data were used to determine the shrimp’s growth performance and feed utilization in terms of percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE). Moulting was observed for 14 days and the data used to determine the daily moult rate for each concentration. Results of growth performance and food utilization indices showed that growth was significantly impaired in all exposed groups compared to control (p toxicity.

Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

174

The mesoscale and regional freshwater flux  

Science.gov (United States)

The closer we look at the ocean, with improved instrumentation and models, the less it looks like the familiar 'textbook' view of overly smoothed maps of SST and SSS, with ocean scale circulation gyres, and more of a jumble of a westward parade of mesoscale features. The question arises: what role does the mesoscale play in compensating the air-sea flux of heat and freshwater? Here we focus on the freshwater balance within the salty North Atlantic subtropics regime, where the annual evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) is over 1 m/year. A traditional view is that the required quasi-steady state ocean freshwater inflow is derived from the wind-driven circulation and the associated shallow meridional overturning circulation. Here we evaluate if the mesoscale 'eddy' field, may stir into the subtropical regime a significant share of the needed freshwater. The Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) data provide an overview of the SSS seasonal cycle of the Atlantic subtropical regime. While E-P is always positive, greater in January-July, minimum in October, the SSS displays a maximum in October, minimum occurs in April. It is hypothesized that the lower SSS of the winter/spring period marks increased winter freshwater flux by meso-scale activity. While the eddy freshwater flux can be estimated from the Rapid thermohaline and velocity data sections near 24.5°N, it is the meridional convergence of the eddy freshwater flux that compensates the regional E-P. We use the SODA output, which assimilates the VOS and Rapid data, to estimate the eddy freshwater flux convergence. Our preliminary assessment is that the eddy flux convergence does play a major role in closing the seasonal freshwater cycle of the North Atlantic surface layer.

Gordon, A. L.; Giulivi, C. F.

2012-12-01

175

Modeling ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, southwest Florida. I. Model development  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in freshwater inflow have ecological consequences for estuaries ranging among eutrophication, flushing and transport, and high and low salinity impacts on biota. Predicting the potential effects of the magnitude and composition of inflow on estuaries over a range of spatial and temporal scales requires reliable mathematical models. The goal of this study was to develop and test a model of ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the sub-tropical Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) in southwest Florida from 2002 to 2009. The modeling framework combined empirically derived inputs of freshwater and materials from the watershed, daily predictions of salinity, a box model for physical transport, and simulation models of biogeochemical and seagrass dynamics. The CRE was split into 3 segments to estimate advective and dispersive transport of water column constituents. Each segment contained a sub-model to simulate changes in the concentrations of organic nitrogen and phosphorus (ON and OP), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate-nitrite (NOx-), ortho-phosphate (PO4-3), phytoplankton chlorophyll a (CHL), and sediment microalgae (SM). The seaward segment also had sub-models for seagrasses (Halodule wrightii and Thalassia testudinum). The model provided realistic predictions of ON in the upper estuary during wet conditions since organic nitrogen is associated with freshwater inflow and low salinity. Although simulated CHL concentrations were variable, the model proved to be a reliable predictor in time and space. While predicted NOx- concentrations were proportional to freshwater inflow, NH4+ was less predictable due to the complexity of internal cycling during times of reduced freshwater inflow. Overall, the model provided a representation of seagrass biomass changes despite the absence of epiphytes, nutrient effects, or sophisticated translocation in the formulation. The model is being used to investigate the relative importance of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) vs. CHL in submarine light availability throughout the CRE, assess if reductions in nutrient loads are more feasible by controlling freshwater quantity or N and P concentrations, and explore the role of inflow and flushing on the fates of externally and internally derived dissolved and particulate constituents.

Buzzelli, Christopher; Doering, Peter H.; Wan, Yongshan; Sun, Detong; Fugate, David

2014-12-01

176

Towards a universal sampling protocol for soil biotas in the humid tropics / Em direção a um protocolo universal de amostragem de biotas do solo nos trópicos úmidos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho faz uma revisão dos métodos de inventariado da biota edáfica nos trópicos úmidos para documentar a (hipotética) perda de biodiversidade do solo associada ao desmatamento e à intensificação agrícola nas margens de florestas. A biota foi agrupada em oito categorias, cada uma corresponden [...] te a um grande grupo funcional considerado importante ou essencial para a função do solo. Um inventário cuidadoso dos organismos do solo pode auxiliar a gestão de ecossistemas e a sustentabilidade da produção agrícola. As vantagens e desvantagens de métodos de amostragem baseados em transectos ou em malhas são discutidas e ilustradas por protocolos publicados, desde o original "transeto TSBF", passando por versões desenvolvidas para o projeto "Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn" (ASB), até o esquema final (com suas variantes) adotado pelo projeto "Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-ground Biodiversity" (CSM-BGBD). Considerou-se a importância de repetição de amostras e argumenta-se que os novos protocolos de amostragem são: inclusivos, ou seja, desenhados para amostrar os oito grupos bióticos ao mesmo tempo no campo; dimensionados espacialmente, pois fornecem dados de biodiversidade nos níveis de lugar, localidade, paisagem e região e associam esses dados ao uso e cobertura do solo; e estatisticamente robustos, como evidenciado por uma aleatorização parcial das localizações dos lotes de amostragem. Abstract in english This paper reviews the methods for the inventory of below-ground biotas in the humid tropics, to document the (hypothesized) loss of soil biodiversity associated with deforestation and agricultural intensification at forest margins. The biotas were grouped into eight categories, each of which corres [...] ponded to a major functional group considered important or essential to soil function. An accurate inventory of soil organisms can assist in ecosystem management and help sustain agricultural production. The advantages and disadvantages of transect-based and grid-based sampling methods are discussed, illustrated by published protocols ranging from the original "TSBF transect", through versions developed for the alternatives to Slash-and-Burn Project (ASB) to the final schemes (with variants) adopted by the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-ground Biodiversity Project (CSM-BGBD). Consideration is given to the place and importance of replication in below-ground biological sampling and it is argued that the new sampling protocols are inclusive, i.e. designed to sample all eight biotic groups in the same field exercise; spatially scaled, i.e. provide biodiversity data at site, locality, landscape and regional levels, and link the data to land use and land cover; and statistically robust, as shown by a partial randomization of plot locations for sampling.

David Edward, Bignell.

2009-08-01

177

Seasnake bites in a freshwater lake.  

Science.gov (United States)

One species of venomous seasnake, Hydrophis semperi, is found in Lake Taal, a large freshwater lake in the Philippines. The first series of seasnake bites occurring in freshwater is described. In one small fishing village, there were eight definite bites and one probably attributable death. In three of the eight patients, specific antibodies to Hydrophis venom were demonstrated. In contrast to previous seasnake studies, there was an absence of asymptomatic cases. The possible public health importance of freshwater seasnake bites in the Philippines needs further investigation. PMID:4025692

Watt, G; Theakston, R D

1985-07-01

178

Changes to the ocular biota with time in extended- and daily-wear disposable contact lens use.  

OpenAIRE

Gram-negative bacteria may play a role in the etiology of certain soft contact lens (SCL)-related diseases. Contact lens (CL) wear may modify the normal ocular biota, providing a more favorable environment for potential pathogens. This study reports temporal changes in ocular biota in daily-wear (DW) and extended-wear (EW) disposable SCL use in experienced and neophyte wearers. Lid margin and bulbar conjunctival biota were sampled prior to CL fitting in 26 previous DW SCL users, 18 previous E...

Stapleton, F.; Willcox, M. D.; Fleming, C. M.; Hickson, S.; Sweeney, D. F.; Holden, B. A.

1995-01-01

179

Open minded and open access: introducing NeoBiota, a new peer-reviewed journal of biological invasions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Editorial presents the focus, scope, policies, and the inaugural issue of NeoBiota, a new open access peer-reviewed journal of biological invasions. The new journal NeoBiota is a continuation of the former NEOBIOTA publication series. The journal will deal with all aspects of invasion biology and impose no restrictions on manuscript size neither on use of color. NeoBiota implies an XML-based editorial workflow and several cutting-edge innovations in publishing and dissemination, such as semantic markup of and enhancements to published texts, data publication, and extensive cross-linking within the journal and to external sources.

Lyubomir Penev

2011-08-01

180

Human freshwater demand for economic activity and ecosystems in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freshwater is necessary to economic activity, and humans depend on goods and services generated by water-dependent ecosystems. However, national freshwater management usually focuses on direct use of domestic freshwater. With an increasing scarcity of freshwater, attention has turned to two indirect uses of freshwater by humans. The first indirect use is freshwater used by foreign countries when producing products for export. The second use is freshwater required by local ecosystems: human survival and development depend on goods and services generated in these ecosystems. This work adopted Taiwan as a case study. In addition to two widely recognized ecosystem freshwater demands, evapotranspiration and reversed river flow, this study suggests that freshwater is a constituent of some abiotic components, such as groundwater in aquifers, because excessive withdrawal has already caused significant land subsidence in Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated results show that Taiwan's net imports of freshwater through trade amounts to approximately 25% of its total freshwater use for economic production. Integrating industrial policy, trade policy, and national freshwater management is a useful approach for developing strategies to limit the growing use of freshwater in Taiwan. Policy implications are then developed by further analyzing withdrawal sources of freshwater (domestic and foreign) for supporting economic production in Taiwan and identifying the factors (domestic final demand and export) driving freshwater-intensive products. PMID:17899249

Ferng, Jiun-Jiun

2007-12-01

181

Control of Clinical Pathogens by the Haemolymph of Paratelphusa hydrodromous, a Freshwater Crab.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, effort has been made to find the antimicrobial activity of haemolymph collected from freshwater crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromous. The haemolymph collected was tested for antimicrobial assay by disc diffusion method against clinical pathogens. Five bacterial species, namely, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and five fungal strains, namely and Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp., and Mucor sp., were selected for the study. The result shows a strong response of haemolymph against the clinical pathogens which confirms the immune mechanism of the freshwater crab. PMID:22084719

Arul Prakash, A; Balasubramanian, S; Gunasekaran, G; Prakash, M; Senthil Raja, P

2011-01-01

182

Ecology of freshwater mussels in disturbed environments  

OpenAIRE

The number of species extinctions is increasing at an alarming rate. Long-lived freshwater mussels of the order Unionoida, which include a parasitic stage on a host fish, are highly threatened. Habitat degradation by turbidity and sedimentation is thought to be one major reason for their decline. The objective of this thesis was to examine recruitment patterns and identify the causes of the lack of recruitment in the threatened unionoid freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera). I...

O?sterling, Martin

2006-01-01

183

Effects of freshwater inflow on sediment transport  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates the effect that freshwater inflow has on the transport of dredged material in Liverpool Bay. The sediment dispersal is first simulated using constant density throughout the domain, and then density gradients and stratification will be allowed to develop from riverine inputs. The first case shows the sediments slowly being transported east-westwards away from the estuary; while the simulation with freshwater shows the sediment being rapidly transported south-eastward to...

Souza, A. J.; Lane, A.

2013-01-01

184

Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version.

Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: ulanovsky@helmholtz-muenchen.de; Proehl, G. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gomez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2008-09-15

185

210Pb and 210Po in Venice Lagoon Biota and their contribution to population dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphogypsum is a by-product resulting from the processes applied in phosphoric acid or phosphate fertilizer production. The phosphate ore used in these chemical processes contains the naturally occurring radioactive materials U, and Th, along with their decay products. Large volumes of solid waste products were discharged from a phosphoric acid production plant on the edge of the Venice lagoon (Italy). Water, suspended matter, and biota were monitored in the Venice lagoon, since this aquatic environment can be considered to represent the final area of deposition for the radionuclides transported from inland. The present paper reports data on the activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb determined in biota living in the lagoon, and an estimation of the contribution to internal dose to man from the ingestion of food originating in the investigated area. (orig.)

186

Estimating the mortality to aquatic biota from oil releases under water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A three-dimensional model has been developed to estimate the mortality of aquatic biota from accidental oil releases near the water surface or in deep water. The model is an extension of model previously developed by Yapa and Zheng. This new model incorporates the concentration distribution of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) to predict the mortality of aquatic biota. It is believed that PAHs comprise the toxic fraction of crude or refined oil. The composition of petroleum hydrocarbons is important in determining the oil toxicity. Computer models can fill gaps when this complete field data is not available. The computer models can take into account the decomposition of oil properties due to weathering and biological factors. This particular computer model was developed to simulate the duration and exposure of known concentrations to toxic substances. The model estimates the resulting acute mortality of marine species. 63 refs., 20 figs

187

Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version

188

Freshwater Commercial Bycatch: an Understated Conservation Problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Commercial fisheries bycatch in marine systems has been regarded as a global conservation concern by environmental groups, scientists, government, and the public for decades. Fortunately, some headway has been made to mitigate the negative impacts of bycatch in marine environments. In a survey of the literature, we found that despite freshwater commercial fisheries yields comprising 11% of the global commercial catch, bycatch research focusing on freshwater commercial fisheries represented only {approx}3% of the total bycatch literature. This paucity of research is particularly alarming given that freshwater animals and habitats are some of the world's most imperiled. The limited inland bycatch literature that does exist includes examples of population declines attributed to commercial bycatch (e.g., freshwater dolphins in the Yangtze River in China) and illustrates that in some systems bycatch can be substantial (e.g., lake trout bycatch in the Laurentian Great Lakes). Encouraging results from the marine realm can serve as models for bycatch research in freshwater, and lead to measurable gains in conservation of freshwater ecosystems. We summarize existing work on inland bycatch in an effort to draw attention to this understated and understudied conservation problem.

Raby, Graham D.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

2011-04-01

189

Sustainable management and conservation of biota in agricultural soils of the Republic of Moldova  

OpenAIRE

In present research the ways and methods of the sustainable management and conservation of the soil biota in the modern agricultural ecosystems of the Republic of Moldova are considered. The database of invertebrates, microorganisms and enzymatic activities of different zonal soils in the long-term field experiments has been developed and constantly is updated with a view to the operative evaluation of the degradation processes and ecological effectiveness of the land management. The current ...

Senicovscaia, Irina

2012-01-01

190

An adaptation of human food chain models to predicting internal exposure of biota: the Faster model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is an acknowledged lack of available data to derive parameters describing the transfer of many radionuclides from soil to wild species. Furthermore, many approaches to estimating the internal exposure of biota assume equilibrium transfer from soil to biota. However, as environmental impact assessments may need to be conducted for many scenarios (e.g. chronic or acute releases to air and ground waters) assumptions of equilibrium soil to biota transfer many be neither sufficient nor conservative. Much effort has previously been devoted to derive semi-mechanistic models to enable the transfer of radionuclides through human food chains to be predicted dynamically. A logical first step to addressing the data gaps in our ability to predict internal activity concentrations of biota is to consider adapting these models for wild species. Here we describe the development of a semi-mechanistic model to estimate activity concentrations in wild mammals by adaptation of existing human food chain models. Interception, weathering, plant uptake and soil migration parameters are derived from previously published models or collations such as IAEA Technical Report Series No. 364. Allometric relationships dependent on body mass are used to estimate wild animal parameters including, for most radionuclides, biological half-life. Comparison of predictions with observed data allows limited comment on the validity of model predictions. For instance, predicted Cs values are within observed ranges, and an increase in Cs activity concentrations from prey-carnivore as observed by many authors is predicted. Predicted values for 90Sr, 226Ra and U also appear reasonable whilst those for the actinide elements are low compared with the limited available data. To date a simple source-grass-herbivore-carnivore food chain has been considered; the potential for further development of the model is discussed. (author)

191

PERMODELAN UJI LOGAM BERAT PADA BADAN AIR, BIOTA DAN SEDIMEN DI PERAIRAN MUARA DAS BARITO  

OpenAIRE

This research aimed to determine heavy metal content at water body, sediment and biota, determining plankton what overflows and parameter of water quality which not fulfill standard criterion quality of water in Estuary of Barito River. Method of data Analyse used to determine status of water quality with STORET model and EQI (Environmental Quality Index) Model, and calculation of indices for the analysis of plankton and Geographic Information System. Result of research show heavy metal rate ...

Ichsan Ridwan; Abdur Rahman; Dini Sofarini

2012-01-01

192

Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle

193

Concentrations and accumulation features of organochlorine pesticides in the Baiyangdian Lake freshwater food web of North China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), are ubiquitous anthropogenic environmental contaminants. They are persistent, broad-spectrum toxicants that accumulate in the food web with potential risks to the ecosystem and human health. HCHs were the predominant contaminants in Baiyangdian Lake, North China. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs ranged from 58 to 563 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 21 to 401 ng/g lw, respectively, for aquatic biota samples. The highest levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed in muscles of yellow catfish. The mean concentrations of OCPs were 4.6 ng/L for water, 95 ng/g dry weight (dw) for aquatic plants, and 14 ng/g dw for sediments. Among the isomers and metabolites, alpha-HCH and p,p'-1,1-di(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were the predominant congeners in biota samples. Correlations between log lipid-normalized concentrations of HCHs and DDTs and trophic levels (TLs) based on analysis of stable isotopes of nitrogen confirmed that persistent organic pollutants were magnified in the Baiyangdian Lake food web. Significant positive relationships were found for alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDT and their trophic magnification factors, which were 1.6 and 1.7, respectively. These results provide evidence of biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in freshwater food webs. PMID:19789907

Hu, Guocheng; Dai, Jiayin; Mai, Bixian; Luo, Xiaojun; Cao, Hong; Wang, Jianshe; Li, Fengchao; Xu, Muqi

2010-04-01

194

Modelling of Biota Dose Effects. Report of Working Group 6 Biota Dose Effects Modelling of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and in planning the measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes on international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a project entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for addressing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Biota Effects Modelling Working Group

195

Radioactivity in produced water from oil and gas installations - doses to biota and humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substantial amounts of produced water containing elevated levels of 226Ra and 228Ra are discharged into the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf. The average concentration in the discharges is 3.3 and 2.8 Bq/L of 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. The main objective of the project described in the paper is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium in produced water produced by oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. One of the objectives of the study is to provide information to enable risk assessment based on doses from ionizing radiation to marine biota and man. Reference organisms for the North Sea area have been chosen for calculation of absorbed dose to biota. The dose calculations rely on specific knowledge of activity concentration in the reference organism, activity concentration in seawater and sediments, dose conversion factors and time spent at different locations relative to the point of discharge. Based on the calculated doses to marine biota, 'potential no effect concentrations' are recommended. (author)

196

Non-human biota dose assessment. Sensitivity analysis and knowledge quality assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a summary of a programme of work, commissioned within the BIOPROTA collaborative forum, to assess the quantitative and qualitative elements of uncertainty associated with biota dose assessment of potential impacts of long-term releases from geological disposal facilities (GDF). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of uncertainty were determined through sensitivity and knowledge quality assessments, respectively. Both assessments focused on default assessment parameters within the ERICA assessment approach. The sensitivity analysis was conducted within the EIKOS sensitivity analysis software tool and was run in both generic and test case modes. The knowledge quality assessment involved development of a questionnaire around the ERICA assessment approach, which was distributed to a range of experts in the fields of non-human biota dose assessment and radioactive waste disposal assessments. Combined, these assessments enabled critical model features and parameters that are both sensitive (i.e. have a large influence on model output) and of low knowledge quality to be identified for each of the three test cases. The output of this project is intended to provide information on those parameters that may need to be considered in more detail for prospective site-specific biota dose assessments for GDFs. Such information should help users to enhance the quality of their assessments and build greater confidence in the results. (orig.)

197

Fuzzy logic modeling of bioaccumulation pattern of metals in coastal biota of Ondo State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accumulation patterns of ten metals in tissues of plant, Eichornia crassipes, and fishes, Hydrocynus forskahlii and Oreochromis mossambicus, were modeled with simple fuzzy classification (SFC) to assess toxic effects of anthropogenic activities on the coastal biota. The plant sample was separated into root, stem, and leaves and the fishes into bones, internal tissues, and muscles. They were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Fe, Mn, and Zn after wet oxidation of their dried samples. The results were converted into membership functions of five accumulation classes and aggregated with SFC. The classification results showed that there was no metal accumulation in the plant parts while the fishes were classified into low accumulation category. The internal tissues of the fishes had higher metal accumulation than the other parts. Generally, Fe and Mn had highest concentrations in the biota but are natural to the area and may not constitute significant risk. Cr had the highest transfer and accumulation from the coastal water into the aquatic lives and may be indicative of risk prone system being a toxic metal. Metal contaminations in the zone had not significantly accumulated in the biota making them less prone to risk associated with metal accumulation. PMID:21374045

Agunbiade, Foluso O; Olu-Owolabi, Bamidele I; Adebowale, Kayode O

2012-01-01

198

Non-human biota dose assessment. Sensitivity analysis and knowledge quality assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides a summary of a programme of work, commissioned within the BIOPROTA collaborative forum, to assess the quantitative and qualitative elements of uncertainty associated with biota dose assessment of potential impacts of long-term releases from geological disposal facilities (GDF). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of uncertainty were determined through sensitivity and knowledge quality assessments, respectively. Both assessments focused on default assessment parameters within the ERICA assessment approach. The sensitivity analysis was conducted within the EIKOS sensitivity analysis software tool and was run in both generic and test case modes. The knowledge quality assessment involved development of a questionnaire around the ERICA assessment approach, which was distributed to a range of experts in the fields of non-human biota dose assessment and radioactive waste disposal assessments. Combined, these assessments enabled critical model features and parameters that are both sensitive (i.e. have a large influence on model output) and of low knowledge quality to be identified for each of the three test cases. The output of this project is intended to provide information on those parameters that may need to be considered in more detail for prospective site-specific biota dose assessments for GDFs. Such information should help users to enhance the quality of their assessments and build greater confidence in the results. (orig.)

Smith, K.; Robinson, C.; Jackson, D. (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Leicester (United Kingdom)); La Cruz, I. de; Zinger, I.; Avila, R. (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden))

2010-10-15

199

Concentrations and characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic biota from Qiantang River in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Qiantang River is a typical river flowing through an agricultural area in China. It was studied in 2006 for its aquatic biota quality by determining 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the edible parts of crabs, clams, shrimp, fish, aquatic plants, as well as water and sediments collected from seven sites along its upper reaches all the way downstream. The levels of all insecticides were in the range of 17 ± 13 (water plants), 35 ± 36 (shrimp), 32 ± 14 (crabs), 39 ± 21 (clams), 47±35 (fish) ng/g wet weight (ww) and in the range of 2936 ± 2356 (water plants), 5827 ± 6013 (shrimp), 2102 ± 966 (crabs), 1859 ± 1018 (clams), 3624 ± 11331 (fish) ng/g lipid. DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most biota. A linear relationship was observed between the log bio-concentration factor (BCF) and log octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for fish, clams and shrimp. Composition analyses in various environmental media indicated a recent usage of lindane and dicofol into the river. - OCP residues still exist in aquatic biota from Qiantang River after the ban of OCPs twenty years ago

200

Cretaceous biota of the Triângulo Mineiro region (Brazil: A review of recent finds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bauru Group (Adamantina, Uberaba, and Marília Formations crop out in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and yield a rich continental biota. Invertebrate and vertebrate taxa from underlying and overlying strata, as well as biostratigraphical correlations with other fossil sites in Argentina, suggest an Upper Cretaceous age for this biota. The diversity of the fossil assemblage recorded in these formations is summarized here and includes: frogs, lizards, crocodiles, titanosaurs, abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs. This fossil assemblage provides important clues to understand faunas from other southern landmasses, particularly those from the Cretaceous of the African continent.Los afloramientos del Grupo Bauru (formaciones Adamantina, Uberaba y Marília en la región del Triângulo Mineiro, Provincia de Minas Gerais, Brasil, posee un rico contenido de biota continental. Los taxa de invertebrados y vertebrados de estos estratos, así como las correlaciones biostratigráficas con otros yacimientos fósiles de Argentina, sugieren una edad del Cretácico Tardío. La diversidad de la asociación fósil registrada en las formaciones del Triângulo Mineiro se resume en el presente trabajo e incluye: sapos, lagartos, tortugas, cocodrilianos, titanosaurideos, dinosaurios abelisaurideos y carcharodontosaurideos. Esta asociación es importante para la comprensión de las faunas del sur de América y también de las del Cretácico de África.

Candeiro, C. R. A.

2007-06-01

201

Sensitivity of freshwater pulmonate snails, Lymnaea luteolo L. , to heavy metals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current alarm of the impacts of metal pollution on living organisms has received much attention with the tragedy of Minimata and later Niigata, in Japan. Although there has been a great deal of the concern about the acute and chronic toxicities of heavy metals to freshwater fishes and crustaceans but little information is available on the effects of heavy metals to freshwater snails, which are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. The present study was undertaken to determine the acute toxicities of selected heavy metals to a freshwater pond snail Lymnaea luteolo Lamarck; a locally abundant species and play an important role in the aquatic food chain(s). Static bioassays were conducted with the salts of cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc in hard water.

Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

1988-08-01

202

Global priorities for conservation of threatened species, carbon storage, and freshwater services : scope for synergy?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The potential of global biodiversity conservation efforts to also deliver critical benefits, such as carbon storage and freshwater services, is still unclear. Using spatially explicit data on 3,500 range-restricted threatened species, carbon storage, and freshwater provision to people, we conducted tradeoff analyses, explicitly addressing both biodiversity and ecosystem services in selection of priority areas, to explore the potential for aligning these objectives. These analyses revealed a promising scope for aligning objectives, in particular for biodiversity and freshwater, which is not evident from previous studies that merely analyzed overlap of biodiversity and ecosystem services derived for each objective independently. However, this alignment is not complete. By revealing important synergies and tradeoffs among services, these analyzes suggest particular regions and service combinations for which spatial planning and appropriate conservation mechanisms (e.g., payments for ecosystem services) can be used to realize synergies and mitigate tradeoffs.

Larsen, Frank Wugt; Londoño-Murcia, Maria C.

2011-01-01

203

Los citocromos P-450. Distribución tisular e inducción xenobiótica de CYP1A en la biota acuática  

OpenAIRE

Los problemas de contaminación causados por el aumento de la incorporación de sustancias químicas en el medio-ambiente/biota han recibido gran atención durante las dos últimas décadas, debido a su gran impacto ecológico y al daño potencial que diferentes tóxicos producen en la biota y, en consecuencia, en la salud de los consumidores. Los avances socio-económicos en determinadas zonas (desarrollo industrial y agrícola, transportes e industrias navales, efluentes y residuos urbanos ...

Sarasquete, Carmen; Segner, Helmut

1999-01-01

204

Derivation of transfer parameters for use within the ERICA Tool and the default concentration ratios for terrestrial biota  

OpenAIRE

An ability to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in biota is a requirement of any method assessing the exposure of biota to ionising radiation. Within the ERICA Tool fresh weight whole-body activity concentrations in organisms are estimated using concentration ratios (the ratio of the activity concentration in the organism to the activity concentration in an environmental media). This paper describes the methodology used to derive the default terrestrial ecosystem concentration rati...

Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Howard, B. J.; Scott, W. A.; Brown, J. E.; Copplestone, D.

2008-01-01

205

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain)  

OpenAIRE

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has been explained by two mechanisms: equilibrium partitioning and/or ...

Pastor, D.; Sanpera, Carolina; Gonza?lez-soli?s, Jacob; Ruiz, Xavier; Albaige?s Riera, Joan

2004-01-01

206

Pengaruh Pencemaran Logam Berat Pb, Cd, Cr Terhadap Biota Laut Dan Konsumennya Di Kelurahan Bagan Deli Belawan  

OpenAIRE

Pencemaran laut terjadi karena laut menerima zat-zat pencemaran baik yang berupa zat padat maupun cair terutama yang dibawa oleh sungai sebagai tempat yang paling mudah membuang limbah yang akhirnya bermuara di laut. Banyaknya zat pencemaran yang masuk ke laut telah malampaui daya dukungnya sehingga laut menjadi sangat kotor dan tercemar. Di laut hidup sejumlah biota taut. Jika biota laut ini di makan oleh manusia, bahan cemaran tersebut akan masuk ke tubuh manusia. Logam berat tidak tedegrad...

Lestina Tiarma Ida Siagian

2008-01-01

207

The use of biota sampling for environmental contaminant analysis for characterization of benthic communities in the Aleutians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is increasingly clear that the public, native tribes, and governmental agencies are interested in assessing the well-being of natural resources and ecosystems. This may take the form of understanding species presence, monitoring population status and trends, measuring behavior, or quantifying physiology, biological stresses, or chemical/radiological exposure through biomarkers. Often there is a separation between understanding the biological aspects of species well-being and assessing exposure to contaminants. In this paper we examine the applicability of using scuba sampling aimed primarily at specimen collection for radionuclide analysis to assess species presence/absence and to compare among sampling sites and depths. We were especially interested in whether dive transects could provide information on species presence and potential exposure to environmental contaminants. In June/July 2004 we sampled at 49 depth stations along 19 transects at Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the western Aleutian Islands in the Northern Pacific/Bering Sea region. Amchitka Island, a former World War II U.S. Navy base, was the site of three underground nuclear test shots from 1965 to 1971. Four to six transects were established at three Amchitka sites and two Kiska Sites, and 2 to 4 stations were sampled on each transect. Bottom conditions, weather and currents prevented a complete sampling of all stations. There were interspecific differences in the percent of stations where biota werin the percent of stations where biota were found and collected, in their occurrence near the three test shots on Amchitka, and in the depth where they were found. There were no significant differences between Amchitka and Kiska Island in the percent of stations where species were found. These data suggest that information gathered incidentally to the collection of specimens for chemical/radiological analysis can prove useful for understanding the presence of benthic organisms along particular transects, at given depths, and at different geographical locations. This information also provides a baseline for the range of organisms that could be exposed to future physical or chemical/radiological stressors. The data are useful for developing future biomonitoring plans to assess biological well-being and chemical/radiological exposure only if they are published and available to the public, public policy makers, and managers. Just as it is critical to select endpoints and bioindicators that are of interest for assessing both human and ecological health, specimens should be collected using a protocol that is useful for both chemical/radiological analysis and biological information

208

Ultimobranchial gland of freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis, in response to calcitonin administration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The absence o!!f a hypocalcemic effect of calcitonin (CT) in fishes has been suggested due to exceedingly high plasma levels of CT; the fish may be saturated with respect of circulating CT and therefore unable to respond to exogenously administered CT. Earlier it has been suggested that a hypocalcem [...] ic action of injected CT may be obscured by changes in the release of endogenous CT and other calcium regulating hormones. In this study we have used artificial freshwater, calcium-deficient freshwater and calcium-rich freshwater and injected the fish with CT. The aim behind selecting these media were (i) in calcium-deficient medium there would be reduced circulating levels of CT, (ii) in calcium-rich medium there would be diminished secretion of prolactin (this hormone is hypercalcemic in fish), and (iii) by keeping the fish in calcium-rich medium we can test the antihypercalcemic action of CT. Moreover, the present study would reveal the changes in the ultimobranchial gland (UBG) after keeping the fish in all the above three media and/or injecting the fish with CT. Freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis, were administered intraperitoneally daily with vehicle or 0.5 U/100g body wt of salmon calcitonin (CT) and kept in artificial freshwater, calcium-rich freshwater and calcium-deficient freshwater for 10 days. Blood samples were collected on 1, 3, 5, and 10 days following the treatment and analyzed for serum calcium levels. The ultimobranchial gland (UBG) was also fixed for histological studies on these intervals. In artificial freshwater there was no change in the serum calcium levels of calcitonin-injected fish. The ultimobranchial gland of calcitonin-injected fish exhibited a progressive decrease in the nuclear volume from day 5 onwards. On day 10 vacuolization in the gland was also noticed. In vehicle-injected fish (control) kept in calcium-rich freshwater hypercalcemia has been noticed which persists till the end of the experiment. In calcitonin-treated fish maintained in calcium-rich freshwater there is no change in serum calcium level as compared to vehicle-injected fish. In vehicle-injected fish the UBG depicts decreased staining response and increased nuclear volume at day 5. On day 10 the nuclear volume is further increased and few degenerating cells have been noticed. Calcitonin fails to induce any histological change in the UBG as compared to control. In vehicle-injected fish kept in calcium-deficient freshwater the serum calcium levels decrease from day 1 to day 3. The levels exhibit hypercalcemia on day 10. CT treatment to the fish kept in calcium-deficient freshwater evokes a decrease in the calcium levels on day 1 and day 3. A significant hypercalcemia has been noticed on day 5 and day 10. In vehicle-injected fish kept in calcium-deficient freshwater the UBG reveals a decreased staining response on day 10. In CT-injected fish maintained in calcium-deficient freshwater the UBG depicts an increased nuclear volume and few exhausted cells on day 10. It can be concluded that CT can provoke hypocalcemia only when the fish is kept in medium which reduces the circulating levels of this hormone. The UBG of the fish kept in different calcemic media responded in a manner to indicate that it produces hypocalcemic factor - CT.

Ajai K., Srivastav; Sarita, Singh; Diwakar, Mishra; S.K., Srivastav.

2009-12-01

209

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN FRESHWATER MICROCOSMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two cylindrical freshwater microcosms with a volume of 700 {ell} were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 190 days. The two microcosms were identical with regard to initial chemical composition and biological inocula, with the exceptions that in one microcosm (designated Tank 2) mosquitofish (Gambusia) and herbivorous catfish (Placostomas) were added. Three distinct communities developed in the tanks: (1) a phytoplankton-zooplankton assemblage and (2) two periphyton-zoobenthos communities associated with the sides and bottom of the tank, respectively. Community development and successional patterns were similar in both tanks. Major differences between the tanks involved timing of succession of the zooplankton and zoobenthos, attributable to predation by fish, principally Gambusia. A major drawback for these microcosms as use for experimental analogs such as lakes was a luxuriant periphyton growth which eventually overwhelmed the biomass of the system. The tanks displayed a degree of successional replicability, a large number of species, and a diversity of community development. Microcosms of this size could find use as experimental systems for higher level trophic manipulation and observation of life cycles not amenable to field studies.

Rees, John T.

1978-01-01

210

Radiation dose and countermeasure model for a decision support system on freshwater ecosystems contaminated with radionuclides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the participation of several European institutions The MOIRA project (A MOdel based computerised system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems, European Commission contract FI4P-CT96-0036) has developed a computerised Decision Support System that will allow decision makers to choose optimal intervention strategies for freshwater ecosystems with different radioactive contamination scenarios. An important factor for the decision analysis is the radiation dose resulting to humans and biota from the contamination. Not less important is to quantify the impact that intervention strategies may have on the potential resulting dose. With that aim, the system is incorporating a dose and countermeasure model, very flexible, that is able to estimate dose to the critical individuals and collective dose to the affected population, as well as maximum dose to fish species, representative of the threats to biota from radioactive contamination of water bodies. The model main characteristics are: Applicable to different water bodies (in principle lakes and rivers) contaminated with Cs-137 and/or Sr-90. The model is driven by the time series of radionuclide concentrations in the water, in the bottom sediments and fish (predator and prey species), which are the output from other environmental models of the MOIRA system. Main sub-models: individual and collective external dose and ingestion dose for 6 age groups; dose to fish. Countermeasures. External dose assessment takes into account exposure pathways as direct dose from the water body and dose from the shoreline deposits. The model makes use of external dose factors available in the literature, shielding factors applicable for the different situations considered, and mean exposure times. Countermeasures modelled: restriction of access to contaminated areas. For internal dose from ingestion, the exposure pathways considered are: ingestion of water, consumption of fish (prey, predator), consumption of crops irrigated by contaminated water (5 categories), and consumption of milk and meat from livestock (cow, sheep, and pig) watered with contaminated water or fed with contaminated crops. Countermeasures modelled: restrictions to water and food consumption, and restrictions to water use for irrigation, based on contamination levels or on user defined periods. Models for calculating concentrations of radionuclides in crops, soil and livestock products are based on a dynamic compartment structure based on validated models described in the specialised literature. The paper makes a summary description of the model, its applications and importance in a Decision Support System for the restoration of contaminated freshwater ecosystems, based on a Multiattribute approach. (author)

Gallego, Eduardo; Jimenez, Fernando [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Madrid, (Spain)

2000-05-01

211

Radiation dose and countermeasure model for a decision support system on freshwater ecosystems contaminated with radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the participation of several European institutions The MOIRA project (A MOdel based computerised system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems, European Commission contract FI4P-CT96-0036) has developed a computerised Decision Support System that will allow decision makers to choose optimal intervention strategies for freshwater ecosystems with different radioactive contamination scenarios. An important factor for the decision analysis is the radiation dose resulting to humans and biota from the contamination. Not less important is to quantify the impact that intervention strategies may have on the potential resulting dose. With that aim, the system is incorporating a dose and countermeasure model, very flexible, that is able to estimate dose to the critical individuals and collective dose to the affected population, as well as maximum dose to fish species, representative of the threats to biota from radioactive contamination of water bodies. The model main characteristics are: Applicable to different water bodies (in principle lakes and rivers) contaminated with Cs-137 and/or Sr-90. The model is driven by the time series of radionuclide concentrations in the water, in the bottom sediments and fish (predator and prey species), which are the output from other environmental models of the MOIRA system. Main sub-models: individual and collective external dose and ingestion dose for 6 ae external dose and ingestion dose for 6 age groups; dose to fish. Countermeasures. External dose assessment takes into account exposure pathways as direct dose from the water body and dose from the shoreline deposits. The model makes use of external dose factors available in the literature, shielding factors applicable for the different situations considered, and mean exposure times. Countermeasures modelled: restriction of access to contaminated areas. For internal dose from ingestion, the exposure pathways considered are: ingestion of water, consumption of fish (prey, predator), consumption of crops irrigated by contaminated water (5 categories), and consumption of milk and meat from livestock (cow, sheep, and pig) watered with contaminated water or fed with contaminated crops. Countermeasures modelled: restrictions to water and food consumption, and restrictions to water use for irrigation, based on contamination levels or on user defined periods. Models for calculating concentrations of radionuclides in crops, soil and livestock products are based on a dynamic compartment structure based on validated models described in the specialised literature. The paper makes a summary description of the model, its applications and importance in a Decision Support System for the restoration of contaminated freshwater ecosystems, based on a Multiattribute approach. (author)

212

Locally differentiated cryptic pigmentation in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A repeated pattern of background colour matching in animals is an indication that pigmentation may be cryptic. Here, we examine the relationship between pigmentation of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus and background darkness in 29 lakes, wetlands and ponds in Southern Sweden. The results show that Asellus pigmentation was correlated with substrate darkness across all localities. In seven localities, in which two contrasting substrate types were noted, Asellus populations were differentiated with respect to pigmentation. These findings thus provide phenomenological support for cryptic pigmentation in Asellus. Pigmentation generally increased with body size, but the relationship between pigmentation and size differed among localities, possibly as a result of differences in correlational selection on pigmentation and size. Selection thus appears to have resulted in local differentiation over a small spatial scale, even within lakes and wetlands. This differentiation is a likely cause behind elevated phenotype variation noted in localities with two substrate types, suggesting that habitat heterogeneity promotes genetic diversity. PMID:15842500

Hargeby, A; Stoltz, J; Johansson, J

2005-05-01

213

Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

214

Ecosystem Services : In Nordic Freshwater Management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Human wellbeing is dependent upon and benefit from ecosystem services which are delivered by well-functioning ecosystems. Ecosystem services can be mapped and assessed consistently within an ecosystem service framework. This project aims to explore the use and usefulness of the ecosystem service framework in freshwater management, particularly water management according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD). There are several examples of how ecosystem services have been used in WFD related studies in all the Nordic countries. Most of them involve listing, describing and categorizing freshwater ecosystem services, while there are few comprehensive Cost Benefit Analyses and analyses of disproportionate costs that apply this framework. More knowledge about ecosystem services and the value of ecosystem services for freshwater systems is needed.

Magnussen, Kristin; Hasler, Berit

2014-01-01

215

Host-specificity and dynamics in bacterial communities associated with Bloom-forming freshwater phytoplankton.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many freshwater phytoplankton species have the potential to form transient nuisance blooms that affect water quality and other aquatic biota. Heterotrophic bacteria can influence such blooms via nutrient regeneration but also via antagonism and other biotic interactions. We studied the composition of bacterial communities associated with three bloom-forming freshwater phytoplankton species, the diatom Aulacoseira granulata and the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. Experimental cultures incubated with and without lake bacteria were sampled in three different growth phases and bacterial community composition was assessed by 454-Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Betaproteobacteria were dominant in all cultures inoculated with lake bacteria, but decreased during the experiment. In contrast, Alphaproteobacteria, which made up the second most abundant class of bacteria, increased overall during the course of the experiment. Other bacterial classes responded in contrasting ways to the experimental incubations causing significantly different bacterial communities to develop in response to host phytoplankton species, growth phase and between attached and free-living fractions. Differences in bacterial community composition between cyanobacteria and diatom cultures were greater than between the two cyanobacteria. Despite the significance, major differences between phytoplankton cultures were in the proportion of the OTUs rather than in the absence or presence of specific taxa. Different phytoplankton species favoring different bacterial communities may have important consequences for the fate of organic matter in systems where these bloom forming species occur. The dynamics and development of transient blooms may also be affected as bacterial communities seem to influence phytoplankton species growth in contrasting ways. PMID:24465807

Bagatini, Inessa Lacativa; Eiler, Alexander; Bertilsson, Stefan; Klaveness, Dag; Tessarolli, Letícia Piton; Vieira, Armando Augusto Henriques

2014-01-01

216

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace metal contamination of coastal sediment and biota from Togo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The state of contamination of tropical environments, particularly in Africa, remains a relatively under explored subject. Here, we determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and trace metal concentrations in coastal sediment and biota samples (fish and mussels) from Togo (West Africa). In the sediments, the ?21 PAH concentrations ranged from trace metals, which were found in elevated concentrations. The calculated enrichment factor (EF) values relative to the Earth's crust show that the contamination is extremely severe for Cd (EF = 191), severe for Cr (EF = 18) and U (EF = 17.8), moderately severe for Zr (EF = 8.8), for Ni (EF = 6.8), Sr (EF = 5.9) and Ba (EF = 5.4), and moderate for V (EF = 3.6) and Zn (EF = 3.4). Sediments sampled in areas affected by the dumping of phosphorite mine tailings showed particularly high concentrations of trace metals. Overall, concentrations of both PAHs and trace metals in sediment tend to increase from the coastline to the open sea (2 km offshore). This is attributable to the increasingly finer texture of coastal sediment found offshore, which has a terrigenous origin and appears loaded with various contaminants through adsorption processes. Such high loads of trace metals were also found in the biota (fish and mussels). The ratio of measured trace metal concentrations in biota to threshold limits set by the World Health Organization herein defined as relative health factor (RHF) was high. Average RHF values in fish were highest for Se (470), As (250), Ag (97), Ni (78), Mn (63), Fe (53), Pb (36), Cd (10), and Cr (7) while lowest for Cu (0.08) and Zn (0.03). Cd and Al did not bioaccumulate in the analyzed fish species. In mussels, the RHF values were highest for Fe (9,108), As (295), Pb (276), Se (273), Mn (186), Ni (71), Ag (70), Cd (14), and Cu (4). PMID:21655572

Gnandi, Kissao; Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Porrachia, Magali; Kersten, Michael; Wilcke, Wolfgang

2011-07-01

217

Freshwater exposure pathways in the Nordic countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report relates to a subproject under a Nordic project called ''Large reactor accidents - consequences and mitigating actions''. The report summarizes information available, primarily in the Nordic countries, on freshwater exposure pathways. Experimental and theoretical data concerning the deposition and run-off of the nuclides *sp90*Sr and*Sp137*Cs is presented. Internal exposure via drinking water and freshwater fish is dealt with, as well as external exposure due to swimming, boating, contact with fishing utensils and use of beach areas. In addition is exposure via irrigated agricultural products considered. (RF)

218

FRESHWATER FISHERY OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA  

OpenAIRE

As fishery, including freshwater, is very important for economy of the Republic of Croatia, the aim of this paper is to show its condition from 1995 to 1998. and also to draw a plan for fish production in 1999. The period from 1998-1999. is more stressed in order to have a total and detailed view into the present condition of the freshwater fishery and into the direction in wish that production is going. Data about carp ponds and also about trout ponds is presented. Twentynine fish-ponds are ...

Zlatko Homen; Irena Jahutka; Ante Mišura; Vesna Fu?ek; Josip Sui?

1999-01-01

219

CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1997  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on the production and fish catch according to species, on the surface of the fish ponds, on the means of fish catching and on the distribution of the production and the catch in 1997 is presented. The surface area used for production of fish has decreased for 836 ha or 8.40%. The total fish amount was bigger for 477 tons, or 10,52%. The feeding coefficient is 2.6 kg decreased 35% for in comparison to the bigger compared to the previous year. The amount of the fertilizer used is bigger for 37.30%. The fry carp growing ponds make up 6.50% of the total fish pond surfaces, the young carp ponds 22.04/0, and the ponds with consumption fish 70.31%. The total amount in the carp ponds was 446 kg/ha, and in the trout ponds it was 160.8 tons/ha. The most produced fish species is the carp with 79.32%, followed by the trout with 11.50%, the herbivorous fish with 4.25%, while all the other fish species make up 4.93% of the entire production. In the structure of herbivorous fish the grass carp is leading with 69,23%, followed by the big head carp with 29.74% and the silver carp with 1.03%. Compared to the previous year the production of the carp, grass carp and tench is increased. Fish catch in open waters has decreased by 5.53% in comparison to the previous year. In the production and catch of the total freshwater fish, carp made up 75.34%, herbivorous fish made up 3.89%, trout 10.66%, sheat fish, pike perch and pike 2.70% and all other fish species 7.41%. As far as the distribution of production and catch of fish is concerned, 52,80% were sold on the market, 37.94% were used for reproduction (stocking the fish farms, mortality was 1.43%, and for personal use (sports fishing 7.83%. The number of fisheries workers has decreased for 8.17%, and the production per worker is bigger for 22.25%, compared to the previous year. Average production per worker was 7.17% tons of fish.

Mirko Turk

1998-10-01

220

CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1996.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on the production and fish catch according to species, on the surface of the fish ponds, on the means of fish catching and on the distribution of the production and the catch in 1996 is presented. The surface area used for production of fish has decreased by 1357 ha or 11.99%. The total fish amount has decreased by 1,921.00 tons or 29.76%. The feeding coefficient is 4 kg (33.33% bigger compared to the previous year. The amount of the fertilizer used has decreased by 18.79%. The fry carp growing ponds make up 5.99% of the total fish pond surfaces, the young carp ponds 21.13%, and the ponds with consumption fish 71.53%. The total fish amount in the carp ponds was 376 kg/ha, and in the trout ponds it was 146.6 tons/ha. The most produced fish species is the carp with 82.21 %, followed by the trout with 8.57%, the herbivorous fish with 4.78%, while all the other fish species make up 4.44% of the entire production. In the structure of herbivorous fish the grass carp is leading with 64,28%, followed by the big head carp with 26.02% and the silver carp with 9.70%. Compared to the previous year the production of the trout and tench has somewhat increased, while the production of all the other species of fish has decreased. Fish catch in open waters has increased by 19.23% in comparison to the previous year. In the production and catch of the total freshwater fish, carp made up 77.46%, the herbivorous fish made up 4.32%, trout 4.32%, sheat fish, pike perch and pike 2.99% and all other fish species 7.36%. As far as the distribution of production and catch is concerned, 46.91% were sold on the market, 39.19% were used for reproduction (stocking the fish farms, mortalities were 6.23%, and for personal use (sports fishing 7.67% was used. The number of fisheries workers has decreased by 17.75%, and the production per worker has also decreased by 26.62%, compared to the previous year. Average production per worker was 5.87 tons of fish.

Mirko Turk

1997-07-01

221

Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO42- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 ?M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 ?M h-1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 ?M h-1, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 ?g d-1 g-1) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 ?g d-1 g-1) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 ?g d-1 g-1) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m-2 d-1, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

222

Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

Oequist, M.

1996-12-31

223

Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC{sub 5} values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}) and lead (0.12 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l{sup -1}, LC{sub 5}). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments.

Madoni, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.madoni@unipr.it; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 11/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

2006-05-15

224

Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC5 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l-1, LC5) and lead (0.12 mg l-1, LC5), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l-1, LC5). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments

225

Guidance for dispersant decision-making : potential for impacts on aquatic biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation discussed issues regarding the uncertainty about the efficacy of dispersant use and the tradeoffs of impact caused by floating versus dispersed oil. Laboratory and tank experimentations have been used to better understand the impacts to water column organisms and the fate and toxicity of oil. The Spill Impact Model Application Package (SIMAP) developed by Applied Science Associates Inc. was run to simulate hypothetical oil spills with and without dispersant use under a range of environmental conditions. SIMAP quantifies fates and concentrations of subsurface oil components, including dissolved and particulate components, along with areas swept by floating oil of various thicknesses. The 3-D physical fates model in SIMAP estimates distribution of whole oil and oil components on the water surface, on shorelines, in the water column, and in sediments. It simulates processes such as spreading; evaporation of volatiles from surface oil; transport on the surface and in the water column; randomized dispersion from small-scale mixing; emulsification; entrainment of oil and droplets into the water; dissolution of soluble components; volatilization of dissolved hydrocarbons from the surface water; adherence of oil droplets to suspended sediments; adsorption of soluble and semi-soluble aromatics to suspended sediments; sedimentation; stranding on shorelines; and degradation. The results revealed the water volume where acute toxic effects would occur and impact cute toxic effects would occur and impact birds and other wildlife. In order to put these impact volumes and areas in perspective, typical densities of biota in various geographical regions were used to compare injuries with which to evaluate tradeoffs. As a general conclusion, the tradeoff with respect to wildlife versus water column biota is in favour of dispersant use for oil volumes greater than 2 m3, while remaining protective of all species. Dispersing more than this volume in a single location during a short period of time could impact biota in the surface mixed layer, depending on winds, degree of current shear, weathering state, temperature and sensitivity of the aquatic biota. 35 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

226

Lack of observed impacts of gas production of Bongkot Field, Thailand on marine biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of metal releases, associated with gas production, on biota in the Lower Gulf of Thailand was evaluated based on metal concentrations in finfish and on the composition of sediment fauna. Results indicate that metal concentrations, particularly Hg, in species of snapper and grouper collected near the gas production platform were not significantly different from those of the same species of fish caught from the regional, presumably non-impacted, fishery. Also, there were no significant differences in faunal communities in sediments collected near petroleum production activities from those in sediments collected at remote sites. (author)

227

Behaviour of molluscs in cantabrian biota with respect to the activity present in the marine medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behaviour of molluscs with regard to the activity present in the marine medium is studied. For this purpose three large groups are considered, with special reference to their ecology and their particular mode of incorporating activity. Determinations are made of the total alpha and beta activity, as well as that due to elements such as 90Sr, 137Cs and natural U, in the organisms in question and in their eco-environment. A comparison is likewise established between the biocoenoses inhabiting Cantabrian and Mediterranean biota. (author)

228

Effects of pollution on freshwater fish  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various aspects of pollution effects on fishes are reviewed under the following headings: methodology; water quality; pesticide pollutants; industrial pollutants; domestic pollutants; radioactive pollutants; and other pollutants. A table is presented to show acute and chronic toxicity of inorganic and organic pollutants to freshwater fish. (U.S.)

229

Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49{sup o}S, 70{sup o}E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g{sup -1} lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g{sup -1} lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: > First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. > PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. > Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. > Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

Jaffal, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Givaudan, N. [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France); Betoulle, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Terreau, A. [IPEV Institut Polaire Francais, F29280 Plouzane (France); Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Beall, E. [ECOBIOP, UMR 1224 INRA-Universite de Pau-Pays de l' Adour F63310 St-Pee-sur-Nivelle (France); Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.fr [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France)

2011-05-15

230

Effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on freshwater organisms and ecosystems in the northern Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of studies have examined the direct human health effects of radionuclides released by the Chernobyl accident, but little has been done to assess the effects on wild organisms, or the cycling of contaminants in the local environment. The authors sampled fish, molluscs, water and sediment from 10 ponds within and outside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Sediments contained 0.07 to 2.5 pCi/g 134Cs and 1.1 to 33 pCi/g 137Cs. Similar levels occur in lakes at nuclear production facilities in the US. Waters were soft (conductivity 45-450 ?S/cm) and low in Ca and K, conditions which favor the uptake of contaminants by biota. In addition to radionuclides, fish from the region contained up to 0.5 ppm Hg in edible muscle. Fish and molluscs are currently being evaluated for possible genetic damage due to contaminant exposure by flow cytometry, DNA strand-breakage assay, and cytogenetic techniques. The ponds surveyed are in an agricultural region, with subsistence hunting and fishing, suggesting that contaminants accumulated in freshwater systems may be entering humans via diet

231

Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by the freshwater benthic amphipod Gammarus pulex.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the relationship between polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in water, sediment, and the benthic macroinvertebrate Gammarus pulex, which plays a major ecological role in freshwater ecosystems. Samples were taken in a periurban watershed (near Paris, France), and PBDEs were systematically detected in sediment (?727 ng g(-1) OC) and G. pulex (?264 ng g(-1) lipids). PBDEs were also occasionally detected in the water column at low levels (? PBDEs < 1.5 ng L(-1)). The log values of bioaccumulation factors were in the range 7.8 ± 0.1-8.3 ± 0.4 L kg(-1) for tetra- and penta-BDEs, which were the only ones quantified in the dissolved phase of river water. Meanwhile, levels of individual tri- to hepta-PBDE congeners in G. pulex generally positively correlated with sediment levels, suggesting an equilibrium situation. Biota-to-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) of tri-hepta BDEs were congener specific and were in the range 0.5 ± 0.3-2.6 ± 1.2. For several PBDEs, BSAF values deviated from the expected range, likely because of in vivo metabolism. PMID:22367498

Tlili, Khawla; Labadie, Pierre; Bourges, Catherine; Desportes, Annie; Chevreuil, Marc

2012-07-01

232

Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49oS, 70oE) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g-1 lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g-1 lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: ? First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. ? PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. ? Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. ? Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

233

Effects of cadmium stress and sorption kinetics on tropical freshwater periphytic communities in indoor mesocosm experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the cause and effect relationship between stressors and biota is crucial for the effective management, restoration and preservation of aquatic systems. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of five Cd concentrations on tropical periphyton community growth, Cd accumulation kinetics, as well as the effects of Cd on diatom community structure and composition. Natural periphyton communities were transferred to artificial stream chambers and exposed to Cd concentrations of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1mg.L(-1). Metal accumulation (total and intracellular) in biofilms, dry weight and ash-free dry mass, growth rate, algal cell density and diatom community composition were analysed on samples collected after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of colonization. Periphyton growth and development were significantly lowered by Cd concentrations>0.03 mg.L(-1). High Cd accumulation capacity by periphyton was demonstrated with total and intracellular Cd content in biofilms reflecting the effects of concentrations of Cd in the culture media and exposure duration. Total and intracellular Cd content generally increased in treatments in the order 0.005species composition (development of more resistant species like Achnanthidium minutissimum and reduction of sensitive ones like Diatoma vulgare, Navicula viridula and Navicula cryptocephala), decreases in species richness and diversity and morphological alterations (deformities) of diatom cells with increasing Cd concentration and exposure duration were observed. The results give valuable information on Cd impact of freshwater biofilms. PMID:22728297

Bere, Taurai; Tundisi, José Galizia

2012-08-15

234

Efectos de la biota edáfica en las interacciones planta-insecto a nivel foliar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pesar de la inmensa diversidad de especies que habitan en el suelo y de la importancia funcional que tiene la biota edáfica tanto a nivel de comunidad como de ecosistema, la teoría ecológica ha tenido tradicionalmente sólo en cuenta las interacciones que ocurren en la parte aérea de las plantas. Recientemente esta situación ha cambiado y durante los últimos diez años se han publicado numerosos estudios que destacan la importancia que tienen las interacciones bióticas entre plantas y organismos edáficos sobre diferentes procesos que se dan enla parte aérea. Estos estudios han demostrado que las interacciones que se dan entre las raíces y los herbívoros edáficos, los hongos mutualistas y la flora microbiana, tienen efecto no sólo en el crecimiento de las plantas sino también en niveles tróficos superiores como son los herbívoros foliares, parasitoides, hiperparasitoides y polinizadores. En este artículo se hace una breve revisión de los mecanismos fundamentales que median la relación entre la biota edáfica y las interacciones bióticas de la parte aérea. Por último, se proponen abordajes complementarios como son la utilización de modelos espaciales y el estudio de estas interacciones desde una perspectiva evolutiva.

E. de la Pe\\u00F1a

2009-01-01

235

Decrease of radionuclides in Columbia River biota following closure of Hanford reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was conducted at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of radionuclides in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. Concentrations of 60Co in seston, periphyton and invertebrates did not decrease to the degree that the other radionuclides did. Levels of 60Co in fish showed some decreases. Zinc-65 was present in the biota in highest concentrations. The amounts in seston and periphyton decreased rapidly and were measurable only until the spring of 1973. Zinc-65 in caddisfly larvae was not measurable by February 1973, but concentrations in McNary chironomids fluctuated between unmeasurable levels to 24 pCi/g dry weight (DW). In suckers and squawfish, 65Zn decreased to fairly low, constant levels of 1 and 3 pCi/g DW, respectively. The data showed that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable concentrations of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to extremely low or unmeasurable levels within 18-24 months after cessation of discharge of reactor once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing sampling station, the decrease would probably be even more rapid in an unimpounded river. (author)

236

Selenium accumulation in aquatic biota downstream of a uranium mining and milling operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uranium mining and milling operations have the potential to release trace elements such as arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, selenium and uranium and ions (e.g., sulfate, ammonium) into the receiving aquatic ecosystem. The major implication of elevated environmental selenium is its propensity to accumulate in the aquatic food chain, potentially impairing fish reproduction. The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in the major compartments of aquatic ecosystems (lakes) upstream and downstream of a uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in aquatic biota were elevated in the exposure lake although water and sediment concentrations were low (0.43 microg/L and 0.54 microg/g dry weight, respectively). Biomagnification of selenium resulted in approximately 1.5 to 6 fold increase in the selenium concentration between plankton, invertebrates and fish. However, no biomagnification was observed between forage and predatory fish. Although some aquatic biota (e.g., forage fish) exceeded the lower limit of the proposed 3 to 11 microg/g (dry weight) dietary toxicity threshold for fish, no adverse effects of selenium could be identified in this aquatic system. Continued environmental monitoring is recommended to avoid potential selenium impacts. PMID:19036410

Muscatello, J R; Janz, D M

2009-02-01

237

Selenium accumulation in aquatic biota downstream of a uranium mining and milling operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mining and milling operations have the potential to release trace elements such as arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, selenium and uranium and ions (e.g., sulfate, ammonium) into the receiving aquatic ecosystem. The major implication of elevated environmental selenium is its propensity to accumulate in the aquatic food chain, potentially impairing fish reproduction. The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in the major compartments of aquatic ecosystems (lakes) upstream and downstream of a uranium mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in aquatic biota were elevated in the exposure lake although water and sediment concentrations were low (0.43 ?g/L and 0.54 ?g/g dry weight, respectively). Biomagnification of selenium resulted in approximately 1.5 to 6 fold increase in the selenium concentration between plankton, invertebrates and fish. However, no biomagnification was observed between forage and predatory fish. Although some aquatic biota (e.g., forage fish) exceeded the lower limit of the proposed 3 to 11 ?g/g (dry weight) dietary toxicity threshold for fish, no adverse effects of selenium could be identified in this aquatic system. Continued environmental monitoring is recommended to avoid potential selenium impacts

238

Natural Isotope Radium in Marine Biota at Kapar, Klang Coastal Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activities concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra in marine biota at Kapar coastal area nearby Sultan Salahudin Abdul Aziz Shah Power Station (SJSSAAS) had been analyzed. The techniques that had been used to determine the activities concentration of 226Ra dan 228Ra are radiochemistry procedures and liquid scintillation counter (LSC). Results shows that the distribution of radium isotopes depend on the location and during sampling periods. The activities concentration of 226Rai and 228Rai in tissue were ranged 11.82 ± 5.23 Bq/ kg - 17.67 ± 6.81 Bq/ kg and 40.42 ± 16.20 Bq/ kg - 67.86 ± 23.11 Bq/ kg, respectively. The mean activities concentration of radium isotopes in bivalvia such as cockles (anadara granosa) are 61.73 ± 24.15 Bq/ kg (226Raag) and 232.62 ± 119.44 Bq/ kg (228Raag). Meanwhile for green mussles (perna viridis), the mean activities concentration of 226Rapv dan 228Rapv are 38.24 ± 14.19 Bq/ kg dan 99.59 ± 44.91 Bq/ kg, respectively. Concentration Factor (CF) in marine biota is higher than 1 x 104 and it is because of the accumulated radium isotopes is low and has a high affinity for organic matter. The study also shows the effectiveness of dose in radium isotopes were measured to ensure the safety of users and it is still below the limit allowed Malaysia which is 1 mSv / year. (author)

239

The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy and Biodiversity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations similar to 2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rodshaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life.

El Albani, Abderrazak; Bengtson, Stefan

2014-01-01

240

Improved cleanup technique for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of alkylphenols from biota extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and economical cleanup technique was developed to determine alkylphenols by GC-MS from biological extracts containing relatively high lipids. The lipids were successfully removed from bivalve extracts through a two-step cleanup. The new method is a combination of Florisil adsorption chromatography and silyl derivatization technique. Low and high (non-polar and highly polar) molecular weight lipids were removed from the biota extract with deactivated Florisil column in the first step. And in the second step, middle molecular weight (middle polar) lipids were removed in an activated Florisil column after the alkylphenols were converted to corresponding silyl derivatives with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). On the basis of the above results, a simple cleanup kit was developed for convenience. The technique was optimized with reference to the activity of packing materials and polarity of eluting solvents. Only 3g of Florisil, 25 mL of hexane and 10 mL of dichloromethane were required for one sample. The recoveries of alkylphenols from spiked samples varied from 88 to 103% with a low relative standard deviation (mean value: 5.3%) and the recovery was similar or even higher than other methods currently in use. The technique was successfully applied to mussel samples from Masan Bay, South Korea. Simultaneous measurement of these compounds in water, sediment and biota; the resulting bio-concentration factor and their relationships confirm previously published works, validating the method applied. PMID:17920609

Wang, Juan; Dong, Meihua; Shim, Won Joon; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

2007-11-01

241

CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1994  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data on the production and catch of fish according to species, on the surface of the fish ponds, on the means of fish catching and on the distribution of the product and catch in 1994 is presented. The surface area used for production of fish has decreased by 274 ha or 2,51%. The total amount of fish has decreased by 1.263 tons or 14,78%. The highest production of fish was reached by the fish farm Donji Miholjac with 1.231 kg/ha. The feeding coefficient is 3,10 kg. Only on one fish farm was the feeding coefficient less than 2.0 kg (1,40 and on two large farms this coefficient was greater than 5,00 kg. The main fish food is still wheat followed by corn. The amount of fertilizer used was decreased by 14,40%. The fry carp growing ponds make up 0,92% of the surface area of the entire fish farm, the young carp ponds 21,77% and the culturing ponds for consumption fish 76,55%. The total amount of fish in the carp ponds was 660 kg/ha, and in the trout ponds it was 123.4 tons/ha. The carp is the highest produced fish with 80, 35%, then the herbivorous fish with 5,65 and all other fish make up 14% of the total production. In the structure of herbivorous fish the grass carp is leading with 54, 70%, followed by the big head carp with 25,54% and the silver carp with 19,76%. In comparison with the previous year the production of "all other fish- has significantly increased (287%, and sheat fish 18,90%, while the production of trench has decreased (71%. Fish catch in open waters has increased by 20,57% in comparison to the previous year. Carp made up 78,07% of the total production and catch of freshwater fish, the herbivorous fish made up 5,40%, trout 4,38%, the sheat fish, pike perch and pike 2,86% and all other fish species 9,28%. As far as the distribution of production and catch, 51,60% were sold on the market, 37,54% were used for reproduction (stocking the fish farms , mortalities were 6,35% and for personal use (sports fishing 4,50% was used. The number of fisheries workers decreased by 10,72% and the production per worker decreased by 3,12% in comparison to the previous year. According to each worker their was an average production of 9,00 tons of fish. In 1994 the highest production of fish was reached in Garešnica with 14,70 tons of fish per worker.

Mirko Turk

1995-09-01

242

CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERIES IN 1995  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The data on the production and catch of fish according to sorts, pond ackerage, fishing means as well as the distribution of production and catch in 1995 have been stated in the paper. Ackerages used for the fish production have been increased by 1710 acres or 6.51%; total fish prinos* is less for 1,252 tons or 17.05%. The highest production of fish was reched by the fish farm Donji Miholjac with 859 kg/ha. A nutritive coefficient is 3.0 kg and it is less by 3.22% compared with the previous year. The nutritive coefficient is less than 2.0 kg in three fish-farms but it is greater than 4.0 kg in five large fish farms. Mostly corn but also wheat dominate in fish nutrition. The fertilizers consumption has been reduced by 14.53%. Of total pond ackerage, growing fish farms occupy 1.25%, new fish farms occupy 17.90% and consumptive fish farms occupy 79.64%. Total fish production in carp ponds is 507 kg/ha and 136.1 ton/ha in trout ponds. With 84.33%, carp is the mostly produced fish sorts, herbivore fish follow it with 3.89% and the production of all other fish makes 11.78% of the total. With 83.97%, grass carp takes the first place in the structure of herbivore fish. It is followed by the big head carp with 9.28% and silver carp with 6.75%. The trout production has been slightly increased by 6. 3%. Pike has appeared again and all other fish sorts has been reduced. Fish catch in open water has been increased by 7.06% compared with the previous year. When we sum up total production and catch of fresh-water fish, we can conclude that carp contributes with 81.08%; herbivore fish with 3.67%; trouts with 5.53%; sheat-fish, pike-perch and pike with 2.74% and all other fish sorts with 6.98%. As to the distribution of production and catch, there has been 49.02% sold on markets, 38.02% has been spent on farm reproduction (set back in ponds, the percentage of mortalities is 7.90%. Sport fishers have spent 5.06% of fish. The number of employees has been reduced by 12.05% and fish production per employee has also been reduced by 1.10% compared with the previous year. It has been produced 8.0 tons of fish per employee. In 1995, the production has been greatest in Dragani?i: 15.60 tons of fish per employee.

Mirko Turk

1996-06-01

243

Selected bibliography of terrestrial freshwater, and marine radiation ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An extensive bibliography is presented of publications related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects or metabolic studies involving radionuclides. The references are listed under the following headings: status and needs of radiation ecology; environmental radioactivity; radionuclide concentration; ionizing radiation effects; techniques utilizing radionuclides and ionizing radiation in ecology; measurement of ionizing radiation; peaceful uses of atomic energy; waste disposal; nuclear testing and ecological consequences of a nuclear war; glossaries, standards, and licensing procedures; reviews of radionuclides in the environment; and sources of information

244

Uptake of ?-emitting radionuclides by aquatic biota exposed to contaminated water before and after passage through the ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three experimental systems were designed to investigate the differential accumulation of radionuclides by biota from low-level aqueous effluents after passage through the ground. One system received river water (control), one received dilute low-level radioactive effluents (trench), and the third received the low-level effluents after it had percolated through about 260 m or porous gravel (springs). Biota studied included filamentous green algae, clams (Corbicula), goldfish (Carassius auratus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and Veronica. Trophic level differences in accumulation of the various radionuclides from the diluted trench water were not consistent but generally followed the pattern algae > goldfish > molluscs > carp. Cobalt-60 was accumulated to the highest level of any radionuclide, and accumulation levels at the three sites were directly related to the concentration of 60Co in the water. Manganese-54, 59Fe, and 106Ru were also accumulated to measurable levels in biota at the springs site indicating their bioavailability after passage through the ground

245

Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota  

Science.gov (United States)

Several robotic exploration missions will travel to Mars during this decade to investigate habitability and the possible presence of life. Field research at Mars analogue sites such as desert environments can provide important constraints for instrument calibration, landing site strategies and expected life detection targets. We have characterized the mineralogy, organic chemistry and microbiology of ten selected sample sites from the Utah desert in close vicinity to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign (organized by International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), NASA Ames and ESA ESTEC). Compared with extremely arid deserts (such as the Atacama), organic and biological materials can be identified in a larger number of samples and subsequently be used to perform correlation studies. Among the important findings of this field research campaign are the diversity in the mineralogical composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles, mainly Bacteria and also Archaea and Eukarya was observed. The dominant factor in measurable bacterial abundance seems to be soil porosity and lower small (clay-sized) particle content. However, correlations between many measured parameters are difficult to establish. Field research conducted during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign shows that the geological history and depositional environment of the region, as well as the mineralogy influence the ability to detect compounds such as amino acids and DNA. Clays are known to strongly absorb and bind organic molecules often preventing extraction by even sophisticated laboratory methods. Our results indicate the need for further development and optimization of extraction procedures that release biological compounds from host matrices to enable the effective detection of biomarkers during future sampling campaigns on Earth and Mars.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Röling, W. F. M.; Thiel, C. S.; Quinn, R.; Sephton, M. A.; Stoker, C.; Kotler, J. M.; Direito, S. O. L.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; van Sluis, C. A.; Foing, B. H.

2011-07-01

246

Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Terrestrial inputs of freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were estimated, indicating ice discharge to be the dominant source of freshwater. A freshwater flux of 40.4 ± 4.9×109 m3 y?1 was found (1999–2008, with an 85% contribution originated from ice discharge (65% alone from Helheim Glacier, 11% from terrestrial surface runoff (from melt water and rain, 3% from precipitation at the fjord surface area, and 1% from subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. The results demonstrate the dominance of ice discharge as a primary mechanism for delivering freshwater to Sermilik Fjord. Time series of ice discharge for Helheim Glacier, Midgård Glacier, and Fenris Glacier were calculated from satellite-derived average surface velocity, glacier width, and estimated ice thickness, and fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater runoff were simulated based on observed meteorological data. These simulations were compared and bias corrected against independent glacier catchment runoff observations. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was variable, ranging from 2.9 ± 0.4×109 m3 y?1 in 1999 to 5.9 ± 0.9×109 m3 y?1 in 2005. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim Glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage, indicating high runoff volumes, where glacier cover was present at low elevations.

S. H. Mernild

2010-10-01

247

Calorific and carbon values of marine and freshwater Protozoa  

Science.gov (United States)

Calorific and carbon values were determined for a variety of marine and freshwater Protozoa ( Noctiluca miliaris, Euplotes sp., Eufolliculina sp. respectively Tetrahymena pyriformis, Paramecium caudatum), their food sources (Bacteria, Dunaliella primolecta, Ceratium hirundinella), and for Protozoa-dominated plankton samples. Most calorific values lie close to the centre of the range covering organisms in general. Low values in some marine samples probably resulted from the retention of bound water in the dried material. When all results were combined with data selected from the literature, the dependence of calorific value on carbon content was highly significant. This relationship is probably also adequately described by an energy-carbon regression through the variety of organic compounds commonly found in organisms. Calorific value expressed per unit carbon is shown to vary little in Protozoa (mean conversion factor 46 J [mg C]-1) or throughout the range of biological materials considered in this study (45 J [mg C]-1).

Finlay, B. J.; Uhlig, G.

1981-12-01

248

Effect of zeolite on toxicity of ammonia in freshwater sediments: Implications for toxicity identification evaluation procedures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techniques for reducing ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments were investigated as part of a project to develop toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) procedures for whole sediments. Although ammonia is a natural constituent of freshwater sediments, pollution can lead to ammonia concentrations that are toxic to benthic invertebrates, and ammonia can also contribute to the toxicity of sediments that contain more persistent contaminants. The authors investigated the use of amendments of a natural zeolite mineral, clinoptilolite, to reduce concentrations of ammonia in sediment pore water. Zeolites have been widely used for removal of ammonia in water treatment and in aqueous TIE procedures. The addition of granulated zeolite to ammonia-spiked sediments reduced pore-water ammonia concentrations and reduced ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. Amendments of 20% zeolite (v/v) reduced ammonia concentrations in pore water by {ge}70% in spiked sediments with ammonia concentrations typical of contaminated freshwater sediments. Zeolite amendments reduced toxicity of ammonia-spiked sediments to three taxa of benthic invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus, and Chironomus tentans), despite their widely differing sensitivity to ammonia toxicity. In contrast, zeolite amendments did not reduce acute toxicity of sediments containing high concentrations of cadmium or copper or reduce concentrations of these metals in pore waters. These studies suggest that zeolite amendments, used in conjunction with toxicity tests with sensitive taxa such as H. azteca, may be an effective technique for selective reduction of ammonia toxicity in freshwater sediments.

Besser, J.M.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Leonard, E.N.; Mount, D.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Mid-Continent Ecology Div.

1998-11-01

249

Coal ash basin effects (particulates, metals, acidic pH) upon aquatic biota: an eight-year evaluation. [Gambusia affinis; Plathemis lydia; Libellula spp  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal ash effluent effects including particulates, acidic pH excursions, elemental concentrations and bioconcentration in selected organisms have been studied as changes in water quality and densities of benthic macroinvertebrate and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in a swanmp drainage system over an eight-year period. Initial density of the aquatic biota was altered severely by heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions, and perhaps overall by elemental concentrations and bioaccumulation. Heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions after the addition of fly ash to the original settling basin system, had the most profound effect on biota. Dipterans (chironomids) and some odonates (Plathemis lydia and Libellula spp.) were resistant to heavy ash siltation, while mosquitofish, which showed no discernible responses to ash siltation, were absent at acidic pH along with the few previously surviving invertebrate populations. Elemental concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, selenium, and zinc did not appear to limit aquatic flora and fauna on a short-term, acute basis. Long-chronic elemental exposures may have been instrumental in retarding the recovery of all forms of aquatic life in the receiving system. Elemental concentrations (except for arsenic and selenium) in the receiving system were generally one to two orders of magnitude higher than the Water Quality Criteria set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1980) for protection of aquatic life for the minimum and 24-hour mean values. By 1978, when the new settling basin systems were operating effectively, invertebrate populations were largely recovered, and mosquito-fish populations recovered within one year afterward.

Cerry, D.S.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Harvey, R.S.

1984-08-01

250

Comparative study of RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA programs in assessment of radiation effect on pelagic fish  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA are two comparatively mature programs to assess non-human species radiation effect in the world. The comparison and analysis of these two programs were carried out from the definition of reference organism, screening method, computation theory, and so on. These two programs were used to assess radiation effect of radioactive liquid on a kind of aquatic biota near a Chinese nuclear power plant sited in coastal area. Finally, the computation results, advantages and disadvantages of these two programs are compared and analyzed. (authors)

251

Trace metals in populations of freshwater isopods: influence of biotic and abiotic variables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trace metal levels in water, sediments and freshwater isopods from 28 different water systems in the Netherlands were measured during the period of 1986 to 1989. Distinct element-specific internal distribution patterns were present, with Cd and Cu stored mainly in the hepatopancreas (30-60% of total body burden) and Pb and Zn in the hindgut and exoskeleton with hemolymph. Mean whole-body concentrations of the non-essential elements Cd and Pb in individually analyzed isopods varied over three orders of magnitude between populations. The variability of Zn and Cn were within one order of magnitude difference. The variability of trace metal levels between populations exceeded within-population variability. Within-population variability was related to seasonal and biological factors such as body weight, sex, reproductive state, and species abundance. The highest concentrations were found in small juvenile animals compared to adults, females compared to males, and Proasellus meridianus compared to Asellus aquaticus. However, after correction for size effects using a power-curve regression model no significant differences remained between sex and species. Seasonal fluctuations accounted for 33-79% of the within population variability. Trace metal levels in isopods were predicted from concentrations in water and sediments in combination with aqueous Ca, Cl-, DOC, and sediment characteristics (Org-C, clay, CaCO3) using a multiple regression model. With this predictive model 42-63% of the variance could be explained. In situ determined partitioning coefficients (apparent BCF, biota-sediment BSAF, and sediment-water distribution coefficient Kd) varied between locations and covaried with factors related to trace metal bioavailability (aqueous Ca, Cl- and DOC, sediment Org-C, clay, and CaCO3). Especially for Cd and Cu field-derived BCF values were in agreement with previously reported experimental studies. It is concluded, that A. aquaticus may be a suitable candidate-organism for biomonitoring available trace metal levels in littoral freshwater systems. Finally, some practical recommendations are given for future field surveys with freshwater isopods with respect to sample size, allometric standardization, period of sampling and statistical design. PMID:8854824

van Hattum, B; van Straalen, N M; Govers, H A

1996-10-01

252

Influence of Substratum Wettability on Attachment of Freshwater Bacteria to Solid Surfaces  

OpenAIRE

We studied the attachment of a number of freshwater bacteria from River Sowe, Coventry, England, to test substrata. The attachment of each organism to hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces was evaluated, and further studies evaluated the attachment of selected isolates to a number of substrata with a range of water wettabilities. The wettability of each substratum was determined by contact angle measurements and was expressed as the work of adhesion (WA). No generic pattern of attachment to th...

1983-01-01

253

Bacterial resistance to oxytetracycline in different life stages of Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system  

OpenAIRE

In India antibiotics are frequently used for preventing and controlling bacterial pathogens incarp aquaculture system, yet no studies have been performed to evaluate the ecological impact of itsintensive and prolonged use. In this work the frequency of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria from water,palletized feed and different life stages of fish from Indian freshwater carp aquaculture system as well asthe level of resistance of selected strains was investigated. Viable as well as antibiotic-...

Singh A.K.; Rathore G; Singh V.; Mani I.; Singh R.K; Mishra S K; Mishra B.N.; Verma O.P.

2009-01-01

254

CROATIAN FRESHWATER FISHERY IN 2001 and 2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For each segment of freshwater fisheries — freshwater aquaculture, commercial and sport and recreational fisheries — there is a legal obligation for data submission to the Ministry of agriculture and forestry, Directorate of fisheries. Within the segments of commercial and sport and recreational fisheries the data submission obligation refers to the period beginning with the year 2003, while in the segment of aquaculture that obligation includes also the year 2002. Data collected for freshwater aquaculture contain the information on production of freshwater fish, total production areas, food, fertilizers and subsidies for freshwater fish farming. Data collected for commercial and sport and recreational fisheries contain the information on catch quantities and number of commercial and sport and recreational fishermen. Freshwater fish production in the year 2001 was 5,549. 50 tons, while the total fresh water fish production in the year 2002 decreased for 1.00% compared to the previous year, amounting to 5,501.07 tons. Although total fresh water fish production constantly decreases comparing to previous years, trout production has increased and the maximum production was noted in the year 2002. Total area of the freshwater fish farms in the year 2001 increased compared to the year 2000 for 2.14% amounting to 11,880.41 ha. Actual production area slightly increased in comparison to the previous year as well and amounted to 9,214.11 ha. In the year 2002 total area of freshwater fish farms was 11,491.29 ha, and 72.13% of that figure was the actual production area, that is 8,288.27 ha. Production per unit area in the year 2001 was 485.31 kg/ha for warm–water species and 280.44 t/ha for cold–water species. In the year 2002 production per unit area for warm–water species was 462.95 kg/ha, and for cold–water species 315.26 t/ha. During the year 2001, in total, 10,575.82 t of food was spent and 1,891 tons of fertilizers and lime, while in the year 2002 12,195.40 tons of food and 2,104 tons of fertilizers and lime. Regarding the number of commercial fishermen the decrease was noted for the period of 2001–2002 in comparison with the period 1998–2000. The total number of sport and recreational fisheren in the year 2001 was 57,781 and in the year 2002 their number was 56,210. During the years 2001 and 2002 subsidies for 8 freshwater species were issued amounting as follows: for carp, grass carp, bighead carp and silver carp the subsidies were 4.00 kn/kg, and for tench, trout, pikeperch, catfish and pike the amount was 6.00 kn/kg.

Irena Jahutka

2003-09-01

255

Carbon-14 Specific Activity Model Validation for Biota in Wetland Environments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many cases, contaminants, such as radionuclides, can show highly localized spatial distributions in natural systems. Therefore, a key question for environmental assessment and monitoring becomes, how can these localized distributions of contaminants in the environment lead to organism exposure, and ultimately, the potential for effects to receptor biota? To address this question, an important first step is to conduct field surveys at sites of interest to map out the spatial distribution and extent of contaminants in areas that are being occupied and utilized by resident receptor biota. Work can then be conducted to establish predictive relationships between contaminant concentrations in biota tissues and those in environmental media with which biota interact, to gain an understanding of how representative ambient contaminant concentrations are of biota exposure. The objectives of this study were: - To conduct a field survey in a wetland ecosystem to characterize the spatial distribution of carbon- 14 (14C), a radionuclide with dynamics in natural systems that can be described using a specific activity model; and - To determine whether 14C concentrations in environmental media reflect those measured in tissues of resident flora and fauna. A detailed field campaign was carried out in summer 2001 to characterize the spatial distribution and areal coverage of 14C in Duke Swamp, a wetland ecosystem on Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECem on Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site that receives 14C through releases from an up-gradient Waste Management Area (WMA), primarily through groundwater influx. Sampling of surface vegetation (dominantly comprised of Sphagnum moss) was conducted at a total of 69 locations, with complementary sampling of air, soil, fungi, aerial insects, ground-dwelling insects, amphibians, small mammals and snakes being carried out at a subset of five locations with varying 14C concentrations. Concentrations of 14C in resident Duke Swamp biota were compared to levels measured in environmental media (including moss, soil and air) to determine whether concentrations in such media reflect animal exposure, for application in routine environmental monitoring programs on the CRL site. In general, for most types of receptor animals, 14C specific activities were found to be similar to or less than those measured in air, soil and surface vegetation at all locations sampled, suggesting that in most cases, estimates of 14C levels in animals could either be realistically or conservatively predicted based on the values measured in environmental media. In the case of fungi, receptor-to-media 14C specific activity ratios fell between 0.04 and 0.23 relative to air, between 0.03 and 0.70 relative to soil, and between 0.078 and 0.31 relative to moss. Small mammal specific activities also generally fell well below those that would be predicted based on specific activities measured in environmental media, with ratios ranging from 0.11 to 0.36 relative to air, from 0.17 to 0.85 relative to soil and from 0.21 to 0.58 relative to moss. Similar ratios were also established for snakes; however, a notable exception occurred for amphibians, a type of animal that tends to spend relatively more time in aquatic environments than the other species tested. In the case of Duke Swamp amphibians, animal-to-air 14C specific activity ratios ranged from 0.40 to 2.3, animal-to-soil ratios ranged from 0.81 to 3.4 and animal-to-moss ratios ranged from 1.5 to 2.4. These higher 14C levels in amphibians relative to the environmental media may be due to increased 14C exposure of aquatic or amphibious animals that occupy systems receiving inputs via groundwater. In such systems, 14C is incorporated in aquatic plants and animals, and later transferred to higher predatory species, such as amphibians, that consume them. Therefore, with the exception of amphibians and other aquatic receptor species, it is reasonable to estimate concentrations of 14C in receptor biota in wetland environments like Duke Swamp at CRL

256

Physical processes in freshwater ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present paper the main methodological approaches to model the physical processes controlling the migration of radionuclides through water ecosystems are presented and discussed. These processes include the dispersion and the transport through the water and the migration from and to the bottom sediments caused by the settling and the re-suspension of contaminated particles of suspended matter. The equations that control the above processes and that are used by most existing state-of-the-art models are listed and briefly discussed and motivated. Values of the parameters in the equations have been selected following a review of information available from the scientific literature. (author)

257

The Earliest Fossil Evidence for Life on Land and the Freshwater Origin of Algae?  

Science.gov (United States)

Some 150 years ago, in 1859, Charles Darwin was greatly puzzled by a seeming absence of fossils in rocks older than the Cambrian period. He drew attention to a veritable Lost World that it is now known to have spanned more than 80 per cent of Earth History. And he made a prediction that we here bring again into focus: 'The presence of phosphate nodules and bituminous matter in some of the lowest azoic rocks probably indicates the former existence of life at these periods (Darwin 1859, p.307). His prediction came to fruition in 1899, when Sir Archibald Geikie announced to the world the first discovery of genuine microfossils in Precambrian phosphatic rocks, made by Jephro Teall, Ben Peach and John Horne within the Torridonian rocks of Scotland. The Torridonian phosphate of NW Scotland has, however, been rather little studied until recently. It is remarkable for its fidelity of fossil preservation, and also for its non-marine depositional setting. Dating to the end of the Mesoproterozoic Era around 1Ga ago, thick packages of fluvial sandstones are found to serve the remains of very ancient intermontane lake ecosystems. Fossil assemblages from terrestrial settings are rarely seen before the Devonian ~ 350 Ma ago. Evidence for freshwater and terrestrial life in the Precambrian has therefore been circumstantial rather than detailed and none has yet come from freshwater phosphate. We here demonstrate that phosphate from ~ 1200-1000 Ma Mesoproterozoic lake sediments of the Torridon Group preserve a remarkable suite of organisms forming a freshwater, terrestrial, phototrophic ecosystem. Ephemeral lakes and streams developed in intermontane basins within the interior of the supercontinent of Rodinia and periodically experienced prolonged desiccation allowing phosphate precipitation. The microbiology of these lake sediments is being studied in detail, where they are yielding - with the aid of Automontage - fresh evidence for the earliest known terrestrial ecology and lagerstatte. Delicate cellular structures, and even sub-cellular structures, can be preserved with high fidelity in the phosphate. These cells show evidence for life cycles that ranged from resting cysts - sometimes sculptured - to colonial vegetative stages and thence to single celled dispersal stages. Cyanobacteria, eukaryotic protists and algae are all present. The ecological structure and responses of these Torridon lake communities can be compared with those of modern, mainly acidiphilic, lakes. Together with sedimentary structures and wrinkle mats of demonstrably microbial origin, we can point to the variable development of seasonal eutrophication and stagnation in the photic zone of these ancient lakes. Population statistics of the various morphotypes reveal differences between the assemblages collected from older and younger units of the Torridon Group, attributable to differing lacustrine ecologies. Such exceptional preservation in the Proterozoic is part of an emerging picture of evolving taphonomic styles through time, in which better preservation of cells is found as we go further back into the fossil record. We attribute this remarkable preservation in the Proterozoic to very early diagenesis in a world before the evolution of a sediment Mixed Layer during the Cambrian explosion of the Metazoa. This evidence suggests that Earth's terrestrial biota and its associated phosphorus cycle were well established on land by ~1000 Ma ago. It also suggests that many algal groups, which today are obligate freshwater denizens, may have originated in freshwater lakes over a billion years ago.

Battison, L.; Brasier, M. D.; Antcliffe, J. B.

2009-04-01

258

Freshwater invertebrates of subantarctic Marion Island  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The freshwater habitats (mires; streams; crater lakes; inland, intermediate and coastal lakes and pools; and wallows on subantarctic Marion Island were examined for invertebrates. Sixty-eight species were found, 45 of which are new records for the Island. Of these 56 were bona fide aquatic invertebrates, the rest being terrestrial or brackish interlopers that had fallen or been blown into the water. The aquatic species include five platyhelminthes, a gastrotrich, three tardigrades, 28 rotifers, six nematodes, two annelids and twelve arthropods.  Most are familiar species that have been recorded on other subantarctic islands. The invertebrate faunas of the various freshwater habitats were basically similar in species composition but the abundances of particular species depended upon the water body size, distance from the sea and degree of eutrophication resulting from seabird and seal manuring.

Herbert John Dartnall

2013-03-01

259

Assessing the freshwater distribution of yellow eel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the global context of the decline in wild species, modeling the distribution of populations is a crucial aspect of ecological management. This can be a major challenge, especially for species, such as the European eel, that have complex life cycles, exhibit cryptic behavior, or migrate over long distances. A review of the literature suggests that eel size data could be used to assess and analyze freshwater distribution of eel. We argue that analyses based on small yellow eels (? 300 mm along the longitudinal course of rivers could provide a valuable tool for population monitoring. We propose a standardized catchment recruitment index and a colonization index based on the probability of occurrence (presence/absence data using logistic models for different size classes. The model developed here provides a convenient guide for assessing yellow eel stages in freshwater areas, and should have concrete applications for management of the species.

É. Lasne

2008-01-01

260

SOME FRESHWATER SNAILS FROM NORTHERN IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many freshwater snails involved in the life cycle of parasitic flukes. Some of these animals, such as Bulinus spp and Lymnaea spp are very important in public health and veterinary medicine. For example, Bulinus trucatus and Lymnaeid snails transmit Human Bilharziosis and zoonotic Fascioliosis, respectively. For this reason most freshwater bodies of northern Iran, were searched for potential intermediate host snails of medical parasites. Thirteen mollusc taxa, i.e. 5 operculated shell-bearing versus 8 pulmonated snails were found during a snail survey, in the summer of 1992. Two taxa, viz. Anisus leucostoma and Bulinus truncatus were found to be new species for Iran and northern Iran, respectively.

A. Mansoorian

2000-08-01

261

Assessing the freshwater distribution of yellow eel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the global context of the decline in wild species, modeling the distribution of populations is a crucial aspect of ecological management. This can be a major challenge, especially for species, such as the European eel, that have complex life cycles, exhibit cryptic behavior, or migrate over long distances. A review of the literature suggests that eel size data could be used to assess and analyze freshwater distribution of eel. We argue that analyses based on small yellow eels (? 300 mm along the longitudinal course of rivers could provide a valuable tool for population monitoring. We propose a standardized catchment recruitment index and a colonization index based on the probability of occurrence (presence/absence data using logistic models for different size classes. The model developed here provides a convenient guide for assessing yellow eel stages in freshwater areas, and should have concrete applications for management of the species.

Lasne É.

2009-04-01

262

Transfer of hexabromocyclododecane from industrial effluents to sediments and biota: Case study in Cinca river (Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThis work is part of the research included in the European project AQUATERRA, focused on the study of different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in different risk zones along the Ebro River basin. Within monitoring programmes, a high contaminated area was detected, located along the Cinca River, a tributary of Ebro River, downstream a heavily industrialized town (Monzón). Data showed a high hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) contamination in this area. Our work included the analysis of sediments and biota, with special attention on aspects such as temporal trends, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of these contaminants. Moreover, an attempt of identification of source contamination was carried out, with the analysis of industrial effluents. The industry responsible of the contamination was identified.

Guerra, Paula; Cal, Agustina De La; Marsh, Göran; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

2009-05-01

263

Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m-3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

2014-03-01

264

Pesticide Interactions with N source and Tillage: Effects on soil biota and ecosystem services  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pesticide effects on soil biota must be interpreted in the context of the specific management practice, including rotation, fertilization, tillage, and pest control. Tillage, foe example, has been shown to reduce earthworm populations by up to 80%, depending on timing and specific tillage technique. Such disturbances may fully or partly obscure the effects of pesticides. The direct effects of pesticides and other management factors and their interactions must, therefore, be quantified before integrated pest management strategies that protect soil biodiversity and maintain soil functions can be identified. This study was planned to evaluate interactions between pesticide use and other soil management factors. The study was carried out within a long-term tillage experiment using two tillage practices (no-till (NT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP), two contrasting N sources (manure and mineral fertiliser), and two pesticides (the fungicide mancozeb and the insecticide alpha-cypermethrin) in a split-plot design.Results on earthworms and microarthropods will be shown and discussed.

Jensen, John; Petersen, SØren O

265

Natural radionuclides in certain intertidal biota and the radiotoxicological concerns, Gulf of Mannar, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of non-human biota from ionizing radiation, especially in the vicinity of nuclear installations is a very important aspect for nuclear engineers and ecologists. In order to ensure that certain limits of contamination are not exceeded, for the absolute protection of biota and humans is mandatory for nuclear agencies. 210Po (t1/2 = 138.4 days) and 210Pb (t1/2 = 22 years), in marine food has received much interest from the marine scientific community because of the high toxicity and radioactive dose they deliver to marine organisms and human beings when compared to anthropogenic radionuclides released into coastal waters. The present study focused on determining 210Po and 210Pb in some intertidal biota such as crustaceans and mollusks and the exposure risk assessment performed. The study was carried out along the coast of Kudankulam. Samples were processed and analysed as per the standard protocol of IAEA. A portion of 10 g dried fish sample with 0.2 Bq 208Po tracer was wet-digested using a mixed solution of HNO3, H2O2 and HCl. After the resultant solutions were evaporated to dryness, each residue was dissolved in 0.5 N HCL of 50 ml for plating Polonium. Polonium was spontaneously deposited on both sides of a silver disc from the solution for plating for 6 h at a temperature of 80-90 deg C. Both sides of the silver disc are counted with an alpha-ray colver disc are counted with an alpha-ray counter (RC 605A, Nucleonix; efficiency of 35% for a 241Am standard; minimum detectable limit is 0.02 Bq), and the results were combined. After plating, the solution was stored for 6 months in glass bottles to allow the growth of 210Po from 210Pb. Subsequent determination of the ingrown 210Po was carried out as described above for the determination of 210Pb. The average 208Po recovery of 93 ± 2% was obtained by this method. The concentration of both the radionuclides was noticed higher in the organs associated with digestion and metabolism. Filter feeding bivalve molluscs registered the maximum activity of 210Po in their whole body compared to grazing gastropods and other crustaceans. The sensitive indicator, 210Po:210Pb ratio was calculated to be greater than unity in most of the analysed tissues. The ecological sensitivity of biota to the radiation exposure and the safeness of the environment was analysed by calculating the external and internal dose rate. The total weighted internal dose rate was higher than the external dose rate. The calculated hazard quotient for molluscs was lesser than the global bench mark dose rate of 10 ?Gy h-1. (author)

266

Distributions of transuranium nuclides in sediment and biota of the North Atlantic Ocean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the interaction of marine sediments with their biotic population on the penetration, redistribution, sediment association and biotic availability of delivered transuranium nuclides are discussed as a function of both sedimentation regimes and in-fauna populations. Data on the penetration and redistribution patterns of fall-out transuranium nuclides in the shallow sediments of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, are discussed in terms of the known parameters of sedimentation and 'in sediment' biological activity. In this (and most common) type of sedimentation regime, translocation of bioturbationally downmixed transuranium nuclides back toward (and probable loss from) the sediment surface is demonstrated. Various biological and biochemical mechanisms are advanced that may act on these nuclides within sediments. The increased availability to marine biota of sediment transuranium nuclides by these remobilization processes, is indicated by data showing accumulations of these nuclides in marine invertebrates and fish. (author)

267

Distributions of transuranium nuclides in sediments and biota of the North Atlantic Ocean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the interaction of marine sediments with their biotic population on the penetration, redistribution, sediment association and biotic availability of delivered transuranium nuclides are discussed as a function of both sedimentation regimes and in-fauna populations. Data on the penetration and redistribution patterns of fallout transuranium nuclides in the shallow sediments of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, are discussed in terms of the known parameters of sedimentation and in sediment biological activity. In this (and most common) type of sedimentation regime, translocation of bioturbationally downmixed transuranium nuclides back toward (and probable loss from) the sediment surface is demonstrated. Various biological and biochemical mechanisms are advanced that may act on these nuclides within sediments. The increased availability to marine biota of sediment transuranium nuclides by these remobilization processes is indicated by data showing accumulations of these nuclides in marine invertebrates and fish. Data are included on the distribution of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am, 137Cs, and 55Fe in the samples

268

Methylmercury determination in biota by solid-phase microextraction matrix effect evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqueous-phase alkylation followed by, headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for mercury speciation in biota, was developed a decade ago. Despite this, matrix effects in this technique have not yet been addressed. In this paper, the importance of these effects has been assessed and overcome by standard addition calibration. Furthermore, improvements were made in the extraction of methylmercury (MeHg) from biological matrixes by optimizing the matrix digestion procedure (temperature and digestion time) and the SPME parameters (aliquot volume of digested samples, extraction temperature and fibre coating), which aimed to minimize the matrix effects. Accordingly, samples were alkaline digested (KOH, 25%, w/v, 60 degrees C, 180 min) and an aliquot was propylated using an aqueous NaBPr(4) solution, headspace SPME sampling and, finally, by using GC-pyrolysis (Py)-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) determination. The procedure developed was validated using dogfish muscle reference material NRCC DORM-2. PMID:17936289

Carrasco, Luis; Díez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M

2007-12-01

269

Doses to Terrestrial Biota in the Vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria, UK (invited paper)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Source terms and corresponding radionuclide activity concentrations in biota for 134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am have been assessed for three semi-natural ecosystems in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Estimates of absorbed doses (mGy.d-1) have been calculated. Doses to key indicator species, Oniscus asellus (detritivorous invertebrate), Carabus violaceous (predatory invertebrate) and Apodemus sylvaticus (granivorous wood mouse) are discussed with reference to the 1 mGy.d-1 level, below which it is postulated that no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem occur. Implications for the 'critical group' and 'reference model' approaches for a framework of radiological environmental protection are discussed. The need to assess the most highly exposed species is advanced. New research focused on the application of biomarker techniques as a mechanism for determining the interactions and effects of environmental contaminants on ecosystem structure and functioning is presented. (author)

270

Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan.

Hsu, M.J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Selvaraj, K. [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Agoramoorthy, G. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: agoram@mail.tajen.edu.tw

2006-09-15

271

Floodplain data: ecosystem characteristics and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in biota and soil. [ORNL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiocesium (/sup 137/Cs) distribution was determined in soil, roots, ground vegetation, overstory, litter, mammals, feces, and insects for a floodplain ecosystem contaminated by radioactive wastes from Manhattan Project operations in 1944. The 2-ha research site was located on the ERDA reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in a drained holding pond between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and White Oak Lake. Maximum /sup 137/Cs concentrations in soil occurred near the old retention pond dam (84,400 pCi/g) and at the upper portion of the floodplain boundary (70,500 pCi/g). This bimodal distribution pattern of /sup 137/Cs was evident for all samples collected. Large amounts of data have been collected since the summer of 1974. This report documents the data on ecosystem characteristics and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in biota and soil.

Van Voris, P.; Dahlman, R.C.

1976-11-01

272

Comparing sediment equilibrium partitioning and passive sampling techniques to estimate benthic biota PCDD/F concentrations in Newark Bay, New Jersey (U.S.A.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sediment and polyethylene sampler-based estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Newark Bay, New Jersey (USA) benthic biota were compared. Biota concentrations based on sediment were estimated using an organic carbon (OC)-water partitioning model and an OC and black carbon (BC)-water dual model. Biota concentrations based on polyethylene were estimated from samplers deployed in the Newark Bay water column and samplers immersed in a sediment/porewater slurry in the laboratory. Porewater samplers provided the best estimates of biota concentrations (within 3.1×), with best results achieved for deposit-feeders (within 1.6×). Polyethylene deployed in deep water also provided good estimates of biota concentrations (within 4×). By contrast, OC-water partitioning overestimated biota concentrations by up to 7×, while OC and BC combined underestimated biota concentrations by up to 13×. We recommend passive samplers such as polyethylene for estimating concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants in field biota given its simplicity and relatively lower uncertainty compared to sediment equilibrium partitioning. -- Highlights: • PE samplers accurately estimate Newark Bay biota PCDD/F concentrations. • A traditional KOC partitioning model overestimated PCDD/F uptake by a factor of 4–7. • A dual KOC and KBC model underestimated biota PCDD/F uptake by a factor of 4–13. • Sediment- and depth-specific KBCs improved predictions of PCDD/F uptake. • Deposit feeder uptake switches from porewater control to ingestion at log KOW 6–7. -- Using polyethylene samplers to measure porewater concentrations is a more efficient approach for estimating site-specific bioavailable organic contaminants than equilibrium partitioning

273

Predicting spatial similarity of freshwater fish biodiversity  

OpenAIRE

A major issue in modern ecology is to understand how ecological complexity at broad scales is regulated by mechanisms operating at the organismic level. What specific underlying processes are essential for a macroecological pattern to emerge? Here, we analyze the analytical predictions of a general model suitable for describing the spatial biodiversity similarity in river ecosystems, and benchmark them against the empirical occurrence data of freshwater fish species collected in the Mississip...

Azaele, Sandro; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-iturbe, Ignacio

2009-01-01

274

Predicting spacial similarity of freshwater fish biodiversity  

OpenAIRE

A major issue in modern ecology is to understand how ecological complexity at broad scales is regulated by mechanisms operating at the organismic level. What specific underlying processes are essential for a macroecological pattern to emerge? Here, we analyze the analytical predictions of a general model suitable for describing the spatial biodiversity similarity in river ecosystems, and benchmark them against the empirical occurrence data of freshwater fish species collected in the Mississip...

Azaele, S.; Muneepeerakul, R.; Marian, A.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-iturbe, I.

2009-01-01

275

Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia  

OpenAIRE

Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna includes five prosobranch gastropod species, seven pearly freshwater mussel species and one sphaeriid bivalve species. The supposed presence of Pachydon (Corbulidae: Bivalvia) in these deposits is re...

Wesselingh, F. P.; Ranzi, A.; Ra?sa?nen, M. E.

2006-01-01

276

The Freshwater Project: history and evolution  

OpenAIRE

The Freshwater Project was established based on an environmental diagnosis of the Ribeirão dos Porcos river in 2001 by undergraduate students and teachers of the Environmental Engineering course of the Centro Regional Universitário de Espírito Santo do Pinhal, state of São Paulo, Brazil. At that time, the stream’s urban area already displayed environmental degradation, which was evidenced by the garbage and deforestation along its banks and confirmed by physical, chemical and microbiolo...

Rafael Henrique Gonçalves; Alan Perina Romão; Fábio Augusto Gomes Vieira Reis; Carlos Antonio Centurion Maciel; Vasco Luiz Altafin; Rogéria Maria Alves de Almeida; André Luis Paradela; Gilberto José Hussar; Gerson Araújo de Medeiros,; Lucas Miyamoto; Gustavo Prata Honório; Lucas Nogues Bruno

2004-01-01

277

Concentrations and trophic magnification of cyclic siloxanes in aquatic biota from the Western Basin of Lake Erie, Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examine the concentrations and food web biomagnification of three cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) using aquatic biota collected from Lake Erie. Concentrations of cVMS in biota were within the range reported for other studies of cVMS in aquatic biota. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were assessed in various food web configurations to investigate the effects of food web structure. TMF estimates were highly dependent on the inclusion/exclusion of the organisms occupying the highest and lowest trophic levels and were >1 for D4 and D5, indicating biomagnification, in only 1 of the 5 food web configurations investigated and were <1 in the remaining 4 food web configurations. TMF estimates for PCB180 were also dependant on food web configuration, but did not correspond with those obtained for cVMS materials. These differences may be attributed to environmental exposure and/or lipid partitioning differences between PCB180 and cVMS. -- Highlights: • We investigated trophic magnification of siloxanes in aquatic biota from Lake Erie. • Trophic magnification estimates were variable and sensitive to food web structure. • Lipid partitioning of siloxanes and PCBs differ and may contribute to variability. -- Biomagnification estimates for siloxanes in Lake Erie are sensitive to food web structure, contaminant exposure pathways, and lipid partitioning differences between PCBs and siloxanes

278

Study of the uncertainty in estimation of the exposure of non-human biota to ionising radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uncertainty in estimations of the exposure of non-human biota to ionising radiation may arise from a number of sources including values of the model parameters, empirical data, measurement errors and biases in the sampling. The significance of the overall uncertainty of an exposure assessment will depend on how the estimated dose compares with reference doses used for risk characterisation. In this paper, we present the results of a study of the uncertainty in estimation of the exposure of non-human biota using some of the models and parameters recommended in the FASSET methodology. The study was carried out for semi-natural terrestrial, agricultural and marine ecosystems, and for four radionuclides (137Cs, 239Pu, 129I and 237Np). The parameters of the radionuclide transfer models showed the highest sensitivity and contributed the most to the uncertainty in the predictions of doses to biota. The most important ones were related to the bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides in the environment, for example soil-to-plant transfer factors, the bioaccumulation factors for marine biota and the gut uptake fraction for terrestrial mammals. In contrast, the dose conversion coefficients showed low sensitivity and contributed little to the overall uncertainty. Radiobiological effectiveness contributed to the overall uncertainty of the dose estimations for alpha emitters although to a lesser degree than a number of transfer model parameters. PMID:15700701

Avila, R; Beresford, N A; Agüero, A; Broed, R; Brown, J; Iospje, M; Robles, B; Suañez, A

2004-12-01

279

Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

Robinson, C A; Smith, K L [Enviros Consulting Limited, 61 The Shore, Leith, Edinburgh EH6 6RA (United Kingdom); Norris, S, E-mail: carol.robinson@enviros.co [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Radioactive Waste Management Directorate, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15

280

Accumulation of exp (134) Cs, exp (137) Cs and exp (90) Sr radionuclides by the fishing ponds biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conditions and levels of biological productivity in ponds of different destination and grade of pollution were studied in biennial experiment. The radionuclides distribution was assessed in various components of biota and other elements of ponds ecosystems. It was determined that the small radiation doses influence negatively fish reproduction ability and immunological status

281

TENORM wastes and the potential alpha radiation dose to aquatic biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years seventies release-rates and derived limits for releasing radionuclides into the environment were adopted for each particular radionuclide and for a number of pathways. The release-rate limit adopted for alpha emitters was 1015 Bq.y-1 for a single site, but limited to 1014 Bq.y-1 for 226Ra and supported 210Po. In addition, to meet the requirements of the London Convention, a derived limit should be expressed in terms of concentration, which for alpha emitters was 1010 Bq.t-1 , but limited to 1014 Bq.t-1 for 226Ra and supported 210Po, assuming an upper limit to the mass dumping rate of 105 t per year at a single dumping site. New data on the radioactivity in the marine environment and biota, including plankton, indicated a potential alpha radiation dose to these aquatic organisms due to the release of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes. At the highest accumulation of 239Pu in the zooplankton Gammarus in Thule, Greenland, due to an accidental release associated with military activities, the dose rate reached about 0.14 ?Gy.h-1 . Such dose rate was similar to that received by the phytoplankton Chaetoceros and Rhizosolenia from Agulhas current, Africa, due to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) supposedly enhanced for almost one century of gold mining at first, and subsequently because of heap-leaching uranium extraction from the tailings left behind by earlier gold miners. The paper will discuss the alpha radiation dose to aquatic biota, in general, and to plankton, in particular, due to potential releases of TENORM wastes in the aquatic environment. (author)

282

Clonal diversity driven by parasitism in a freshwater snail.  

Science.gov (United States)

One explanation for the widespread abundance of sexual reproduction is the advantage that genetically diverse sexual lineages have under strong pressure from virulent coevolving parasites. Such parasites are believed to track common asexual host genotypes, resulting in negative frequency-dependent selection that counterbalances the population growth-rate advantage of asexuals in comparison with sexuals. In the face of genetically diverse asexual lineages, this advantage of sexual reproduction might be eroded, and instead sexual populations would be replaced by diverse assemblages of clonal lineages. We investigated whether parasite-mediated selection promotes clonal diversity in 22 natural populations of the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata. We found that infection prevalence explains the observed variation in the clonal diversity of M. tuberculata populations, whereas no such relationship was found between infection prevalence and male frequency. Clonal diversity and male frequency were independent of snail population density. Incorporating ecological factors such as presence/absence of fish, habitat geography and habitat type did not improve the predictive power of regression models. Approximately 11% of the clonal snail genotypes were shared among 2-4 populations, creating a web of 17 interconnected populations. Taken together, our study suggests that parasite-mediated selection coupled with host dispersal ecology promotes clonal diversity. This, in return, may erode the advantage of sexual reproduction in M. tuberculata populations. PMID:24118641

Dagan, Y; Liljeroos, K; Jokela, J; Ben-Ami, F

2013-11-01

283

Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere  

CERN Document Server

Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method...

Bolonkin, Alexander

2007-01-01

284

Review of research on impacts to biota of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides in produced water to the marine environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Produced water has been described as the largest volume waste stream in the exploration and production process of oil and gas. It is accompanied by discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides raising concerns over the potential radiological impacts of produced water on marine biota. In the Northern European marine environment, radioactivity in produced water has received substantial attention owing to the OSPAR Radioactive Substances Strategy which aims at achieving ‘concentrations in the environment near background values for naturally occurring radioactive substances’. This review provides an overview of published research on the impacts to biota from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water by the offshore oil and gas industry. In addition to summarising studies and data that deal directly with the issue of dose and effect, the review also considers studies related to the impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. The review clearly illustrates that only a limited number of studies have investigated possible impacts on biota from naturally occurring radionuclides present in produced water. Hence, although these studies indicate that the risk to the environment from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water is negligible, the substantial uncertainties involved in the assessments of impact make it difficult to be conclusive. With regard to the complexity involved in the problem under consideration there is a pressing need to supplement existing data and acquire new knowledge. Finally, the present work identifies some knowledge gaps to indicate future research requirements. -- Highlights: ? Produced water from offshore oil industry contains naturally occurring radionuclides. ? Published research on the impacts to biota from these radionuclides is reviewed. ? Review includes impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. ? Studies indicate negligible risk to biota but substantial uncertainties remain.

285

Review of research on impacts to biota of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides in produced water to the marine environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Produced water has been described as the largest volume waste stream in the exploration and production process of oil and gas. It is accompanied by discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides raising concerns over the potential radiological impacts of produced water on marine biota. In the Northern European marine environment, radioactivity in produced water has received substantial attention owing to the OSPAR Radioactive Substances Strategy which aims at achieving 'concentrations in the environment near background values for naturally occurring radioactive substances'. This review provides an overview of published research on the impacts to biota from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water by the offshore oil and gas industry. In addition to summarising studies and data that deal directly with the issue of dose and effect, the review also considers studies related to the impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. The review clearly illustrates that only a limited number of studies have investigated possible impacts on biota from naturally occurring radionuclides present in produced water. Hence, although these studies indicate that the risk to the environment from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water is negligible, the substantial uncertainties involved in the assessments of impact make it difficult to be conclusive. With regard to the complexity involved in the problem under consideration there is a pressing need to supplement existing data and acquire new knowledge. Finally, the present work identifies some knowledge gaps to indicate future research requirements. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Produced water from offshore oil industry contains naturally occurring radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Published research on the impacts to biota from these radionuclides is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review includes impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Studies indicate negligible risk to biota but substantial uncertainties remain.

Hosseini, Ali, E-mail: Ali.Hosseini@nrpa.n [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Po Box 55, N-1332 Osteras (Norway); Brown, Justin E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Po Box 55, N-1332 Osteras (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Dowdall, Mark [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Po Box 55, N-1332 Osteras (Norway)

2012-11-01

286

Baseline levels and trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from the Congo River Basin (DR Congo).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: (PCBs, PBDEs, DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and HCB) in sediments and biota from the middle Congo River Basin (CRB) and to investigate their trophic transfer through the aquatic food web using nitrogen stable isotope ratios. To our knowledge, no data on levels of POPs in sediment and biota from the CRB are present in the literature, and studies on trophic transfer and biomagnification profiles of POPs using ?(15)N are scarce in tropical regions. POP levels in the sediment and biota were low, with exception of total PCB levels found in fish from the Itimbiri River (1.4 to 44ng/g ww). Compared to concentrations found in fish from pristine to relatively industrial developed areas, the ?PCB levels in fish from the Itimbiri were high, indicating the presence of a local PCB contamination source in this catchment. Based on minimum risk level criteria formulated by ATSDR, the consumption of PCB contaminated fish from the Itimbiri river poses a potential risk for humans. The POP levels in biota were not significantly related to the POP levels in sediments, and the BSAF concept (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor) was found to be a poor predictor of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in the present study. With increasing trophic levels, a significant increase in PCB 95, 101, 110, 138, 146, 149, 153, 174, 180 & 187 and p,p'-DDT in Itimbiri and BDE 47 & 99 in Itimbiri, Aruwimi & Lomami river basins was observed. Trophic magnification factors were higher than 1, indicating that biomagnification occurs through the tropical food web. PMID:23872388

Verhaert, Vera; Covaci, Adrian; Bouillon, Steven; Abrantes, Katya; Musibono, Dieudonné; Bervoets, Lieven; Verheyen, Erik; Blust, Ronny

2013-09-01

287

General relationships between abiotic soil properties and soil biota across spatial scales and different land-use types.  

Science.gov (United States)

Very few principles have been unraveled that explain the relationship between soil properties and soil biota across large spatial scales and different land-use types. Here, we seek these general relationships using data from 52 differently managed grassland and forest soils in three study regions spanning a latitudinal gradient in Germany. We hypothesize that, after extraction of variation that is explained by location and land-use type, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in the abundance and diversity of soil biota. If the relationships between predictors and soil organisms were analyzed individually for each predictor group, soil properties explained the highest amount of variation in soil biota abundance and diversity, followed by land-use type and sampling location. After extraction of variation that originated from location or land-use, abiotic soil properties explained significant amounts of variation in fungal, meso- and macrofauna, but not in yeast or bacterial biomass or diversity. Nitrate or nitrogen concentration and fungal biomass were positively related, but nitrate concentration was negatively related to the abundances of Collembola and mites and to the myriapod species richness across a range of forest and grassland soils. The species richness of earthworms was positively correlated with clay content of soils independent of sample location and land-use type. Our study indicates that after accounting for heterogeneity resulting from large scale differences among sampling locations and land-use types, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in fungal and soil fauna abundance or diversity. However, soil biota was also related to processes that act at larger spatial scales and bacteria or soil yeasts only showed weak relationships to soil properties. We therefore argue that more general relationships between soil properties and soil biota can only be derived from future studies that consider larger spatial scales and different land-use types. PMID:22937029

Birkhofer, Klaus; Schöning, Ingo; Alt, Fabian; Herold, Nadine; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Marhan, Sven; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wubet, Tesfaye; Yurkov, Andrey; Begerow, Dominik; Berner, Doreen; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Diekötter, Tim; Ehnes, Roswitha B; Erdmann, Georgia; Fischer, Christiane; Foesel, Bärbel; Groh, Janine; Gutknecht, Jessica; Kandeler, Ellen; Lang, Christa; Lohaus, Gertrud; Meyer, Annabel; Nacke, Heiko; Näther, Astrid; Overmann, Jörg; Polle, Andrea; Pollierer, Melanie M; Scheu, Stefan; Schloter, Michael; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Schulze, Waltraud; Weinert, Jan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wolters, Volkmar; Schrumpf, Marion

2012-01-01

288

Actinorhodopsin genes discovered in diverse freshwater habitats and among cultivated freshwater Actinobacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial rhodopsins are membrane proteins that utilize a retinal chromophore to harvest sunlight for energetic and photosensory functions. Recently, a group of novel rhodopsin sequences named 'actinorhodopsins' (ActRs) was hypothesized to exist among uncultured planktonic Actinobacteria. ActRs were discovered by mining metagenomic data obtained during the Venter Institute's Global Ocean Sampling expedition, from a hypersaline lagoon, two estuaries and a freshwater lake. On the basis of these findings, and many studies that show Actinobacteria are common inhabitants of lakes, we predicted that ActR genes would likely be present in other freshwater habitats and among the genomes of cultivated Actinobacteria. Using degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers, we discovered an ActR gene present in an actinobacterial isolate of the family Microbacteriaceae. Isolate MWH-Uga1 was cultivated prior to this study from a freshwater pond in Uganda and belongs to a group of Actinobacteria previously identified in freshwater ecosystems. ActR genes were also discovered present in numerous mixed cultures containing freshwater Actinobacteria and among environmental DNA samples obtained from three freshwater sources; a small woodland pond and the Laurentian Great Lakes Superior and Erie. An analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes from metagenomic DNA samples harboring ActR genes suggests that organisms belonging to the acI lineage, an uncultured group of Actinobacteria commonly present in fresh waters, may utilize rhodopsins. The co-occurrence of an acI organism with a specific ActR variant in a mixed culture supports our hypothesis. PMID:19242530

Sharma, Adrian K; Sommerfeld, Katrin; Bullerjahn, George S; Matteson, Audrey R; Wilhelm, Steven W; Jezbera, Jan; Brandt, Ulrike; Doolittle, W Ford; Hahn, Martin W

2009-06-01

289

A Complete Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Southern Africa  

OpenAIRE

Those of us interested in freshwater fishes and related environmental issues have waited several years for Paul Skelton's A Complete Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Southern Africa. The final result proves to be well worth the long wait, for with this book the author manages to disseminate a reasonable amount of detailed information on freshwater fishes to the layman, angler and naturalist. Although Skelton's book is not specifically aimed at the scientist, it contains condensed, updated...

Skelton, P. H.

2012-01-01

290

Po-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial and freshwater environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides new information on Po-210 (and where appropriate its grandparent Pb-210) behaviour in environmental systems including humans. This has primarily been achieved through measurements of Po-210 in aquatic and terrestrial environments that has led to the derivation of information on the levels of this radioisotope in plants, animals and the biotic components of their habitat (i.e. water, soil) providing basic information on transfer where practicable. For freshwater environments, Po-210 concentration ratios derived for freshwater benthic fish and bivalve mollusc were substantially different to values collated from earlier review work. For terrestrial environments, activity concentrations of Po-210 in small mammals (although of a preliminary nature because no correction was made for ingrowth from Pb-210) were considerably higher than values derived from earlier data compilations. It was envisaged that data on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides would render underpinning data sets more comprehensive and would thus allow more robust background dose calculations to be performed subsequently. By way of example, unweighted background dose-rates arising from internal distributions of Po-210 were calculated for small mammals in the terrestrial study. The biokinetics of polonium in humans has been studied following chronic and acute oral intakes of selected Po radioisotopes. This work has provided information on gastrointestinal absorption factors and biological retention times thus improving the database upon which committed effective doses to humans are derived. The information generated in the report, in its entirety, should be of direct relevance for both human and non-human impact assessments. (au)

Gjelsvik, Runhild; Brown, Justin (eds.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Holm, Elis (Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Roos, Per (Risoe DTU (Denmark)); Saxen, Ritva; Outola, Iisa (STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland))

2009-01-15

291

Phytochemical and Antibacterial Study of Five Freshwater Algal Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A phytochemical study of five freshwater algal species isolated from an Egyptian water station and comparing their inhibition activities against three selected bacterial pathogens in order to correlate the biological activity and the chemical constituents of the algae. Five freshwater algal species, Anabaena sphaerica, Chroococcus turgidus, Oscillatoria limnetica and Spirulina platensis (blue-green algae, Cyanobacteria and Cosmarium leave (green algae were isolated from an Egyptian water station and purified using BG11 media and cultivated. The alcoholic and the aqueous extracts of the five species were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against three bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Streptococcus faecalis using poured plate method. A comparative phytochemical study was performed to detect the main active components of the tested extracts. The obtained results revealed that both the MeOH and the aqueous extracts of Spirulina showed noticeable inhibitory activity against the three bacterial strains: 91.6% (0.7 mg mL-1, 86.2% (0.5 mg mL-1 and 100% (0.3 mg mL-1 for MeOH. and 74.4% (0.9 mg mL-1, 99.3% (0.9 mg mL-1 and 72.6% (0.1 mg mL-1 for H2O against E. coli, Salmonella and Streptococcus, respectively in comparison with other algal extracts. The latter exerted different inhibition activities depending on the types of the bacteria and the extract. It could be concluded that the antibacterial activity was strongly correlated with the quercitin and pigment contents for the MeOH extract and the carbohydrates and pigments contents for the aqueous extract.

G.H. Ali

2012-01-01

292

Life history traits variation in heterogeneous environment: The case of a freshwater snail resistance to pond drying  

OpenAIRE

Ecologists and population geneticists have long suspected that the diversity of living organisms was connected to the structure of their environment. In heterogeneous environments, diversifying selection combined to restricted gene flow may indeed lead to locally adapted populations. The freshwater snail, Galba truncatula, is a good model to address this question because it is present in a heterogeneous environment composed of temporary and permanent waters. In order to test the selective imp...

Chapuis, Elodie; Ferdy, Jean-baptiste

2012-01-01

293

76 FR 62349 - Preliminary Results Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic of China: of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Freshwater Crawfish Tail Meat From the People's Republic...order is freshwater crawfish tail meat, in all its forms (whether washed or with fat on, whether purged or unpurged...thereof. Freshwater crawfish tail meat is currently...

2011-10-07

294

Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

PFCs present significant thermal and chemical stability being persistent in the environment, where they can bio-accumulate and adversely affect humans and wildlife (Llorca et al., 2012). Human exposure to PFCs is of concern since PFCs tend to be associated with fatty acid binding proteins in the liver or albumin proteins in blood, and have been detected in human serum, urine, saliva, seminal plasma and breast milk (Sundstrom et al., 2011). This study is aimed at the screening of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The main objective is to identify target compounds at low levels in water, sediments and biota of the Llobregat River (2010), second longest river in Catalonia and one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. PFCs were extracted from water samples by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); from sediment by ultrasonication with acidified methanol followed by an off-line SPE procedure (Picó et al., 2012), and from biota (fish) with alkaline digestion, clean-up by TurboFlow™ on line technology coupled to LC-MS/MS (Llorca et al., 2012). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were calculated by analysis of spiked river water, sediment, and biota with minimum concentrations of each individual compound at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10, respectively. The LODs and LOQs of the method in river water ranged between 0.004 and 0.8 ng L-1 and between 0.01 and 2 ng L-1, respectively. In sediment LODs were 0.013-2.667 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and LOQs were 0.04-8 ng g-1 dw, meanwhile in biota these were 0.006-0.7 pg ?L-1 and 0.02-2.26 pg ?L-1, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 65% and 102% for all target compounds. The method was applied to study the spatial distribution of these compounds in the Llobregat River basin. For this, a total of 40 samples were analysed (14 water, 14 sediments, 12 fishes). Of the 21 target compounds, 13 were identified in water samples (PFBA, PFDA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFHxDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS and L-PFOS), and their concentrations ranged between 0. 1 ng L-1 (PFNA) and 2709 ng L-1 (L-PFOS). Similarly, PFBA, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS, L-PFOS and PFOSA were identified in sediments samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.147 ng g-1 dw (L-PFOS) to 13 ng g-1 dw (PFBA). In biota similar PFC were detected, with values between 0.03 and 1738.06 ng g-1. According to this study, PFCs were detected in different compartments of the ecosystem where they are bio-accumulating and, potentially, would produce adverse effects on humans. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the projects Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02. We also thank the persons of IDAEA for taking the samples. References Llorca, M., Farre, M., Pico, Y., Muller, J., Knepper, T. P., Barcelo, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain. Sci. Total Environ. 431, 139-150. Llorca, M., Pérez, F., Farre, M., Agramunt, S., Kogevinas, M., Barceló, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood by turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Sci. Total Environ. 433, 151-160. Pico, Y., Blasco, C., Farre, M., Barcelo, D., 2012. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). Environ.Sci.Pollut.Res. 19, 946-957. Sundstrom, M., Ehresman, D. J., Bignert, A., Butenhoff, J. L., Olsen, G. W., Chang, S. C., Bergman, A., 2011. A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden. Environ. Inter. 37, 178-183.

Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

2014-05-01

295

The use of biota sampling for environmental contaminant analysis for characterization of benthic communities in the Aleutians.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is increasingly clear that the public, native tribes, and governmental agencies are interested in assessing the well-being of natural resources and ecosystems. This may take the form of understanding species presence, monitoring population status and trends, measuring behavior, or quantifying physiology, biological stresses, or chemical/radiological exposure through biomarkers. Often there is a separation between understanding the biological aspects of species well-being and assessing exposure to contaminants. In this paper we examine the applicability of using scuba sampling aimed primarily at specimen collection for radionuclide analysis to assess species presence/absence and to compare among sampling sites and depths. We were especially interested in whether dive transects could provide information on species presence and potential exposure to environmental contaminants. In June/July 2004 we sampled at 49 depth stations along 19 transects at Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the western Aleutian Islands in the Northern Pacific/Bering Sea region. Amchitka Island, a former World War II U.S. Navy base, was the site of three underground nuclear test shots from 1965 to 1971. Four to six transects were established at three Amchitka sites and two Kiska Sites, and 2 to 4 stations were sampled on each transect. Bottom conditions, weather and currents prevented a complete sampling of all stations. There were interspecific differences in the percent of stations where biota were found and collected, in their occurrence near the three test shots on Amchitka, and in the depth where they were found. There were no significant differences between Amchitka and Kiska Island in the percent of stations where species were found. These data suggest that information gathered incidentally to the collection of specimens for chemical/radiological analysis can prove useful for understanding the presence of benthic organisms along particular transects, at given depths, and at different geographical locations. This information also provides a baseline for the range of organisms that could be exposed to future physical or chemical/radiological stressors. The data are useful for developing future biomonitoring plans to assess biological well-being and chemical/radiological exposure only if they are published and available to the public, public policy makers, and managers. Just as it is critical to select endpoints and bioindicators that are of interest for assessing both human and ecological health, specimens should be collected using a protocol that is useful for both chemical/radiological analysis and biological information. PMID:16828148

Burger, Joanna; Jewett, Stephen; Gochfeld, Michael; Hoberg, Max; Harper, Shawn; Chenelot, Heloise; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean

2006-10-01

296

Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment and biota (fish and crabs) samples from the Densu Delta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was assess the concentration of some selected heavy metals in water, sediments and biota (fish and crab) sampled from the Densu Delta. In situ and laboratory based analysis were carried out to measure the following physicochemical properties of surface water from the delta; temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, sodium ion concentration (Na+), potassium ion concentration (K+), chloride ion concentration (Cl), bicarbonate concentration, phosphate concentration, nitrate concentration, sulphate concentration and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg) concentrations in water, sediments, fish and crab sampled at six sites from the Densu Delta wetland in the month of December, 2009 were analysed using VARIAN Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) model AA240 FS. Two fish species; Blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron), White mullet (Mugil curema) and one species of crab; Blue swimming crab (Callinectes amnicola) were collected from the Densu Delta wetland and analysed. Heavy metal contents in the fish were higher in gill tissue than muscle tissue while in crabs concentrations were higher in the soft tissue than the shell. Levels of Fe, Zn and Cu in the muscle tissue of S. melanotheron were greater than the levels detected in the muscle tissue of M. curema. Cd, Ni and Hg were detected in gill tissue but not in the muscle tissue gill tissue but not in the muscle tissue of S. melanotheron, M. curema on the other hand contained these metals in both gill and muscle tissue. The maximum level of Fe (34.98 mg/L), Zn (25.08 mg/L) in the muscle of S. melanotheron was observed at Bortianor and Zn (2.70 mg/L) was observed at Tetegu. In the M. curema, the maximum level of Fe (34.66 mg/L), Zn (15.9 mg/L) and Cu (1.43 mg/L) was detected at Aplaku, Tetegu and Faana respectively. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in sediment than water. The presence of elevated levels of Cd and Ni in the muscle tissue of the white mullet fish from Tetegu and Faana, is a potential public health hazard to the inhabitants of these two communities and other neighbouring communities who depend on fish from the delta as their source of protein. (au)

297

Microsoft Word - Rationale for Water Framework Directive Freshwater-Classification-JG- ...  

SCPinfonet

1 Draft River Basin Management Plans Rationale for Water Framework Directive (WFD) Freshwater Classification December 2008 2 Rationale for Water Framework Directive (WFD) Freshwater Classification RIVER AND LAKES ...

298

Glycosylation of bisphenol A by freshwater microalgae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA, 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resin linings of food and beverage cans, and the residues from these products are then sometimes discharged into rivers and lakes in waste leachates. However, the fate of BPA in the environment has not yet been thoroughly elucidated. Considering the effect of BPA on aquatic organisms, it is important that we estimate the concentration of BPA and its metabolites in the aquatic environment, but there are few data on the metabolites of BPA. Here, we focused on freshwater microalgae as organisms that contribute to the biodegradation or biotransformation of BPA in aquatic environments. When we added BPA to cultures of eight species of freshwater microalgae, a reduction in the concentration of BPA in the culture medium was observed in all cultures. BPA was metabolized to BPA glycosides by Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Scenedesmus acutus, Scenedesmus quadricauda, and Coelastrum reticulatum, and these metabolites were then released into the culture medium. The metabolite from P. subcapitata, S. acutus, and C. reticulatum was identified by FAB-MS and (1)H-NMR as bisphenol A-mono-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (BPAGlc), and another metabolite, from S. quadricauda, was identified as bisphenol A-mono-O-beta-d-galactopyranoside (BPAGal). These results demonstrate that freshwater microalgae that inhabit universal environments can metabolize BPA to its glycosides. Because BPA glycosides accumulate in plants and algae, and may be digested to BPA by beta-glycosidase in animal intestines, more attention should be given to levels of BPA glycosides in the environment to estimate the ecological impact of discharged BPA. PMID:17629547

Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Teramoto, Tetsuya; Kasai, Fumie; Sano, Tomoharu; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Kamada, Hiroshi; Azumi, Yoshitaka; Saji, Hikaru

2007-10-01

299

Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were simulated and analyzed. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution, snow and ice melt, and runoff modeling system, was used to simulate the temporal and spatial terrestrial runoff distribution to the fjord based on observed meteorological data (1999–2008 from stations located on and around the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS. Simulated runoff was compared and verified against independent glacier catchment runoff observations (1999–2005. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was highly variable, ranging from 2.9×109 m3 y?1 in 1999 to 5.9×109 m3 y?1 in 2005. The uneven spatial runoff distribution produced an areally-averaged annual maximum runoff at the Helheim glacier terminus of more than 3.8 m w.eq. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage. To assess the Sermilik Fjord freshwater flux, simulated terrestrial runoff and net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation for the fjord area were combined with satellite-derived ice discharge and subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. A terrestrial freshwater flux of ~40.4×109 m3 y?1 was found for Sermilik Fjord, with an 11% contribution originated from surface runoff. For the Helheim glacier sub-catchment only 4% of the flux originated from terrestrial surface runoff.

S. H. Mernild

2010-07-01

300

Reassessing the planetary boundary for freshwater consumption  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation reviews the conceptual and quantitative foundation of the recently suggested 'planetary boundary' for freshwater (i.e. the volume of human 'blue' water consumption that is deemed to be tolerable; see Rockström et al. in Nature 2009). It also proposes ways forward to refine and reassess this planetary boundary. As a key element of such a revision we provide a bottom-up quantification of local water availabilities taking account of environmental flow requirement in a spatially explicit manner and using five different methods to estimate these flow requirements with a global dynamic hydrology and vegetation model (LPJmL). Our analysis suggests that the planetary boundary for freshwater consumption may adopt a value of about 2800 km3 yr-1 (which is the average of an uncertainty range of 1100-4500 km3 yr-1). This is notably lower than the original suggestion based on a simpler top-down analysis that relied on some global estimates of environmental flow requirements (4,000 km3 yr-1, the lower value of an uncertainty range of 4000-6000 km3 yr-1). Although assessed with spatial detail, this new estimate remains provisional, pending further refinement by analyses of local water accessibility and further constraints up-scaled to the global domain, including study of cascading impacts on Earth system properties. Nonetheless, with a current blue water consumption of >1,700 km3 yr-1, it appears that the freshwater boundary appears is being approached fast, and perhaps faster than suggested earlier. Thus, design opportunities to remain within this boundary are imperative - we argue that their comprehensive quantification requires analysis of tradeoffs with other planetary boundaries such as those for land use and climate change.

Gerten, Dieter; Pastor, Amandine; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Hoff, Holger; Rockström, Johan; Kummu, Matti

2014-05-01

301

Practical aids for freshwater spill response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current research program at API is focused on the environmental and human health effects from oil spills in freshwater habitats. Components of the program include lessons learned from spill response, development of decision-making protocols for the use of chemicals during initial response operations, preparation of a manual for spill response and contingency planning, and a review of the literature on environmental and human health effects from inland spills. API has reviewed past inland spill responses to identify lessons learned. A survey questionnaire has been developed to collect information from freshwater spill responders on their successes and difficulties in response operations. The questionnaire is tailored to focus on the impact to the operations from the absence of technical/scientific data on environmental effects or operation effectiveness/efficiency as well as to identify situations in which the use of particular response or cleanup options is likely to be effective. The questionnaires will be available at the Conference. Published case studies also will be examined for lessons-learned information. The results will be used to identify and prioritize API research needs in freshwater spill response. General concerns about the effectiveness of the toxicity associated with chemicals in spill response has prevented their use in fresh water. API has begun a detailed survey and interview process with state and federal regulatory personnel to identify their al regulatory personnel to identify their concerns and decision criteria to evaluate the use of chemicals in initial spill response. Ten classes of chemicals were identified for consideration: dispersants, shoreline cleaners, shoreline protection agents, herding agents, solidifiers, demulsifiers, emulsion inhibitors, foaming agents, oxidizing agents, and burning agents

302

Uptake, turnover and distribution of chlorinated fatty acids in aquatic biota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chlorinated fatty acids (CIFAs) are the major contributors of extractable, organically bound chlorine in fish lipids. A known anthropogenic source of CIFAs is chlorine bleached pulp production. Additional anthropogenic sources may exist, e.g., chlorine-containing discharge from industrial and household waste and they may also occur naturally. CIFAs have a wide geographic distribution. They have, for instance, been identified in fish both from Alaskan and Scandinavian waters. In toxicological studies of CIFAs, the most pronounced effects have been found in reproductive related processes. CIFAs have also been shown to disrupt cell membrane functions. The present study was carried out to further characterise the ecotoxicological properties of CIFAs and their presence in biota. To investigate the biological stability of CIFAs, two experiments were carried out using radiolabelled chlorinated and non-chlorinated fatty acids. In both experiments, CIFAs were taken up from food by fish and assimilated to lipids. From the first experiment it was concluded that the chlorinated fatty acid investigated was turned over in the fish to a lower degree than the non-chlorinated analogue. In the second experiment, the transfer of a chlorinated fatty acid was followed over several trophic levels and the chlorinated fatty acid was transferred to the highest trophic level. In samples with differing loads of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from both fish and marine mammals, high concentrations and diversity of CIFAs were detected. This was also observed in samples with low POP concentration. Chlorohydroxy fatty acids made up a considerable portion of the CIFAs in certain samples, both from limnic fish and marine mammals. CIFAs in fish were found to be bound in complex lipids such as triacylglycerols (storage lipids) and phospholipids, as well as in acyl sterols (membrane lipids). In the marine mammals investigated, high concentrations of CIFAs were mainly bound in phospholipids. If CIFAs are assimilated like `normal` fatty acids, are incorporated into membrane lipids, and are recalcitrant to catabolism, they may thus give rise to ecotoxicological effects when released to the environment and accumulated in biota 55 refs, 1 fig

Bjoern, Helena

1999-09-01

303

GPM Poster and Freshwater Classroom Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

This poster features NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. The front features an image of the GPM Core Observatory satellite along with the constellation of satellites that will accompany it. Background information is provided on the reverse side of the poster, including an overview of the mission, details of the satellite, the science and applications of the mission, and information on the constellation missions with which GPM will partner. Also included on the back is a multi-age educational activity on freshwater availability. See Related & Supplemental Resources to download a PDF of the poster.

304

Transfer of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems - Default concentration ratios for aquatic biota in the Erica Tool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of assessing risk to the environment following a given release of radioactivity requires the quantification of activity concentrations in environmental media and reference organisms. The methodology adopted by the ERICA Integrated Approach involves the application of concentration ratios (CR values) and distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values) for aquatic systems. Within this paper the methodologies applied to derive default transfer parameters, collated within the ERICA Tool databases, are described to provide transparency and traceability in the documentation process. Detailed information is provided for the CR values used for marine and freshwater systems. Of the total 372 CR values derived for the marine ecosystem, 195 were identified by literature review. For the freshwater system, the number of values based on review was less, but still constituted 129 from a total of 372 values. In both types of aquatic systems, 70-80% of the data gaps have been filled by employing 'preferable' approaches such as those based on substituting values from taxonomically similar organisms or biogeochemically similar elements.

Hosseini, A.; Thorring, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini naeringspark 13, P.O. Box 55, No-1332 Osteras (Norway); Brown, J.E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Department of Emergency Preparedness and Environmental Radioactivity, Grini naeringspark 13, P.O. Box 55, No-1332 Osteras (Norway)], E-mail: justin.brown@nrpa.no; Saxen, R.; Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Laippatie 4, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

2008-09-15

305

Transfer of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems - Default concentration ratios for aquatic biota in the Erica Tool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of assessing risk to the environment following a given release of radioactivity requires the quantification of activity concentrations in environmental media and reference organisms. The methodology adopted by the ERICA Integrated Approach involves the application of concentration ratios (CR values) and distribution coefficients (Kd values) for aquatic systems. Within this paper the methodologies applied to derive default transfer parameters, collated within the ERICA Tool databases, are described to provide transparency and traceability in the documentation process. Detailed information is provided for the CR values used for marine and freshwater systems. Of the total 372 CR values derived for the marine ecosystem, 195 were identified by literature review. For the freshwater system, the number of values based on review was less, but still constituted 129 from a total of 372 values. In both types of aquatic systems, 70-80% of the data gaps have been filled by employing 'preferable' approaches such as those based on substituting values from taxonomically similar organisms or biogeochemically similar elements

306

Tropical versus high latitude freshwater influence on the Atlantic circulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate the model sensitivity of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to anomalous freshwater flux in the tropical and northern Atlantic. Forcing in both locations leads to the same qualitative response: a positive freshwater anomaly induces a weakening of the AMOC and a negative freshwater anomaly strengthens the AMOC. Strong differences arise in the temporal characteristics and amplitude of the response. The advection of the tropical anomaly up to the deep water formation area leads to a time delayed response compared to a northern forcing. Thus, in its transient response, the AMOC is less sensitive to a constant anomalous freshwater flux in the tropics than in the north. This difference decreases with time and practically vanishes in equilibrium with constant freshwater forcing. The equilibrium response of the AMOC shows a non-linear dependence on freshwater forcing in both locations, with a stronger sensitivity to positive freshwater forcing. As a consequence, competitive forcing in both regions is balanced when the negative forcing is about 1.5 times larger than the positive forcing. The relaxation time of the AMOC after termination of a freshwater perturbation depends significantly on the AMOC strength itself. A strong overturning exhibits a faster relaxation to its unperturbed state. By means of a set of complementary experiments (pulse-perturbations, constant and stochastic forcing) we quantify these effects and discuss the corresponding time scales and physical processes. (orig.)

Goelzer, Heiko; Levermann, Anders; Rahmstorf, Stefan [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany); Mignot, Juliette [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Unite mixte de Recherche CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentations et Approches Numeriques, Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2006-12-15

307

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE OVARIES AND MUSCLE TISSUES OF FRESHWATER FAIRY SHRIMP STREPTOCEPHALUS DICHOTOMUS (BAIRD, 1860, EXPOSED TO MALATHION AND GLYPHOSATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possible impact of organophosphorus pesticides namely malathion and glyphosate on the ovaries and muscle tissues of the freshwater fairy shrimp Streptocephalus dichotomus were reported here for the first time. Preadult fairy shrimps were exposed to sub lethal concentration (1/5th of 96hrs LC50 of malathion (2.0 ppm and glyphosate (0.0011 ppm for a period of 30 days. Histological observations revealed a few marked pathological lesions such as mild destruction of epithelial layer, follicle cells, nurse cells, necrosis and degeneration of oocytes in the ovaries. Similarly degeneration of muscles, necrosis of muscle fibers, haemorrhages and appearance of pigmented cells in the muscle tissues were evident compared to control. The structural alterations observed in the ovaries and muscle tissues of the freshwater fairy shrimp are suggestive that malathion and glyphosate caused tissue damage at the tested concentrations. Therefore, the findings of this investigation can be taken as biomarkers for monitoring pesticides contamination in aquatic biota.

Arun Kumar MS* and A Jawahar Ali

2014-08-01

308

Effects of water hardness and alkalinity on the toxicity of uranium to a tropical freshwater hydra (Hydra viridissima).  

Science.gov (United States)

In tropical Australian freshwaters, uranium (U) is of potential ecotoxicological concern, largely as a consequence of mining activities. Although the toxicity of uranium to Australian freshwater biota is comprehensive, by world standards, few data are available on the effects of physicochemical variables, such as hardness, alkalinity, pH and organic matter, on uranium speciation and bioavailability. This study determined the individual effects of water hardness (6.6, 165 and 330 mg l(-1) as CaCO3) and alkalinity (4.0 and 102 mg l(-1) as CaCO3), at a constant pH (6.0), on the toxicity (96 h population growth) of uranium to Hydra viridissima (green hydra). A 50-fold increase in hardness (Ca and Mg concentration) resulted in a 92% (two-fold) decrease in the toxicity of uranium to H. viridissima [i.e. an increase in the EC50 value and 95% confidence interval from 114 (107-121) to 219 (192-246) µg l(-1)]. Conversely, at a constant hardness (165 mg l-1 as CaCO3), the toxicity of uranium to H. viridissima was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by a 25-fold increase in alkalinity (carbonate concentration) [i.e. EC50 values of 177 (166-188) and 171 (150-192) µg l(-1) at 4.0 and 102 mg l(-1) as CaCO3, respectively]. A knowledge of the relationship between water chemistry variables, including hardness and alkalinity, and uranium toxicity is useful for predicting the potential ecological detriment in aquatic systems, and can be used to relax national water quality guidelines on a site-specific basis. PMID:23886056

Riethmuller, N; Markich, S J; Van Dam, R A; Parry, D

2001-01-01

309

The role of regional information in the dose rate estimation of biota: from the view point of stakeholder involvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dose evaluation system developed to judge environmental radiation safety was proposed in order to evaluate the effect on environmental flora and fauna. However, it was noted that large differences exist between biota doses based on the regional data and those determined by the dose evaluation system developed. In order to realize successful mutual communication among stakeholders, information needed for environmental radiation protection has been investigated in various kinds of exposure situations, because the Japanese tend to act following the standards set by them to get the most appropriate results in the situations they are faced with. It became clear from the investigation on beliefs about environmental issues that the Japanese are concerned about regional characteristics of natural environments and biota through which they observe variations in their living conditions. Furthermore, the systematic approach for compilation of the regional environmental parameters and data becomes important to accomplish a social agreement on environmental safety. (author)

310

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has been explained by two mechanisms: equilibrium partitioning and/or biomagnification through the trophic web. Nevertheless, bioaccumulation processes are by far more complex, since several biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the observed pollutant loads in the organisms. In this respect, the biological characteristics of the organisms considered (e.g. species, age, lipid contents, feeding habits, etc.), as well as ecological factors (e.g. the habitat of the species and vertical distribution), have been shown to account for the organochlorine levels observed. PMID:15006509

Pastor, D; Sanpera, C; González-Solís, J; Ruiz, X; Albaigés, J

2004-04-01

311

Seasonal Variation, Export Dynamics and Consumption of Freshwater Invertebrates in an Estuarine Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Aber Estuary, North Wales, significant numbers of freshwater benthic invertebrates occurred in the tidal freshwater area. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed in their longitudinal zonation which appeared to be unrelated to variations in tidal inundation. The December extension downstream of freshwater taxa is hypothesized to be in response to decreasing water temperatures. In April, larvae/nymphs of the Trichoptera (caddisflies), Ephemeroptera (mayflies) and Plecoptera (stoneflies) ranged as far as a site inundated by 80·9% of all high tides, and larval Elmidae and Chironomidae (midges) occurred at the most marine site (inundated twice daily by all high tides). In July, with the exception of the Chironomidae, the range of most aquatic insects had contracted to the upper estuary. Although, in general, densities of aquatic insects decreased towards the lower estuary, significant densities persisted there. For example, maxima of 3514 chironomid larvae and 48 caddisfly larvae m -2were recorded at the 80·9% inundation site. An estimated 31×10 6freshwater invertebrates (weighing 62·6 kg), per annum, passed from fresh water into salt water across any given transect along the estuary. In comparison, the annual influx of invertebrates carried upstream by incoming tides was estimated to be 1·9×10 6(6·2%; weighing 2·5 kg). Predominant in the downstream drift were the larvae/nymphs and/or pupae of chironomids, mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies. The ' reverse ' drift comprised mainly copepods, ostracods, amphipods and oligochaetes. Mites and the brackishwater amphipod Gammarus zaddachicommonly moved in both directions. Highest drift densities occurred in July, whereas the lowest densities occurred in late autumn and winter. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between total drift or ' reverse ' drift densities and any of the measured environmental variables. Many of the freshwater invertebrates appeared not to die upon passing into tidal sections but resumed a benthic existence by virtue of varying degrees of salt tolerance. Of the three fish species common in the estuary, eel, common goby and flounder, the last two preyed measurably on freshwater taxa. Whereas gobies tended to be opportunistic feeders, depending on the section of estuary that they occupied, flounder were more restricted to the upper estuary where they fed selectively on chironomid larvae. On the latter diet, between March and September, the mean wet weight of flounders increased by more than 100 times (from 5 to 540 mg). Gobies were more numerous in the estuary from September to February, and although they ate insects their primary prey was G. zaddachi.

Williams, D. D.; Williams, N. E.

1998-03-01

312

Novel brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in Greenland air and biota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the ban of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, other halogenated flame retardants (FRs) might be used increasingly. This study has analyzed hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE), 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and dechlorane plus (DP) in Greenland air over the course of a year. Moreover, BTBPE, DPTE, DP, 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were analyzed in samples of polar bear, ringed seal, black guillemot and glaucous gull from Greenland. HBCD in air appeared low, while mean concentrations of syn- and anti-DP were 2.3 and 5.2 pg/m(3), respectively. BTBPE and DPTE were undetectable in air. Detection frequencies in biota were <50% for BTBPE, TBPH and DBDPE, but near 100% for the remaining compounds. Ringed seals from East Greenland had highest mean concentrations of TBB, DPTE, syn- and anti-DP (1.02, 0.078, 0.096 and 0.42 ng/g wet weight, respectively). Our study documents the long-range transport and, to some extent, bioaccumulation of these novel FRs. PMID:25463724

Vorkamp, Katrin; Bossi, Rossana; Rigét, Frank F; Skov, Henrik; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

2014-11-01

313

Distribution of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers in marine biota in the Western Scheldt Estuary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is one of the most common additive flame retardant mainly used in polystyrene foams with the global market consumption in 2001 at about 16 700 tons.1 HBCD production results in a technical product consisting mostly of three diastereomers, {alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-HBCD, with the {gamma}-isomer being the predominant one. HBCD has a high bioaccumulation potential and bioavailability and has been found in increasing concentrations in environmental samples and in biota. Diastereoisomer-specific analysis of HBCD was achieved by reversed phase HPLC4 and consistently higher concentrations of the {alpha}-isomer compared to {gamma}-isomer have recently been reported, while the {beta}-isomer was non-detected in the majority of samples. The Western Scheldt Estuary is subjected to a variety of suspected brominated flame retardants (BFR) sources such as a BFR manufacturing plant (Terneuzen, The Netherlands), the Antwerp harbour and textile industry located further upstream the river. Recently, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in marine species of different trophic levels collected from the Scheldt Estuary. In Europe, HBCD is more widely used than PBDEs and high levels of HBCD have already been reported in sediments from the Scheldt. So far, there is very little known about differences in toxicity, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of HBCD diastereoisomers. In this paper, we report on the levels of the HBCD diastereomers in various marine species and sediment from the Western Scheldt.

Janak, K. [Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway). Div. of Environmental Medicine; Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S. [Antwerp Univ., Wilrijk (Belgium). Toxicological Centre

2004-09-15

314

Absorbed dose rate conversion coefficients for reference terrestrial biota for external photon and internal exposures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes dosimetric models that allow the estimation of average radiation exposures to terrestrial biota due to environmental sources in the soil as well as internal uniform distributions of radionuclides. Simple three-dimensional phantoms for 13 faunal reference organisms are specified. The calculation of absorbed dose per unit source strength for these targets is based on photon and electron transport simulations using the Monte Carlo method. The presented absorbed dose rate conversion coefficients are derived for terrestrial reference species. This allows the assessment of internal exposure as well as external photon exposure depending on the nuclide, habitat, target size and environmental contamination. To enable the application of specific radiation weighting factors for alpha-, low energy beta- (E0 soil, as well as for a horizontally infinite volume source uniformly distributed to a depth of 10 cm. Furthermore, the coefficients are also presented for organisms living in a contaminated 50 cm thick soil layer. A multi-layer canopy model for plants is also described. The conversion coefficients are given for 3H, 14C, 40K, 36Cl, 59,63Ni, 89,90Sr, 94Nb, 99Tc, 106Ru, 129,131I, 134,135,137Cs, 210Po, 210Pb, 226Ra, 227,228,230,231,232,234Th, 234,235,238U, 238,239,240,241Pu, 241Am, 237Np and 242,243,244Cm, together with their PMID:15700697

Taranenko, V; Pröhl, G; Gómez-Ros, J M

2004-12-01

315

Radionuclide transfer to marine biota species: review of Russian language studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extensive programme of experiments on transfer of radionuclides to aquatic species was conducted in the former USSR starting from the early 1950s. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of radionuclide behaviour in marine ecosystems. Therefore, an overview of original information on radionuclide transfer to marine biota species available from Russian language literature sources is presented here. The concentration ratio (CR) values for many radionuclides and for marine species such as: (239)Pu, (106)Ru and (95)Zr (crustacean), (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (95)Nb, (106)Ru, (137)Cs (239)Pu, (241)Am and natural U (molluscs), and (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (144)Ce (fish) are in good agreement with those previously published, whilst for some of them, in particular, for (32)P and (110)Ag (crustaceans), (35)S (molluscs), (32)P, (35)S, (95)Nb, and (106)Ru (macroalgae) and (60)Co and (239,240)Pu (fish) the data presented here suggest that changes in the default CR reference values presented in recent marine reviews may be required. The data presented here are intended to supplement substantially the CR values being collated within the handbook on Wildlife Transfer Coefficients, coordinated under the IAEA EMRAS II programme. PMID:20798950

Fesenko, S; Fesenko, E; Titov, I; Karpenko, E; Sanzharova, N; Fonseca, A Gondin; Brown, J

2010-11-01

316

Cernavoda NPP impact study on terrestrial and aquatic biota. Preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, the awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against industrial pollutants has been recognized. The concept of sustainable development, requires new and developing international policies for environmental protection. See 'Protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation' IAEA-TECDOC-1091, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. As it is recommended in 'Cernavoda Unit No. 2 NPP Environmental Impact Assessment CES-03702-IAD-006', it is Cernavoda NPP responsibility to conduct an Ecological Risk Assessment study, mainly to assess the impact of nuclear power plant operation on terrestrial and aquatic biota. Long records from normal operation of Cernavoda Unit 1, wind pattern, meteorological conditions, and source terms data were used to evaluate areas of interest for environmental impact, conducting to a circle of 20 km radius around mentioned nuclear objective. The screening campaign established tritium level (because Cernavoda NPP is a CANDU type reactor, and tritium is the most important radioisotope evacuated in the environment) in air, water, soil and vegetation, focusing the interest area on particular ecosystem. Using these primary data it was evaluated which are the monitored ecological receptors and which are the measurement endpoints.This paper presents the Ecological Risk Assessment at Cernavoda NPP technical requirements, and the preliminary results of evaluating criteria for renary results of evaluating criteria for representative ecosystem components at Cernavoda NPP. (authors)

317

Delayed Behavioral Effects of Early Life Toxicant Exposures in Aquatic Biota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Behavioral development occurs together with the development of the nervous system. Studies on mammals indicate that exposures to some chemicals during embryonic development at concentrations that do not produce anatomical malformations may nevertheless produce behavioral deficits later in life, an example of delayed effects. There have been reports of delayed effects in aquatic organisms. Delayed behavioral effects of mercury, chlorinated and other pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and some synthetic hormones in the environment have been reported in fishes and invertebrates; in some cases behavioral effects are manifested years after the exposure. Another type of delayed behavioral effect results from exposure of mature females before fertilization (maternal exposure. Even when embryos and larvae are reared in clean water, offspring may manifest abnormal behaviors following maternal exposure. The reported behavioral changes are generally deleterious and compromise the fitness of the animal in its natural environment. Delayed effects and their impacts on fitness are not considered in standard short-term embryo bioassays, which will therefore underestimate neurotoxicity. The literature in the field is scattered and has not been reviewed. The objective of this paper is to review and synthesize what is known about delayed behavioral effects in aquatic biota.

Judith S. Weis

2014-05-01

318

Doses to Terrestrial Biota in the Vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria, UK (invited paper)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Source terms and corresponding radionuclide activity concentrations in biota for {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am have been assessed for three semi-natural ecosystems in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Estimates of absorbed doses (mGy.d{sup -1}) have been calculated. Doses to key indicator species, Oniscus asellus (detritivorous invertebrate), Carabus violaceous (predatory invertebrate) and Apodemus sylvaticus (granivorous wood mouse) are discussed with reference to the 1 mGy.d{sup -1} level, below which it is postulated that no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem occur. Implications for the 'critical group' and 'reference model' approaches for a framework of radiological environmental protection are discussed. The need to assess the most highly exposed species is advanced. New research focused on the application of biomarker techniques as a mechanism for determining the interactions and effects of environmental contaminants on ecosystem structure and functioning is presented. (author)

Copplestone, D.; Johnson, M.S.; Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R

2000-07-01

319

Studies on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in sediment and biota of Mumbai Harbour Bay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB) is a recipient of low level treated effluents from BARC, Trombay and its also a recipient of domestic and industrial wastes from the city of Mumbai and adjoining areas. Sediment samples were collected from various locations of MHB to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides like 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K which varied between 4.0 and 26.0, 5.5 and 19.9, 249.6 and 557.6 Bq kg(dry)-1 respectively and are comparable to the worldwide average concentration. The mean value ratio of 228Ra/226Ra in sediment was found to be 1.4, indicating a relatively higher mobility of 238U compared to 232Th. The concentration of anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs in sediment and biota ranged between 3.6 and 54.5 Bq kg(dry)-1, (wet)-1 respectively. The ingestion dose to 'General Public' due to 137Cs intake is 0.02 ?Sv years-1 which is negligible compared to the internationally accepted limit of 1,000 ?Sv years-1 to 'members of public'. (author)

320

Proposal of a weight factor for alpha radiation aiming biota radioprotection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several proposals based on the environmental radioprotection of calculating the absorbed dose in biota have been suggested. The absorbed dose expresses the deposition of energy per mass unit. The differences in biological effects of the absorbed dose can be quantified by applying a correction factor to the absorbed dose. The correction factor for radiation is easier to establish, because radiations exist in smaller number (alpha, beta, neutrons and photons) and can be set for groups of organisms. This work aims to propose a correction factor for radiation, in order to adequate the concept of absorbed dose currently used to the concept of equivalent dose. A survey of the literature on correction factors proposed for alpha radiation was carried out and, when possible, the biological endpoint was identified, as well as the radionuclide and the biological target. A variation of the weight factor for alpha radiation from 1 to 377 was observed and a number of biological endpoints, biological target and alpha emitter radionuclide were identified. Finally we propose a weight value for alpha radiation of 40, and we propose also the name of correction factor for radiation alpha as being ecological radiation weighting factor (WRE) the name 'equivalent dose for flora and fauna' (HTFF) to name of the new dose. (author)

321

Mass extinction of the marine biota at the Ordovician-Silurian transition due to environmental changes  

Science.gov (United States)

The terminal Ordovician was marked by one of five great mass extinction events of the Phanerozoic (445.6-443.0 Ma ago), when up to 86% of the marine species became extinct. The rapid onset of the continental glaciation on Gondwana determined by its position in the South Pole area; the cooling; the hydrodynamic changes through the entire water column in the World Ocean; and the corresponding sea level fall, which was responsible for the reduction of shelf areas and shallow-water basins, i.e., the main ecological niche of the Ordovician marine biota, were main prerequisites of the stress conditions. Similar to other mass extinction events, these processes were accompanied by volcanism, impact events, a corresponding reduction of the photosynthesis and bioproductivity, the destruction of food chains, and anoxia. The appearance and development of terrestrial plants and microphytoplankton, which consumed atmospheric carbon dioxide, thus, diminishing the greenhouse effect and promoting the transition of the climatic system to the glacial mode, played a unique role in that period.

Barash, M. S.

2014-11-01

322

Geological sampling data and benthic biota classification: Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea-floor sample collection is an important component of a statewide cooperative mapping effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM). Sediment grab samples, bottom photographs, and video transects were collected within Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay in 2010 aboard the research vesselConnecticut. This report contains sample data and related information, including analyses of surficial-sediment grab samples, locations and images of sea-floor photography, survey lines along which sea-floor video was collected, and a classification of benthic biota observed in sea-floor photographs and based on the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). These sample data and analyses information are used to verify interpretations of geophysical data and are an essential part of geologic maps of the sea floor. These data also provide a valuable inventory of benthic habitat and resources. Geographic information system (GIS) data, maps, and interpretations, produced through the USGS and CZM mapping cooperative, are intended to aid efforts to manage coastal and marine resources and to provide baseline information for research focused on coastal evolution and environmental change.

Ackerman, Seth D.; Pappal, Adrienne L.; Huntley, Emily C.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Schwab, William C.

2015-01-01

323

Finding patterns of distribution for freshwater phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish, by means of parsimony analysis of endemicity / Encontrando patrones de distribución para fitoplancton, zooplancton y peces dulceacuícolas por medio de análisis de parsimonia de endemismos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Durante las últimas décadas, los estudios limnológicos en sistemas chilenos han contribuido al conocimiento de la composición de especies y de las principales variables ambientales de muchos cuerpos de agua distribuidos sobre un amplio intervalo latitudinal, desde los 18º a los 53º S. Asimismo, aún [...] carecemos de una visión comprensiva acerca de la estructura y funcionamiento de las aguas dulces regionales. En este trabajo revisamos la información sobre la biota pelágica de las cuencas de Chile, con el propósito de revelar patrones de distribución de especies y su posible asociación con variables ambientales. Construimos matrices de presencia-ausencia para fitoplancton, zooplancton y peces en lagos y cuencas. Desde esta base de datos, realizamos análisis de parsimonia de endemismo, como medio para determinar patrones fundamentales de distribución de la biota dulceacuícola. También, determinamos la relación entre la presencia de especies y algunas variables relevantes de los sitios. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la latitud ejerce una fuerte influencia en la distribución de especies, aunque también la altitud, longitud y el área ejercen efectos significativos en algunos grupos. Por otro lado, los resultados sugieren una relación entre el grado de vagilidad de los grupos y el grado de estructuración de la metacomunidad, relacionada con el número de áreas de endemismos. Abstract in english During the last decades, limnological studies on Chilean systems have contributed to know the species composition and main environmental variables of many water bodies distributed over a wide latitudinal interval, from 18º to 53º S. However, we still lack of a comprehensive view about the structure [...] and functioning of regional freshwaters. In this work we review the available information about pelagic biota from Chilean basins, in order to reveal patterns of species distribution and their possible association with environmental variables. We built presence-absence matrices for phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish over lakes and basins. From this database, we performed parsimony analysis of endemicity as a tool for determining fundamental distribution patterns of freshwater biota. Also, we assessed the relationship between species occurrences and some available site-related variables. Our results indicated that latitude exerted the strongest influence on species distribution, although altitude, longitude, and area also exerted significant effects for some groups. On the other hand, our results suggest a relationship between the degree of vagility of the groups and the degree of metacommunity structuring, related to the number of endemicity areas.

J. PABLO, OYANEDEL; CAREN, VEGA-RETTER; SERGIO, SCOTT; LUIS FELIPE, HINOJOSA; RODRIGO, RAMOS-JILIBERTO.

2008-06-01

324

Monitoring endangered freshwater biodiversity using environmental DNA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Freshwater ecosystems are among the most endangered habitats on Earth, with thousands of animal species known to be threatened or already extinct. Reliable monitoring of threatened organisms is crucial for data-driven conservation actions but remains a challenge owing to nonstandardized methods that depend on practical and taxonomic expertise, which is rapidly declining. Here, we show that a diversity of rare and threatened freshwater animals-representing amphibians, fish, mammals, insects and crustaceans-can be detected and quantified based on DNA obtained directly from small water samples of lakes, ponds and streams. We successfully validate our findings in a controlled mesocosm experiment and show that DNA becomes undetectable within 2 weeks after removal of animals, indicating that DNA traces are near contemporary with presence of the species. We further demonstrate that entire faunas of amphibians and fish can be detected by high-throughput sequencing of DNA extracted from pond water. Our findings underpin the ubiquitous nature of DNA traces in the environment and establish environmental DNA as a tool for monitoring rare and threatened species across a wide range of taxonomic groups.

Thomsen, Philip Francis; Kielgast, Jos

2012-01-01

325

Persistence of environmental DNA in freshwater ecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The precise knowledge of species distribution is a key step in conservation biology. However, species detection can be extremely difficult in many environments, specific life stages and in populations at very low density. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge on DNA persistence in water in order to confirm the presence of the focus species in freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic vertebrates (fish: Siberian sturgeon and amphibian: Bullfrog tadpoles) were used as target species. In control conditions (tanks) and in the field (ponds), the DNA detectability decreases with time after the removal of the species source of DNA. DNA was detectable for less than one month in both conditions. The density of individuals also influences the dynamics of DNA detectability in water samples. The dynamics of detectability reflects the persistence of DNA fragments in freshwater ecosystems. The short time persistence of detectable amounts of DNA opens perspectives in conservation biology, by allowing access to the presence or absence of species e.g. rare, secretive, potentially invasive, or at low density. This knowledge of DNA persistence will greatly influence planning of biodiversity inventories and biosecurity surveys. PMID:21858099

Dejean, Tony; Valentini, Alice; Duparc, Antoine; Pellier-Cuit, Stéphanie; Pompanon, François; Taberlet, Pierre; Miaud, Claude

2011-01-01

326

Black Carbon and Ecological Factors affect in situ biota sediment accumulation factors for hydrophobic organic compounds in flood plain lakes  

OpenAIRE

Ecological factors may play an important role in the bioaccumulation of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Geochemical and bioaccumulation behavior of these chemicals also appears to be related to the presence of black carbon (BC) in sediment. In situ PCB and PAH biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for benthic invertebrates, as well as 6h Tenax-extractable (fast-desorbing) concentrations and lake characteristics (including BC in sediment), were determin...

Moermond, C. T. A.; Zwolsman, J. J. G.; Koelmans, A. A.

2005-01-01

327

Plant Diversity Surpasses Plant Functional Groups and Plant Productivity as Driver of Soil Biota in the Long Term  

OpenAIRE

Background: One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments. Methodology/Principal Findi...

Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Bessler, Holger; Brenner, Johanna; Engels, Christof; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Partsch, Stephan; Roscher, Christiane; Schonert, Felix; Temperton, Vicky M.; Thomisch, Karolin; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

2011-01-01

328

Links between biota and climate-related variables in the Baltic region using Lake Onega as an example  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to reveal current changes (recent decades) in regional climatic variables like water temperature (WT), the duration of the ice-free period (ICE-FREE) and the precipitation rate (P), as exemplified by Petrozavodsk Bay (Lake Onega, European Russia), and to analyse their relationships with the global climatic indices NAO, AO and structural characteristics of biota (chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), phytoplankton and zoobenthos abundance/biomass) in the lake ecosystem, ...

Sharov, Andrey N.; Berezina, Nadezhda A.; Nazarova, Larisa E.

2014-01-01

329

Biota: sediment partitioning of aluminium smelter related PAHs and pulp mill related diterpenes by intertidal clams at Kitimat, British Columbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The question of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability and its relationship to specific PAH sources with different PAH binding characteristics is an important one, because bioavailability drives PAH accumulation in biota and ultimately the biochemical responses to the PAH contaminants. The industrial harbour at Kitimat (British Columbia, Canada) provides an ideal location to study the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment hydrocarbons to low trophic level biota. Samples of soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) and intertidal sediment collected from multiple sites over six years at various distances from an aluminium smelter and a pulp and paper mill were analysed for 106 PAHs, plant diterpenes and other aromatic fraction hydrocarbons. Interpretation using PAH source ratios and multivariate data analysis reveals six principal hydrocarbon sources: PAHs in coke, pitch and emissions from anode combustion from the aluminium smelter, vascular plant terpenes and aromatised terpenes from the pulp and paper mill, petroleum PAHs from shipping and other anthropogenic activities and PAHs from natural plant detritus. Harbour sediments predominantly contain either pitch or pyrogenic PAHs from the smelter, while clams predominantly contain plant derived PAHs and diterpenes from the adjacent pulp mill. PAHs from the smelter have low bioavailability to clams (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors; BSAFs 500). Thus while most of the smelter associated PAHs in sediments may not be bioavailable to benthic organisms, the plant terpenes (including retene, totarol, ferruginol, manool, dehydroabietane and other plant terpenes that form the chemical defence mechanism of conifers) released by pulp mills are bioavailable and possess demonstrated toxic properties. The large scale release of plant terpenes by some of the many pulp mills located in British Columbia and elsewhere represents a largely undocumented risk to aquatic biota. PMID:21788067

Yunker, Mark B; Lachmuth, Cara L; Cretney, Walter J; Fowler, Brian R; Dangerfield, Neil; White, Linda; Ross, Peter S

2011-09-01

330

Assessment of doses to non-human biota: Review of developments and demonstration assessment for Olkiluoto repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides a summary of work commissioned by Posiva Oy and undertaken by Enviros Consulting Ltd to support the development of a strategy for the assessment of environmental impacts from ionising radiation associated with the Olkiluoto waste repository, Finland, as part of the development of the Posiva Safety Case Portfolio. This project included a review of the development of international policies and standards related to protection of biota from the effects of ionizing radiation and of biota assessment methodologies, paying particular attention to those that have been applied to waste repository performance assessments. On the basis of this review, recommendations were developed on the most appropriate methodology to apply in order to assess the impact of radioactive releases from the planned spent fuel repository in Olkiluoto. A test-case was developed, in collaboration with staff from Posiva and Facilia AB, and an assessment was performed. The results and experience of which were analysed and summarised to develop recommendations for a future strategy. The test case highlighted some significant data gaps related to the assessment of impacts to both generic biota types and to interest species. In particular, concentration ratios for generic carnivorous mammals and migratory species such as moose that may consume food from multiple ecosystems and dose conversion factors for large burrowing (i.e. hibernating) mammals. However, in general terms, the dose rates predicted for all organism types were several orders of magnitude below those at which population effects would be expected to be observed and those at which effects on the individual may be anticipated. There would therefore be scope for simplifying the approach applied, although there would be value in performing a sensitivity analysis to ensure that the simplification is applied appropriately. There would also be value in ensuring consistency of the developing approach for non-human biota with that applied for human protection. (orig.)

331

Effects of cadmium stress and sorption kinetics on tropical freshwater periphytic communities in indoor mesocosm experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding the cause and effect relationship between stressors and biota is crucial for the effective management, restoration and preservation of aquatic systems. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of five Cd concentrations on tropical periphyton community growth, Cd accumulation kinetics, as well as the effects of Cd on diatom community structure and composition. Natural periphyton communities were transferred to artificial stream chambers and exposed to Cd concentrations of 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1 mg.L?1. Metal accumulation (total and intracellular) in biofilms, dry weight and ash-free dry mass, growth rate, algal cell density and diatom community composition were analysed on samples collected after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of colonization. Periphyton growth and development were significantly lowered by Cd concentrations > 0.03 mg.L?1. High Cd accumulation capacity by periphyton was demonstrated with total and intracellular Cd content in biofilms reflecting the effects of concentrations of Cd in the culture media and exposure duration. Total and intracellular Cd content generally increased in treatments in the order 0.005 ?1 at any sampling time with increasing level of accumulated Cd with duration of exposure in all the systems. Shifts in species composition (development of more resistant species like Achnanthidium minutissimum and reduction of sensitive ones like Diatoma vulgare, Navicula viridula and Navicula cryptocephala), decreases in species richness and diversity and morphological alterations (deformities) of diatom cells with increasing Cd concentration and exposure duration were observed. The results give valuable information on Cd impact of freshwater biofilms. -- Highlights: ? We investigated toxicity and sorption kinetics of Cd on periphyton communities. ? [Cd] > 0.03 mg.L?1 lowers growth. ? Absorbed Cd was a function of duration of exposure and [Cd]. ? Changes in community composition were recorded. ? Biofilms are potential monitors of metal pollution in aquatic systems.

332

A comparison of the response of Simocephalus mixtus (Cladocera) and Daphnia magna to contaminated freshwater sediments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The southeast region of Mexico is characterized by intensive oil industry activities carried out by the national public enterprise Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). The freshwater lagoon "El Limón", located in the municipality of Macuspana, state of Tabasco, Mexico, has received over 40 years discharges of untreated waste waters from the Petrochemical Complex "Ciudad PEMEX", located on the border of the lagoon. To assess the toxicity of the sediments and, hence, to obtain information on the biological effects of these contaminating discharges, the cladoceran Simocephalus mixtus was used as a test organism in acute (48h) and chronic (12d) toxicity assays. For comparison purposes, bioassays were also conducted with the reference cladoceran Daphnia magna. The sediments of this lagoon contain important amounts of metals and hydrocarbons that have been accumulated over time; however, the acute tests only registered reduced lethal effects on the test organisms (maxima of 10% and 17% mortality for D. magna and S. mixtus, respectively). This may be due to low bioavailability of the pollutants present in the sediments. On the other hand, partial or total inhibition and delay in the start of reproduction, reduction in clutch sizes, reduced survival, as well as reduction in the size of adults and offspring were recorded in the chronic assays. The most evident chronic effects were found in S. mixtus; in this species, reproduction was inhibited up to 72%, whereas D. magna was only affected by 24%. We determined that S. mixtus is a more sensitive test organism than D. magna to assess whole-sediment toxicity in tropical environments, and that chronic exposure bioassays are required for an integrated sediment evaluation. The sediments from "El Limón" lagoon induced chronic intoxication responses and, therefore, remediation measures are urgently needed to recover environmental conditions suitable for the development of its aquatic biota. PMID:18573528

Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Cruz-Cisneros, Jade Lizette; García-Hernández, Leonardo

2008-09-01

333

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and terrestrial biota after a spill of crude oil in Trecate, Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological and human health exposures from soil-based petroleum-derived contaminants commonly are estimated by using soil-to-biota transfer factors that usually are based on octanol-water partitioning. Few studies of biota have been conducted in relation to spills of crude oils in terrestrial environments. After a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within two years of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. The PAHs with lower octanol-water partition coefficients (K(ow)s) and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-K(ow) and unalkylated forms. The BSAFs for PAHs with higher K(ow)s were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species. PMID:12152763

Brandt, Charles A; Becker, James M; Porta, Augusto

2002-08-01

334

Baseline assessment of doses and risk due to natural radionuclides in edible biota of Domiasiat, Meghalaya, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation dose-risk assessment was carried out for cereal species Brassica compestris var. dichotoma, Oryza sativa var. Shalum1, Zea mays, Lactuca indica, Cumunis sativum, and Clocasia esculanta due to naturally available radionuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th in Domiasiat area. The activity in biota and corresponding soil was measured by precipitation method using NaI(TI) detector. Transfer factor (TF) was for Oryza spp. (1.00E-01-40K, 8.76E-05-232Th, and 9.11E-05-238U), for Brassica spp. (5.39E-01-40K, 8.17E-04-232Th and 2.96E-04-238U) and for Zea spp. (3.41E-01-40K, 5.84E-05-232Th, 8.87E-05-238U) etc., respectively. A detailed physio-morphological study of the biota and extensive investigation of ecosystem was carried out for assessment. The data was modeled using FASSET for dose estimation and obtained total dose was 1.58E-04 ?Gy h-1 in Oryza spp., 2.87E-04 ?Gy h-1 Brassica spp. and 6.90E-03 ?Gy h-1 in Zea spp. etc. The dose was compared with the UNSCEAR dataset for screening level dose for biota. Zea spp. was more susceptible for the chronic radiation exposure. (author)

335

Invasive alien freshwater snail species in the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english An account is given of all invasive alien freshwater snail species samples found in the Kruger National Park currently on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC) database. This report mainly focuses on samples collected during surveys of selected water bodies in the Kruger National [...] Park (KNP) during 1964, 1995, 2001 and 2006. The progress made by four alien invasive freshwater snail species, Lymnaea columella, Physa acuta, Aplexa marmorata and Tarebia granifera, in colonising water bodies since first being recorded in the KNP is addressed. The results clearly show that all four species are in the process of becoming more widespread than they were when first recorded. However, T. granifera is the only one of these species of which exceptionally dense populations were encountered in several water bodies. All indications are that this species could already have had a negative impact on the species diversity of molluscs in these water bodies, and it is recommended that the situation be closely monitored.

Kenné N. de, Kock; Cornelius T., Wolmarans.

336

Invasive alien freshwater snail species in the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An account is given of all invasive alien freshwater snail species samples found in the Kruger National Park currently on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection(NFSC database. This report mainly focuses on samples collected during surveys of selected water bodies in the Kruger National Park (KNP during 1964, 1995, 2001 and 2006. The progress made by four alien invasive freshwater snail species, Lymnaea columella, Physa acuta, Aplexa marmorata and Tarebia granifera, in colonising water bodies since first being recorded in the KNP is addressed. The results clearly show that all four species are in the process of becoming more widespread than they were when first recorded. However, T. granifera is the only one of these species of which exceptionally dense populations were encountered in several water bodies. All indications are that this species could already have had a negative impact on the species diversity of molluscs in these water bodies, and it is recommended that the situation be closely monitored.

Cornelius T. Wolmarans

2008-05-01

337

Chemical analysis of endolymph and the growing otolith: fractionation of metals in freshwater fish species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fractionation of metals from water to otolith is an area of research that has received relatively limited attention, especially in freshwater systems. The objectives of the present research were to study the metal partitioning between otolith and endolymph of two freshwater species: Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and burbot (Lota lota). We also included the chemical analyses of water and blood from fish of the same species collected in the same area but during different years. These results provide insight regarding the partition of metals between water and fish. This is one of the first studies to provide a range of trace metal concentrations for endolymph and the growing otolith (both aragonite and vaterite) and to directly measure otolith-endolymph partition coefficients for freshwater fish. The trace elements (Mg, Sr, and Ba) most often used as otolith elemental tracers were the ones with the lowest uptake from water to blood. We found that endolymph and whole blood had similar metal concentrations, with Mg and Fe being the only elements enriched in whole blood. Results showed few significant differences in trace metal content between wild lake trout and burbot endolymph (except for K, Mg, and Ba), but significant differences existed between their aragonitic otoliths. These results suggest two different crystallization processes in these species or the presence of different proteins (and/or organic matrices) that would selectively influence elemental incorporation in the otoliths. PMID:19154085

Melancon, Sonia; Fryer, Brian J; Markham, James L

2009-06-01

338

Radiological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on aquatic biota at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of contaminants; therefore, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a screening assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. Unlike exposures to chemicals, which are expressed as the concentration in water or sediment, exposures to radionuclides are expressed as the dose rate received by the organism. The recommended acceptable dose rate to natural populations of aquatic biota is 1 rad d-1. Blaylock, Frank, and O'Neal provide formulas and exposure factors for estimating the dose rates to representative aquatic organisms. Those formulas were used herein to calculate the water and sediment concentrations that result in a total dose rate of 1 rad d-1 to fish for selected radionuclides. These radiological benchmarks are intended for use at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation and at the Portsmouth and Paducah gaseous diffusion plants as screening values only to show the nature and extent of contamination and identify the need for additional site-specific investigation

339

Radiological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on aquatic biota at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of contaminants; therefore, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a screening assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. Unlike exposures to chemicals, which are expressed as the concentration in water or sediment, exposures to radionuclides are expressed as the dose rate received by the organism. The recommended acceptable dose rate to natural populations of aquatic biota is 1 rad d{sup {minus}1}. Blaylock, Frank, and O`Neal provide formulas and exposure factors for estimating the dose rates to representative aquatic organisms. Those formulas were used herein to calculate the water and sediment concentrations that result in a total dose rate of 1 rad d{sup {minus}1} to fish for selected radionuclides. These radiological benchmarks are intended for use at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation and at the Portsmouth and Paducah gaseous diffusion plants as screening values only to show the nature and extent of contamination and identify the need for additional site-specific investigation.

NONE

1998-07-01

340

Freshwater ecotoxicity characterisation factor for metal oxide nanoparticles: A case study on titanium dioxide nanoparticle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is widely applied in several industrial sectors to evaluate the environmental performance of processes, products and services. Recently, several reports and studies have emphasized the importance of LCA in the field of engineered nanomaterials. However, to date only a few LCA studies on nanotechnology have been carried out, and fewer still have assessed aspects relating to ecotoxicity. This is mainly due to the lack of knowledge in relation on human and environmental exposure and effect of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). This bottleneck is continued when performing Life Cycle Impact Assessment, where characterization models and consequently characterization factors (CFs) for ENPs are missing. This paper aims to provide the freshwater ecotoxicity CF for titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2). The USEtox(™) model has been selected as a characterisation model. An adjusted multimedia fate model has been developed which accounts for nano-specific fate process descriptors (i.e. sedimentation, aggregation with suspended particle matter, etc.) to estimate the fate of nano-TiO2 in freshwater. A literature survey of toxicity tests performed on freshwater organism representative of multiple trophic levels was conducted, including algae, crustaceans and fish in order to collect relevant EC50 values. Then, the toxic effect of nano-TiO2 was computed on the basis of the HC50 value. Thus, following the principle of USEtox(™) model and accounting for nano-specific descriptors a CF for the toxic impact of freshwater ecotoxicity of 0.28PAFdaym(3)kg(-1) is proposed. PMID:25461051

Salieri, Beatrice; Righi, Serena; Pasteris, Andrea; Olsen, Stig Irving

2015-02-01

341

Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and freshwater aquatic weeds. Progress report, May 1--December 31, 1976  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was divided between basic physiological studies of the growth and nutrient-uptake kinetics of macroscopic marine algae and the more applied problems involved in the selection of species and the development of inexpensive, non-energy intensive culture methods for growing seaweeds and freshwater plants as a biomass source for conversion to energy. Best growth of the seaweeds occurs at low (0.1 to 1.0 ..mu..molar) concentration of major nutrients, with ammonia as a nitrogen source, with rapid exchange of the culture medium (residence time of 0.05 days or less). Of 43 species of seaweeds evaluated, representatives of the large red alga genus Gracilaria appear most promising with potential yields, in a highly intensive culture system under optimal conditions, of some 129 metric dry tons per hectare per year (about half of which is organic). Non-intensive culture methods have yielded one-third to one-half that figure. Unexplained periodicity of growth and overgrowth by epiphytes remain the most critical constraint to large-scale seaweed culture. Freshwater weed species in culture include water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna minor), and Hydrilla vertecillata, with yields to date averaging 15, 4, and 8 g dry wt/m/sup 2//day, respectively. However, these plants have not yet been grown through the winter, so average annual yields are expected to be lower. In contrast to the seaweeds, the freshwater plants grow well at high nutrient concentrations and slow culture volume exchange rates (residence time ca. 20 days or more). Experiments were initiated on the recycling of digester residues from the fermentation of the freshwater and marine plants as a possible nutrient source for growth of the same species.

Ryther, J. H.

1977-01-01

342

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

343

Radiation Dose Assessment For The Biota Of Terrestrial Ecosystems In The Shoreline Zone Of The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that ancentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

344

Simulation of radioactive cesium transfer in the southern Fukushima coastal biota using a dynamic food chain transfer model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) accident occurred on 11 March 2011. The accident introduced 137Cs into the coastal waters which was subsequently transferred to the local coastal biota thereby elevating the concentration of this radionuclide in coastal organisms. In this study, the radioactive cesium levels in coastal biota from the southern Fukushima area were simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model. The simulation derived the possible maximum radioactive cesium levels in organisms, indicating that the maximum 137Cs concentrations in invertebrates, benthic fish and predator fish occurred during late April, late May and late July, respectively in the studied area where the source was mainly the direct leakage of 137Cs effluent from the 1F NPP. The delay of a 137Cs increase in fish was explained by the gradual food chain transfer of 137Cs introduced to the ecosystem from the initial contamination of the seawater. The model also provided the degree of radionuclide depuration in organisms, and it demonstrated the latest start of the decontamination phase in benthic fish. The ecological half-lives, derived both from model simulation and observation, were 1–4 months in invertebrates, and 2–9 months in plankton feeding fish and coastal predator fish from the studied area. In contrast, it was not possible to similarly calculate these parameters in benthic fish because of an unidentified additional radionuclide source which was deduced from the biological compartment model. To adequately reconstruct the in-situ depuration of radiocesium in benthic fish in the natural ecosystem, a contamination source associated with the bottom sediments is necessary. -- Highlights: • Cs-137 in the southern Fukushima coastal biota were simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model. • Simulation derived contamination phase of marine biota was completed until late April to July 2011. • The delay of Cs-137 concentration increase in fish was explained by the gradual food chain transfer. • The ecological half-lives during model derived depuration period were 1–9 months in coastal biota. • Additional source is necessary to reconstruct observed delay of Cs-137 depuration in benthic fish

345

Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and phthalates in freshwater fish from the Orge river (Ile-de France).  

Science.gov (United States)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates were investigated from July 2009 to April 2010 in three fish species from the Orge river, which flows in a densely populated area of Ile-de-France. In two Cyprinidae (roach and chub) and one Percidae (perch), muscle contents in increasing order ranged as follows: 12-18 ng g(-1) dw for PBDEs (?tri-hepta), 120-170 ng g(-1) dw for PCBs (?7), and 2,250-5,125 ng g(-1) dw for phthalates (?7). No variation was observed between contaminant contents and lipid levels. No biomagnification was found according to the trophic level for PBDEs and PCBs, whereas for phthalates the highest contents were found in perch. Seasonal variations were observed with the lowest PBDE and PCB contents occurring in July after spawning in roach and perch (p liver > muscle-whatever the period. For PCBs, gonad and liver contents remained greater than that of muscle (p liver > muscle. The biota-sediment accumulation factors varied from 0.1 to 29.2, from 1.6 to 4.8, and from 1 to 123.5 for PBDEs, PCBs, and phthalates, respectively. These results contribute to document the use of freshwater fish as bioindicators of river quality. PMID:22234461

Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Tlili, Khawla; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Alliot, Fabrice; Labadie, Pierre

2012-07-01

346

Community structure and decadal changes in macrozoobenthic assemblages in Lake Poyang, the largest freshwater lake in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lake Poyang is the largest freshwater lake in China and contains unique and diverse biota within the Yangtze floodplain ecosystem. However, knowledge of its macrozoobenthic assemblages remains inadequate. To characterize the current community structure of these assemblages and to portray their decadal changes, quarterly investigations were conducted at 15 sites from February to November 2012. A total of 42 taxa were recorded, and Corbicula fluminea, Limnoperna fortunei, Gammaridae sp., Nephtys polybranchia, Polypedilum scalaenum and Branchiura sowerbyi were found to dominate the community in terms of abundance. The bivalves Corbicula fluminea, Lamprotula rochechouarti, Arconaia lanceolata and Lamprotula caveata dominated the community in biomass due to their large body size. The mean abundance of the total macrozoobenthos varied from 48 to 920 ind·m-2, the mean biomass ranged from 28 to 428 g·m-2. The substrate type affected strongly the abundance, biomass, and diversity of the macrozoobenthos, with muddy sand substrates showing the highest values. Compared with historical data, remarkable changes were observed in the abundance of macrozoobenthos and the identity of the dominant species. The mean total abundance decreased from 724 ind·m-2 in 1992 to 228 ind·m-2 in 2012. The dominant species have shifted dramatically. Large unionids were dominant before 1998, whereas pollution-tolerant species (e.g., Branchiura sowerbyi increased in dominance after 2008. Our findings should have implications for the conservation of the benthic biodiversity of this large Yangtze-connected lake.

Cai Y. J.

2014-01-01

347

A comparative ecotoxicity analysis of ?- and ?-phase aluminium oxide nanoparticles towards a freshwater bacterial isolate Bacillus licheniformis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crystalline structure of nanoparticles may influence their physicochemical behaviour as well as their toxicological impact on biota. The differences in orientation of the atoms result in the variations in chemical stability. Thus, toxicological impacts of different crystalline phases of aluminium oxide nanoparticles are expected to vary. The present study brings out a comparative toxicity analysis of ?-phase and ?-phase aluminium oxide nanoparticles of comparable hydrodynamic size range towards a freshwater bacterial isolate Bacillus licheniformis at low exposure concentrations (5, 1, 0.5 and 0.05 µg/mL). Upon 2-h exposure, the ?-aluminium oxide particles showed lower toxicity than the ?-phase aluminium oxide. The lower level of oxidative stress generation and cell membrane damage in case of the ?-phase aluminium oxide nanoparticles substantiated the toxicity results. The involvement of protein, lipopolysaccharides in nanoparticle-cell surface interaction, was noted in both the cases. To conclude, the crystallinity of aluminium oxide nanoparticles played an important role in the interaction and the toxicity response. PMID:24861316

Pakrashi, Sunandan; Kumar, Deepak; Iswarya, V; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

2014-12-01

348

Culture of Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii) Using Geothermal Waste Water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The farming of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in geothermal-heated water has been demonstrated to be feasible in a non-tropical climate. The husbandry of prawns is being done in two outdoor raceway ponds, 9.1 m by 2.5 m and 29 m by 3.5 m that are 1.2 m deep. The ponds are not shielded from the ambient climate which during the winter months has recorded air temperatures as low as -20oC. A selected brood stock is held in a small spawning building where larvae are hatched in artificial saltwater and reared to the post-larvae stage which makes the facility self-supporting. This project is providing a model for potential investors to utilize the low-temperature geothermal resources in the western United States for warm water aquaculture. Zooplankton, macroscopic crusteans, from a local euthrophic lake are being fed to the post-larvae and adult prawns in addition to prepared commercial dry pelleted foods to keep operational costs at a minimum. Initial measurements of growth and weight gains indicate the production of two crops of prawns per year at seven to the pond is possible. No work on intensive culture has been done. Plans to enlarge the facility and do work on developing intensive culture are being considered.

Johnson, William C.

1978-01-01

349

Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC50 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l(-1), LC50) and lead (0.12 mg l(-1), LC50), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l(-1), LC50). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. PMID:16198032

Madoni, Paolo; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa

2006-05-01

350

CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FRESHWATER MICROALGAL STRAINS TOWARD BIOFUEL PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty-three algal cultures were isolated from freshwater lakes in Hainan, China. Four microalgal isolates were selected because they could be successfully cultivated at high density and demostrated a strong fluorescence after being stained with nile red. These cultures were identified as strains of Chlorella sp. C11, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii C22, Monoraphidium dybowskii C29, and Chlorella sp. HK12 through microscopic and 18S rDNA analysis. Under similar conditions, the lipid productivity of Chlorella sp. C11, Chla. reinhardtii C22, M. dybowskii C29 , and Chlorella sp. HK12 were 1.88, 2.79, 2.00, and 3.25 g L-1, respectively. Chla. reinhardtii C22 yielded a higher lipid content (51%, with a lower biomass concentration (5.47 g dwt L-1. Chlorella sp. HK12 reached a growth rate of 0.88 day-1 at OD540nm and yielded a biomass concentration of 7.56 g dwt L-1, with a high lipid content of 43%. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry analysis indicated that lipid fraction mainly comprises hydrocarbons including palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acids. Our results suggest that Chlorella sp. HK12 is a promising species for biodiesel production, because of its high lipid productivity and a relatively high content of oleic acid.

Xun Yang,

2011-12-01

351

Toxicity testing of freshwater sediment collected near freshwater aquaculture facilities in the Maritimes, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Atlantic region of Canada, there are close to 50 land-based freshwater aquaculture facilities, most of which discharge wastewater to freshwater receiving environments. This study was designed to assess the chemical and toxicological characteristics of sediments in those receiving environments. Thirty sediment samples were collected from 3 locations (upstream, outfall and downstream) at seven freshwater aquaculture facilities. Toxicity tests conducted included amphipod growth, amphipod survival and Microtox™. Sediments were also analysed for ammonia/porewater ammonia, redox and sulphide. Porewater ammonia concentration for the amphipod survival test ranged from 0.01 to 42 mg/L at the conclusion of the 14-day survival test. Ammonia concentration in sediment ranged from 0.3-202 ?g/g, sulphide concentration ranged from 0.15 to 17.4 ?g/g, yet redox ranged from 32 to 594 mV. Microtox™  IC50 values ranged from 108,00 to >164,000 mg/L, yet amphipod survival ranged from 0 to 100%, depending on sampling locations. Amphipod survival was significantly related (P ammonia (at time = 0 and 14 days) and Microtox™  IC50 was significantly related (P ammonia, sulphide and redox levels. These results indicate that discharges from some the land-based aquaculture facilities are impacting sediment dwelling benthic invertebrates at the outfall but that impact largely disappears by 100 m downstream. Furthermore those impacts were rarely detected during the early winter season, when biomass production was at the lowest. PMID:23705607

Lalonde, B A; Garron, C; Ernst, B; Jackman, P

2013-01-01

352

Impacts of new highways and subsequent landscape urbanization on stream habitat and biota  

Science.gov (United States)

New highways are pervasive, pernicious threats to stream ecosystems because of their short- and long-term physical, chemical, and biological impacts. Unfortunately, standard environmental impact statements (EISs) and environmental assessments (EAs) focus narrowly on the initial direct impacts of construction and ignore other long-term indirect impacts. More thorough consideration of highway impacts, and, ultimately, better land use decisions may be facilitated by conceptualizing highway development in three stages: initial highway construction, highway presence, and eventual landscape urbanization. Highway construction is characterized by localized physical disturbances, which generally subside through time. In contrast, highway presence and landscape urbanization are characterized by physical and chemical impacts that are temporally persistent. Although the impacts of highway presence and landscape urbanization are of similar natures, the impacts are of a greater magnitude and more widespread in the urbanization phase. Our review reveals that the landscape urbanization stage is clearly the greatest threat to stream habitat and biota, as stream ecosystems are sensitive to even low levels (urban development. Although highway construction is ongoing, pervasive, and has severe biological consequences, we found few published investigations of its impacts on streams. Researchers know little about the occurrence, loading rates, and biotic responses to specific contaminants in highway runoff. Also needed is a detailed understanding of how highway crossings, especially culverts, affect fish populations via constraints on movement and how highway networks alter natural regimes (e.g., streamflow, temperature). Urbanization research topics that may yield especially useful results include a) the relative importance and biological effects of specific components of urban development - e.g., commercial or residential; b) the scenarios under which impacts are reversible; and c) the efficacy of mitigation measures - e.g., stormwater retention or treatment and forested buffers. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

Wheeler, A.P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Rosenberger, A.E.

2005-01-01

353

Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: how changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antarctic and Southern Ocean (ASO) marine ecosystems have been changing for at least the last 30 years, including in response to increasing ocean temperatures and changes in the extent and seasonality of sea ice; the magnitude and direction of these changes differ between regions around Antarctica that could see populations of the same species changing differently in different regions. This article reviews current and expected changes in ASO physical habitats in response to climate change. It then reviews how these changes may impact the autecology of marine biota of this polar region: microbes, zooplankton, salps, Antarctic krill, fish, cephalopods, marine mammals, seabirds, and benthos. The general prognosis for ASO marine habitats is for an overall warming and freshening, strengthening of westerly winds, with a potential pole-ward movement of those winds and the frontal systems, and an increase in ocean eddy activity. Many habitat parameters will have regionally specific changes, particularly relating to sea ice characteristics and seasonal dynamics. Lower trophic levels are expected to move south as the ocean conditions in which they are currently found move pole-ward. For Antarctic krill and finfish, the latitudinal breadth of their range will depend on their tolerance of warming oceans and changes to productivity. Ocean acidification is a concern not only for calcifying organisms but also for crustaceans such as Antarctic krill; it is also likely to be the most important change in benthic habitats over the coming century. For marine mammals and birds, the expected changes primarily relate to their flexibility in moving to alternative locations for food and the energetic cost of longer or more complex foraging trips for those that are bound to breeding colonies. Few species are sufficiently well studied to make comprehensive species-specific vulnerability assessments possible. Priorities for future work are discussed. PMID:24802817

Constable, Andrew J; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Corney, Stuart P; Arrigo, Kevin R; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnes, David K A; Bindoff, Nathaniel L; Boyd, Philip W; Brandt, Angelika; Costa, Daniel P; Davidson, Andrew T; Ducklow, Hugh W; Emmerson, Louise; Fukuchi, Mitsuo; Gutt, Julian; Hindell, Mark A; Hofmann, Eileen E; Hosie, Graham W; Iida, Takahiro; Jacob, Sarah; Johnston, Nadine M; Kawaguchi, So; Kokubun, Nobuo; Koubbi, Philippe; Lea, Mary-Anne; Makhado, Azwianewi; Massom, Rob A; Meiners, Klaus; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Nicol, Stephen; Reid, Keith; Richerson, Kate; Riddle, Martin J; Rintoul, Stephen R; Smith, Walker O; Southwell, Colin; Stark, Jonathon S; Sumner, Michael; Swadling, Kerrie M; Takahashi, Kunio T; Trathan, Phil N; Welsford, Dirk C; Weimerskirch, Henri; Westwood, Karen J; Wienecke, Barbara C; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Wright, Simon W; Xavier, Jose C; Ziegler, Philippe

2014-10-01

354

Secondary UV radiation from biota as a proof of radiation hormesis and Gurwitsch phenomena  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High (large) and low (small) doses of ionizing radiation consistently induce opposite physiologic effects in biological systems. The effects of low doses cannot be inferred by interpolation between the result from groups exposed to high doses and controls irradiated only by Natural Background Radiation. Stimulation NBR (`bio-positive`) effects by low-level doses of ionizing radiation is called radiation hormesis. It is still a controversial idea; however it was found that some biological objects (yeast, sees, animals) after {gamma}-irradiation by low-level doses (10-50 times more NBR) can increase their development. The results of the researches demonstrate that the excitation of living systems by ionizing radiation (high energy, low doses) produces among other hydrogen peroxide which initiates prolonged secondary emission that can influence biota and activate many important processes in biological systems. On the other hand it is well known that after water irradiation by ionizing radiation as the product of radiolysis concentration of hydrogen peroxide has been received. The spectral analysis of this secondary emission confirmed the contribution of the UV component to the total emission. This secondary radiation can play a very important role in the intercellular communication. The influence of hydrogen peroxide on glycine has been examined. I have measured secondary emission from Gly using the Single Photon Counting device SPC. The data obtained made possible at least a partial understanding of the radiation hormesis phenomenon and suggest closer relationship to mitogenetic radiation. I propose deexcitation processes in biomolecules as a common denominator of UV and ionizing radiation interacting with living cells, underlying both radiation hormesis and mitogenetic effect. Based on the above experiments and other authors` reports it is postulated that low-level doses of ionizing radiation through radiolysis products (among others hydrogen peroxide) generate UV photons which can create mitogenetic radiation from cells 15 refs., 2 figs.

Goraczko, W. [Technical University, Poznan (Poland). Radio and Photo Chemistry Department

1997-10-01

355

Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean and biota off Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The T?hoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, resulted in unprecedented radioactivity releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Results are presented here from an international study of radionuclide contaminants in surface and subsurface waters, as well as in zooplankton and fish, off Japan in June 2011. A major finding is detection of Fukushima-derived 134Cs and 137Cs throughout waters 30–600 km offshore, with the highest activities associated with near-shore eddies and the Kuroshio Current acting as a southern boundary for transport. Fukushima-derived Cs isotopes were also detected in zooplankton and mesopelagic fish, and unique to this study we also find 110mAg in zooplankton. Vertical profiles are used to calculate a total inventory of ?2 PBq 137Cs in an ocean area of 150,000 km2. Our results can only be understood in the context of our drifter data and an oceanographic model that shows rapid advection of contaminants further out in the Pacific. Importantly, our data are consistent with higher estimates of the magnitude of Fukushima fallout and direct releases [Stohl et al. (2011) Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 11:28319–28394; Bailly du Bois et al. (2011) J Environ Radioact, 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.11.015]. We address risks to public health and marine biota by showing that though Cs isotopes are elevated 10–1,000× over prior levels in waters off Japan, radiation risks due to these radionuclides are below those generally considered harmful to marine animals and human consumers, and even below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. PMID:22474387

Buesseler, Ken O.; Jayne, Steven R.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Rypina, Irina I.; Baumann, Hannes; Baumann, Zofia; Breier, Crystaline F.; Douglass, Elizabeth M.; George, Jennifer; Macdonald, Alison M.; Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Nishikawa, Jun; Pike, Steven M.; Yoshida, Sashiko

2012-01-01

356

Soil biota can change after exotic plant invasion: Does this affect ecosystem processes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasion of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum into stands of the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii significantly reduced the abundance of soil biota, especially microarthropods and nematodes. Effects of invasion on active and total bacterial and fungal biomass were variable, although populations generally increased after 50+ years of invasion. The invasion of Bromus also resulted in a decrease in richness and a species shift in plants, microarthropods, fungi, and nematodes. However, despite the depauperate soil fauna at the invaded sites, no effects were seen on cellulose decomposition rates, nitrogen mineralization rates, or vascular plant growth. When Hilaria was planted into soils from not-invaded, recently invaded, and historically invaded sites (all currently or once dominated by Hilaria), germination and survivorship were not affected. In contrast, aboveground Hilaria biomass was significantly greater in recently invaded soils than in the other two soils. We attributed the Hilaria response to differences in soil nutrients present before the invasion, especially soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as these nutrients were elevated in the soils that produced the greatest Hilaria biomass. Our data suggest that it is not soil biotic richness per se that determines soil process rates or plant productivity, but instead that either (1) the presence of a few critical soil food web taxa can keep ecosystem function high, (2) nutrient loss is very slow in this ecosystem, and/or (3) these processes are microbially driven. However, the presence of Bromus may reduce key soil nutrients over time and thus may eventually suppress native plant success. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

Belnap, J.; Phillips, S.L.; Sherrod, S.K.; Moldenke, A.

2005-01-01

357

Biota-sediment accumulation and trophic transfer factors for extremely hydrophobic polychlorinated biphenyls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, invertebrates, and sediment from a contaminated tidal creek system in coastal Georgia (USA) were traced to Aroclor 1268, a mixture of hepta through decachlorinated homologs used at a former chlor/alkali plant adjacent to the study site. The base 10 logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) for the 15 most abundant Aroclor 1268 components in these samples ranged from 6.7 to >9. The composite mean biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for these congeners was 3.1, 0.81, and 0.28 for yearling striped mullet, spotted sea trout, and grass shrimp, respectively, species representing three trophic levels of the local food web. Individual congener BSAFs were negatively correlated with log K{sub ow} for all three species. The composite mean trophic transfer factor (TTF{sub lip}), defined as the ratio of lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in fish to grass shrimp, was higher for mullet (12) than for sea trout (2.9). Individual TTF{sub lip} values were two to three times higher for Cl{sub 7} and Cl{sub 8} homologs that were substituted at all four ortho positions, suggesting a difference in PCB retention based on chlorine substitution patterns. The relative magnitude of BSAFs and TTF{sub lip} values indicated that sediment-ingesting forage species like mullet efficiently accumulate PCBs and are an important link in the food web transfer of sediment-ingesting forage in this system. The negative linear relationships between BSAF and log K{sub ow} established in this study are among the first to be reported in the field for extremely hydrophobic PCBs.

Maruya, K.A.; Lee, R.F. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)

1998-12-01

358

Comparing measured and predicted PCB concentrations in Arctic seawater and marine biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a mechanistic food web model was parameterized for the Arctic marine ecosystem, it predicted PCB concentrations in zooplankton and fish that were two orders of magnitude lower than measured. PCB concentrations measured in zooplankton and fish were within the laboratory's accredited quality assured criteria, and were comparable to other Arctic regions. Although on a different scale, the predicted and measured PCB concentrations were highly correlated. As sensitivity analyses indicated water concentrations as the most sensitive parameter for the model output, dissolved water concentrations were predicted using measured zooplankton and air PCB concentrations, and empirical and mechanistic models. The food web model and the empirical relationship between bioaccumulation factor and octanol-water partitioning coefficient predicted mean dissolved water concentrations of 28 and 29 pg/L ?PCB6 (PCB-28, -52, -105, -118, -138, -153), respectively. Mean dissolved water concentration predicted from measured air concentrations in 1996 was 7.6 pg/L ?PCB5 (PCB-28 was not analysed). Mean dissolved water concentration measured in Barents Sea water sampled simultaneously as the biota in 1999 was 0.3 pg/L ?PCB6. The dissolved water concentrations predicted from zooplankton PCB concentrations were comparable to water concentrations measured in 1996, whereas the dissolved water concentrations measured in 1999 were comparable to measurements from 2001re comparable to measurements from 2001. If the present high empirically derived bioaccumulation factors (log BAF 7.3-9.0) were realistic, this suggests that bioaccumulation in Arctic zooplankton is more efficient that previously assumed. The present study illustrates and discusses some of the difficulties encountered when different approaches to study environmental distribution of contaminants are compared

359

Soil biota effects on clonal growth and flowering in the forest herb Stachys sylvatica  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of a soil community can vary drastically at extremely short distances. Therefore, plants from any given population can be expected to experience strong differences in belowground biotic interactions. Although it is well recognized that the soil biota plays a significant role in the structure and dynamics of plant communities, plastic responses in growth strategies as a function of soil biotic interactions have received little attention. In this study, we question whether the biotic soil context from two forest associated contrasting environments (the forest understory and the hedgerows) determines the balance between clonal growth and flowering of the perennial Stachys sylvatica. Using artificial soils, we compared the growth responses of this species following inoculation with the mycorrhizal and microbial community extracted either from rhizospheric soil of the forest understory or from the hedgerows. The microbial context had a strong effect on plant functional traits, determining the production of runners and inflorescences. Plants inoculated with the hedgerow community had a greater biomass, larger number of runners, and lower resource investment in flower production than was seen in plants inoculated with the understory microbial community. The obtained results illustrate that belowground biotic interactions are essential to understand basic plastic growth responses determinant for plant establishment and survival. The interactions with microbial communities from two contrasting habitats resulted in two different, and presumably adaptive, growth strategies that were optimal for the conditions prevalent in the environments compared; and they are as such an essential factor to understand plant-plant, plant-animal interactions and the dispersal capacities of clonal plants.

de la Peña, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

2011-03-01

360

Properties and structure of peat humic acids depending on humification and precursor biota in bogs  

Science.gov (United States)

Humic substances form most of the organic component of soil, peat and natural waters, but their structure and properties very much differs depending on their source. The aim of this study is to characterize humic acids from raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the homogeneity of humic acids isolated from the bog bodies and study peat humification impact on properties of humic acids. A major impact on the structure of peat humic acids have raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin) void of lignin. For characterization of peat humic acids their elemental (CHNOS), functional (-COOH, phenolic OH) analysis, spectroscopic characterization (UV, fluorescence, FTIR, 1H NMR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, ESR) and degradation studies (Py-GC/MS) were done. Peat humic acids (HA) have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, but thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge. Comparatively, the studied peat HAs are at the start of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups changes depending on the depth of peat from which HAs have been isolated: and carboxylic acidity is increasing with depth of peat location and the humification degree. The ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids isolated from a well-characterized bog profile demonstrates dependence on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age of humic acids, their molecular complexity and ability to influence surface tension decreases; even so, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants) can be identified.

Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

2013-04-01

361

Secondary UV radiation from biota as a proof of radiation hormesis and Gurwitsch phenomena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High (large) and low (small) doses of ionizing radiation consistently induce opposite physiologic effects in biological systems. The effects of low doses cannot be inferred by interpolation between the result from groups exposed to high doses and controls irradiated only by Natural Background Radiation. Stimulation NBR ('bio-positive') effects by low-level doses of ionizing radiation is called radiation hormesis. It is still a controversial idea; however it was found that some biological objects (yeast, sees, animals) after ?-irradiation by low-level doses (10-50 times more NBR) can increase their development. The results of the researches demonstrate that the excitation of living systems by ionizing radiation (high energy, low doses) produces among other hydrogen peroxide which initiates prolonged secondary emission that can influence biota and activate many important processes in biological systems. On the other hand it is well known that after water irradiation by ionizing radiation as the product of radiolysis concentration of hydrogen peroxide has been received. The spectral analysis of this secondary emission confirmed the contribution of the UV component to the total emission. This secondary radiation can play a very important role in the intercellular communication. The influence of hydrogen peroxide on glycine has been examined. I have measured secondary emission from Gly using the Single Photon Counting device SPC. The data obtained made possible at least a partial understanding of the radiation hormesis phenomenon and suggest closer relationship to mitogenetic radiation. I propose deexcitation processes in biomolecules as a common denominator of UV and ionizing radiation interacting with living cells, underlying both radiation hormesis and mitogenetic effect. Based on the above experiments and other authors' reports it is postulated that low-level doses of ionizing radiation through radiolysis products (among others hydrogen peroxide) generate UV photons which can create mitogenetic radiation from cells

362

Chemical analysis and genotoxicity of high molecular mass PAH in sediment samples and biota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) method was used to fractionate the organic extracts of prepared from coal tar-contaminated sediments from hamilton Harbor in Ontario and from Sydney Harbor in Nova Scotia into molecular mass classes. Each PAH fraction up to 302 amu was analyzed by GC-MS and fractions containing PAH with molecular masses greater than 302 amu were analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC-MS.Each fraction was also subjected to Ames bioassays using a TA100-like strain of Salmonella typhimurium (YG1025 + S9). The 300/302 amu, 326/328 and 350/352 amu PAH fractions accounted for 25% of the total genotoxic response of the extract; these PAH constitute a substantial genotoxic burden. A number of 300, 302, 326, 350, 374 and 400 amu PAH were identified using APCI LC-MS and comparison with authentic standards. The non-polar aromatic extracts of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and zebra mussels from Hamilton Harbor were also examined by GC-MS, APCI LC-MS and genotoxicity bioassays. The profiles of the priority and high mass PAH in these samples were identical showing that all PAH up to and exceeding 400 amu were readily bioavailable to biota such as Zebra mussels. In addition, the pseudo faeces of the Zebra mussels and amphipod detritivores which fed on the pseudo faeces had chemical profiles identical to the Zebra mussels. Since many sport fish prize amphipods as food, this observation demonstrates a pathway for organic contan demonstrates a pathway for organic contaminants adsorbed to suspended sediments to enter the food chain of non-bottom-feeding fish in areas infested by Zebra mussels

363

Fouling and corrosion of freshwater heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fouling in freshwater heat exchangers (HX) costs the Canadian nuclear power industry millions of dollars annually in replacement energy and capital equipment. The main reasons are loss of heat transfer and corrosion. Underdeposit pitting is the predominant corrosion mechanism. Erosion corrosion has also been observed. Failure analyses, field studies, and laboratory research have provided us with information to help explain the reasons for reduced performance. Newly installed HX tubing immediately becomes colonized with a complex community of bacteria in a slimey organic matrix. The biofilm itself produces corrosive species and in addition it promotes the attachment of sediment particles and the deposition of calcareous material. The result is a thick, adherent deposit which creates crevices, concentrates aggressive species and alters the system's hydrodynamics

364

Strontium and calcium in natural freshwater ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behaviour of radionuclides in natural reservoirs is studied. 90Sr accumulation (out of atmospheric fallouts) is studied against the background of its constant carriers (Sr and Ca) in the main components of fresh-water lakes and other reservoirs of Latvia. 90Sr which penetrates in the reservoir is distributed among water, ground and hydrobionts in concentrations which depend both on the chemical composition and properties of water and bottom sediments, and on the total biomass. The differences found in the 90Sr migration behaviour, on the one hand, and stable Sr, on the other hand, depend on the physico-chemical nature of bottom sediments, as well as on 90Sr bond with them

365

The Freshwater Project: history and evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Freshwater Project was established based on an environmental diagnosis of the Ribeirão dos Porcos river in 2001 by undergraduate students and teachers of the Environmental Engineering course of the Centro Regional Universitário de Espírito Santo do Pinhal, state of São Paulo, Brazil. At that time, the stream’s urban area already displayed environmental degradation, which was evidenced by the garbage and deforestation along its banks and confirmed by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses of the quality of its water. In 2003, a new approach was undertaken, shifting the project’s focus from diagnosis to action through community involvement. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the origins, evolution and present status of this project, whose purpose has increasingly included environmental education.

Rafael Henrique Gonçalves

2004-06-01

366

TOXICITY EVALUATION OF DIMETHOATE TO FRESHWATER FISH RASBORA DANICONIUS (HAMILTON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Static bioassay of the toxicity of dimethoate pesticide against the freshwater fish Rasbora daniconius was conducted in the laboratory. The LC 50 of values of dimethoate to the freshwater fish Rasbora daniconius at various exposure periods are 11.32, 10.69, 10.69 and 9.97 ppm for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively. From the present study it shows that the freshwater fish Rasbora daniconius is more susceptible to dimethoate toxicity as the LC 50 value for this organophosphate is less than other reported fish species. These results indicate that dimethoate to the fish caused toxic effects.

N.N. KHANAPURE

2013-05-01

367

Survival strategies of freshwater insects in cold environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At high latitudes and altitudes, ice formation is a major variable affecting survival of freshwater fauna and hence the abundance and composition of invertebrate communities. Freezing, but also desiccation and anoxia, are lethal threats to all life stages of aquatic insects, from the eggs to the adults. During cold periods, the aquatic stages commonly remain in or move to a portion of the water body that will not freeze or dry (e.g., deep waters of lakes, springs and hyporheic zone where they can remain active. Less frequently they migrate to habitats that will freeze at the onset of winter. Insects have developed a complex of strategies to survive at their physiological temperature minimum, comprising (a morphological (melanism, reduction in size, hairiness/pubescence, brachyptery and aptery, (b behavioural (basking in the sun, changes in feeding and mating habit, parthenogenesis, polyploidy, ovoviviparity, habitat selection and cocoon building, (c ecological (extension of development to several years by quiescence or diapause and reduction of the number of generations per year, (d physiological and biochemical (freezing tolerance and freezing avoidance adaptations. Most species develop a combination of these survival strategies that can be different in the aquatic and terrestrial phase. Freezing avoidance and freezing tolerance may be accompanied by diapause. Both cold hardiness and diapause manifest during the unfavourable season and: (i involve storage of food resources (commonly glycogen and lipids; (ii are under hormonal control (ecdysone and juvenile hormone; (iii involve a depression or suppression of the oxidative metabolism with mitochondrial degradation. However, where the growing season is reduced to a few weeks, insects may develop cold hardiness without entering diapause, maintaining in the haemolymph a high concentration of Thermal Hysteris Proteins (THPs for the entire year and a slow but continuous growth. A synthesis of literature regarding adaptation strategies in aquatic insects is presented, highlighting the scarcity of information on freshwater insects from Alpine regions. Most references are on Diptera Chironomidae from North America and North Europe. Some recent findings on aquatic insects from Italian Alpine streams are also presented.

Valeria LENCIONI

2004-09-01

368

Terrestrial and freshwater Tardigrada of the Americas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a comprehensive list of the freshwater and terrestrial tardigrade fauna reported from the Americas (North America, South America, Central America and the West Indies), their distribution in the Americas, and the substrates from which they have been reported. Data were obtained from 316 published references. Authors' identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Taxa were assigned to sub-national units (states, provinces, etc.). Many areas, in particular large portions of Central America and the West Indies, have no reported tardigrade fauna.        The presence of 54 genera and 380 species has been reported for the Americas; 245 species have been collected in the Nearctic ecozone and 251 in the Neotropical ecozone. Among the tardigrade species found in the Americas, 52 are currently considered cosmopolitan, while 153 species have known distributions restricted to the Americas. Based on recent taxonomic revision of the genus Milnesium, the vast majority of records of M. tardigradum in the Americas should now be reassigned to Milnesium tardigradum sensu lato, either because the provided description differs from M. tardigradum sensu stricto or because insufficient description is provided to make a determination; the remainder should be considered Milnesium cf. tardigradum.        Most terrestrial tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on cryptogams (mosses, lichens and liverworts); 90% of the species have been collected in such substrates. The proportion of species collected in other habitats is lower: 14% in leaf litter, 20% in soil, and 24% in aquatic samples (in other terrestrial substrates the proportion never exceeds 5%). Most freshwater tardigrades have been collected from aquatic vegetation and sediment. For nine species in the Americas no substrates have been reported.  PMID:25113595

Meyer, Harry A

2013-01-01

369

Comparison of measured and modelled copper binding by natural organic matter in freshwaters.  

OpenAIRE

Fifteen freshwater samples containing significant concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were titrated with copper under standardised conditions (pH 6 and 7), and concentrations of Cu2+ were measured with an ion-selective electrode. Measured values of [Cu2+], which were in the range 1E-11–1E-5 mol/L, were compared with those simulated using Humic Ion-Binding Models V and VI. It was assumed that copper speciation was controlled by the organic matter, represented by fulvic acid (FA)...

Bryan, S. E.; Tipping, E.; Hamilton-taylor, J.

2002-01-01

370

Behavior surveillance and oxygen consumption in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) exposed to sodium cyanide  

OpenAIRE

Sodium cyanide, is highly contaminating aquatic ecosystems as a toxic pollutant, was investigated in the present study for acute toxicity on freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The toxicity tests were conducted by static renewal bioassay method on the juveniles of fish was evaluated. The LC50 value of sodium cyanide to Labeo rohita was found out to be 320 mg l-1. One third (106 mg l-1) and one fifth (64 mg l-1) of the LC50 value was selected for sublethal studies. Behavioural patterns and oxygen co...

Dube P.N.; Hosetti B.B.

2010-01-01

371

Freshwater Microcosms-Based Assessment of Eco-toxicological Effects of a Chemical Effluent from the Pilcam Industry in Cameroon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the acute toxicity of a raw effluent from a battery manufacturing plant (Pilcam in Douala, Cameroon, to a freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus, and subsequently evaluated its sub-acute effects on water quality and the biota in freshwater microscosms. The acute toxicity test was based on 96 hrs static renewal bioassays that resulted in 96-h LC50 and LC90 values of 16 and 20.7% (v/v, respectively. The sub-acute experiments were conducted by exposing several species of aquatic organisms (plankton, macro-invertebrates and mollusks to lower effluent concentrations [1.6%, 8.0%, 16% (v/v] for six weeks, and monitoring their survival rates, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water. These concentrations were based on 10%, 50%, and 100% of the 96 h - median lethal concentrations (LC50 of the effluent to the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Significant effects on functional parameters, such as, chlorophyll-a and total protein could not be demonstrated. However, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly inhibited at all concentrations tested. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, macro-invertebrate communities and snails were negatively affected by the effluent application at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v, with chlorophyta, ciliates, ostracoda, annelida, planaria and snails being the most sensitive groups. The snails were eliminated after 24 h exposure from microcosms treated with effluent at concentration ≥ 8% (v/v. Effluent exposure also caused significant effects on water quality parameters (DO, pH, hardness, conductivity, color, turbidity, ammonia in general at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v. Temperature and alkalinity were not significantly affected. Overall, data from this research indicate that a dilution of the Pilcam effluent down to 1.6% does not provide protection against chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Further studies are needed to determine the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL, as well as a chronic reference concentration for this effluent.

J. E. Djomo

2004-09-01

372

Cellulose Degradation by Micromonosporas Recovered from Freshwater Lakes and Classification of These Actinomycetes by DNA Gyrase B Gene Sequencing?  

OpenAIRE

A number of Micromonospora strains isolated from the water column, sediment, and cellulose baits placed in freshwater lakes were shown to be able to degrade cellulose in lake water without any addition of nutrients. A selective isolation method was also developed to demonstrate that CFU arose from both spores and hyphae that inhabit the lake environment. Gyrase B gene sequencing performed on the isolates identified a number of new centers of variation within Micromonospora, but the most activ...

Menezes, Alexandre B.; Lockhart, Robert J.; Cox, Michael J.; Allison, Heather E.; Mccarthy, Alan J.

2008-01-01

373

Environmental versus anthropogenic effects on population adaptive divergence in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repeated pesticide contaminations of lentic freshwater systems located within agricultural landscapes may affect population evolution in non-target organisms, especially in species with a fully aquatic life cycle and low dispersal ability. The issue of evolutionary impact of pollutants is therefore conceptually important for ecotoxicologists. The impact of historical exposure to pesticides on genetic divergence was investigated in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, using a set of 14 populations from contrasted environments in terms of pesticide and other anthropogenic pressures. The hypothesis of population adaptive divergence was tested on 11 life-history traits, using Q(ST)-F(ST) comparisons. Despite strong neutral differentiation (mean F(ST) = 0.291), five adult traits or parameters were found to be under divergent selection. Conversely, two early expressed traits showed a pattern consistent with uniform selection or trait canalization, and four adult traits appeared to evolve neutrally. Divergent selection patterns were mostly consistent with a habitat effect, opposing pond to ditch and channel populations. Comparatively, pesticide and other human pressures had little correspondence with evolutionary patterns, despite hatching rate impairment associated with global anthropogenic pressure. Globally, analyses revealed high genetic variation both at neutral markers and fitness-related traits in a species used as model in ecotoxicology, providing empirical support for the need to account for genetic and evolutionary components of population response in ecological risk assessment. PMID:25207985

Bouétard, Anthony; Côte, Jessica; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Collinet, Marc; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès

2014-01-01

374

Freshwater aquaculture in the United States: Complying with environmental protection law and policy  

OpenAIRE

The author deal with the relations between the freshwater fish culture and the many regulations of the environmental protection in USA. The author develops the federal and state administrative frameworks (federal government administration of aquacultu