WorldWideScience

Sample records for seismogram 1-d generation

  1. A constant stress-drop model for producing broadband synthetic seismograms: Comparison with the next generation attenuation relations

    Frankel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband (0.1-20 Hz) synthetic seismograms for finite-fault sources were produced for a model where stress drop is constant with seismic moment to see if they can match the magnitude dependence and distance decay of response spectral amplitudes found in the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) relations recently developed from strong-motion data of crustal earthquakes in tectonically active regions. The broadband synthetics were constructed for earthquakes of M 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 by combining deterministic synthetics for plane-layered models at low frequencies with stochastic synthetics at high frequencies. The stochastic portion used a source model where the Brune stress drop of 100 bars is constant with seismic moment. The deterministic synthetics were calculated using an average slip velocity, and hence, dynamic stress drop, on the fault that is uniform with magnitude. One novel aspect of this procedure is that the transition frequency between the deterministic and stochastic portions varied with magnitude, so that the transition frequency is inversely related to the rise time of slip on the fault. The spectral accelerations at 0.2, 1.0, and 3.0 sec periods from the synthetics generally agreed with those from the set of NGA relations for M 5.5-7.5 for distances of 2-100 km. At distances of 100-200 km some of the NGA relations for 0.2 sec spectral acceleration were substantially larger than the values of the synthetics for M 7.5 and M 6.5 earthquakes because these relations do not have a term accounting for Q. At 3 and 5 sec periods, the synthetics for M 7.5 earthquakes generally had larger spectral accelerations than the NGA relations, although there was large scatter in the results from the synthetics. The synthetics showed a sag in response spectra at close-in distances for M 5.5 between 0.3 and 0.7 sec that is not predicted from the NGA relations.

  2. Seismogram Construction to Fit the Recorded B032593c Earthquake, Japan on Observation Station Bfo, Germany

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2005-01-01

    In this research the model of earth layers between earthquake's epicenter in Hokkaido Japan and observation station in Black Forest of Observatory (BFO), Germany is investigated. The earth model is 1-D that represents the average speed model. The earth model is obtained by seismogram comparison between data and synthetic seismogram in time domain and three components simultaneously. Synthetic Seismogram is calculated with the Green's function of the Earth by MINor Integration (GEMINI) program...

  3. A seismogram digitization and database management system

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a 2Seismogram Digitization and Database Management System2 (SDDMS), which is devel-oped using Delphi3, and present the key technique of automatically extracting wave data from paper seismograms. The system has various functions, such as paper seismogram digitization, database management and data analysis, etc. With this system it is possible to analyze historical paper seismograms using modern computers. Application of this system will be of help to the progress in earthquake prediction and seismological researches.

  4. Efficient computation of NACT seismograms

    Zheng, Z.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    We present a modification to the NACT formalism (Li and Romanowicz, 1995) for computing synthetic seismograms and sensitivity kernels in global seismology. In the NACT theory, the perturbed seismogram consists of an along-branch coupling term, which is computed under the well-known PAVA approximation (e.g. Woodhouse and Dziewonski, 1984), and an across-branch coupling term, which is computed under the linear Born approximation. In the classical formalism, the Born part is obtained by a double summation over all pairs of coupling modes, where the numerical cost grows as (number of sources * number of receivers) * (corner frequency)^4. Here, however, by adapting the approach of Capdeville (2005), we are able to separate the computation into two single summations, which are responsible for the “source to scatterer” and the “scatterer to receiver” contributions, respectively. As a result, the numerical cost of the new scheme grows as (number of sources + number of receivers) * (corner frequency)^2. Moreover, by expanding eigen functions on a wavelet basis, a compression factor of at least 3 (larger at lower frequency) is achieved, leading to a factor of ~10 saving in disk storage. Numerical experiments show that the synthetic seismograms computed from the new approach agree well with those from the classical mode coupling method. The new formalism is significantly more efficient when approaching higher frequencies and in cases of large numbers of sources and receivers, while the across-branch mode coupling feature is still preserved, though not explicitly.

  5. Generation and characterization of CD1d-specific single-domain antibodies with distinct functional features.

    Lameris, Roeland; de Bruin, Renée C G; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P; Verheul, Henk M; Zweegman, Sonja; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van der Vliet, Hans J

    2016-09-01

    Ligation of the CD1d antigen-presenting molecule by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can trigger important biological functions. For therapeutic purposes camelid-derived variable domain of heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHH) have multiple advantages over mAbs because they are small, stable and have low immunogenicity. Here, we generated 21 human CD1d-specific VHH by immunizing Lama glama and subsequent phage display. Two clones induced maturation of dendritic cells, one clone induced early apoptosis in CD1d-expressing B lymphoblasts and multiple myeloma cells, and another clone blocked recognition of glycolipid-loaded CD1d by CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. In contrast to reported CD1d-specific mAbs, these CD1d-specific VHH have the unique characteristic that they induce specific and well-defined biological effects. This feature, combined with the above-indicated general advantages of VHH, make the CD1d-specific VHH generated here unique and useful tools to exploit both CD1d ligation as well as disruption of CD1d-iNKT interactions in the treatment of cancer or inflammatory disorders. PMID:27312006

  6. A combined 1D/3D fuel burnup analysis of generation IV light water reactor IRIS

    A combined 1D/3D methodology for the fuel burnup analysis of generation IV light water reactors with thin boron coating that covers the fuel rods is described in this paper. This methodology is founded on three approximations. The first approximation assumes that the problem of fuel depletion in the entire 3D core can be resolved into two independent problems. One is a 3D Monte Carlo evolution of power distribution in large volumes (nodes) with the KENO-V.a code, and the other is a transport method evolution of burnup dependent fuel composition in 1D Wigner-Seitz cell for each node independently. With the second approximation, the time-dependent fuel composition in the node (e.g., in the fuel assembly) is calculated by using a 1D fuel depletion analysis with the SAS2H control module from the SCALE-4.4a code system. The third approximation involves smearing the boron coating with the clad (by volume homogenization). The proposed SAS2H/KENO-V.a methodology is verified for the case of 2D x-y model of IRIS 15x15 fuel assembly (with a reflective boundary condition) by using two well benchmarked code systems. The first one is MOCUP, a coupled MCNP-4C and ORIGEN2.1 utility code, and the second is KENO-V.a/ORIGEN2.1 code system recently developed by authors of this paper. It has been found that the proposed SAS2H/KENO-V.a methodology gives a satisfactory accuracy for keff and nuclide composition. Finally, this methodology was applied for 3D burnup analysis of IRIS-1000 benchmark≠44 core. Detailed keff and power density evolution with burnup are reported. (author)

  7. Generation of nonclassical microwave states using an artificial atom in 1D open space

    Hoi I.-C.; Palomaki T.; Lindkvist J.; Johansson G.; Delsing P.; Wilson C.M.

    2012-01-01

    We have embedded an artificial atom, a superconducting transmon qubit, in a 1D open space and investigated the scattering properties of an incident microwave coherent state. By studying the statistics of the reflected and transmitted fields, we demonstrate that the scattered states can be nonclassical. In particular, by measuring the second-order correlation function, $g^{(2)}$, we show photon antibunching in the reflected field and superbunching in the transmitted field. We also compare the ...

  8. Parameter Analysis For A High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL By Numerical Calculation Based On 1D Theory

    Li, Yuhui; Zhang, Shancai

    2004-01-01

    The high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL) is an important candidate for a fourth-generation light source. Lots of theoretical work has been performed. Recently a further 1D theory about HGHG FEL has been developed. It considers the effects of different parameters for the whole process. An initial program based on this theory has been made. In this paper, a brief comparison of the results from this 1D program and from TDA (3D code) is discussed. It also analyses the parameters for Shanghai deep ultra violate free-electron laser source (SDUV-FEL), including electron beam energy spread, seed laser power, strength of dispersion section etc.

  9. Bloch oscillations as generators of polarons in a 1D crystal

    Nazareno, H. N.; Brito, P. E. de

    2016-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to characterize the kind of propagation/localization of carriers in a one-dimensional crystalline structure along the tight-binding model while the electron-phonon interaction is taken into account through a deformation potential and the system is under the action of a dc electric field. The lattice was treated in the classical formalism of harmonic vibrations. A remarkable effect is obtained due to the presence of the electric field. On one side the particle performs Bloch oscillations and at the same time it interacts with the lattice and as a result at each turning point of its trajectory phonons are generated that carry with them a fraction of the electronic wave packet, it is the polaron formation. This way the Bloch oscillations pump polarons into the system. We explain why the polaron is formed at returning points of the oscillations.

  10. Stochastic characteristics of the true seismograms

    Fischer, Cyril; Náprstek, Jiří

    Rotterdam : Millpress, 2005 - (Soize, C.; Schueller, G.), s. 1875-1878 ISBN 9059660331. [International conference on structural dynamics - EURODYN 2005 /6./. Paříž (FR), 04.09.2005-07.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP103/03/P080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : seismogram * wavelets * evolutionary spectra Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  11. A Multi­Discipline Approach to Digitizing Historic Seismograms

    Bartlett, Andrew [Retriever Technology, Sante Fe, NM (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Retriever Technology has developed and has made available free of charge a seismogram digitization software package called SKATE (Seismogram Kit for Automatic Trace Extraction). We have developed an extensive set of algorithms that process seismogram image files, provide editing tools, and output time series data. The software is available online and free of charge at seismo.redfish.com. To demonstrate the speed and cost effectiveness of the software, we have processed over 30,000 images.

  12. Seismogram Construction to Fit the Recorded B032593c Earthquake, Japan on Observation Station Bfo, Germany

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research the model of earth layers between earthquake's epicenter in Hokkaido Japan and observation station in Black Forest of Observatory (BFO, Germany is investigated. The earth model is 1-D that represents the average speed model. The earth model is obtained by seismogram comparison between data and synthetic seismogram in time domain and three components simultaneously. Synthetic Seismogram is calculated with the Green's function of the Earth by MINor Integration (GEMINI program, where program's input is initially the earth model IASPEI91, PREMAN and also the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT solution of the earthquake. A Butterworth low-pass filter with corner frequency of 20 mHz is imposed to measured and synthetic seismogram. On seismogram comparison we can find unsystematic discrepancies, covering the travel time and waveform of all wave phases, namely on P, S, SS wave and surface wave of Rayleigh and Love. Solution to the above mentioned discrepancies needs correction to the earth structure, that covering the change of earth crust thickness, the gradient of βh and value of zero order coefficient in βh and βv in upper mantle, to get the fitting on the surface wave of Love and Rayleigh. Further correction to accomplish the discrepancies on body waves is conducted on layers beneath upper mantle down to depth of 630 km, where a little change at speed model of P and S wave is carried out. The number of oscillation amount especially on Love wave is influenced by earth crust depth earth. Good fitting is obtained at phase and amplitude of Love wave, but also at amplitude of some body wave too. This effect is not yet been exploited for the determination of moment tensor.

  13. On-Demand Synthetic Seismograms and Other Data Products at the IRIS DMC

    Hutko, A. R.; Trabant, C. M.; Weekly, R. T.; Bahavar, M.; Krischer, L.; van Driel, M.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Stähler, S. C.; Hosseini, K.

    2015-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) has served waveform data to the seismology community for over 25 years. This presentation highlights a new, on-demand synthetic seismogram service that will complement the time series data we have traditionally distributed. The synthetics are accessible using a straightforward web service that returns synthetics according to specified source-receiver combinations, Earth model and signal band. This new service is designed to generate synthetic seismograms extremely fast, making it feasible to request large numbers of synthetics. This capability supports studying variations in source properties, Earth models or temporal changes in instrument responses. Our collaborators have computed a global-scale database of Green's functions from which users can request synthetic seismograms for arbitrary source and receiver parameters and Earth models. This multi-terabyte database of Green's functions is computed using the spectral-element method AxiSEM (www.axisem.info) for selected common spherically symmetric Earth models (PREM, IASP91, AK135f...) with anisotropy and attenuation. Fine-scale models have resolution from 1 to about 100 sec periods with durations of 30 minutes; lower resolution models extend to a few hours duration. Behind the scenes, the web service runs Instaseis (www.instaseis.net), a system that rapidly calculates broadband synthetic seismograms from the pre-calculated Green's function. The service also provides post-processing methods, including convolution with a specified moment tensor (or GCMT id) and one of a few source-time functions with variable duration. The interface is designed to be callable by user-friendly scripts and to support automated processing workflows. The DMC will also provide a command line script to download selections of synthetics. This new dataset and related service provide a powerful tool in multiple research areas where synthetic seismograms are useful. In this presentation, we will also

  14. Synthetic Seismograms in Realistic Media : A Wave-theoretical Approach

    Kohketsu, Kazuki

    1988-01-01

    In order to interpret seismograms, we should separate the effects of source and medium, which are strongly coupled. The medium effect is usually estimated by computing synthetic seismograms for a model of the Earth. Of course, a three-dimensionally heterogeneous, arbitrarily anisotropic and attenuative medium is the most realistic model, but it requires a great deal of theoretical and numerical effort. At present one- or two-dimensionally layered, isotropic and attenuative media consisting of...

  15. Fully digital 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos as hardware pseudo random number generators

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-10-07

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos using the sawtooth nonlinearity in a 3rd order ODE with the Euler approximation. Systems indicate chaotic behaviour through phase space boundedness and positive Lyapunov exponent. Low-significance bits form a PRNG and pass all tests in the NIST SP. 800-22 suite without post-processing. Real-time control of the number of scrolls allows distinct output streams with 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos enabling greater controllability. The proposed PRNGs are experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.25%, throughput up to 5.25 Gbits/s and up to 512 distinct output streams with low cross-correlation.

  16. A hybrid method for the computation of quasi-3D seismograms.

    Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The development of powerful computer clusters and efficient numerical computation methods, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM) made possible the computation of seismic wave propagation in a heterogeneous 3D earth. However, the cost of theses computations is still problematic for global scale tomography that requires hundreds of such simulations. Part of the ongoing research effort is dedicated to the development of faster modeling methods based on the spectral element method. Capdeville et al. (2002) proposed to couple SEM simulations with normal modes calculation (C-SEM). Nissen-Meyer et al. (2007) used 2D SEM simulations to compute 3D seismograms in a 1D earth model. Thanks to these developments, and for the first time, Lekic et al. (2011) developed a 3D global model of the upper mantle using SEM simulations. At the local and continental scale, adjoint tomography that is using a lot of SEM simulation can be implemented on current computers (Tape, Liu et al. 2009). Due to their smaller size, these models offer higher resolution. They provide us with images of the crust and the upper part of the mantle. In an attempt to teleport such local adjoint tomographic inversions into the deep earth, we are developing a hybrid method where SEM computation are limited to a region of interest within the earth. That region can have an arbitrary shape and size. Outside this region, the seismic wavefield is extrapolated to obtain synthetic data at the Earth's surface. A key feature of the method is the use of a time reversal mirror to inject the wavefield induced by distant seismic source into the region of interest (Robertsson and Chapman 2000). We compute synthetic seismograms as follow: Inside the region of interest, we are using regional spectral element software RegSEM to compute wave propagation in 3D. Outside this region, the wavefield is extrapolated to the surface by convolution with the Green's functions from the mirror to the seismic stations. For now, these

  17. On the recovery and analysis of historical seismograms

    Barbara Palombo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of historical seismograms has proven to be a fundamental tool to help with the definition of the seismic risk in specific regions. Indeed, modern quantitative reappraisal of relevant earthquakes that occurred before the 1960’s; i.e., prior to both the developments of modern recording instruments and the theoretical progress, has been essential for the assessment of the seismic potential of a source area. However, due to the characteristics (transducing and recording of the old analog seismographs, the data available are affected by intrinsic uncertainties, and errors can be introduced during the processing of waveform digitization. These drawbacks can seriously influence the quality and reliability of an investigation. In general, no standard technique can be applied when dealing with historical seismograms. Thus, specific tests and cross-checks have to be designed to estimate the limits of each specific analysis. Here, we aim to provide an overview of the whole procedure while focusing on the most crucial steps, from the seismogram recovery to the application of modern techniques for the retrieval of the seismic source information. We also suggest possible checks for the robustness of the data and for the available instrument characteristics, with a description of the effects of various uncertainties on the results that can be obtained. We thus provide useful indications for the analysis of historical seismograms, and also for the correct interpretation of the resulting characteristics of the seismic source.

  18. Full Waveform 3D Synthetic Seismic Algorithm for 1D Layered Anelastic Models

    Schwaiger, H. F.; Aldridge, D. F.; Haney, M. M.

    2007-12-01

    Numerical calculation of synthetic seismograms for 1D layered earth models remains a significant aspect of amplitude-offset investigations, surface wave studies, microseismic event location approaches, and reflection interpretation or inversion processes. Compared to 3D finite-difference algorithms, memory demand and execution time are greatly reduced, enabling rapid generation of seismic data within workstation or laptop computational environments. We have developed a frequency-wavenumber forward modeling algorithm adapted to realistic 1D geologic media, for the purpose of calculating seismograms accurately and efficiently. The earth model consists of N layers bounded by two halfspaces. Each layer/halfspace is a homogeneous and isotropic anelastic (attenuative and dispersive) solid, characterized by a rectangular relaxation spectrum of absorption mechanisms. Compressional and shear phase speeds and quality factors are specified at a particular reference frequency. Solution methodology involves 3D Fourier transforming the three coupled, second- order, integro-differential equations for particle displacements to the frequency-horizontal wavenumber domain. An analytic solution of the resulting ordinary differential system is obtained. Imposition of welded interface conditions (continuity of displacement and stress) at all interfaces, as well as radiation conditions in the two halfspaces, yields a system of 6(N+1) linear algebraic equations for the coefficients in the ODE solution. An optimized inverse 2D Fourier transform to the space domain gives the seismic wavefield on a horizontal plane. Finally, three-component seismograms are obtained by accumulating frequency spectra at designated receiver positions on this plane, followed by a 1D inverse FFT from angular frequency ω to time. Stress-free conditions may be applied at the top or bottom interfaces, and seismic waves are initiated by force or moment density sources. Examples reveal that including attenuation

  19. Wavelet analysis of the seismograms for tsunami warning

    A. Chamoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity in the tsunami phenomenon makes the available warning systems not much effective in the practical situations. The problem arises due to the time lapsed in the data transfer, processing and modeling. The modeling and simulation needs the input fault geometry and mechanism of the earthquake. The estimation of these parameters and other aprior information increases the utilized time for making any warning. Here, the wavelet analysis is used to identify the tsunamigenesis of an earthquake. The frequency content of the seismogram in time scale domain is examined using wavelet transform. The energy content in high frequencies is calculated and gives a threshold for tsunami warnings. Only first few minutes of the seismograms of the earthquake events are used for quick estimation. The results for the earthquake events of Andaman Sumatra region and other historic events are promising.

  20. On-demand synthetic seismograms from the IRIS DMC

    Hutko, A. R.; Trabant, C. M.; Karstens, R.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Bahavar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) has served waveform data to the seismology community for over 30 years. This presentation highlights a new, on-demand synthetic seismogram service that will complement the observation-based data we have traditionally distributed. We are computing a global-scale database of Green's functions from which users can request synthetic seismograms for arbitrary source and receiver parameters and Earth models. The multi-terabyte scale database of Green's functions is computed by the spectral-element method AxiSEM for a selection of spherically symmetric Earth models (PREM, IASP91, AK135) with anisotropy and attenuation. The resolution of the simulations will be between 2-8 to about 100 sec periods (final resolution to be determined by computational resources available). The synthetics are accessible using a simple web service that returns synthetics according to specified source-receiver combination, Earth model and signal band. On-the-fly post-processing such as convolution with a moment tensor (or specified Global CMT solution) and source-time function is being developed. This service is intended to return synthetic seismograms quickly, making it useful for studying variations in source properties, Earth models or temporal changes in instrument responses. It is also designed to be callable by simple scripts and works well in automated processing. The DMC will also provide a command line script to download selections of synthetics. This new dataset and related service provide a powerful tool in multiple areas of study where synthetic seismograms are useful.

  1. S-Wave Velocity Structure beneath Southwest North America from Seismogram Comparisons of the Mexico Earthquake on 22 June 1997

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates earth structure beneath the Southwest North America landmass, especially between Mexico and California. Models based on S wave velocities for this area were obtained by carrying out seismogram fitting in time domain and three Cartesian components simultaneously. The data used is from an event, coded as C052297B that occurred in the state of Guerrero, Mexico and it was fitted to synthetic data computed with the GEMINI program at TS network stations. Earth model IASPEI91 and SPREM were used as input to create the synthetic data. Real and synthetic seismograms were subjected to a low-pass filter with a frequency corner of 20 mHz.Waveform analysis results show very unsystematic and strong deviations in the waveform, arrival times, amount of oscillation and the height of the wave amplitude. Discrepancies are met on S, Love, Rayleigh and ScS waves, where the stations epicentral distances are below 300. Deviation in analysis waveform because of the usage of model 1-D of SPREM and IASPEI91, because the 1-D was a kind of average value an elastic property at one particular depth of global earth. With the method of waveform analysis we can see how sensitive waveform is to structures within the layers of the Earth.To explain the discrepancies, a correction to the earth structure is essential. The corrections account for the thickness of the crust, speed gradient of bh, the coefficient for the bh and bv in the upper mantle for surface wave fitting, a small variation of the S speed structure at a layer under the upper mantle above 771 km for S wave fitting, and a small variation at the base the mantle layers for ScS wave fitting. At some stations, a correction for S speed structure have yielded P wave fitting. Results of this research indicate that the 1-D earth model obtained through seismogram fitting at every hypocenter-observation station pair is unique. The S-wave velocity on the upper mantle has strong negative anomalies. This

  2. Syngine: On-Demand Synthetic Seismograms from the IRIS DMC based on AxiSEM & Instaseis

    van Driel, Martin; Hutko, Alex; Krischer, Lion; Trabant, Chad; Stähler, Simon; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje

    2016-04-01

    complete, new database, and this overall idea can thus be extended and applied quite easily to any choice of 1D model. AxiSEM is currently being extended to include local, regional and continental scale wave propagation such that regional databases (e.g. Europe or North America) are easily feasible at even higher frequencies. The enhancements resulting from the evolution of AxiSEM will be evaluated for use in Syngine and offered by IRIS as resources allow.

  3. Generation of a pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity section by inversion of a series of 1D dispersion curves

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves utilizes a multichannel recording system to estimate near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities from high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity (vS) section is constructed by aligning 1D models at the midpoint of each receiver spread and using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. The receiver spread length sets the theoretical lower limit and any vS structure with its lateral dimension smaller than this length will not be properly resolved in the final vS section. A source interval smaller than the spread length will not improve the horizontal resolution because spatial smearing has already been introduced by the receiver spread. In this paper, we first analyze the horizontal resolution of a pair of synthetic traces. Resolution analysis shows that (1) a pair of traces with a smaller receiver spacing achieves higher horizontal resolution of inverted S-wave velocities but results in a larger relative error; (2) the relative error of the phase velocity at a high frequency is smaller than at a low frequency; and (3) a relative error of the inverted S-wave velocity is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio of data. These results provide us with a guideline to balance the trade-off between receiver spacing (horizontal resolution) and accuracy of the inverted S-wave velocity. We then present a scheme to generate a pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with high horizontal resolution using multichannel records by inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves calculated through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. This method chooses only a pair of consecutive traces within a shot gather to calculate a dispersion curve. We finally invert surface-wave dispersion curves of synthetic and real-world data. Inversion results of both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that

  4. SEISMOGRAM ANALYSIS OF EARTHQUAKES IN SUMATRA-JAVA AT HYB OBSERVATORY STATION

    B.J. B.J. Santosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini struktur bumi di bawah lempeng Lautan Hindia Timur Laut dikaji melalui analisis seismogram atas seismogram gempa-gempa bumi yang terjadi di Sumatra dan direkam di stasiun observasi HYB, India. Analisis seismogram dilaksanakan dalam domain waktu dan ketiga komponen-komponen Kartesian secara simultan. Perbandingan seismogram menunjukkan bahwa model bumi global PREM memberikan seismogram sintetik yang menyimpang dari seismogram terukur dan waktu tiba gelombang S yang lebih lambat dibandingkan waktu tiba terukur. Untuk mencapai pencocokan seismogram, gradient βh di upper mantle diubah dari positif menjadi negative, sebagaimana dinyatakan dalam model bumi PREMAN, dan koreksi kecepatan positif ditambahkan pada koefisien-koefisien kecepatan orde nol pada struktur kecepatan S dalam semua lapisan mantel bumi. Pengepasan yang bagus dicapai pada gelombang ruang S, gelombang permukaan Love dan Rayleigh, begitu juga dengan gelombang terpantul inti bumi ScS dan ScS2.In this research, the earth structure beneath North East Indian Ocean plates is investigated using waveform analysis of Sumatra’s earthquakes recorded in HYB station. Seismogram analysis was conducted in the time domain and three Cartesians components simultaneously. The seismogram comparison shows that the global earth mantle of PREM provides deviating synthetic seismogram and has later arrival times than those from the measurement. To achieve the seismogram fitting, the gradient βh in the upper mantle layers was altered to positive from its negative slope as stated in the PREM model, and positive corrections are added to the zero order of polynomials coefficients of S velocity structure in all earth mantle layers. The excellent fitting, as well as travel time and waveform, were achieved on the S wave, Love and Rayleigh surface waves, as well as the ScS and ScS2 core reflected waves.

  5. Advanced criteria of seismic zoning and synthetic seismograms

    A brief revision of the traditional deterministic and probabilistic methods of first order seismic zonation, outlining their limits and possibilities, indicates that they can only lead to a kind of ''post-event'' zonation, which has a limited local validity. The strong influence of laterial heterogeneities and of source properties on the spatial distribution of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and of the Total Energy of ground motion (W), indicates that the traditional methods require a deep revision. The method we have developed and applied to a first-order seismic zoning of the whole Italian territory and to the microzoning of specific objects, being based on the computation of synthetic seismograms, makes it possible and necessary to take source and propagation effects into account, fully utilizing the large amount of geological and geotechnical data, already available. Even though it falls in the domain of deterministic approaches, the method is very suitable for inclusion in the definition of new integrated procedures which combine probabilistic and deterministic approaches and allow us to minimize the present drawbacks which characterise the two methods when they are considered separately. If the seismotectonic regime is well known, a very important practical aspect of our deterministic approach is the immediate capability to direct the rescue intervention of the Civil Defence where the greatest damage is expected, by drawing post-event synthetic isoseismals for the source regions. Detailed modelling of ground motion for realistic two-dimensional media is a low-cost but very powerful tool for the prevention aspects of Civil Defence since it allows the computation of realistic seismic input for important structures based on the definition of a wide set of possible scenarios, which can be immediately used in the design of new seismo-resistant constructions and in the reinforcement of existing structures. (author). 65 refs, 14 figs

  6. Investigating the Tsunamigenic Potential of Earthquakes from Analysis of the Informational and Multifractal Properties of Seismograms

    Telesca, Luciano; Chamoli, Ashutosh; Lovallo, Michele; Stabile, Tony Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    Revealing the tsunamigenic potential of an earthquake is very challenging in regards to minimizing the casualties a tsunami can provoke. Thus, development of methodologies that can reliably furnish a early warnings of a tsunami is crucial. In order to accomplish this aim it is important to preliminarily identify the characteristics of seismograms that can be used to distinguish tsunamigenic (TS) earthquakes from non-tsunamigenic (NTS) earthquakes. In this paper P-wave time dynamic of 17 seismograms of TS earthquakes and 26 NTS seismograms are analysed by means of two advanced statistical tools: the Fisher-Shannon method and the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). Both methods are well suited to disclosing the inner time properties of complex signals, as seismograms appear to be. Using these two methods jointly, we defined a classifier, the performance of which was tested by means of the receiver-operating characteristic curve that plots true positive rate versus false positive rate. This classifier shows a discrimination power that can be considered acceptable in comparison with the devastating effects caused by a non-alarmed tsunami. Our findings indicate that proper choice of the classifier's threshold allows correctly identification of approximately 69 % of the NTS seismograms and approximately 76 % of the TS seismograms. The presented results presented may be helpful in addressing the complex problem of early tsunami warning.

  7. Ray synthetic seismograms: a useful tool in the International Data Center environment

    P. Firbas

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the results of a feasibility study on ray synthetic seismograms usage are reported. A computational method, ways of composing synthetic traces, an application of the source wavelet and the radiation pattern and integration of such an approach into the Center for Seismic Studies (CSS revision 3.0 structure are outlined. Further on, results obtained for model examples, nuclear explosions, and earthquakes are presented. Conclusions of the undertaken feasibility study help to understand that ray synthetic seismograms represent a very fast tool (results in “no time” and simultaneously represent a complex tool with all needed features. The ray synthetic seismograms can be implemented in various ways: to be computed automatically and used within the Intelligent Monitoring System, to be computed automatically and provided to the analyst, to provide a database of master events, to be computed interactively by an analyst during routine daily analysis.

  8. Source mechanisms and near-source wave propagation from broadband seismograms

    J. Perrot

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Recording seismic events at teleseismic distances with broadband and high dynamic range instruments provides new high-quality data that allow us to interpret in more detail the complexity of seismic rupture as well as the heterogeneous structure of the medium surrounding the source where waves are initially propagating. Wave propagation analysis is performed by ray tracing in a local cartesian coordinate system near the source and in a global spherical coordinate system when waves enter the mantle. Seismograms are constructed at each station for a propagation in a 2.5-D medium. Many phases can be included and separately analyzed; this is one of the major advantages of ray tracing compared to other wave propagation techniques. We have studied four earthquakes, the 1988 Spitak Armenia Earthquake (Ms = 6.9, the 1990 Iran earthquake (Ms = 7.7, the 1990 romanian earthquake (Ms = 5.8 and the 1992 Erzincan, Turkey earthquake (Ms = 6.8. These earthquakes exhibit in different ways the complexity of the rupture and the signature of the medium surrounding the source. The use of velocity seismograms, the time derivative of displacement, increases the difficulty of the fit between synthetic seismograms and real seismograms but provides clear evidence for a need of careful time delay estimations of the different converted phases. We find that understanding of the seismic rupture as well as the influence of the medium surrounding the source for teleseismically recorded earthquakes requires a multi-stop procedure: starting with ground displacement seismograms, one is able to give a first description of the rupture as well as of the first-order influence of the medium. Then, considering the ground velocity seismograms makes the fit more difficult to obtain but increases our sensitivity to the rupture process and early converted phases. With increasing number of worldwide broadband stations, a complex rupture description is possible independently of field

  9. Fast evaluation of complete synthetic SH seismograms based on asymptotic mode theory

    Bastians, M.W.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis we have developed an asymptotic mode theory with the following features. 1) Complete synthetic SH seismograms can be evaluated for both realistic models of Earth and crust. 2) The method is of practical value and can be used even on small computers wi th reasonable computation times o

  10. Digitization Procedures of Analogue Seismograms from the Adam Dziewonski Observatory (HRV) at Harvard, MA

    Torpey, M.; Ishii, M.

    2010-12-01

    This project explores methods of digitization of analogue seismic recordings for better preservation and to facilitate data distribution to the community. Different techniques are investigated using seismograms from one particular station, the Adam Dziewonski Observatory (HRV) at Harvard, Massachusetts. This seismological station, still in operation as a part of the Global Seismographic Network today, is one of the oldest stations in the United States. The station was built in 1933, and since its installation, the station has produced approximately 16,000 analogue seismograms. The majority of these recordings were taken between 1933 and 1953, with some intermittent recordings between 1962 and 1998 after digital seismometers had become a standard. These analogue seismograms have the potential of expanding the database for seismological research such as identification of events previously not catalogued. Due to poor storage environment at the station, some of the records, especially those on regular type of paper, are damaged beyond repair. Nevertheless, many of the records on photographic paper are in better condition, and we have focused on a subset of these recordings that are least damaged. Even these seismograms require cleaning and, in consultation with the Weissman Preservation Center of Harvard Library, preparation techniques for the photographic records are examined. After the seismograms are cleaned and flattened, three different equipments are investigated for digitization, i.e., a copy machine, scanner, and camera. These instruments allow different imaging resolutions, ranging from 200 dots per inch (dpi) to 800 dpi. The image resolution and the bit depth have a wide range of implications that are closely linked to the digitization program one chooses to convert the image to time series. We explore three different software for this conversion, SeisDig (Bromirski and Chuang, 2003), Teseo2 (Pintore and Quintiliani, 2008), and NeuraLog (www

  11. Study on the Method for Obtaining Acceleration Waveform Records from Velocity Type Seismograms of the Digital Seismograph Network

    Yao Lanyu; Nie Yongan; Zhao Jinghua; Bian Zhenfu

    2004-01-01

    The authors proposed a method for obtaining high-quality acceleration seismograms from velocity type seismograms of digital Seismographic network, and took as an example the analysis and processing of the seismograms of a same earthquake that was simultaneously recorded by velocity seismograph CTS1-EDAS24 and strong motion seismograph EST-Q4128installed in Jixian Station, Tianjin. The calculation steps and the processing method have been discussed in detail. From the analysis and the comparison of the obtained results, it is concluded that the proposed method is simple and effective, and it broadens the application of digital seismographic network.

  12. Characteristics of the stress and barometric seismograms produced by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake ( M9.0) and vertical movements derived from barometric seismograms

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Asai, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    High-quality data concerning the Tohoku Earthquake ( M9.0) on March 11, 2011, were obtained from the deep borehole observation network (maximum depth of 1030 m; epicentral distance of approximately 600 km) of the Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science. In addition to data acquired via seismometers, stress meters, and strain meters, barometric seismograms were recorded by several barometers that are usually used for weather observations. We examined the characteristics of barometric and stress seismograms and compared them to the data obtained using broadband seismometers, finding a shared feature: large amplitudes and long-period waveforms began with the arrival of surface waves. We also investigated the relationship between vertical movements observed with GPS and barometric variations and discovered that the barometric variations were related to the differential of vertical movements, while the vertical movements corresponded to the integral of barometric variations. All these results demonstrate that vertical movements at observation points can be computed from the barometric variations observed at those points.

  13. Differential Monte Carlo method for computing seismogram envelopes and their partial derivatives

    Takeuchi, Nozomu

    2016-05-01

    We present an efficient method that is applicable to waveform inversions of seismogram envelopes for structural parameters describing scattering properties in the Earth. We developed a differential Monte Carlo method that can simultaneously compute synthetic envelopes and their partial derivatives with respect to structural parameters, which greatly reduces the required CPU time. Our method has no theoretical limitations to apply to the problems with anisotropic scattering in a heterogeneous background medium. The effects of S wave polarity directions and phase differences between SH and SV components are taken into account. Several numerical examples are presented to show that the intrinsic and scattering attenuation at the depth range of the asthenosphere have different impacts on the observed seismogram envelopes, thus suggesting that our method can potentially be applied to inversions for scattering properties in the deep Earth.

  14. 1D Nano materials 2012

    We witnessed an initial hyped period and enthusiasm on carbon nano tubes in the 1990s later went through a significant expansion into nano tubes of other materials (metal di chalcogenides, boron nitride, etc.) as well as various nano wires and nano rods. While much of the hype might have gone, the research on one-dimensional (1D) nano materials has matured as one of the most active research areas within the nano science and nano technology community, flourishing with ample, exciting, and new research opportunities. Just like any other research frontier, researchers working in the 1D nano materials field are constantly striving to develop new fundamental science as well as potential applications. It remains a common belief that versatility and tunability of 1D nano materials would challenge many new rising tasks coming from our resource and energy demanding modern society. The traditional semiconductor industry has produced so many devices and systems from transistors, sensors, lasers, and LEDs to more sophisticated solar panels, which are now part of our daily lives. By down sizing the core components or parts to 1D form, one might wonder how fundamentally the dimensionality and morphology would impact the device performance, this is, as always, requiring us to fully understand the structure-property relationship in 1D nano materials. It may be equally crucial in connecting discovery-driven fundamental science to market-driven technology industry concerning potentially relevant findings derived from these novel materials. The importance of a platform that allows active researchers in this field to present their new development in a timely and efficient manner is therefore self-evident. Following the success of two early special issues devoted to 1D nano materials, this is the third one in a row organized by the same group of guest editors, attesting that such a platform has been well received by the readers

  15. Ray synthetic seismograms: a useful tool in the International Data Center environment

    Firbas, P. (Paul)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper some of the results of a feasibility study on ray synthetic seismograms usage are reported. A computational method, ways of composing synthetic traces, an application of the source wavelet and the radiation pattern and integration of such an approach into the Center for Seismic Studies (CSS) revision 3.0 structure are outlined. Further on, results obtained for model examples, nuclear explosions, and earthquakes are presented. Conclusions of the undertaken feasibility study help ...

  16. Comparison of seismic reflection data to a synthetic seismogram in a volcanic apron at Site 953

    Funck, Thomas; Lykke-Andersen, H.

    1998-01-01

    The volcanic apron of Gran Canaria at Site 953 is characterized by numerous, closely spaced reflectors, allowing a highresolution stratigraphic correlation. The calibration of the presite survey seismic data (during the Meteor Cruise 24) with regard to the lithology and stratigraphy found at the drill site was achieved by computing a synthetic seismogram serving as the link between seismic and borehole data. Because logging data were available for only 53% of the hole, velocity and d...

  17. Synthetic seismogram images of upper mantle structure: No evidence for a 520 km discontinuity.

    Bock, G.;  

    1994-01-01

    Seismological data used by Shearer (1990, 1991) to infer the existence of a seismic discontinuity at 520 km depth are compared with complete long-period body wave seismograms calculated for the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth’s Interior 1001 (Iaspei91) Earth model. The Iaspei91 model does not contain a seismic discontinuity at or near 520 km depth. The observed P and SH multiples caused by topside reflections and SS precursors caused by underside reflections f...

  18. Simulation of seismograms in a 2-D viscoelastic Earth by pseudospectral methods

    Carcione, Jose M [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Trieste (Italy); Helle, Hans B [Norsk Hydro a.s., 0 and E Research Centre, Bergen (Norway); Seriani, Geza [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Trieste (Italy); Plasencia Linares, Milton P [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-04-15

    Using an improved global pseudospectral modeling algorithm we synthesize seismograms generated by oceanic and continental earthquakes. Attention is given to attenuation, to explicit modeling of boundary conditions at the ocean-bottom interface, simulation of the Rayleigh window and interface-wave propagation. The algorithm is based on Fourier and Chebyshev differential operators and a domain-decomposition technique - one grid for the fluid and another grid for the solid. Wave propagation in the oceanic and continent crusts and mantle is modeled by using a viscoelastic stress-strain relation based on memory variables. The main physical phenomena associated with an ocean-crust system are modeled, including Scholte waves, leaking Rayleigh waves, dispersive modes, and the Rayleigh-window phenomenon due to a minimum in the reflection coefficient of the ocean bottom, which has not been simulated with direct methods. In particular, we model Rayleigh modes (mainly the M11 mode), and coupled Rayleigh-Scholte waves, for which the dispersion relation is solved in simple cases. Also, we model the effects of random. [Spanish] El algoritmo de modulacion seudoespectral es mejorado y aplicado a la simulacion de sismogramas generados por sismos oceanicos y continentales, como atencion a la atenuacion y a la modelacion explicita de condiciones a la frontera en el fondo oceanico y a la simulacion de la ventana de Rayleigh y la propagacion en interfases. El algoritmo se basa en los operadores diferenciales de Fourier y de Chebyshev con una tecnica de decomposicion de dominios, una malla para el fluido y otra para el solido. Para la propagacion se usa una relacion de esfuerzo-deformacion basada en variables de memoria. Entre los fenomenos modelados se incluyen las ondas de Scholte, las ondas evanescentes de Rayleigh y los modos dispersivos, asi como la ventana de Rayleigh, un minimo del coeficiente de reflexion en el fondo oceanico que nunca ha sido simulado con metodos directos. Hemos

  19. Reconstruction of 2D seismic wavefield from Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope by Seismic Gradiometry applied to the Hi-net Array

    Maeda, Takuto; Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-04-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km all over the Japanese archipelago. Although it is equipped with short-period seismometers, we also can observe long-period seismic wave up to 100 s in periods for significantly large earthquakes. In this case, we may treat long-period seismic waves as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength rather than individual traces at stations. In this study, we attempt to reconstruct 2D wavefield and obtain its propagation properties from seismic gradiometry (SG) method. The SG estimates the wave amplitude and its spatial derivative coefficients from discrete station record by the Taylor series approximation with an inverse problem. By using spatial derivatives in horizontal directions, we can obtain properties of propagating wave packet such as the arrival direction, slowness, geometrical spreading and radiation pattern. In addition, by using spatial derivatives together with free-surface boundary condition, we may decompose the vector elastic 2D wavefield estimated by the SG into divergence and rotation components. First, we applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50 s) seismogram dataset computed by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout as a feasibility test. We confirmed that the wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are very well reproduced with average correlation coefficients higher than 0.99 in this period range. Applications to a real large earthquakes show that the amplitude and phase of the wavefield are well reconstructed with additional information of arrival direction and its slowness. The reconstructed wavefield contained a clear contrast in slowness between body and surface waves, regional non-great-circle-path wave propagation which may be attributed to scattering. Slowness

  20. Measuring the misfit between seismograms using an optimal transport distance: application to full waveform inversion

    Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Mérigot, Q.; Oudet, E.; Virieux, J.

    2016-04-01

    Full waveform inversion using the conventional L2 distance to measure the misfit between seismograms is known to suffer from cycle skipping. An alternative strategy is proposed in this study, based on a measure of the misfit computed with an optimal transport distance. This measure allows to account for the lateral coherency of events within the seismograms, instead of considering each seismic trace independently, as is done generally in full waveform inversion. The computation of this optimal transport distance relies on a particular mathematical formulation allowing for the non-conservation of the total energy between seismograms. The numerical solution of the optimal transport problem is performed using proximal splitting techniques. Three synthetic case studies are investigated using this strategy: the Marmousi 2 model, the BP 2004 salt model, and the Chevron 2014 benchmark data. The results emphasize interesting properties of the optimal transport distance. The associated misfit function is less prone to cycle skipping. A workflow is designed to reconstruct accurately the salt structures in the BP 2004 model, starting from an initial model containing no information about these structures. A high-resolution P-wave velocity estimation is built from the Chevron 2014 benchmark data, following a frequency continuation strategy. This estimation explains accurately the data. Using the same workflow, full waveform inversion based on the L2 distance converges towards a local minimum. These results yield encouraging perspectives regarding the use of the optimal transport distance for full waveform inversion: the sensitivity to the accuracy of the initial model is reduced, the reconstruction of complex salt structure is made possible, the method is robust to noise, and the interpretation of seismic data dominated by reflections is enhanced.

  1. Self-Adaptive Filon's Integration Method and Its Application toComputing Synthetic Seismograms

    ZHANG Hai-Ming; CHEN Xiao-Fei

    2001-01-01

    Based on the principle of the self-adaptive Simpson integration method, and by incorporating the ‘fifth-order'Filon's integration algorithm [Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 73(1983)913], we have proposed a simple and efficient numerical integration method, i.e., the self-adaptive Filon's integration method (SAFIM), for computing synthetic seismograms at large epicentral distances. With numerical examples, we have demonstrated that the SAFIM is not only accurate but also very efficient. This new integration method is expected to be very useful in seismology,as well as in computing similar oscillatory integrals in other branches of physics.

  2. Data space reduction, quality assessment and searching of seismograms: autoencoder networks for waveform data

    Valentine, Andrew P.; Trampert, Jeannot

    2012-05-01

    What makes a seismogram look like a seismogram? Seismic data sets generally contain waveforms sharing some set of visual characteristics and features - indeed, seismologists routinely exploit this when performing quality control 'by hand'. Understanding and harnessing these characteristics offers the prospect of a deeper understanding of seismic waveforms, and opens up many potential new techniques for processing and working with data. In addition, the fact that certain features are shared between waveforms suggests that it may be possible to transform the data away from the time domain, and represent the same information using fewer parameters. If so, this would be a significant step towards making fully non-linear tomographic inversions computationally tractable. Hinton & Salakhutdinov showed that a particular class of neural network, termed 'autoencoder networks', may be used to find lower-dimensional encodings of complex binary data sets. Here, we adapt their work to the continuous case to allow the use of autoencoders for seismic waveforms, and offer a demonstration in which we compress 512-point waveforms to 32-element encodings. We also demonstrate that the mapping from data to encoding space, and its inverse, are well behaved, as required for many applications. Finally, we sketch a number of potential applications of the technique, which we hope will be of practical interest across all seismological disciplines, and beyond.

  3. The Coupled Spectral Element/Normal Mode Method: Application to the Testing of Several Approximations Based on Normal Mode Theory for the Computation of Seismograms in a Realistic 3D Earth.

    Capdeville, Y.; Gung, Y.; Romanowicz, B.

    2002-12-01

    The spectral element method (SEM) has recently been adapted successfully for global spherical earth wave propagation applications. Its advantage is that it provides a way to compute exact seismograms in a 3D earth, without restrictions on the size or wavelength of lateral heterogeneity at any depth, and can handle diffraction and other interactions with major structural boundaries. Its disadvantage is that it is computationally heavy. In order to partly address this drawback, a coupled SEM/normal mode method was developed (Capdeville et al., 2000). This enables us to more efficiently compute bodywave seismograms to realistically short periods (10s or less). In particular, the coupled SEM/normal mode method is a powerful tool to test the validity of some analytical approximations that are currently used in global waveform tomography, and that are considerably faster computationally. Here, we focus on several approximations based on normal mode perturbation theory: the classical "path-average approximation" (PAVA) introduced by Woodhouse and Dziewonski (1984) and well suited for fundamental mode surface waves (1D sensitivity kernels); the non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT), which introduces coupling between mode branches and 2D kernels in the vertical plane containing the source and the receiver (Li and Tanimoto, 1993; Li and Romanowicz, 1995); an extension of NACT which includes out of plane focusing terms computed asymptotically (e.g. Romanowicz, 1987) and introduces 3D kernels; we also consider first order perturbation theory without asymptotic approximations, such as developed for example by Dahlen et al. (2000). We present the results of comparisons of realistic seismograms for different models of heterogeneity, varying the strength and sharpness of the heterogeneity and its location in depth in the mantle. We discuss the consequences of different levels of approximations on our ability to resolve 3D heterogeneity in the earth's mantle.

  4. Using a Fractal Analysis and Polarization Method for Phase Identification in Three-Component Seismograms

    Boi-Yee Liao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the automatic P-wave and S-wave arrivals picking algorithm which is essentially based on the fractal dimension and polarized method. With an estimate of the spectral exponent _ in a 1/f process, an interval that indicates the preferred intersection containing both noise and the P-wave is well-detected by corresponding to the minimum absolute spectral exponent _ value along the trace. Based on the different properties of background noise and deterministic signal, the fractal dimension technique can detect the position of the P-wave. The place where the fractal dimension value changes suddenly within the intersection interval indicates the location of arrival of the P-wave. Testing that adds various levels of noise to the seismic signal shows the method can prove able to tolerate noise to a signal-to-noise (S/N ratio 1.5. Based on the P-wave arrival, the polarized P-wave could be detected by a genetic algorithm (GA with the strength of polarization and phase difference between the vertical and horizontal components as constraints. Using the first arrival phase as the basis phase, this study combines a polarization filter including rectilinearity functions, linear polarization, phase difference and directionality with GA to detect polarized S-wave of seismograms. Finally, the technique was applied to teleseismic data and near-field motion to verify the accuracy and wide applicability of this method. To conclude, this proposed method, an efficient and brand-new method of associating signal processing technique with physical wave motion properties, may be of importance in finding P-wave and S-wave phase arrivals accurately using three-component seismograms.

  5. Coal-seismic, desktop computer programs in BASIC; Part 7, Display and compute shear-pair seismograms

    Hasbrouck, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Processing of geophysical data taken with the U.S. Geological Survey's coal-seismic system is done with a desk-top, stand-alone computer. Programs for this computer are written in the extended BASIC language utilized by the Tektronix 4051 Graphic System. This report discusses and presents five computer pro grams used to display and compute shear-pair seismograms.

  6. One-Dimensional (1-D) Nanoscale Heterostructures

    Guozhen SHEN; Di CHEN; Yoshio BANDO; Dmitri GOLBERG

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures have been attracted much attention as a result of their exceptional properties, which are different from bulk materials. Among 1-D nanostructures, 1-D heterostructures with modulated compositions and interfaces have recently become of particular interest with respect to potential applications in nanoscale building blocks of future optoelectronic devices and systems. Many kinds of methods have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures. This article reviews the most recent development, with an emphasize on our own recent efforts, on 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, especially those synthesized from the vapor deposition methods, in which all the reactive precursors are mixed together in the reaction chamber. Three types of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, defined from their morphologies characteristics, are discussed in detail, which include 1-D co-axial core-shell heterostructures, 1-D segmented heterostructures and hierarchical heterostructures. This article begins with a brief survey of various methods that have been developed for synthesizing 1-D nanoscale heterostructures and then mainly focuses on the synthesis, structures and properties of the above three types of nanoscale heterostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards the topic of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures.

  7. Iris Feature Extraction Method Based on 1D Gabor Filter

    XU Guang-zhu; MA Yi-de; ZHANG Zai-feng

    2008-01-01

    The normalized iris image was divided into eight sub-bands, and every column of each sub-band was averaged by rows to generate eight 1D iris signals. Then the even symmetry item of 1D Gabor filter was used to describe local characteristic blocks in 1D iris signals, and the results were quantified by their polarities to generate iris codes. In order to estimate the performance of the presented method, an iris recognition platform was produced and the Hamming distance between two iris codes was computed to measure the dissimilarity of them. The experimental results in CASIA v1 0 and Bath iris image databases show that the proposed iris feature extraction algorithm has a promising potential in iris recognition.

  8. Wavelet transform analysis of transient signals: the seismogram and the electrocardiogram

    Anant, K.S.

    1997-06-01

    In this dissertation I quantitatively demonstrate how the wavelet transform can be an effective mathematical tool for the analysis of transient signals. The two key signal processing applications of the wavelet transform, namely feature identification and representation (i.e., compression), are shown by solving important problems involving the seismogram and the electrocardiogram. The seismic feature identification problem involved locating in time the P and S phase arrivals. Locating these arrivals accurately (particularly the S phase) has been a constant issue in seismic signal processing. In Chapter 3, I show that the wavelet transform can be used to locate both the P as well as the S phase using only information from single station three-component seismograms. This is accomplished by using the basis function (wave-let) of the wavelet transform as a matching filter and by processing information across scales of the wavelet domain decomposition. The `pick` time results are quite promising as compared to analyst picks. The representation application involved the compression of the electrocardiogram which is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Compression of the electrocardiogram is an important problem in biomedical signal processing due to transmission and storage limitations. In Chapter 4, I develop an electrocardiogram compression method that applies vector quantization to the wavelet transform coefficients. The best compression results were obtained by using orthogonal wavelets, due to their ability to represent a signal efficiently. Throughout this thesis the importance of choosing wavelets based on the problem at hand is stressed. In Chapter 5, I introduce a wavelet design method that uses linear prediction in order to design wavelets that are geared to the signal or feature being analyzed. The use of these designed wavelets in a test feature identification application led to positive results. The methods developed in this thesis; the

  9. Ratios in Higher Order Statistics (RHOS) values of Seismograms for Improved Automatic P-Phase Arrival Detection

    Dugda, Mulugeta

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present two new procedures for automatic detection and picking of P-wave arrivals. The first involves the application of kurtosis and skewness on the vector magnitude of three component seismograms. Customarily, P-wave arrival detection techniques use vertical component seismogram which is appropriate only for teleseismic events. The inherent weakness of those methods stems from the fact that the energy from P-wave is distributed among horizontal and vertical recording channels. Our procedure, however, uses the vector magnitude which accommodates all components. The results show that this procedure would be useful for detecting/picking of P-arrivals from local and regional earthquakes and man-made explosions. The second procedure introduces a new method called "Ratios in Higher Order Statistics (RHOS)." Unlike commonly used techniques that involve derivatives, this technique employs ratios of adjacent kurtosis and skewness values to improve the accuracy of the detection of the P onset. RHOS c...

  10. A comparison of two methods for earthquake source inversion using strong motion seismograms

    G. C. Beroza

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare two time-domain inversion methods that have been widely applied to the problem of modeling earthquake rupture using strong-motion seismograms. In the multi-window method, each point on the fault is allowed to rupture multiple times. This allows flexibility in the rupture time and hence the rupture velocity. Variations in the slip-velocity function are accommodated by variations in the slip amplitude in each time-window. The single-window method assumes that each point on the fault ruptures only once, when the rupture front passes. Variations in slip amplitude are allowed and variations in rupture velocity are accommodated by allowing the rupture time to vary. Because the multi-window method allows greater flexibility, it has the potential to describe a wider range of faulting behavior; however, with this increased flexibility comes an increase in the degrees of freedom and the solutions are comparatively less stable. We demonstrate this effect using synthetic data for a test model of the Mw 7.3 1992 Landers, California earthquake, and then apply both inversion methods to the actual recordings. The two approaches yield similar fits to the strong-motion data with different seismic moments indicating that the moment is not well constrained by strong-motion data alone. The slip amplitude distribution is similar using either approach, but important differences exist in the rupture propagation models. The single-window method does a better job of recovering the true seismic moment and the average rupture velocity. The multi-window method is preferable when rise time is strongly variable, but tends to overestimate the seismic moment. Both methods work well when the rise time is constant or short compared to the periods modeled. Neither approach can recover the temporal details of rupture propagation unless the distribution of slip amplitude is constrained by independent data.

  11. Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms

    Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables

  12. A 2-D spectral-element method for computing spherical-earth seismograms-II. Waves in solid-fluid media

    Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Fournier, Alexandre; Dahlen, F. A.

    2008-09-01

    We portray a dedicated spectral-element method to solve the elastodynamic wave equation upon spherically symmetric earth models at the expense of a 2-D domain. Using this method, 3-D wavefields of arbitrary resolution may be computed to obtain Fréchet sensitivity kernels, especially for diffracted arrivals. The meshing process is presented for varying frequencies in terms of its efficiency as measured by the total number of elements, their spacing variations and stability criteria. We assess the mesh quantitatively by defining these numerical parameters in a general non-dimensionalized form such that comparisons to other grid-based methods are straightforward. Efficient-mesh generation for the PREM example and a minimum-messaging domain decomposition and parallelization strategy lay foundations for waveforms up to frequencies of 1 Hz on moderate PC clusters. The discretization of fluid, solid and respective boundary regions is similar to previous spectral-element implementations, save for a fluid potential formulation that incorporates the density, thereby yielding identical boundary terms on fluid and solid sides. We compare the second-order Newmark time extrapolation scheme with a newly implemented fourth-order symplectic scheme and argue in favour of the latter in cases of propagation over many wavelengths due to drastic accuracy improvements. Various validation examples such as full moment-tensor seismograms, wavefield snapshots, and energy conservation illustrate the favourable behaviour and potential of the method.

  13. Social exploration of 1D games

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the apparently meaningless concept of a 1 dimensional computer game is explored, via netnography. A small number of games was designed and implemented, in close contact with online communities of players and developers, providing evidence that 1 dimension is enough to produce intere...... interesting gameplay, to allow for level design and even to leave room for artistic considerations on 1D rendering. General techniques to re-design classic 2D games into 1D are also emerging from this exploration....

  14. Seismogram Analysis of the Earthquakes in Sumatra on WRAB Observation Station: S Wave Velocity Structure on Subduction Zone of Sumatra-Java

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The S wave velocity structure at subduction zone under Sumatra-Java was investigated through seismogram analysis in time domain and three Cartesian’s components simultaneously. The main data set was the comparison between the measured seismogram and the synthetic one, not the travel time data. The synthetic seismogram was calculated with the GEMINI method. The seismogram comparison shows that the global earth mantle of PREMAN gives deviating synthetic seismogram and has later arrival times than the measured one. The gradient bh in the upper mantle is altered to positive from its negative slope as in the PREMAN model, and positive corrections are added to the zero order of polynomial’s coefficients in all earth mantle layers. The excellent fitting, as well as travel time or waveform, were obtained on the surface waves of Love and Rayleigh, the S and SS mantle and repetitive depth waves. The additional positive corrections were also confirmed by a well fitting on the repetitive depth waves. This result expresses that part of the earth mantle that due to tectonic processes has positive anomaly on S wave velocity and vertical anisotropy in all of the earth mantle layers.

  15. YORP torques with 1D thermal model

    Breiter, Slawomir; Czekaj, Maria

    2010-01-01

    A numerical model of the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect for objects defined in terms of a triangular mesh is described. The algorithm requires that each surface triangle can be handled independently, which implies the use of a 1D thermal model. Insolation of each triangle is determined by an optimized ray-triangle intersection search. Surface temperature is modeled with a spectral approach; imposing a quasi-periodic solution we replace heat conduction equation by the Helmholtz equation. Nonlinear boundary conditions are handled by an iterative, FFT based solver. The results resolve the question of the YORP effect in rotation rate independence on conductivity within the nonlinear 1D thermal model regardless of the accuracy issues and homogeneity assumptions. A seasonal YORP effect in attitude is revealed for objects moving on elliptic orbits when a nonlinear thermal model is used.

  16. 1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains

    Coronado Miralles, Eugenio; Gómez García, Carlos José; Borrás Almenar, Juan José

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2′‐bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising‐chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior. ,

  17. Endogenous N-terminal Domain Cleavage Modulates α1D-Adrenergic Receptor Pharmacodynamics.

    Kountz, Timothy S; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Aggarwal-Howarth, Stacey; Curran, Elizabeth; Park, Ji-Min; Harris, Dorathy-Ann; Stewart, Aaron; Hendrickson, Joseph; Camp, Nathan D; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Wang, Edith H; Scott, John D; Hague, Chris

    2016-08-26

    The α1D-adrenergic receptor (ADRA1D) is a key regulator of cardiovascular, prostate, and central nervous system functions. This clinically relevant G protein-coupled receptor has proven difficult to study, as it must form an obligate modular homodimer containing the PDZ proteins scribble and syntrophin or become retained in the endoplasmic reticulum as non-functional protein. We previously determined that targeted removal of the N-terminal (NT) 79 amino acids facilitates ADRA1D plasma membrane expression and agonist-stimulated functional responses. However, whether such an event occurs in physiological contexts was unknown. Herein, we report the ADRA1D is subjected to innate NT processing in cultured human cells. SNAP near-infrared imaging and tandem-affinity purification revealed the ADRA1D is expressed as both full-length and NT truncated forms in multiple human cell lines. Serial truncation mapping identified the cleavage site as Leu(90)/Val(91) in the 95-amino acid ADRA1D NT domain, suggesting human cells express a Δ1-91 ADRA1D species. Tandem-affinity purification MS/MS and co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicate NT processing of ADRA1D is not required to form scribble-syntrophin macromolecular complexes. Yet, label-free dynamic mass redistribution signaling assays demonstrate that Δ1-91 ADRA1D agonist responses were greater than WT ADRA1D. Mutagenesis of the cleavage site nullified the processing event, resulting in ADRA1D agonist responses less than the WT receptor. Thus, we propose that processing of the ADRA1D NT domain is a physiological mechanism employed by cells to generate a functional ADRA1D isoform with optimal pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:27382054

  18. The analysis of historical seismograms: an important tool for seismic hazard assessment. Case histories from French and Italian earthquakes

    Seismic hazard assessment relies on the knowledge of the source characteristics of past earthquakes. Unfortunately, seismic waveform analysis, representing the most powerful tool for the investigation of earthquake source parameters, is only possible for events occurred in the last 100-120 years, i.e., since seismographs with known response function were developed. Nevertheless, during this time significant earthquakes have been recorded by such instruments and today, also thanks to technological progress, these data can be recovered and analysed by means of modern techniques. In this paper, aiming at giving a general sketch of possible analyses and attainable results in historical seismogram studies, I briefly describe the major difficulties in processing the original waveforms and present a review of the results that I obtained from previous seismogram analysis of selected significant historical earthquakes occurred during the first decades of the 20. century, including (A) the December 28, 1908, Messina straits (southern Italy), (B) the June 11, 1909, Lambesc (southern France) - both of which are the strongest ever recorded instrumentally in their respective countries - and (C) the July 13, 1930, Irpinia (southern Italy) events. For these earthquakes, the major achievements are represented by the assessment of the seismic moment (A, B, C), the geometry and kinematics of faulting (B, C), the fault length and an approximate slip distribution (A, C). The source characteristics of the studied events have also been interpreted in the frame of the tectonic environment active in the respective region of interest. In spite of the difficulties inherent to the investigation of old seismic data, these results demonstrate the invaluable and irreplaceable role of historical seismogram analysis in defining the local seismo-genic potential and, ultimately, for assessing the seismic hazard. The retrieved information is crucial in areas where important civil engineering works

  19. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  20. Hamming Distance and Data Compression of 1-D CA

    Raied Salman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an application of von Neumann correct ion technique to the output string of some chaotic rules of 1-D Cellular Automata that are uns uitable for cryptographic pseudo random number generation due to their non uniform distribu tion of the binary elements is presented. The one dimensional (1-D Cellular Automata (CA Ru le space will be classified by the time run of Hamming Distance (HD. This has the advantage of determining the rules that have short cycle lengths and therefore deemed to be unsuitable for cryptographic pseudo random number generation. The data collected from evolution of ch aotic rules that have long cycles are subjected to the original von Neumann density corre ction scheme as well as a new generalized scheme presented in this paper and tested for stati stical testing fitness using Diehard battery of tests. Results show that significant improvement in the statistical tests are obtained when the output of a balanced chaotic rule are mutually excl usive ORed with the output of unbalanced chaotic rule that have undergone von Neumann densit y correction.

  1. Detection and identification of sources of very distant seismic events in Western United States using single array seismograms

    In search of a new source discriminant based on the characteristics of PP signal, a study has been made by special further processing of Gauribidanur array (GBA) seismograms of underground explosions at Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Southern Nevada and of tectonic earthquakes in five provinces in the Western United States (US), both class of events being situated in the far teleseismic distance range (120deg<Δ<131deg) where GBA lies in the core shadow zone with respect to the source region. This study aims to evolve aids of detection and identification of such distant and small seismic events using GBA data alone. Preliminary analysis of the processed short period signals from seventeen Western US earthquakes and twelve NTS explosions shows that, for a given body wave magnitude (Mb), the relative high frequency spectral content of core-refracted P waves as well as the ratio of PP to P energy for the earthquakes are in general more than those of the explosions. The PP discriminant and the third moment of frequency (TMF) along with the Mb:Ms criterion, wherever possible, seem to be promising as an effective means of identifying Western US events. It is demonstrated that by applying in tandem the above three identifiers to the set of twenty-nine known events in the magnitude range 4.8≤Mb≤5.9, all the events of Mb 4.9 and above could be identified unambiguously. (author). 30 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  2. Coal-seismic, desktop computer programs in BASIC; Part 5, Perform X-square T-square analysis and plot normal moveout lines on seismogram overlay

    Hasbrouck, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Processing of data taken with the U.S. Geological Survey's coal-seismic system is done with a desktop, stand-alone computer. Programs for this computer are written in the extended BASIC language used by the Tektronix 4051 Graphic System. This report presents computer programs to perform X-square/T-square analyses and to plot normal moveout lines on a seismogram overlay.

  3. Analysis list: Nr1d2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Nr1d2 Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d2.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d2....10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr1d2.Liver.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Liver.gml ...

  4. Synthetic seismograms in laterrally heterogeneous anelastic media: Modal summation for the case of offshore seismic sources (deep-sea trough)

    While waiting for the increment of strong motion data, especially for earthquake prone areas outside the United States and Japan, a very useful approach to perform immediate site specific seismic hazard assessment is the development and use of modelling tools. They are based, on one hand, on the theoretical knowledge of the physics of the seismic source and of wave propagation and, on the other hand, on the exploitation of the relatively rich database, already available, that can be used for the definition of the source and structural models. With these input data we model the ground motion using the mode-coupling approach for sharply varying laterally heterogeneous anelastic media, i.e. computing the coupling coefficients for the modes transmitted and reflected at the vertical interface, between two quarter spaces in welded contact. The formalism can be readily applied to any laterally heterogeneous structure by using a custom series of layered anelastic structures in welded contact at vertical interfaces. The case of seismic wave propagation in smooth varying laterally heterogeneous layered media, is solved with an approximation, equivalent to WKBJ method. The theoretical formulation that combines both WKBJ and the coupling coefficients approaches, is implemented in a computer program package. The computer code we have developed allows us to calculate synthetic seismograms for a wide range of laterally inhomogeneous layered anelastic media. As a case study we use an earthquake which occurred on December 16, 1999 (mb=4.8) beneath the Bartlett sea trough, south of Santiago de Cuba city, that was recorded by an accelerometer (SMA-100) placed in Rio Carpintero (RCC) station, at an epicentral distance of about 30 Km. The path travelled by the waves corresponds to a complex structure from undersea source to inland seismic station. A good fit between the observed transverse component (SH-waves) of acceleration and the corresponding synthetic signal is obtained for a

  5. One-Dimensional (1D) ZnS Nanomaterials and Nanostructures

    Xiaosheng FANG; Lide ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials and nanostructures have received much attention due to their potential interest for understanding fundamental physical concepts and for applications in constructing nanoscale electric and optoelectronic devices. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is an important semiconductor compound of Ⅱ-Ⅵ group,and the synthesis of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures has been of growing interest owing to their promising application in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. This paper reviews the recent progress on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures, including nanowires, nanowire arrays, nanorods, nanobelts or nanoribbons,nanocables, and hierarchical nanostructures etc. This article begins with a survey of various methods that have been developed for generating 1D nanomaterials and nanostructures, and then mainly focuses on structures,synthesis, characterization, formation mechanisms and optical property tuning, and luminescence mechanisms of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards future research on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  6. Yield and depth Estimation of Selected NTS Nuclear and SPE Chemical Explosions Using Source Equalization by modeling Local and Regional Seismograms (Invited)

    Saikia, C. K.; Roman-nieves, J. I.; Woods, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Source parameters of nuclear and chemical explosions are often estimated by matching either the corner frequency and spectral level of a single event or the spectral ratio when spectra from two events are available with known source parameters for one. In this study, we propose an alternative method in which waveforms from two or more events can be simultaneously equalized by setting the differential of the processed seismograms at one station from any two individual events to zero. The method involves convolving the equivalent Mueller-Murphy displacement source time function (MMDSTF) of one event with the seismogram of the second event and vice-versa, and then computing their difference seismogram. MMDSTF is computed at the elastic radius including both near and far-field terms. For this method to yield accurate source parameters, an inherent assumption is that green's functions for the any paired events from the source to a receiver are same. In the frequency limit of the seismic data, this is a reasonable assumption and is concluded based on the comparison of green's functions computed for flat-earth models at various source depths ranging from 100m to 1Km. Frequency domain analysis of the initial P wave is, however, sensitive to the depth phase interaction, and if tracked meticulously can help estimating the event depth. We applied this method to the local waveforms recorded from the three SPE shots and precisely determined their yields. These high-frequency seismograms exhibit significant lateral path effects in spectrogram analysis and 3D numerical computations, but the source equalization technique is independent of any variation as long as their instrument characteristics are well preserved. We are currently estimating the uncertainty in the derived source parameters assuming the yields of the SPE shots as unknown. We also collected regional waveforms from 95 NTS explosions at regional stations ALQ, ANMO, CMB, COR, JAS LON, PAS, PFO and RSSD. We are

  7. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  8. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Smital, Tvrtko, E-mail: smital@irb.hr [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  9. From nonfinite to finite 1D arrays of origami tiles.

    Wu, Tsai Chin; Rahman, Masudur; Norton, Michael L

    2014-06-17

    average solution structures for blocks is more readily achieved using computer models than using direct imaging methods. The development of scalable 1D-origami arrays composed of uniquely addressable components is a logical, if not necessary, step in the evolution of higher order fully addressable structures. Our research into the fabrication of arrays has led us to generate a listing of several important areas of future endeavor. Of high importance is the re-enforcement of the mechanical properties of the building blocks and the organization of multiple arrays on a surface of technological importance. While addressing this short list of barriers to progress will prove challenging, coherent development along each of these lines of inquiry will accelerate the appearance of commercial scale molecular manufacturing. PMID:24803094

  10. The Gain Properties of 1-D Active Photonic Crystal

    2003-01-01

    The terminology 'ID frequency'(w ID) is proposed after analyzing the 1D active photonic crystal based on the transfer matrix method. The relationship between wID and the structure parameters of the photonic crystal is investigated.

  11. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

  12. TBC1D24 genotype–phenotype correlation

    Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J.; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J. Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M.; Poulat, Anne L.; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E.; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J. Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M.; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M.; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Taylor, Jenny C.; Troester, Matthew M.; Stanley, Christine M.; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R.; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B.; Oliver, Karen L.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; de Falco, Fabrizio A.; Oliver, Peter L.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. Conclusions: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. PMID:27281533

  13. Supported plasma-made 1D heterostructures: perspectives and applications

    Borras, Ana; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Romero-Gomez, Pablo; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plasma related methods have been widely used in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres and semiconducting inorganic nanowires. A natural progression of the research in the field of 1D nanostructures is the synthesis of multicomponent nanowires and nanofibres. In this article we review the state of the art of the fabrication by plasma methods of 1D heterostructures including applications and perspectives. Furthermore, recent developments on the use of metal seeds (Ag, A...

  14. 1D photonic crystal sensor integrated in a microfluidic system

    Nunes, Pedro; Mortensen, Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2009-01-01

    A refractive index sensor was designed as a 1D resonator incorporated in a microfluidic channel, where aqueous solutions were injected. A sensitivity of 480 nm/RIU and a minimum difference of Deltan = 0.002 were determined.......A refractive index sensor was designed as a 1D resonator incorporated in a microfluidic channel, where aqueous solutions were injected. A sensitivity of 480 nm/RIU and a minimum difference of Deltan = 0.002 were determined....

  15. L(d1, d2,..., dt)-Number λ(Cn; d1, d2,...,dt) of Cycles

    GAO Zhen Bin; ZHANG Xiao Dong

    2009-01-01

    An L(d1,d2,...,dt)-labeling of a graph G is a function f from its vertex set V(G) to the set {0, 1,..., k} for some positive integer k such that {f(x) - f(y)| ≥ di, if the distance between vertices x and y in G is equal to i for i = 1,2,...,t. The L(d1,d2,...,dt)-number λ(G;d1,d2,... ,dt) of G is the smallest integer number k such that G has an L(d1,d2,... ,dt)labeling with max{f(x)|x ∈ V(G)} = k. In this paper, we obtain the exact values for λ(Cn; 2, 2,1) and λ(Cn; 3, 2, 1), and present lower and upper bounds for λ(Cn; 2,..., 2,1,..., 1)

  16. Resonant indirect exchange in 1D semiconductor nanostructures

    We consider resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers in 1D nanostructures. The magnetic centers are assumed to be coupled to the 1D conducting channel by the quantum tunneling which can be of resonant character. The indirect exchange between the centers is mediated by the free carriers of the channel. The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. The former case is attributed to conventional semiconductor (InGaAs based to be concrete) nanowires or nanowhiskers, while the latter case is associated with carbon nanotubes with magnetic adatoms. We demonstrate that whenever the energy of a bound state at the magnetic center lies within the continuum energy spectra of the delocalized carriers in the channel the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to effective tunnel hybridization of the bound states with the continuum. - Highlights: • A resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers mediated by a 1D conducting channel is considered. • It is shown that the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to resonant tunnel coupling of a magnetic bound state with the delocalized states. • The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. • Pecularities of the indirect exchange mediated by a carbon nanotube has been investigated

  17. Resonant indirect exchange in 1D semiconductor nanostructures

    Rozhansky, I.V., E-mail: rozhansky@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Krainov, I.V.; Averkiev, N.S. [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2015-06-01

    We consider resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers in 1D nanostructures. The magnetic centers are assumed to be coupled to the 1D conducting channel by the quantum tunneling which can be of resonant character. The indirect exchange between the centers is mediated by the free carriers of the channel. The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. The former case is attributed to conventional semiconductor (InGaAs based to be concrete) nanowires or nanowhiskers, while the latter case is associated with carbon nanotubes with magnetic adatoms. We demonstrate that whenever the energy of a bound state at the magnetic center lies within the continuum energy spectra of the delocalized carriers in the channel the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to effective tunnel hybridization of the bound states with the continuum. - Highlights: • A resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers mediated by a 1D conducting channel is considered. • It is shown that the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to resonant tunnel coupling of a magnetic bound state with the delocalized states. • The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. • Pecularities of the indirect exchange mediated by a carbon nanotube has been investigated.

  18. The RabGAP TBC1D1 plays a central role in exercise-regulated glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Stöckli, Jacqueline; Meoli, Christopher C; Hoffman, Nolan J;

    2015-01-01

    Insulin and exercise stimulate glucose uptake into skeletal muscle via different pathways. Both stimuli converge on the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface. Two Rab guanosine triphosphatases-activating proteins (GAPs) have been implicated...... in this process: AS160 for insulin stimulation and its homolog, TBC1D1, are suggested to regulate exercise-mediated glucose uptake into muscle. TBC1D1 has also been implicated in obesity in humans and mice. We investigated the role of TBC1D1 in glucose metabolism by generating TBC1D1(-/-) mice and...... analyzing body weight, insulin action, and exercise. TBC1D1(-/-) mice showed normal glucose and insulin tolerance, with no difference in body weight compared with wild-type littermates. GLUT4 protein levels were reduced by ∼40% in white TBC1D1(-/-) muscle, and TBC1D1(-/-) mice showed impaired exercise...

  19. Implementation of 1D Ground Response Analysis in Probabilistic Assessments of Ground Shaking Potential

    Stewart, Jonathan P.; Goulet, Christine A.; Bazzurro, Paolo; Claassen, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Results of 1D ground response analyses are typically not incorporated into probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) in a statistically robust way. Often ground response is incorporated into PSHA using deterministic amplification factors. This simplistic method generates results that are intrinsically arbitrary and often unconservative. The main problem in probabilistically linking PSHA and ground response lies in quantifying the dispersion that is appropriate for use with ground respon...

  20. Nonreciprocity of edge modes in 1D magnonic crystal

    Lisenkov, I., E-mail: ivan.lisenkov@phystech.edu [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya st., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Oakland University, 2200 N. Squirrel Rd., Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kalyabin, D., E-mail: dmitry.kalyabin@phystech.edu [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya st., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Osokin, S. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya st., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Klos, J.W.; Krawczyk, M. [Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Nikitov, S., E-mail: nikitov@cplire.ru [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya st., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Saratov State University, 112 Bol' shaya Kazach' ya, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Spin waves propagation in 1D magnonic crystals is investigated theoretically. Mathematical model based on plane wave expansion method is applied to different types of magnonic crystals, namely bi-component magnonic crystal with symmetric/asymmetric boundaries and ferromagnetic film with periodically corrugated top surface. It is shown that edge modes in magnonic crystals may exhibit nonreciprocal behaviour at much lower frequencies than in homogeneous films. - Highlights: • Magnetostatic surface spin waves in 1D magnonic crystals were studied theoretically. • Mathematical model is based on plane wave method. • Mathematical model was applied to different types of magnonic crystals. • Stop band formation and nonreciprocity were obtained.

  1. Nonreciprocity of edge modes in 1D magnonic crystal

    Spin waves propagation in 1D magnonic crystals is investigated theoretically. Mathematical model based on plane wave expansion method is applied to different types of magnonic crystals, namely bi-component magnonic crystal with symmetric/asymmetric boundaries and ferromagnetic film with periodically corrugated top surface. It is shown that edge modes in magnonic crystals may exhibit nonreciprocal behaviour at much lower frequencies than in homogeneous films. - Highlights: • Magnetostatic surface spin waves in 1D magnonic crystals were studied theoretically. • Mathematical model is based on plane wave method. • Mathematical model was applied to different types of magnonic crystals. • Stop band formation and nonreciprocity were obtained

  2. 1D antiferromagnetism in spin‐alternating bimetallic chains

    Coronado Miralles, Eugenio; Sapiña Navarro, Fernando; Drillon, M.; De Jongh, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic and thermal properties of the ordered bimetallic chain CoNi(EDTA)⋅6H2O in the very low‐temperature range are reported. The magnetic behavior does not exhibit the characteristic features of 1D ferrimagnets, but a continuous decrease of χmT towards zero at absolute zero. This 1D antiferromagnetic behavior results from an accidental compensation between the moments located at the two sublattices. This behavior, as well as the specific‐heat results, are modeled on the basis of an Isi...

  3. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BURIAN, STEVEN J. [NON LANL

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  4. Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms

    Javadi, Alisa

    A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... photons as expected from the theory. The value of g(2)(0) is around 1.08. The results con_rm the observation of an on-chip giant optical nonlinearity and the 1D atom behavior. Another direction in this thesis has been to investigate the e_ect of Anderson localization on the electrodynamics of QDs in PCWs...

  5. 2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. I: Theory

    A new class of '2D/1D' approximations is proposed for the 3D linear Boltzmann equation. These approximate equations preserve the exact transport physics in the radial directions x and y and diffusion physics in the axial direction z. Thus, the 2D/1D equations are more accurate approximations of the 3D Boltzmann equation than the conventional 3D diffusion equation. The 2D/1D equations can be systematically discretized, to yield accurate simulation methods for 3D reactor core problems. The resulting solutions will be more accurate than 3D diffusion solutions, and less expensive to generate than standard 3D transport solutions. In this paper, we (i) show that the simplest 2D/1D equation has certain desirable properties, (ii) systematically discretize this equation, and (iii) derive a stable iteration scheme for solving the discrete system of equations. In a companion paper [1], we give numerical results that confirm the theoretical predictions of accuracy and iterative stability. (authors)

  6. Small-aperture-array translational and rotational seismograms from distant sources - An example of the Jan Mayen Mw 6.8 of 30 August 2012 earthquake

    Brokešová, Johana; Málek, Jiří

    2016-07-01

    We present the seismic rotation rate due to the earthquake of Mw 6.7 at the Jan Mayen island, obtained from broad-band seismograms at a distance of about 2740 km. The order of magnitude of the rotation rate amplitude is only 10-9 rad/s in this case. It is studied with a focus on rotation-to-translation relations. A joint analysis of the rotational and translational data allowed us to determine the true backazimuth and phase velocity of S- and Rayleigh waves. For the surface waves, we studied the frequency dependence of both the backazimuth and phase velocity (wave dispersion). The results are independently confirmed by a method based on time delays between translational records within a small-aperture array. Both methods revealed an unusual velocity drop in the dispersion curve between the periods of 18 and 22 s. This feature may be an indication of a low-velocity zone in the lower crust.

  7. NEW FEATURES OF HYDRUS-1D, VERSION 3.0

    This paper briefly summarizes new features in version 3.0 of HYDRUS-1D, released in May 2005, as compared to version 2.1. The new features are a) new approaches to simulate preferential and nonequilibrium water flow and solute transport, b) a new hysteresis module that avoids the effects of pumpin...

  8. Optical properties of LEDs with patterned 1D photonic crystal

    Hronec, P.; Kuzma, A.; Å kriniarová, J.; Kováč, J.; Benčurová, A.; Haščík, Å.; Nemec, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we focus on the application of the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) structures on the top of Al0.295Ga0.705As/GaAs multi-quantum well light emitting diode (MQW LED). 1D PhC structures with periods of 600 nm, 700 nm, 800 nm, and 900 nm were fabricated by the E-Beam Direct Write (EBDW) Lithography. Effect of 1D PhC period on the light extraction enhancement was studied. 1D PhC LED radiation profiles were obtained from Near Surface Light Emission Images (NSLEI). Measurements showed the strongest light extraction enhancement using 800 nm period of PhC. Investigation of PhC LED radiation profiles showed strong light decoupling when light reaches PhC structure. Achieved LEE was from 22.6% for 600 nm PhC LED to 47.0% for 800 nm PhC LED. LED with PhC structure at its surface was simulated by FDTD simulation method under excitation of appropriate launch field.

  9. Nonlinear ac conductivity of interacting 1d electron systems

    Rosenow, Bernd; Nattermann, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    We consider low energy charge transport in one-dimensional (1d) electron systems with short range interactions under the influence of a random potential. Combining RG and instanton methods, we calculate the nonlinear ac conductivity and discuss the crossover between the nonanalytic field dependence of the electric current at zero frequency and the linear ac conductivity at small electric fields and finite frequency.

  10. A 1D wavelet filtering for ultrasound images despeckling

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Dubois, Mathieu; Frenoux, Emmanuelle; Osorio, Angel

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound images appearance is characterized by speckle, shadows, signal dropout and low contrast which make them really difficult to process and leads to a very poor signal to noise ratio. Therefore, for main imaging applications, a denoising step is necessary to apply successfully medical imaging algorithms on such images. However, due to speckle statistics, denoising and enhancing edges on these images without inducing additional blurring is a real challenging problem on which usual filters often fail. To deal with such problems, a large number of papers are working on B-mode images considering that the noise is purely multiplicative. Making such an assertion could be misleading, because of internal pre-processing such as log compression which are done in the ultrasound device. To address those questions, we designed a novel filtering method based on 1D Radiofrequency signal. Indeed, since B-mode images are initially composed of 1D signals and since the log compression made by ultrasound devices modifies noise statistics, we decided to filter directly the 1D Radiofrequency signal envelope before log compression and image reconstitution, in order to conserve as much information as possible. A bi-orthogonal wavelet transform is applied to the log transform of each signal and an adaptive 1D split and merge like algorithm is used to denoise wavelet coefficients. Experiments were carried out on synthetic data sets simulated with Field II simulator and results show that our filter outperforms classical speckle filtering methods like Lee, non-linear means or SRAD filters.

  11. Scattering approach to classical quasi-1D transport

    Kogan, Eugene

    1996-01-01

    General dynamical transport of classical particles in disordered quasi-1D samples is viewed in the framework of scattering approach. Simple equation for the transfer-matrix is obtained within this unified picture. In the case of diffusive transport the solution of this equation exactly coincides with the solution of diffusion equation.

  12. Simulation of Organic Solar Cells Using AMPS-1D Program

    Samah G. Babiker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of microelectronic and photonic structure in one dimension program [AMPS-1D] program has been successfully used to study inorganic solar cells. In this work the program has been used to optimize the performance of the organic solar cells. The cells considered consist of poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7- dimethyloctyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene [MDMO-PPV

  13. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders;

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...

  14. Large Time existence For 1D Green-Naghdi equations

    Israwi, Samer

    2009-01-01

    We consider here the $1D $ Green-Naghdi equations that are commonly used in coastal oceanography to describe the propagation of large amplitude surface waves. We show that the solution of the Green-Naghdi equations can be constructed by a standard Picard iterative scheme so that there is no loss of regularity of the solution with respect to the initial condition.

  15. Main: 1D6R [RPSD[Archive

    Full Text Available 1D6R 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Bowman-Birk Type Proteinase Inhibitor Precursor Glyci ... Warkentin, G.Wenzl, P.Flecker Crystal Structure Of Cancer ... Chemopreventive Bowman-Birk Inhibitor In Ternary C ...

  16. Bessel Series in the Space H1(D)%H1(D)空间的Bessel级数

    木乐华

    2001-01-01

    An identity concerning the partial sums of Bessel series and power series for H1(D) functions is given.Based on it,many of precise extimates about the deviation of the partial sums of Bessel series can be obtained.%本文给出关于H1(D)空间中函数的Bessel级数的部分和用幂级数的部分和表示的一个恒等式.基于它,可以得到Bessel级数部分和偏差的诸多精确估计.

  17. Evaluation of confinement capability of radioactive materials under the fire accident in nuclear fuel facility with CELVA-1D (Cell Ventillation Analysis Code-1D)

    To reduce the clogging of smoke on the HEPA filters under the fire accident, some of ventilation systems in the plant are equipped with the pre-filters in front of the HEPA filters for collecting the relatively large smoke particles. Appropriate correspondence such as the exchange of the pre-filter is important for confinement of radioactive materials in the ventilation system under the fire accident. To study smoke generation behavior due to the burnable wastes and clogging properties of the ventilation filters by smoke loading, the verification test has been performed. The cell ventilation system analysis code, CELVA-1D was used for analysis of smoke generation and the rising of pressure drop at both the pre-filter and the HEPA filter. With the change of source term, the breakage of time of the pre-filter was also estimated. (author)

  18. Design, implementation and analysis of fully digital 1-D controllable multiscroll chaos

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2011-12-01

    This paper introduces the fully digital implementation of a 1-D multiscroll chaos generator based on a staircase nonlinearity in the 3rd-order jerk system using the Euler approximation. For the first time, digital design is exploited to provide real-time controllability of (i) number of scrolls, (ii) position in 1-D space, (iii) Euler step size and (iv) system parameter. The effect of variations in these fields on the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is analyzed. The system is implemented using Verilog HDL and synthesized on an Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA, exhibiting area utilization less than 3.5% and high performance with experimentally verified throughput up to 3.33 Gbits/s. This fully digital system enables applications in modulation schemes and chaos-based cryptosystems without analog to digital conversion. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. On the computation of long period seismograms in a 3-D earth using normal mode based approximations

    Romanowicz, Barbara A.; Panning, Mark P.; Gung, Yuancheng; Capdeville, Yann

    2008-11-01

    Tomographic inversions for large-scale structure of the earth's mantle involve a forward modelling step of wave propagation through 3-D heterogeneity. Until now, most investigators have worked in the framework of the simplest theoretical assumptions, namely the infinite frequency `ray theory' in the case of body wave traveltime inversions, or the `path-average' approximation (PAVA) to normal mode perturbation theory, in the case of surface waves and long-period waveforms. As interest is shifting to mapping shorter wavelength structures, the need for a more accurate theoretical account of the interaction of seismic waves with mantle heterogeneity, coupled with improvements in path coverage, has been realized. Here we discuss different levels of approximations used in the context of normal mode perturbation theory, when modelling time domain seismic waveforms. We compare the performance of asymptotic approximations, which collapse the effects of 3-D structure onto the great circle vertical plane: the 1-D PAVA and a 2-D approximation called non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT), which both are zeroth order asymptotic approximations. We then discuss how off-vertical plane effects can be introduced using higher order asymptotics. These computationally efficient approximations are compared to the linear Born formalism (BORN), which computes scattering integrals over the entire surface of the sphere. We point out some limitations of this linear formalism in the case of spatially extended anomalies, and show how that can be remedied through the introduction of a non-linear term (NBORN). All these approximations are referenced to a precise 3-D numerical computation afforded by the spectral element method. We discuss simple geometries, and explore a range of sizes of anomalies compared to the wavelength of the seismic waves considered, thus illustrating the range of validity and limitations of the various approximations considered.

  20. D1-D5-P microstates at the cap

    Giusto, Stefano; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    The geometries describing D1-D5-P bound states in string theory have three regions: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter throat, and a 'cap' region at the bottom of the throat. We identify the CFT description of a known class of supersymmetric D1-D5-P microstate geometries which describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The class includes both regular solutions and solutions with conical defects, and generalizes configurations with known CFT descriptions: a parameter related to spectral flow in the CFT is generalized from integer to fractional values. We provide strong evidence for this identification by comparing the massless scalar excitation spectrum between gravity and CFT and finding exact agreement.

  1. On the 1D Coulomb Klein-Gordon equation

    For a single particle of mass m experiencing the potential -α/vertical bar x vertical bar, the 1D Klein-Gordon equation is mathematically underdefined even when α 2 the ground-state energy E decreases through zero, and soon after that mR reaches a finite critical value below which E becomes complex, signalling a breakdown of the single-particle theory. At this critical point of the curve E(mR) the Klein-Gordon norm changes sign: the curve has a lower branch describing a bound antiparticle state, with positive energy -E, which exists for mR between the critical and some higher value where E reaches -m. Though apparently unanticipated in this context, similar scenarios are in fact familiar for strong short-range potentials (1D or 3D), and also for strong 3D Coulomb potentials with α of order unity

  2. Developing 1D nanostructure arrays for future nanophotonics

    Cooke DG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is intense and growing interest in one-dimensional (1-D nanostructures from the perspective of their synthesis and unique properties, especially with respect to their excellent optical response and an ability to form heterostructures. This review discusses alternative approaches to preparation and organization of such structures, and their potential properties. In particular, molecular-scale printing is highlighted as a method for creating organized pre-cursor structure for locating nanowires, as well as vapor–liquid–solid (VLS templated growth using nano-channel alumina (NCA, and deposition of 1-D structures with glancing angle deposition (GLAD. As regards novel optical properties, we discuss as an example, finite size photonic crystal cavity structures formed from such nanostructure arrays possessing highQand small mode volume, and being ideal for developing future nanolasers.

  3. Fuzzball solutions and D1-D5 microstates

    Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika

    2006-01-01

    We revisit the relation between fuzzball solutions and D1-D5 microstates. A consequence of the fact that the RR ground states (in the usual basis) are eigenstates of the R-charge is that only neutral operators can have non-vanishing expectation values on these states. We compute the holographic 1-point functions of the fuzzball solutions and find that charged chiral primaries have non-zero expectation values, except when the curve characterizing the solution is circular. The non-zero vevs reflect the fact that a generic curve breaks R-symmetry completely. This implies that fuzzball solutions (excepting circular ones) can only correspond to superpositions of RR states. We construct new solutions by appropriately superimposing fuzzball solutions that have vanishing vevs for all charged chiral primary operators and can therefore correspond to D1-D5 microstates.

  4. Dentin dysplasia type 1d: A rare case

    Sujit Ranjan Sahoo; Sonia Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Dentin dysplasia is a rare hereditary disturbance of dentin formation characterized by a defective dentin development with clinically normal-appearing crowns, severe hypermobility of teeth and spontaneous dental abscesses or cysts. Radiographic analysis shows obliteration of all pulp chambers by pulp stones, short, blunted and malformed or absent roots, peri-apical radiolucencies of noncarious teeth. We present a case of dentin dysplasia type 1d in a 19-year-old boy along with the clinical, r...

  5. Waves in a 1D electrorheological dusty plasma lattice

    Rosenberg, M.

    2015-08-01

    The behavior of waves in a one-dimensional (1D) dusty plasma lattice where the dust interacts via Yukawa and electric dipole interactions is discussed theoretically. This study is motivated by recent reports on electrorheological dusty plasmas (e.g. Ivlev et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095003) where the dipole interaction arises due to an external uniaxial AC electric field that distorts the Debye sphere surrounding each grain. Application to possible dusty plasma experimental parameters is discussed.

  6. Blind Detection of Severely Blurred 1D Barcode

    Dridi, Noura; Delignon, Yves; Sawaya, Wadih; Septier, François

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a joint blind channel estimation and symbol detection for decoding a blurred and noisy 1D barcode captured image. From an information transmission point of view, we show that the channel impulse response, the noise power and the symbols can be efficiently estimated by taking into account the signal structure such as the cyclostationary property of the hidden Markov process to estimate. Based on the Expectation-Maximisation method, we show that the new algorithm offer...

  7. A study of slow light in 1D photonic crystals

    Yudistira, D.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Hammer, M; Marpaung, D.A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Slow light (SL) states corresponding to wavelength regions near the bandgap edge of grating structure are known to show strong field enhancement. Such states may be excited efficiently by well-optimised adiabatic transitions in such structures, e.g., by slowly turning on the modulation depth. To study adiabatic excitations, a detailed research in 1D is performed to obtain insight into the relation between the device parameters and properties like enhancement and modal reflection. The results ...

  8. Theory of slow light excitation in 1D photonic crystals

    Yudistira, D.; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Handoyo, H.P.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Hammer, M; Tjia, M.O.; Iskandar, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Slow light (SL) states corresponding to wavelength regions near the bandgap edge of grated structures are known to show strong eld enhancement. Such states may be excited efciently by well-optimised adiabatic transitions in grating structures, e.g., by slowly turning on the modulation depth. To study adiabatic excitations, a detailed investigation in 1D is performed to obtain insight into the relation between the device parameters and properties like eld enhancement and modal reection. The re...

  9. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  10. Supported plasma-made 1D heterostructures: perspectives and applications

    Borras, Ana; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Romero-Gomez, Pablo; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.

    2011-05-01

    Plasma-related methods have been widely used in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres (NFs) and semiconducting inorganic nanowires (NWs). A natural progression of the research in the field of 1D nanostructures is the synthesis of multicomponent NWs and NFs. In this paper we review the state of the art of the fabrication by plasma methods of 1D heterostructures including applications and perspectives. Furthermore, recent developments on the use of metal seeds (Ag, Au, Pt) to obtain metal@oxide nanostructures are also extensively described. Results are shown for various metal substrates, either metal foils or supported nanoparticles/thin films of the metal where the effects of the size, surface coverage, percolation degree and thickness of the metal seeds have been systematically evaluated. The possibilities of the process are illustrated by the preparation of nanostructured films and supported NFs of different metal@oxides (Ag, Au and SiO2, TiO2, ZnO). Particularly, in the case of silver, the application of an oxygen plasma treatment prior to the deposition of the oxide was critical for efficiently controlling the growth of the 1D heterostructures. A phenomenological model is proposed to account for the thin-film nanostructuring and fibre formation by considering basic phenomena such as stress relaxation, inhomogeneities in the plasma sheath electrical field and the local disturbance of the oxide growth.

  11. Supported plasma-made 1D heterostructures: perspectives and applications

    Plasma-related methods have been widely used in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres (NFs) and semiconducting inorganic nanowires (NWs). A natural progression of the research in the field of 1D nanostructures is the synthesis of multicomponent NWs and NFs. In this paper we review the state of the art of the fabrication by plasma methods of 1D heterostructures including applications and perspectives. Furthermore, recent developments on the use of metal seeds (Ag, Au, Pt) to obtain metal-oxide nanostructures are also extensively described. Results are shown for various metal substrates, either metal foils or supported nanoparticles/thin films of the metal where the effects of the size, surface coverage, percolation degree and thickness of the metal seeds have been systematically evaluated. The possibilities of the process are illustrated by the preparation of nanostructured films and supported NFs of different metal-oxides (Ag, Au and SiO2, TiO2, ZnO). Particularly, in the case of silver, the application of an oxygen plasma treatment prior to the deposition of the oxide was critical for efficiently controlling the growth of the 1D heterostructures. A phenomenological model is proposed to account for the thin-film nanostructuring and fibre formation by considering basic phenomena such as stress relaxation, inhomogeneities in the plasma sheath electrical field and the local disturbance of the oxide growth.

  12. MARG1D: One dimensional outer region matching data code

    A code MARG1D has been developed which computes outer region matching data of the one dimensional Newcomb equation. Matching data play an important role in the resistive (and non ideal) Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in a tokamak plasma. The MARG1D code computes matching data by using the boundary value method or by the eigenvalue method. Variational principles are derived for the problems to be solved and a finite element method is applied. Except for the case of marginal stability, the eigenvalue method is equivalent to the boundary value method. However, the eigenvalue method has the several advantages: it is a new method of ideal MHD stability analysis for which the marginally stable state can be identified, and it guarantees numerical stability in computing matching data close to marginal stability. We perform detailed numerical experiments for a model equation with analytical solutions and for the Newcomb equation in the m=1 mode theory. Numerical experiments show that MARG1D code gives the matching data with numerical stability and high accuracy. (author)

  13. Domain walls and instantons in N=1, d=4 supergravity

    Huebscher, M; Ortin, T

    2009-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric sources of (multi-) domain-wall and (multi-) instanton solutions of generic N=1, d=4 supergravities, that is: the worldvolume effective actions for said supersymmetric topological defects. The domain-wall solutions naturally couple to the two 3-forms recently found as part of the N=1, d=4 tensor hierarchy (i.e. they have two charges in general) and their tension is the absolute value of the superpotential section L. The introduction of sources (we study sources with finite and vanishing thickness) is equivalent to the introduction of local coupling constants and results in dramatic changes of the solutions. Our results call for a democratic reformulation of N=1,d=4 supergravity in which coupling constants are, off-shell, scalar fields. The effective actions for the instantons are always proportional to the coordinate orthogonal to the twist-free embedding of the null-geodesic (in the Wick-rotated scalar manifold) describing the instanton. We show their supersymmetry and find the as...

  14. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  15. Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions

    Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

    2013-06-01

    Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

  16. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case; Acoplamiento de Nod1D y HOTCHANNEL: caso estatico

    Gomez T, A.M. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ovando C, R. [IIE-Gcia. de Energia Nuclear, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  17. Numerical simulation of Ge solar cells using D-AMPS-1D code

    A solar cell is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. When light with photon energies greater than the band gap is absorbed by a semiconductor material, free electrons and free holes are generated by optical excitation in the material. The main characteristic of a photovoltaic device is the presence of internal electric field able to separate the free electrons and holes so they can pass out of the material to the external circuit before they recombine. Numerical simulation of photovoltaic devices plays a crucial role in their design, performance prediction, and comprehension of the fundamental phenomena ruling their operation. The electrical transport and the optical behavior of the solar cells discussed in this work were studied with the simulation code D-AMPS-1D. This software is an updated version of the one-dimensional (1D) simulation program Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Devices (AMPS) that was initially developed at The Penn State University, USA. Structures such as homojunctions, heterojunctions, multijunctions, etc., resulting from stacking layers of different materials can be studied by appropriately selecting characteristic parameters. In this work, examples of cells simulation made with D-AMPS-1D are shown. Particularly, results of Ge photovoltaic devices are presented. The role of the InGaP buffer on the device was studied. Moreover, a comparison of the simulated electrical parameters with experimental results was performed.

  18. DYN1D-MSR dynamics code for molten salt reactors

    This paper reports about the DYN1D-MSR code development and dynamics studies of the molten salt reactors (MSR) - one of the 'Generation IV International Forum' concepts. In this forum the graphite-moderated channel type MSR based on the previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory research is considered. The liquid molten salt serves as a fuel and coolant, simultaneously and causes two physical peculiarities: the fission energy is released predominantly directly into the coolant and the delayed neutrons precursors are drifted by the fuel flow. The drift causes the spread of delayed neutrons distribution to the non-core parts of primary circuit and it can lead to a reactivity loss or gain in the case of fuel flow acceleration or deceleration, respectively. Therefore, specific 3D tool based on in house code DYN3D was developed in FZR. The code DYN3D-MSR is based on the solution of two-group neutron diffusion equation by the help of a nodal expansion method and it includes models of delayed neutrons drift and specific MSR heat release distribution. In this paper the development and verification of 1D version DYN1D-MSR of the code is described. The code has been validated with the experimental data gained from the molten salt reactor experiment performed in the Oak Ridge and after the validation it was applied to several typical transients (overcooling of fuel at the core inlet, reactivity insertion, and the fuel pump trip)

  19. Numerical simulation of Ge solar cells using D-AMPS-1D code

    Barrera, Marcela, E-mail: barrera@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Rubinelli, Francisco [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC)-CONICET, Gueemes 3450, Santa Fe 3000 (Argentina); Rey-Stolle, Ignacio [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense 30, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pla, Juan [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    A solar cell is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. When light with photon energies greater than the band gap is absorbed by a semiconductor material, free electrons and free holes are generated by optical excitation in the material. The main characteristic of a photovoltaic device is the presence of internal electric field able to separate the free electrons and holes so they can pass out of the material to the external circuit before they recombine. Numerical simulation of photovoltaic devices plays a crucial role in their design, performance prediction, and comprehension of the fundamental phenomena ruling their operation. The electrical transport and the optical behavior of the solar cells discussed in this work were studied with the simulation code D-AMPS-1D. This software is an updated version of the one-dimensional (1D) simulation program Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Devices (AMPS) that was initially developed at The Penn State University, USA. Structures such as homojunctions, heterojunctions, multijunctions, etc., resulting from stacking layers of different materials can be studied by appropriately selecting characteristic parameters. In this work, examples of cells simulation made with D-AMPS-1D are shown. Particularly, results of Ge photovoltaic devices are presented. The role of the InGaP buffer on the device was studied. Moreover, a comparison of the simulated electrical parameters with experimental results was performed.

  20. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  1. BGK electron solitary waves: 1D and 3D

    L.-J. Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results for 1D BGK electron solitary wave (phase-space electron hole solutions and, based on the new results, extends the solutions to include the 3D electrical interaction (E ~ 1/r 2 of charged particles. Our approach for extending to 3D is to solve the nonlinear 3D Poisson and 1D Vlasov equations based on a key feature of 1D electron hole (EH solutions; the positive core of an EH is screened by electrons trapped inside the potential energy trough. This feature has not been considered in previous studies. We illustrate this key feature using an analytical model and argue that the feature is independent of any specific model. We then construct azimuthally symmetric EH solutions under conditions where electrons are highly field-aligned and ions form a uniform background along the magnetic field. Our results indicate that, for a single humped electric potential, the parallel cut of the perpendicular component of the electric field (E⊥ is unipolar and that of the parallel component (E|| bipolar, reproducing the multi-dimensional features of the solitary waves observed by the FAST satellite. Our analytical solutions presented in this article capture the 3D electric interaction and the observed features of (E|| and E⊥. The solutions predict a dependence of the parallel width-amplitude relation on the perpendicular size of EHs. This dependence can be used in conjunction with experimental data to yield an estimate of the typical perpendicular size of observed EHs; this provides important information on the perpendicular span of the source region as well as on how much electrostatic energy is transported by the solitary waves.

  2. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    K D Rathod; P K Singh; Vasant Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at 45° with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate the selective deflection of the bosonic isotope 174Yb and the fermionic isotope 171Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  3. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Rathod, KD; Singh, PK; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at 45(a similar to) with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate the selective deflection of the bosonic isotope Yb-174 and the fermionic isotope Yb-171. Using...

  4. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  5. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Rathod, K D; Natarajan, Vasant

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  6. System for Digital 1D-Image Processing with 1024 Pixel CCD Sensor

    J. Misun; M. Chrenek; Sevcik, P; P. Kulla

    1993-01-01

    The conception of system for digital 1D-images processing with digital CCD camera is presented. The system is created from these three basic parts: the digital CCD camera with linear image sensor CCD L133C, 8-bit interface and a personal computer. The scanning digital CCD camera generated a video signals, which are processed in the analog signal processor. The output signal is continually converted to 8-bit data words in A/D converter. This data words maybe transfer over a bus driver to the o...

  7. Second order effect of twist deformation in the D1D5 CFT

    Carson, Zaq; Mathur, Samir D

    2015-01-01

    Thermalization in the D1D5 CFT should occur via interactions caused by the twist operator, which deforms the theory off its free orbifold point. Earlier studies investigating this deformation at first order did not show any definite evidence of thermalization. In this paper we study the deformation to second order, where we do expect to see the effects that should give thermalization. We compute the effect of two twist operators on an initial vacuum state, which generates a squeezed state analogous to the case for a single twist. We obtain expressions for the Bogoliubov coefficients in this 2-twist case.

  8. 1D-transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    nanowire is small enough to ensure a 1D superconducting regime in a wide temperature range below T. The non-zero resistance in the superconducting state and its variation caused by fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter were measured versus temperature, magnetic field, and applied DC current......We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have uniform diameter of ̃40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (̃500). The diameter of the...

  9. Breakdown of 1D water wires inside Charged Carbon Nanotubes

    Pant, Shashank

    2016-01-01

    Using Molecular Dynamics approach we investigated the structure, dynamics of water confined inside pristine and charged 6,6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This study reports the breakdown of 1D water wires and the emergence of triangular faced water on incorporating charges in 6,6 CNTs. Incorporation of charges results in high potential barriers to the flipping of water molecules due to the formation of a large number of hydrogen bonds. The PMF analyses show the presence of ~2 kcal/mol barrier for the movement of water inside pristine CNT and almost negligible barrier in charged CNTs.

  10. Restrained Dark $U(1)_d$ at Low Energies

    Correia, F C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a spontaneously broken $U(1)_d$ gauge symmetry with a muon-specific dark Higgs. Our first goal is to verify how the presence of a new dark Higgs, $\\phi$, and a dark gauge boson, $V$, can simultaneously face the anomalies from the muon magnetic moment and the proton charge radius. Secondly, by assuming that $V$ must decay to an electron-positron pair, we explore the corresponding parameter space determined with the low energy constraints coming from $ K \\to \\mu X$, electron $(g-2)_e$, $K \\to \\mu \

  11. Phthalocyanine based 1D nanowires for device applications

    Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    1D nanowires (NWs) of Cu (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-Phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu)8) molecule have been grown on different substrates by cost effective solution processing technique. The density of NWs is found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of solution. The possible formation mechanism of these structures is π-π interaction between phthalocyanine molecules. The improved conductivity of these NWs as compared to spin coated film indicates their potential for molecular device applications.

  12. 1-D ELECTRO-OPTIC BEAM STEERING DEVICE

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi Leung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of a 1D beam steering device based on planar electro-optic thermal-plastic prisms and a collimator lens array. With the elimination of moving parts, the proposed device is able to overcome the mechanical limitations of present scanning devices, such as fatigue and low operating frequency, while maintaining a small system footprint (~0.5mm×0.5mm). From experimental data, our prototype device is able to achieve a maximum deflection angle of 5...

  13. Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals

    We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al2O3/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al2O3/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.

  14. Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals

    Tschikin, Maria; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2012-10-01

    We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al2O3/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al2O3/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.

  15. Spatial coherence of polaritons in a 1D channel

    Savenko, I. G., E-mail: savenko.j@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Academic University, Research and Education Center of Nanotechnologies (Russian Federation); Iorsh, I. V. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Kaliteevski, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Academic University, Research and Education Center of Nanotechnologies (Russian Federation); Shelykh, I. A. [University of Iceland, Science Institute (Iceland)

    2013-01-15

    We analyze time evolution of spatial coherence of a polariton ensemble in a quantum wire (1D channel) under constant uniform resonant pumping. Using the theoretical approach based on the Lindblad equation for a one-particle density matrix, which takes into account the polariton-phonon and excitonexciton interactions, we study the behavior of the first-order coherence function g{sup 1} for various pump intensities and temperatures in the range of 1-20 K. Bistability and hysteresis in the dependence of the first-order coherence function on the pump intensity is demonstrated.

  16. A Godunov method for Lagrangian hydrodynamics in 1D

    Crowley, W.P.

    1987-01-15

    For transient problems involving strong shocks, the artificial viscosity method has been the standard in numerical hydrodynamics for many years. An alternative approach was suggested by Godunov and it is gaining acceptance. We consider a Godunov method for 1D Lagrangian calculations and show that in the case of a strong shock moving through a nonuniform mesh the Godunov solution is superior to the artificial viscosity solution. For uniform mesh shock problems in spherical geometry the two methods give comparable results. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  17. A 1D analysis of two high order MOC methods

    The work presented here provides two different methods for evaluating angular fluxes along long characteristics. One is based off a projection of the 1D transport equation onto a complete set of Legendre polynomials, while the other uses the 1D integral transport equation to evaluate the angular flux values at specific points along each track passing through a cell. The Moment Long Characteristic (M-LC) method is shown to provide 2(P+1) spatial convergence and significant gains in accuracy with the addition of only a few spatial degrees of freedom. The M-LC method, though, is shown to be ill-conditioned at very high order and for optically thin geometries. The Point Long Characteristic (P-LC) method, while less accurate, significantly improves stability to problems with optically thin cells. The P-LC method is also more flexible, allowing for extra angular flux evaluations along a given track to give a more accurate representation of the shape along each track. This is at the expense of increasing the degrees of freedom of the system, though, and requires an increase in memory storage. This work concludes that both may be used simultaneously within the same geometry to provide the best mix of accuracy and stability possible. (authors)

  18. 1-D DCT Using Latency Efficient Floating Point Algorithms

    Viswanath Gowd A, Yedukondala Rao V, T. Shanmuganantham

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of one-dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT architecture for digital signal processing (DSP applications. DCT is a basic transformation for coding method which converts spatial domain to frequency domain of image. In 1-D DCT operation addition, subtraction, multiplication operations are required. These operations must be accurate, less latency. Floating point operations have dynamic range of representation, more accurate and perform millions of calculations per second. So the floating point operations are used for the above operations. In this floating point adder/subtractor is the most complex operation in a floating-point arithmetic and consists of many variable latency- and area dependent sub-operations. In floating-point addition implementations, latency is the primary performance bottleneck. So different types of floating point adder/subtractor algorithms such as LOD, LOP, Two-path are used to decrease the latency. The trade off is observed in 1-D DCT by changing different types of adders in place of summer. All architectures are designed and implemented using VHDL using Xillinx 13.1software.

  19. The Cosmological Mass Function with 1D Gravity

    Monaco, P; Monaco, Pierluigi; Murante, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    The cosmological mass function problem is analyzed in full detail in the case of 1D gravity, with analytical, semi-analytical and numerical techniques. The extended Press & Schechter theory is improved by detailing the relation between smoothing radius and mass of the objects. This is done by introducing in the formalism the concept of a growth curve for the objects. The predictions of the extended Press & Schechter theory are compared to large N-body simulations of flat expanding 1D universes with scale-free power spectra of primordial perturbations. The collapsed objects in the simulations are located with a clump-finding algorithm designed to find regions that have undergone orbit crossing or that are in the multi-stream regime (these are different as an effect of the finite size of the multi-stream regions). It is found that the semi-analytical mass function theory, which has no free parameters, is able to recover the properties of collapsed objects both statistically and object by object. In part...

  20. Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D

    John Leju CELESTINO LADU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs. Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.

  1. Study of 1D Strange Charmed Meson Family Using HQET

    Pallavi Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently LHCb predicted spin 1 and spin 3 states Ds1⁎(2860 and Ds3⁎(2860 which are studied through their strong decays and are assigned to fit the 13D1 and 13D3 states in the charm spectroscopy. In this paper, using the heavy quark effective theory, we state that assigning Ds1⁎(2860 as the mixing of 13D1-23S1 states is rather a better justification to its observed experimental values than a pure state. We study its decay modes variation with hadronic coupling constant gxh and the mixing angle θ. We appoint spin 3 state Ds3⁎(2860 as the missing 1D  3-JP state and also study its decay channel behavior with coupling constant gyh. To appreciate the above results, we check the variation of decay modes for their spin partners states, that is, 1D2 and 1D2′, with their masses and strong coupling constant, that is, gxh and gyh. Our calculation using HQET approach gives mixing angle of the 13D1-23S1 state for Ds1⁎(2860 to lie in the range (-1.6 radians ≤θ≤-1.2 radians. Our calculation for coupling constant values gives gxh to lie within value range of 0.17–0.20 and gyh to be 0.40. We expect from experiments to observe this mixing angle to verify our results.

  2. Coherent Atom Optics With Fast Metastable Beams: Metastable Helium Diffraction By 1D and 2D Magnetized Reflection Gratings

    Grucker, J.; Baudon, J.; Karam, J.-C.; Perales, F.; Bocvarski, V.; Ducloy, M.

    2007-04-01

    1D and 2D reflection gratings (Permalloy stripes or dots deposited on silicon), immersed in an external homogeneous static magnetic field, are used to study 1D and 2D diffraction of fast metastable helium atoms He* (23S1). Both the grazing incidence used here and the repulsive potential (for sub-level m = -1) generated by the magnetisation reduce the quenching effect. This periodically structured potential is responsible for the diffraction in the incidence plane as well as for the diffraction in the perpendicular plane.

  3. Transformation of 1-D Chiral-chained Titanium Phosphate to 2-D Layer Structure Through a 1-D Zigzag Chain

    CHEN Chao; YANG Yu-lin; LI Wei-sheng; LIU Yun-ling; YI Zhuo; GUO Yang-hong; PANG Wen-qin

    2005-01-01

    The transformation of titanium phosphate from 1-D chiral- chain(JTP-A) to 2-D layer(TP-J1) has been carefully investigated. Through a hydrolysis-condensation self-assembly pathway, the crystals of TP-J1 can be obtained from the JTP-A phase under hydrothermal conditions. An intermediate material with zigzag chain during the transformation was observed by XRD characterization. A hypothesis of the transformation mechanism is also described in this article. It is noteworthy that ethylenediamine plays an important role in the transformation.

  4. Simplified 1D modelling of the HGA test

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The HGA test is located in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland). It consists of a horizontal borehole of 1.00 m of diameter and 13.00 m of length excavated in the ultra-low permeable Opalinus clay. During the tunnel drilling, the Opalinus clay near the tunnel wall was damaged, giving rise to an EDZ (Excavation Damaged Zone) around the tunnel. A steel liner was placed along the 6.00 m close to the tunnel mouth in order to guarantee the stability. The last 4.00 m at the tunnel end were backfilled with gravel. Along the remaining 3.00 m, an inflatable rubber packer of 1.00 m in diameter, was installed and inflated, thereby compressing the EDZ that was created during the tunnel excavation. The test section was filled with de-aired water and care was taken in order to eliminate the air from this tunnel section. Subsequently, a series of water and gas injection tests were carried out with varying mega-packer pressure, whereby water or gas was injected into the test section and, due to the very low permeability of the intact Opalinus clay, forced to flow back along the EDZ. In order to model the water and gas flow through the EDZ, we have followed a two-track approach. On the one hand, a 2D axisymmetric numerical model using code-bright has been made. On the other hand, a 1D analytical-numerical model has been developed and implemented in an Excel spreadsheet, whereby the field equations defined on a 1D geometrical domain are numerically solved using the finite element method. The 1D model has been used in order to calibrate the 2D axisymmetric model. Both the Opalinus clay and the EDZ will be considered to be porous media, with an incompressible solid phase (clay), an incompressible liquid phase (water and air) and a gas phase (water and air). The properties of the liquid phase will be assumed to be independent of the concentration of dissolved air and the gas phase will be assumed to be a mixture of dry air and

  5. Slug modeling with 1D two-fluid model

    Simulations of condensation-induced water hammer with one-dimensional two-fluid model requires explicit modeling of slug formation, slug propagation, and in some cases slug decay. Stratified flow correlations that are more or less well known in 1D two-fluid models, are crucial for accurate description of the initial phase of the slug formation and slug propagation. Slug formation means transition to other flow regime that requires different set of correlations. To use such two-fluid model for condensation induced water hammer simulations, a single slug must be explicitly recognized and captured. In the present work two cases of condensation-induced water hammer simulations performed with WAHA code, are described and discussed: injection of cold liquid into horizontal pipe filled with steam and injection of hot steam into horizontal pipe partially filled with cold liquid. (author)

  6. 1D PIC simulation of relativistic Buneman instability

    Buneman instability in the relativistic regime has been studied using a 1D electrostatic particle-in-cell code. In the non-relativistic case, Hirose et al. (Plasma Phys. 20, 481(1978)) has shown that breakdown of linear growth (saturation) occurs when |E|2/16πW0 ∼ ζomax, where W0 is the initial beam kinetic energy density and ζomax is maximum growth rate of the instability. In the weakly relativistic case, it has been confirmed using PIC simulation that scaling of saturation of Buneman instability follows a similar behavior as the non-relativistic case, whereas in the strongly relativistic case our simulation results show significant deviation from Hirose's results. In the strongly relativistic case, growth rate reduces due to relativistic corrections; so saturation occurs at a lower value compared to the non-relativistic/weakly relativistic case. (author)

  7. Assessment of the 2D/1D implementation in MPACT

    The 2D/1D method is used in the MPACT code to obtain 3D solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation for practical reactor geometries. The OECD C5G7 transport benchmark problem is used first to assess the accuracy of the method with a fixed set of cross-sections. The VERA Core Physics Progression Problems are then used to compare the accuracy of the transport solver using a 56-group library based on ENDFB-VII.0. Single assembly PWR designs are simulated, and the eigenvalue and pin powers are compared to continuous-energy Monte Carlo results. A 3x3 assembly cluster with a control rod inserted into the center assembly is then compared to Monte Carlo to assess the ability of MPACT to predict a control rod worth curve. Finally, MPACT is used to simulate the initial critical states of a full 3D initial core of a PWR at zero power conditions. (author)

  8. 1-D Molecular Chains of Thiophene on Ge(100)

    Jeon, Seok Min; Jung, Soon Jung; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Lim, Do Kyung; Lee, Hangil; Kim, Sehun

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption geometry of thiophene on Ge(100) have been studied by high-resolution core-level photoemission spectroscopy (HRPES) using synchrotron radiation and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). From the analysis of the Ge 3d, S 2p, and C 1s core-level photoemission spectra, we found three different adsorption geometries, which were assigned to a dative bonding feature, a [4+2] cycloaddition reaction product, and a desulfurization reaction product. Furthermore, we investigated that the ratio of the components induced by three adsorption geometries changed depending on the molecular coverage and the annealing temperature. At low coverage, the kinetically favorable dative bonding features favorably form 1-D molecular chains. Increasing the molecular coverage, the energetically more stable [4+2] cycloaddition reaction products are additionally created.

  9. Axion string dynamics I: 2+1D

    Fleury, Leesa M.; Moore, Guy D.

    2016-05-01

    If the axion exists and if the initial axion field value is uncorrelated at causally disconnected points, then it should be possible to predict the efficiency of cosmological axion production, relating the axionic dark matter density to the axion mass. The main obstacle to making this prediction is correctly treating the axion string cores. We develop a new algorithm for treating the axionic string cores correctly in 2+1 dimensions. When the axionic string cores are given their full physical string tension, axion production is about twice as efficient as in previous simulations. We argue that the string network in 2+1 dimensions should behave very differently than in 3+1 dimensions, so this result cannot be simply carried over to the physical case. We outline how to extend our method to 3+1D axion string dynamics.

  10. Axion String Dynamics I: 2+1D

    Fleury, Leesa M

    2016-01-01

    If the axion exists and if the initial axion field value is uncorrelated at causally disconnected points, then it should be possible to predict the efficiency of cosmological axion production, relating the axionic dark matter density to the axion mass. The main obstacle to making this prediction is correctly treating the axion string cores. We develop a new algorithm for treating the axionic string cores correctly in 2+1 dimensions. When the axionic string cores are given their full physical string tension, axion production is about twice as efficient as in previous simulations. We argue that the string network in 2+1 dimensions should behave very differently than in 3+1 dimensions, so this result cannot be simply carried over to the physical case. We outline how to extend our method to 3+1D axion string dynamics.

  11. Microlens Masses from 1-D Parallaxes and Heliocentric Proper Motions

    Gould, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) microlens parallaxes can be combined with heliocentric lens-source relative proper motion measurements to derive the lens mass and distance, as suggested by Ghosh et al. (2004). Here I present the first mathematical anlysis of this procedure, which I show can be represented as a quadratic equation. Hence, it is formally subject to a two-fold degeneracy. I show that this degeneracy can be broken in many cases using the relatively crude 2-D parallax information that is often available for microlensing events. I also develop an explicit formula for the region of parameter space where it is more difficult to break this degeneracy. Although no mass/distance measurements have yet been made using this technique, it is likely to become quite common over the next decade.

  12. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  13. Towards 1D nanolines on a monolayered supramolecular network adsorbed on a silicon surface

    Makoudi, Younes; Beyer, Matthieu; Lamare, Simon; Jeannoutot, Judicael; Palmino, Frank; Chérioux, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    The growth of 3D extended periodic networks made up of π-conjugated molecules on semi-conductor surfaces is of interest for the integration of nano-components in the future generations of smart devices. In the work presented in this article, we successfully achieved the formation of bilayered networks on a silicon surface including 1D-isolated nanolines in the second layer. Firstly, we observed the formation of a 2D large-scale supramolecular network in the plane of a silicon surface through the deposition of tailored molecules. Then using the same molecules, a second-layer, based on 1D nanolines, grew above the first layer, thanks to a template effect. Mono- or bi-layered networks were found to be stable from 100 K up to room temperature. These networks were investigated by scanning tunnel microscopy imaging under an ultra-high vacuum (UHV-STM).The growth of 3D extended periodic networks made up of π-conjugated molecules on semi-conductor surfaces is of interest for the integration of nano-components in the future generations of smart devices. In the work presented in this article, we successfully achieved the formation of bilayered networks on a silicon surface including 1D-isolated nanolines in the second layer. Firstly, we observed the formation of a 2D large-scale supramolecular network in the plane of a silicon surface through the deposition of tailored molecules. Then using the same molecules, a second-layer, based on 1D nanolines, grew above the first layer, thanks to a template effect. Mono- or bi-layered networks were found to be stable from 100 K up to room temperature. These networks were investigated by scanning tunnel microscopy imaging under an ultra-high vacuum (UHV-STM). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional STM images showing submolecular details of the adsorption of molecules on the surface. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01826b

  14. 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    Maggiora, Riccardo; Lancellotti, Vito; Vecchi, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of a magnetic current (electric field) distribution on the aperture between the two regions. In the vacuum region all the calculations are executed in the spatial domain while in the plasma region an extraction in the spectral domain of some integrals is employed that permits to significantly reduce the integration support and to obtain a high numerical efficiency leading to the practical possibility of using a large number of sub-domain (rectangular or triangular) basis functions on each solid conductor of the system. The plasma enters the formalism of the plasma region via a surface impedance matrix; for this reason any plasma model can be used; at present the FELICE code has been adopted, that affords density and temperature profiles, and FLR effects. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. Calculation of field distributions (both magnetic and electric), useful for sheath considerations, is included. This tool has been implemented in a suite, called TOPICA, that is modular and applicable to ICRF antenna structures of arbitrary shape. This new simulation tool can assist during the detailed design phase and for this reason can be considered a "Virtual Prototyping Laboratory" (VPL). The TOPICA suite has been tested against assessed codes and against measurements and data of mock-ups and existing antennas. The VPL is being used in

  15. Nonclassical Particle Transport in 1-D Random Periodic Media

    Vasques, Richard; Slaybaugh, Rachel N

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the recently proposed nonclassical transport equation. This equation contains an extra independent variable compared to the classical transport equation (the path-length $s$), and models particle transport taking place in homogenized random media in which a particle's distance-to-collision is not exponentially distributed. To solve the nonclassical equation one needs to know the $s$-dependent ensemble-averaged total cross section, $\\Sigma_t(\\mu,s)$, or its corresponding path-length distribution function, $p(\\mu,s)$. We consider a 1-D spatially periodic system consisting of alternating solid and void layers, randomly placed in the $x$-axis. We obtain an analytical expression for $p(\\mu,s)$ and use this result to compute the corresponding $\\Sigma_t(\\mu,s)$. Then, we proceed to numerically solve the nonclassical equation for different test problems in rod geometry; that is, particles can move only in the directions $\\mu=\\pm 1$. To assess the accuracy of these solutions, we produce ...

  16. The molecular spin filter constructed from 1D organic chain

    We proposed a molecular spin filter, which is constructed from the 1D metallic organic chain (Fen+1(C6H4)n). The spin-polarized transport properties of the molecular spin filter are explored by combining density functional theory with nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Theoretical results reveal that Fen+1(C6H4)n molecular chain exhibits robust spin filtering effect, and only the spin-down electrons can transmit through the molecular chain. At the given bias voltage window [−1 eV,1 eV], the calculated spin filter efficiency is close to 100% in the case of n≥3. We find that the effect of spin polarization origin from both Fen+1 and (C6H4)n. In addition, negative difference resistance behavior appears in Fen+1(C6H4)n molecular chain. The results can help us understand the spin transport properties of organic molecular chain. - Highlights: • Theoretical results reveal that Fen+1(C6H4)n molecular chain exhibits robust spin filtering effect. • The effect of spin polarization origin from both of Fen+1 and (C6H4)n. • Negative difference resistance behavior appears in Fen+1(C6H4)n molecular chain

  17. Graphs on uniform points in [0,1]d

    Appel, Martin J. B.; Russo, Ralph P.; Yang, King J.

    1995-06-01

    Statistical problems in pattern or structure recognition for a random multidimensional point set may be addressed by variations on the random graph model of Erdos and Renyui. The imposition of graph structure with a variable edge criterion on a large random point set allows a search for signature quantities or behavior under the given distributional hypothesis. The work is motivated by the question of how to make statistical inferences from sensed mine field data. This article describes recent results obtained in the following special cases. On independent random points U1,...,Un distributed uniformly on [0,1]d, a random graph Gn(x) is constructed in which two distinct such points are joined by an edge if the l(infinity )-distance between them is at most some prescribed value 0 graph are described. Almost-sure asymptotic rates of convergence/divergence are obtained for various quantities, including the maximum and minimum vertex degree of the random graph, its clique number, chromatic number, and independence number, as the number n of points becomes large and the edge distance x is allowed to vary with n. The connectivity distance cn, the smallest x such that Gn(x) is connected, and the largest nearest neighbor link dn, the smallest x such that Gn(x) has no vertices of degree zero, are asymptotic in ratio, as n becomes large, for d >= 2.

  18. 1D dynamic beam modulation: methods to counteract inertia effects

    Dynamic modulation can be affected by inaccuracies when the required acceleration is larger than the highest allowed by the mechanical characteristics of the whole apparatus. In this study, inertia effects have been investigated with regard to the single absorber 1D modulation, analysing primarily how the acceleration performed by the modulating system affects the realization of 'single absorber' fluence profiles and the type of correction which could be devised. The observed percentage deviations from desired modulation at the lowest fluence coordinate of single minimum fluence profiles, when no correction is applied, were almost negligible for 'easy' modulations of the incident fluence (i.e. slow gradients); deviations became increasingly relevant as the moving absorber executed steeper gradients (a 17.6% higher dose being delivered in the minimum position when a 0.2 modulation is required). By applying the proposed corrections, the single absorber performances were improved to a satisfactory level, with a maximum deviation from desired modulation in the minima within 1.6%. (author)

  19. Benchmarking of a 1D scrape-off layer code SOLF1D with SOLPS and its use in modelling long-legged divertors

    Havlickova, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Subba, F.; Coster, D; Wischmeier, M; Fishpool, G.

    2013-01-01

    A 1D code modelling SOL transport parallel to the magnetic field (SOLF1D) is benchmarked with 2D simulations of MAST-U SOL performed via the SOLPS code for two different collisionalities. Based on this comparison, SOLF1D is then used to model the effects of divertor leg stretching in 1D, in support of the planned Super-X divertor on MAST. The aim is to separate magnetic flux expansion from volumetric power losses due to recycling neutrals by stretching the divertor leg either vertically or ra...

  20. Benchmarking of a 1D Scrape-off layer code SOLF1D with SOLPS and its use in modelling long-legged divertors

    Havlickova, E; Subba, F; Coster, D; Wischmeier, M; Fishpool, G

    2013-01-01

    A 1D code modelling SOL transport parallel to the magnetic field (SOLF1D) is benchmarked with 2D simulations of MAST-U SOL performed via the SOLPS code for two different collisionalities. Based on this comparison, SOLF1D is then used to model the effects of divertor leg stretching in 1D, in support of the planned Super-X divertor on MAST. The aim is to separate magnetic flux expansion from volumetric power losses due to recycling neutrals by stretching the divertor leg either vertically or radially.

  1. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO nanocomposites for photocatalysis and gas sensor applications

    PRITAM PATIL; GANESH GAIKWAD; D R PATIL; JITENDRA NAIK

    2016-06-01

    1-D ZnO nanorods and PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by the surfactant-assisted precipitation and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The synthesized nanorods and nanocomposites were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), which gave the evidence of 1-D ZnO nanorods, polymerization of pyrrole monomer and strong interaction between PPy and 1-D ZnO nanorods, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of 1-D ZnO nanorods was conducted by $3^3$ level full-factorial design to evaluate the effect of three independent process variables viz., dye concentration (crystal violet), catalyst concentration (1-D ZnO nanorods) and the reaction time on the preferred response: photodegradation efficiency (%). The PPy/1-D ZnO nanocompositeswere used for the sensing of NH$_3$, LPG, CO$_2$ and H$_2$S gases, respectively, at room temperature. It was observed that PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites with different 1-D ZnO nanorod weight ratios (15 and 25%) had better selectivity and sensitivity towards NH3 at room temperature.

  2. DISCOLORATION OF THE WETTED SURFACE IN THE 6.1D DISSOLVER

    Rudisill, T.; Mickalonis, J.; Crapse, K.

    2013-12-18

    During a camera inspection of a failed coil in the 6.1D dissolver, an orange discoloration was observed on a portion of the dissolver wall and coils. At the request of H-Canyon Engineering, the inspection video of the dissolver was reviewed by SRNL to assess if the observed condition (a non-uniform, orange-colored substance on internal surfaces) was a result of corrosion. Although the dissolver vessel and coil corrode during dissolution operations, the high acid conditions are not consistent with the formation of ferrous oxides (i.e., orange/rust-colored corrosion products). In a subsequent investigation, SRNL performed dissolution experiments to determine if residues from the nylon bags used for Pu containment could have generated the orange discoloration following dissolution. When small pieces of a nylon bag were placed in boiling 8 M nitric acid solutions containing other components representative of the H-Canyon process, complete dissolution occurred almost immediately. No residues were obtained even when a nylon mass to volume ratio greater than 100 times the 6.1D dissolver value was used. Degradation products from the dissolution of nylon bags are not responsible for the discoloration observed in the dissolver.

  3. Automatic spikes detection in seismogram

    王海军; 靳平; 刘贵忠

    2003-01-01

    @@ Data processing for seismic network is very complex and fussy, because a lot of data is recorded in seismic network every day, which make it impossible to process these data all by manual work. Therefore, seismic data should be processed automatically to produce a initial results about events detection and location. Afterwards, these results are reviewed and modified by analyst. In automatic processing data quality checking is important. There are three main problem data thatexist in real seismic records, which include: spike, repeated data and dropouts. Spike is defined as isolated large amplitude point; the other two problem datahave the same features that amplitude of sample points are uniform in a interval. In data quality checking, the first step is to detect and statistic problem data in a data segment, if percent of problem data exceed a threshold, then the whole data segment is masked and not be processed in the later process.

  4. A new general 1-D vadose zone flow solution method

    Ogden, Fred L.; Lai, Wencong; Steinke, Robert C.; Zhu, Jianting; Talbot, Cary A.; Wilson, John L.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed an alternative to the one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE) attributed to Richards (1931) that describes unsaturated porous media flow in homogeneous soil layers. Our solution is a set of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs) derived from unsaturated flux and mass conservation principles. We used a hodograph transformation, the Method of Lines, and a finite water-content discretization to produce ODEs that accurately simulate infiltration, falling slugs, and groundwater table dynamic effects on vadose zone fluxes. This formulation, which we refer to as "finite water-content", simulates sharp fronts and is guaranteed to conserve mass using a finite-volume solution. Our ODE solution method is explicitly integrable, does not require iterations and therefore has no convergence limits and is computationally efficient. The method accepts boundary fluxes including arbitrary precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The method can simulate heterogeneous soils using layers. Results are presented in terms of fluxes and water content profiles. Comparing our method against analytical solutions, laboratory data, and the Hydrus-1D solver, we find that predictive performance of our finite water-content ODE method is comparable to or in some cases exceeds that of the solution of Richards' equation, with or without a shallow water table. The presented ODE method is transformative in that it offers accuracy comparable to the Richards (1931) PDE numerical solution, without the numerical complexity, in a form that is robust, continuous, and suitable for use in large watershed and land-atmosphere simulation models, including regional-scale models of coupled climate and hydrology.

  5. Evidence against dopamine D1/D2 receptor heteromers

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Yano, Hideaki; Trifilieff, Pierre; Vishwasrao, Harshad D.; Biezonski, Dominik; Mészáros, József; Sibley, David R.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Sonntag, Kai C.; Graham, Devon L.; Colbran, Roger J.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Hetero-oligomers of G-protein-coupled receptors have become the subject of intense investigation because their purported potential to manifest signaling and pharmacological properties that differ from the component receptors makes them highly attractive for the development of more selective pharmacological treatments. In particular, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have been proposed to form hetero-oligomers that couple to Gαq proteins, and SKF83959 has been proposed to act as a biased agonist that selectively engages these receptor complexes to activate Gαq and thus phospholipase C. D1/D2 heteromers have been proposed as relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and schizophrenia. We used in vitro bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), ex vivo analyses of receptor localization and proximity in brain slices, and behavioral assays in mice to characterize signaling from these putative dimers/oligomers. We were unable to detect Gαq or Gα11 protein coupling to homomers or heteromers of D1 or D2 receptors using a variety of biosensors. SKF83959-induced locomotor and grooming behaviors were eliminated in D1 receptor knockout mice, verifying a key role for D1-like receptor activation. In contrast, SKF83959-induced motor responses were intact in D2 receptor and Gαq knockout mice, as well as in knock-in mice expressing a mutant Ala286-CaMKIIα, that cannot autophosphorylate to become active. Moreover, we found that in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, even in neurons in which D1 and D2 receptor promoters are both active, the receptor proteins are segregated and do not form complexes. These data are not compatible with SKF83959 signaling through Gαq or through a D1–D2 heteromer and challenge the existence of such a signaling complex in the adult animals that we used for our studies. PMID:25560761

  6. Study of phase space structures in driven 1D Vlasov poisson model

    Electrostatic waves in a collisionless, unmagnetized plasma are known to interact with particles that stream with velocities close to the wave phase speed to produce damping effects, particle trapping and interesting nonlinear coherent structures. For example, it is well known that if the initial amplitude of the wave is large enough, the damping effects can be overcome to form BGK structures. In the present work, we consider a 1D driven Vlasov-Poisson plasma model. It is demonstrated that by a careful choice of drive phase and for drive amplitudes smaller than or comparable to the linear limit, it is possible to generate surprisingly large amplitude coherent structures in phase space. This and other details will be presented. (author)

  7. System for Digital 1D-Image Processing with 1024 Pixel CCD Sensor

    J. Misun

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The conception of system for digital 1D-images processing with digital CCD camera is presented. The system is created from these three basic parts: the digital CCD camera with linear image sensor CCD L133C, 8-bit interface and a personal computer. The scanning digital CCD camera generated a video signals, which are processed in the analog signal processor. The output signal is continually converted to 8-bit data words in A/D converter. This data words maybe transfer over a bus driver to the operation memory of personal computer, by setting one of the three work regimes of digital CCD camera. Some application possibilities and basic technical parameters of this system are given.

  8. PPM1D exerts its oncogenic properties in human pancreatic cancer through multiple mechanisms.

    Wu, Bo; Guo, Bo-Min; Kang, Jie; Deng, Xian-Zhao; Fan, You-Ben; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Ai, Kai-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Protein phosphatase, Mg(2+)/Mn(2+) dependent, 1D (PPM1D) is emerging as an oncogene by virtue of its negative control on several tumor suppressor pathways. However, the clinical significance of PPM1D in pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been defined. In this study, we determined PPM1D expression in human PC tissues and cell lines and their irrespective noncancerous controls. We subsequently investigated the functional role of PPM1D in the migration, invasion, and apoptosis of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 PC cells in vitro and explored the signaling pathways involved. Furthermore, we examined the role of PPM1D in PC tumorigenesis in vivo. Our results showed that PPM1D is overexpressed in human PC tissues and cell lines and significantly correlated with tumor growth and metastasis. PPM1D promotes PC cell migration and invasion via potentiation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through downregulation of apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (ASPP2). In contrast to PPM1D, our results showed that ASPP2 is downregulated in PC tissues. Additionally, PPM1D suppresses PC cell apoptosis via inhibition of the p38 MAPK/p53 pathway through both dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downregulation of ASPP2. Furthermore, PPM1D promotes PC tumor growth in vivo. Our results demonstrated that PPM1D is an oncogene in PC. PMID:26714478

  9. Acute exercise and physiological insulin induce distinct phosphorylation signatures on TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Pehmøller, Christian; Kristensen, Jonas Møller;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the phosphorylation signatures of two Rab GTPase activating proteins TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise and physiological insulin levels induced by a carbohydrate rich meal using a paired experimental design. Eight healthy male volunteers...... TBC1D4 in response to physiological stimuli in human skeletal muscle and support the idea that Akt and AMPK are upstream kinases. TBC1D1 phosphorylation signatures were comparable between in vitro contracted mouse skeletal muscle and exercised human muscle, and we show that AMPK was regulating...... phosphorylation of these sites in mouse muscle. Contraction and exercise elicited a different phosphorylation pattern of TBC1D4 in mouse compared with human muscle, and although different circumstances in our experimental setup may contribute to this difference, the observation exemplifies that transferring...

  10. TBC1D1 Regulates Insulin- and Contraction-Induced Glucose Transport in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    Toyoda, Taro; Yu, Haiyan; Fujii, Nobuharu; Hirshman, Michael F.; An, Ding Jeff; Goodyear, Laurie Joy; Taylor, Eric B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: TBC1D1 is a member of the TBC1 Rab-GTPase family of proteins and is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Insulin and contraction increase TBC1D1 phosphorylation on phospho-Akt substrate motifs (PASs), but the function of TBC1D1 in muscle is not known. Genetic linkage analyses show a TBC1D1 R125W missense variant confers risk for severe obesity in humans. The objective of this study was to determine whether TBC1D1 regulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND M...

  11. Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.

    Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R

    2016-03-01

    Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777

  12. Structural and population-based evaluations of TBC1D1 p.Arg125Trp.

    Tom G Richardson

    Full Text Available Obesity is now a leading cause of preventable death in the industrialised world. Understanding its genetic influences can enhance insight into molecular pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. A non-synonymous polymorphism (rs35859249, p.Arg125Trp in the N-terminal TBC1D1 phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB domain has shown a replicated association with familial obesity in women. We investigated these findings in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a large European birth cohort of mothers and offspring, and by generating a predicted model of the structure of this domain. Structural prediction involved the use of three separate algorithms; Robetta, HHpred/MODELLER and I-TASSER. We used the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT to investigate familial association in the ALSPAC study cohort (N = 2,292 mother-offspring pairs. Linear regression models were used to examine the association of genotype with mean measurements of adiposity (Body Mass Index (BMI, waist circumference and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA assessed fat mass, and logistic regression was used to examine the association with odds of obesity. Modelling showed that the R125W mutation occurs in a location of the TBC1D1 PTB domain that is predicted to have a function in a putative protein:protein interaction. We did not detect an association between R125W and BMI (mean per allele difference 0.27 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.00, 0.53 P = 0.05 or obesity (odds ratio 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.77, 1.31, P = 0.96 in offspring after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that there was familial association between R125W and obesity (χ(2 = 0.06, P = 0.80. Our analysis suggests that R125W in TBC1D1 plays a role in the binding of an effector protein, but we find no evidence that the R125W variant is related to mean BMI or odds of obesity in a general population sample.

  13. Comments on the Bifurcation Structure of 1D Maps

    Belykh, V.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a complementary view on some of the phenomena related to the bifurcation structure of unimodal maps. An approximate renormalization theory for the period-doubling cascade is developed, and a mapping procedure is established that accounts directly for the box-within-a-box struct......The paper presents a complementary view on some of the phenomena related to the bifurcation structure of unimodal maps. An approximate renormalization theory for the period-doubling cascade is developed, and a mapping procedure is established that accounts directly for the box......-within-a-box structure of the total bifurcation set. This presents a picture in which the homoclinic orbit bifurcations act as a skeleton for the bifurcational set. At the same time, experimental results on continued subharmonic generation for piezoelectrically amplified sound waves, predating the Feigenbaum theory, are...

  14. 关于图的L(d1,d2)-标号问题%The L(d1, d2)-Labeling Problem on Graphs

    邵振东; 刘家壮

    2006-01-01

    The L(2, 1)-labeling is formulated from the frequency assignment problem. We study the L(d1, d2)- labeling which is a generalization of the L(2, 1)-labeling. Vertex 2-coloring, 2-chromatic number and other related concepts are firstly defined, and the upper bound for 2-chromatic number is given; a very general relationship between λd1 ,d2 (G) and minimum degree δ(G) and maximum degree △(G) is then derived; finally, the upper bounds of L(d1, d2)-labelings of general and planar graphs are given.%图的L(2,1)-标号问题是由频率分配问题归结而来,本文研究作为L(2,1)-标号问题的推广的L(d1,d2)-标号问题.首先定义了顶点2-着色,2-色数及其它有关概念,给出了2-色数的上界.然后得出了λd1,d2(G)与δ(G)和△(G)的一般关系.最后得出了一般图与平面图的λd1,d2(G)的上界.

  15. Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide high energy and power density energy storage for diverse applications ranging from cell phones to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For efficient and reliable systems integration, low order dynamic battery models are needed. This paper introduces a general method to generate numerically a fully observable/controllable state variable model from electrochemical kinetic, species and charge partial differential equations that govern the discharge/charge behavior of a Li-ion battery. Validated against a 313th order nonlinear CFD model of a 6 Ah HEV cell, a 12th order state variable model predicts terminal voltage to within 1% for pulse and constant current profiles at rates up to 50 C. The state equation is constructed in modal form with constant negative real eigenvalues distributed in frequency space from 0 to 10 Hz. Open circuit potential, electrode surface concentration/reaction distribution coupling and electrolyte concentration/ionic conductivity nonlinearities are explicitly approximated in the model output equation on a local, electrode-averaged and distributed basis, respectively. The balanced realization controllability/observability gramian indicates that the fast electrode surface concentration dynamics are more observable/controllable than the electrode bulk concentration dynamics (i.e. state of charge)

  16. Exercise increases TBC1D1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle

    Jessen, Niels; An, Ding; Lihn, Aina S.; Nygren, Jonas; Hirshman, Michael F.; Thorell, Anders; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise and weight loss are cornerstones in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes, and both interventions function to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Studies in rodents demonstrate that the underlying mechanism for glucose uptake in muscle involves site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 (TBC1D4) and TBC1D1. Multiple kinases, including Akt and AMPK, phosphorylate TBC1D1 and AS160 on distinct residues, regulatin...

  17. 1D engine simulation of a turbocharged SI engine with CFD computation on components

    Renberg, Ulrica

    2008-01-01

    Techniques that can increase the SI- engine efficiency while keeping the emissions very low is to reduce the engine displacement volume combined with a charging system. Advanced systems are needed for an effective boosting of the engine and today 1D engine simulation tools are often used for their optimization. This thesis concerns 1D engine simulation of a turbocharged SI engine and the introduction of CFD computations on components as a way to assess inaccuracies in the 1D model. 1D engine ...

  18. Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 1. Uptake by organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    Faltermann, Susanne; Prétôt, René; Pernthaler, Jakob; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nodularin are hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial species. Their toxicity is based on active cellular uptake and subsequent inhibition of protein phosphatases PP1/2A, leading to hyperphosphorylation and cell death. To date, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin in fish is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 in zebrafish (drOatp1d1, Slco1d1) in cellular uptake in zebrafish. We stably transfected CHO and HEK293 cell lines expressing drOatp1d1. In both transfectants, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin was demonstrated by competitive inhibition of uptake with fluorescent substrate lucifer yellow. Direct uptake of MC-LR was demonstrated by immunostaining, and indirectly by the high cytotoxicity in stable transfectants. By means of a synthesized fluorescent labeled MC-LR derivative, direct uptake was further confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing drOatp1d1. Additionally, uptake and toxicity was investigated in the permanent zebrafish liver cell line ZFL. These cells had only a low relative abundance of drOatp1d1, drOatp2b1 and drOatp1f transcripts, which correlated with the lack of MC-LR induced cytotoxicity and transcriptional changes of genes indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, a known effect of this toxin. Our study demonstrates that drOatp1d1 functions as an uptake transporter for both MC-LR and nodularin in zebrafish. PMID:26769064

  19. Significance of flow clustering and sequencing on sediment transport: 1D sediment transport modelling

    Hassan, Kazi; Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers 1D hydraulic model data on the effect of high flow clusters and sequencing on sediment transport. Using observed flow gauge data from the River Caldew, England, a novel stochastic modelling approach was developed in order to create alternative 50 year flow sequences. Whilst the observed probability density of gauge data was preserved in all sequences, the order in which those flows occurred was varied using the output from a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with generalised Pareto distribution (GP). In total, one hundred 50 year synthetic flow series were generated and used as the inflow boundary conditions for individual flow series model runs using the 1D sediment transport model HEC-RAS. The model routed graded sediment through the case study river reach to define the long-term morphological changes. Comparison of individual simulations provided a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of channel capacity to flow sequence. Specifically, each 50 year synthetic flow sequence was analysed using a 3-month, 6-month or 12-month rolling window approach and classified for clusters in peak discharge. As a cluster is described as a temporal grouping of flow events above a specified threshold, the threshold condition used herein is considered as a morphologically active channel forming discharge event. Thus, clusters were identified for peak discharges in excess of 10%, 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of the 1 year Return Period (RP) event. The window of above-peak flows also required cluster definition and was tested for timeframes 1, 2, 10 and 30 days. Subsequently, clusters could be described in terms of the number of events, maximum peak flow discharge, cumulative flow discharge and skewness (i.e. a description of the flow sequence). The model output for each cluster was analysed for the cumulative flow volume and cumulative sediment transport (mass). This was then compared to the total sediment transport of a single flow event of equivalent flow volume

  20. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism

    Hasbi, Ahmed; Perreault, Melissa L.; Shen, Maurice Y. F.; Zhang, Lucia; To, Ryan; Fan, Theresa; Nguyen, Tuan; Ji, Xiaodong; O'Dowd, Brian F.; George, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Although the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer has emerging physiological relevance and a postulated role in different neuropsychiatric disorders, such as drug addiction, depression, and schizophrenia, there is a need for pharmacological tools that selectively target such receptor complexes in order to analyze their biological and pathophysiological functions. Since no selective antagonists for the D1-D2 heteromer are available, serial deletions and point mutations were used to precisely identify the amino acids involved in an interaction interface between the receptors, residing within the carboxyl tail of the D1 receptor that interacted with the D2 receptor to form the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. It was determined that D1 receptor carboxyl tail residues 404Glu and 405Glu were critical in mediating the interaction with the D2 receptor. Isolated mutation of these residues in the D1 receptor resulted in the loss of agonist activation of the calcium signaling pathway mediated through the D1-D2 receptor heteromer. The physical interaction between the D1 and D2 receptor could be disrupted, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and BRET analysis, by a small peptide generated from the D1 receptor sequence that contained these amino acids, leading to a switch in G-protein affinities and loss of calcium signaling, resulting in the inhibition of D1-D2 heteromer function. The use of the D1-D2 heteromer-disrupting peptide in vivo revealed a pathophysiological role for the D1-D2 heteromer in the modulation of behavioral despair. This peptide may represent a novel pharmacological tool with potential therapeutic benefits in depression treatment.—Hasbi, A., Perreault, M. L., Shen, M. Y. F., Zhang, L., To, R., Fan, T., Nguyen, T., Ji, X., O'Dowd, B. F., George, S. R. A peptide targeting an interaction interface disrupts the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer to block signaling and function in vitro and in vivo: effective selective antagonism. PMID:25063849

  1. Comparing the Transition from Diffusive to Ballistic Heat Transport for 1D and 2D Nanoscale Interfaces

    Hernandez-Charpak, J.; Hoogeboom-Pot, K.; Anderson, E.; Murnane, M.; Kapteyn, H.; Nardi, D.

    2014-03-01

    How is thermal transport affected by spatial confinement in nanoscale systems? In past work we and others demonstrated that the Fourier Law of heat diffusion fails for length scales smaller than the mean free path of the energy carriers in a material. Here we probe how the transition from macroscopic diffusive behavior of phonons through the quasi-ballistic regime is different for 1D and 2D nano-confined hot spots. We study a series of periodic nickel lines (1D) and dots (2D) with linewidths varying from 750 to 30 nm deposited on both sapphire and silicon substrates. The thermal relaxation of these femtosecond-laser-excited nanostructures is monitored by the diffraction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light obtained from tabletop high harmonic generation. The short wavelength of EUV light, combined with the coherence and ultrashort pulses of high harmonic sources, provides a unique and powerful probe for nanostructured materials on their intrinsic length and time scales. The relaxation dynamics are linked to an effective thermal boundary resistivity with the assistance of multi-physics finite element analysis to quantify the stronger deviation from macroscopic diffusive behavior as a function of nanostructure linewidth in 2D hot spots compared to 1D. This work was supported by SRC Contract 2012-OJ-2304, by NSF Award No.: DGE 1144083, and used facilities provided by the NSF Engineering Research Center in EUV Science and Technology.

  2. Fabrication of GaN/AlGaN 1D photonic crystals designed for nonlinear optical applications

    Stomeo, T; Tasco, V; Tarantini, I; Campa, A; De Vittorio, M; Passaseo, A; Braccini, M; Larciprete, M C; Sibilia, C; Bovino, F A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a reliable process to fabricate GaN/AlGaN one dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PhC) microcavities with nonlinear optical properties. We used a heterostructure with a GaN layer embedded between two Distributed Bragg Reflectors consisting of AlGaN/GaN multilayers, on sapphire substrate, designed to generate a {\\lambda}= 800 nm frequency down-converted signal (\\chi^(2) effect) from an incident pump signal at {\\lambda}= 400 nm. The heterostructure was epitaxially grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and integrates a properly designed 1D-PhC grating, which amplifies the signal by exploiting the double effect of cavity resonance and non linear GaN enhancement. The integrated 1D-PhC microcavity was fabricate combing a high resolution e-beam writing with a deep etching technique. For the pattern transfer we used ~ 170 nm layer Cr metal etch mask obtained by means of high quality lift-off technique based on the use of bi-layer resist (PMMA/MMA). At the same time, plasma co...

  3. A Novel 1D Hybrid Chaotic Map-Based Image Compression and Encryption Using Compressed Sensing and Fibonacci-Lucas Transform

    Tongfeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional (1D hybrid chaotic system is constructed by three different 1D chaotic maps in parallel-then-cascade fashion. The proposed chaotic map has larger key space and exhibits better uniform distribution property in some parametric range compared with existing 1D chaotic map. Meanwhile, with the combination of compressive sensing (CS and Fibonacci-Lucas transform (FLT, a novel image compression and encryption scheme is proposed with the advantages of the 1D hybrid chaotic map. The whole encryption procedure includes compression by compressed sensing (CS, scrambling with FLT, and diffusion after linear scaling. Bernoulli measurement matrix in CS is generated by the proposed 1D hybrid chaotic map due to its excellent uniform distribution. To enhance the security and complexity, transform kernel of FLT varies in each permutation round according to the generated chaotic sequences. Further, the key streams used in the diffusion process depend on the chaotic map as well as plain image, which could resist chosen plaintext attack (CPA. Experimental results and security analyses demonstrate the validity of our scheme in terms of high security and robustness against noise attack and cropping attack.

  4. Mapping of the serotonin 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} autoreceptor gene (HTR1D) on chromosome 1 using a silent polymorphism in the coding region

    Ozaki, N.; Lappalainen, J.; Linnoila, M. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    Serotonin (5-HT){sub ID} receptors are 5-HT release-regulating autoreceptors in the human brain. Abnormalities in brain 5-HT function have been hypothesized in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, mood disorders, eating disorders, impulsive violent behavior, and alcoholism. Thus, mutations occurring in 5-HT autoreceptors may cause or increase the vulnerability to any of these conditions. 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} and 5-HT{sub 1D{Beta}} subtypes have been previously localized to chromosomes 1p36.3-p34.3 and 6q13, respectively, using rodent-human hybrids and in situ localization. In this communication, we report the detection of a 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} receptor gene polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding sequence. The polymorphism was used for fine scale linkage mapping of 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} on chromosome 1. This polymorphism should also be useful for linkage studies in populations and in families. Our analysis also demonstrates that functionally significant coding sequence variants of the 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} are probably not abundant either among alcoholics or in the general population. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Lifetime measurements of the 3d94s(1D)4p configuration of Cu. Pt. 1

    The radiative lifetimes of the levels in the 3d94s(1D)4p configuration of Cu I are measured. The levels are excited from the metastable 3d94s22D3/2,5/2 levels. The metastable Cu atoms are generated in a pulsed hollow cathode discharge. The levels investigated are populated with a 35-ps laser pulse at wavelengths around 220 nm. The laser induced fluorescence signal is detected. The lifetime of the 3d94s(3D)4p 4D1/2 level is also determined by direct excitation from the ground state. A comparison with calculated literature values is given. (orig.)

  6. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  7. Identification of RAPD Marker for Chromosome 1D of Common Wheat

    Imtiaz Ahmad Khan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of genetically compensating nullisomic-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines of commonwheat (Triticum aestivum L. have been widely used to construct high density genetic maps of homoeologouswheat chromosomes. During present research, easier, cheaper and quicker procedure of Polymerase ChainReaction (PCR was used to map Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA primers on chromosome 1D ofcommon wheat. Genomic DNA was isolated from two genetic stocks of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring viz;NT-1D1B and NT-2A2B. PCR were conducted using RAPD primers GLC-07 and GLC-11. RAPD primerGLC-11 amplified a polymorphic allele of approximately 500 bp, which was present in NT-2A2B (used aspositive control but was absent in NT-1D1B indicating that the locus is present on chromosome 1D of commonwheat. Hence this marker (GLC-11 can reliably be used to keep track of chromosome 1D of hexaploid wheat.

  8. Testing the Early Mars H2-CO2 Greenhouse Hypothesis with a 1-D Photochemical Model

    Batalha, Natasha; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James

    2015-01-01

    A recent study by Ramirez et al. (2014) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ~1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere...

  9. Experimental method for laser-driven flyer plates for 1-D shocks

    One-dimensional shocks can be generated by impacting flyer plates accelerated to terminal velocities by a confined laser-ablated plasma. Over the past few years, we have developed this capability with our facility-size laser, TRIDENT, capable of ≥500 Joules at multi-microsecond pulse lengths to accelerate 1-D flyer plates, 8-mm diameter by 0.1-2 mm thick. Plates have been accelerated to terminal velocities of 100 to ≥500 m/s, with full recovery of the flyer and target for post mortem metallography. By properly tailoring the laser temporal and spatial profile, the expanding confined plasma accelerates the plate away from the transparent sapphire substrate, and decouples the laser parameters from shock pressure profile resulting from the plate impact on a target. Since the flyer plate is in free flight on impact with the target, minimal collateral damage occurs to either. The experimental method to launch these plates to terminal velocity, ancillary diagnostics, and representative experimental data is presented

  10. Relativistic energy levels and oscillator strengths for the ns(n-1)d 1D-ns21S transitions of the alkaline earth atoms

    A fully relativistic Dirac-Fock method with Breit and QED corrections has been employed to study energy levels and oscillator strengths for the ns(n-1)d 1D-ns21S transitions of the alkaline earth atoms. In calculation, the authors consider significant Breit and QED corrections, the results are in good agreements with recent experimental data and other theoretical values. The results show that it is feasible to obtain the highly Rybderg states of the alkaline earth atoms, especially the autoionization states, by use of quadrupole transitions as an intermediate resonance

  11. Dynamic 1D beam modulation by a single absorber: theoretical analysis for optimizing apparatus' performances

    In certain situations, the use of non-uniform radiation beams is necessary to taylor the dose distribution around the target volume in 3D; traditional devices such as wedges or personalized filters give poor modulation or are time and material consuming. Many different techniques to generate dynamically intensity-modulated beams have been developed but they need complex and expensive electronic-mechanical devices. A new simplified technique for 1D-beam modulation using one absorber which is driven in the irradiation field by computer has recently been developed [Phys.Med.Biol. 40:221-240, 1995]. The original proposed algorithm approximates the wished beam by segments using an optimized 'stepped' absorber's speed profile. The 'stepping' approximation has some strong limitations above all in creating non-uniform fluence profiles with deep gradients and/or plurima maxima/minima. To fully investigate the possibilities and the limits of our technique, new algorithms have been developed; these new analytical and convolutive approaches derive the absorber's speed profile starting from the wished fluence profile in a more general way so that the conformal capabilities of the single absorber technique are enlarged. The methods are tested in reproducing theoretical but clinically relevant non uniform beams: monotonically decreasing profiles ('dynamic wedging'), beams with single maximum/minimum ('tissue-deficit compensation') and complex fluence profiles which require a 'strong' modulation and present plurima maxima/minima ('target surrounded by two organs at risk'); the agreement between wished and achievable profiles is quite good. Results show the large possibilities of the dynamic single-absorber technique to generate many clinically important modulated beams, even in the field of conformal radiotherapy

  12. Comparison of 1D and 2D modelling with soil erosion model SMODERP

    Kavka, Petr; Weyskrabova, Lenka; Zajicek, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The contribution presents a comparison of a runoff simulated by profile method (1D) and spatially distributed method (2D). Simulation model SMODERP is used for calculation and prediction of soil erosion and surface runoff from agricultural land. SMODERP is physically based model that includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. 1D model was developed in past, new 2D model was developed in last two years. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D model was developed as a tool for widespread GIS software ArcGIS. The physical relations were implemented through Python script. This script uses ArcGIS system tools for raster and vectors treatment of the inputs. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm in the preliminary version of 2D model. More advanced multiple flow algorithm is planned in the next version. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Surface runoff is described in the model by kinematic wave equation. Equation uses Manning roughness coefficient for surface runoff. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of forty measurements performed on the laboratory rainfall simulator. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Numerical stability of the model is solved by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamically changed depending on how flow is generated and developed. SMODERP is meant to be used not only for the research purposes, but mainly for the engineering practice. We also present how the input data can be obtained based on available resources (soil maps and data, land use, terrain models, field research, etc.) and how can

  13. Technical Note: Sensitivity of 1-D smoke plume rise models to the inclusion of environmental wind drag

    S. R. Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation fires emit hot gases and particles which are rapidly transported upward by the positive buoyancy generated by the combustion process. In general, the final vertical height that the smoke plumes reach is controlled by the thermodynamic stability of the atmospheric environment and the surface heat flux released by the fire. However, the presence of a strong horizontal wind can enhance the lateral entrainment and induce additional drag, particularly for small fires, impacting the smoke injection height. In this paper, we revisit the parameterization of the vertical transport of hot gases and particles emitted from vegetation fires, described in Freitas et al. (2007, to include the effects of environmental wind on transport and dilution of the smoke plume at its scale. This process is quantitatively represented by introducing an additional entrainment term to account for organized inflow of a mass of cooler and drier ambient air into the plume and its drag by momentum transfer. An extended set of equations including the horizontal motion of the plume and the additional increase of the plume radius is solved to simulate the time evolution of the plume rise and the smoke injection height. One-dimensional (1-D model results are presented for two deforestation fires in the Amazon basin with sizes of 10 and 50 ha under calm and windy atmospheric environments. The results are compared to corresponding simulations generated by the complex non-hydrostatic three-dimensional (3-D Active Tracer High resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM. We show that the 1-D model results compare well with the full 3-D simulations. The 1-D model may thus be used in field situations where extensive computing facilities are not available, especially under conditions for which several optional cases must be studied.

  14. Light-directing chiral liquid crystal nanostructures: from 1D to 3D.

    Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Li, Quan

    2014-10-21

    Endowing external, remote, and dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is a principal driving force in the bottom-up nanofabrication of molecular devices. Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystal (LC) media capable of self-organizing into optically tunable one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) superstructures represent such an elegant system. As a consequence, photoresponsive cholesteric LCs (CLCs), i.e., self-organized 1D helical superstructures, and LC blue phases (BPs), i.e., self-organized 3D periodic cubic lattices, are emerging as a new generation of multifunctional supramolecular 1D and 3D photonic materials in their own right because of their fundamental academic interest and technological significance. These smart stimuli-responsive materials can be facilely fabricated from achiral LC hosts by the addition of a small amount of a light-driven chiral molecular switch or motor. The photoresponsiveness of these materials is a result of both molecular interaction and geometry changes in the chiral molecular switch upon light irradiation. The doped photoresponsive CLCs undergo light-driven pitch modulation and/or helix inversion, which has many applications in color filters, polarizers, all-optical displays, optical lasers, sensors, energy-saving smart devices, and so on. Recently, we have conceptualized and rationally synthesized different light-driven chiral molecular switches that have very high helical twisting powers (HTPs) and exhibit large changes in HTP in different states, thereby enabling wide phototunability of the systems by the addition of very small amounts of the molecular switches into commercially available achiral LCs. The light-driven chiral molecular switches are based on well-recognized azobenzene, dithienylcyclopentene, and spirooxazine derivatives. We have demonstrated high-resolution and lightweight photoaddressable displays without patterned electronics on

  15. Use of optimized 1D TOCSY NMR for improved quantitation and metabolomic analysis of biofluids

    Sandusky, Peter [Eckerd College, Department of Chemistry (United States); Appiah-Amponsah, Emmanuel; Raftery, Daniel, E-mail: raftery@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    One dimensional selective TOCSY experiments have been shown to be advantageous in providing improved data inputs for principle component analysis (PCA) (Sandusky and Raftery 2005a, b). Better subpopulation cluster resolution in the observed scores plots results from the ability to isolate metabolite signals of interest via the TOCSY based filtering approach. This report reexamines the quantitative aspects of this approach, first by optimizing the 1D TOCSY experiment as it relates to the measurement of biofluid constituent concentrations, and second by comparing the integration of 1D TOCSY read peaks to the bucket integration of 1D proton NMR spectra in terms of precision and accuracy. This comparison indicates that, because of the extensive peak overlap that occurs in the 1D proton NMR spectra of biofluid samples, bucket integrals are often far less accurate as measures of individual constituent concentrations than 1D TOCSY read peaks. Even spectral fitting approaches have proven difficult in the analysis of significantly overlapped spectral regions. Measurements of endogenous taurine made over a sample population of human urine demonstrates that, due to background signals from other constituents, bucket integrals of 1D proton spectra routinely overestimate the taurine concentrations and distort its variation over the sample population. As a result, PCA calculations performed using data matrices incorporating 1D TOCSY determined taurine concentrations produce better scores plot subpopulation cluster resolution.

  16. CD1d and invariant NKT cells at the human maternal–fetal interface

    Boyson, Jonathan E.; Rybalov, Basya; Koopman, Louise A.; Exley, Mark; Balk, Steven P.; Racke, Frederick K.; Schatz, Frederick; Masch, Rachel; Wilson, S. Brian; Strominger, Jack L.

    2002-01-01

    Invariant CD1d-restricted natural killer T (iNKT) cells comprise a small, but significant, immunoregulatory T cell subset. Here, the presence of these cells and their CD1d ligand at the human maternal–fetal interface was investigated. Immunohistochemical staining of human decidua revealed the expression of CD1d on both villous and extravillous trophoblasts, the fetal cells that invade the maternal decidua. Decidual iNKT cells comprised 0.48% of the decidual CD3+ T cell population, a frequency...

  17. Charge Transport in 1-D Nanostructured CdS Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Charge transport in eosin yellow sensitized CdS 1-D nanostructures is studied. Direct conduction pathway for electron transport in nanowires enhances Voc in CdS nanowires compared to nanorods and nanoparticles. J-V characterization of nanowires results in improved efficiency of 0.184% due to fewer interparticle connections. Increase in Jsc is observed by coating CdS 1-D nanostructures on TiO2 substrate which reduces rate of recombination and photocorrosive nature of CdS photoanodes. Enhancement in efficiency up to 0.501% is achieved for CdS 1-D nanostructures DSSCs on TiO2 substrate.

  18. Non-uniform black strings and the critical dimension in the $1/D$ expansion

    Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniform black strings (NUBS) are studied by the large $D$ effective theory approach. By solving the near-horizon geometry in the $1/D$ expansion, we obtain the effective equation for the deformed horizon up to the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in $1/D$. We also solve the far-zone geometry by the Newtonian approximation. Matching the near and far zones, the thermodynamic variables are computed in the $1/D$ expansion. As the result, the large $D$ analysis gives a critical dimension $...

  19. Development of a 1D neutron transport code employing the method of characteristics

    To investigate the 2D/1D fusion core analysis method, a 1D neutron transport problem solver, PEACH-ID, is developed. It is a code of method of characteristics (MOC), both the usual fiat-source step characteristics (SC) scheme and linear source (LS) approximation scheme are adopted for tracking calculation along the neutron flying trajectory. Exponential function interpolation table and fission source extrapolation are adopted as two major methods to accelerate the computational process. Numerical results demonstrate that PEACH-1D is accurate and efficient, and the proposed LS scheme is able to handle quite larger mesh division and deserves much more application in the MOC codes. (authors)

  20. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Samovski, Dmitri [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Su, Xiong [Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Liu, Jialiu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Sundaresan, Sinju [Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Stahl, Philip D., E-mail: pstahl@wustl.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Hominoid-specific oncogene TBC1D3 is targeted to plasma membrane by palmitoylation. •TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. •TBC1D3 palmitoylation governs growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. •Post-translational modifications may regulate oncogenic properties of TBC1D3. -- Abstract: Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis.

  1. Non-uniform black strings and the critical dimension in the $1/D$ expansion

    Suzuki, Ryotaku

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniform black strings (NUBS) are studied by the large $D$ effective theory approach. By solving the near-horizon geometry in the $1/D$ expansion, we obtain the effective equation for the deformed horizon up to the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in $1/D$. We also solve the far-zone geometry by the Newtonian approximation. Matching the near and far zones, the thermodynamic variables are computed in the $1/D$ expansion. As the result, the large $D$ analysis gives a critical dimension $D_*\\simeq13.5$ at which the translation-symmetry-breaking phase transition changes between first and second order. This value of $D_*$ agrees perfectly, within the precision of the $1/D$ expansion, with the result previously obtained by E. Sorkin through the numerical resolution. We also compare our NNLO results for the thermodynamics of NUBS to earlier numerical calculations, and find good agreement within the expected precision.

  2. Non-uniform black strings and the critical dimension in the 1/D expansion

    Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-10-01

    Non-uniform black strings (NUBS) are studied by the large D effective theory approach. By solving the near-horizon geometry in the 1 /D expansion, we obtain the effective equation for the deformed horizon up to the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in 1 /D. We also solve the far-zone geometry by the Newtonian approximation. Matching the near and far zones, the thermodynamic variables are computed in the 1 /D expansion. As the result, the large D analysis gives a critical dimension D * ≃ 13 .5 at which the translation-symmetry-breaking phase transition changes between first and second order. This value of D * agrees perfectly, within the precision of the 1 /D expansion, with the result previously obtained by E. Sorkin through the numerical resolution. We also compare our NNLO results for the thermodynamics of NUBS to earlier numerical calculations, and find good agreement within the expected precision.

  3. Modeling blood flow circulation in intracranial arterial networks: a comparative 3D/1D simulation study.

    Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E

    2011-01-01

    We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645

  4. Optimization of a cyclic peptide inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatase PPM1D (Wip1).

    Hayashi, Ryo; Tanoue, Kan; Durell, Stewart R; Chatterjee, Deb K; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Appella, Daniel H; Appella, Ettore

    2011-05-31

    PPM1D (PP2Cδ or Wip1) was identified as a wild-type p53-induced Ser/Thr phosphatase that accumulates after DNA damage and classified into the PP2C family. It dephosphorylates and inactivates several proteins critical for cellular stress responses, including p38 MAPK, p53, and ATM. Furthermore, PPM1D is amplified and/or overexpressed in a number of human cancers. Thus, inhibition of its activity could constitute an important new strategy for therapeutic intervention to halt the progression of several different cancers. Previously, we reported the development of a cyclic thioether peptide with low micromolar inhibitory activity toward PPM1D. Here, we describe important improvements in the inhibitory activity of this class of cyclic peptides and also present a binding model based upon the results. We found that specific interaction of an aromatic ring at the X1 position and negative charge at the X5 and X6 positions significantly increased the inhibitory activity of the cyclic peptide, with the optimized molecule having a K(i) of 110 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest inhibitory activity reported for an inhibitor of PPM1D. We further developed an inhibitor selective for PPM1D over PPM1A with a K(i) of 2.9 μM. Optimization of the cyclic peptide and mutagenesis experiments suggest that a highly basic loop unique to PPM1D is related to substrate specificity. We propose a new model for the catalytic site of PPM1D and inhibition by the cyclic peptides that will be useful both for the subsequent design of PPM1D inhibitors and for identification of new substrates. PMID:21528848

  5. Momentum Conservation Implies Anomalous Energy Transport in 1D Classical Lattices

    Under quite general conditions, we prove that for classical many-body lattice Hamiltonians in one dimension (1D) total momentum conservation implies anomalous conductivity in the sense of the divergence of the Kubo expression for the coefficient of thermal conductivity, κ . Our results provide rigorous confirmation and explanation of many of the existing ''surprising'' numerical studies of anomalous conductivity in 1D classical lattices, including the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  6. Momentum conservation implies anomalous energy transport in 1d classical lattices

    Prosen, T; Prosen, Tomaz; Campbell, David K.

    2000-01-01

    Under quite general conditions, we prove that for classical many-body lattice Hamiltonians in one dimension (1D) total momentum conservation implies anomalous conductivity in the sense of the divergence of the Kubo expression for the coefficient of thermal conductivity, $\\kappa$. Our results provide rigorous confirmation and explanation of many of the existing ``surprising'' numerical studies of anomalous conductivity in 1D classical lattices, including the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem.

  7. User's manual of the REFLA-1D/MODE4 reflood thermo-hydrodynamic analysis code

    REFLA-1D/MODE4 code has been developed by incorporating local power effect model and fuel temperature profile effect model into REFLA-1D/MODE3 code. This code can calculate the temperature transient of local rod by considering radial power profile effect in core and simulate the thermal characteristics of the nuclear fuel rod. This manual describes the outline of incorporated models, modification of the code with incorporating models and provides application information required to utilize the code. (author)

  8. 1D model for the dynamics and expansion of elongated Bose-Einstein condensates

    Massignan, Pietro; Modugno, Michele

    2002-01-01

    We present a 1D effective model for the evolution of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate in time dependent potentials whose radial component is harmonic. We apply this model to investigate the dynamics and expansion of condensates in 1D optical lattices, by comparing our predictions with recent experimental data and theoretical results. We also discuss negative-mass effects which could be probed during the expansion of a condensate moving in an optical lattice.

  9. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    Kayserili Karabey, Hülya; Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortes, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.; Scambler, Peter J.; Ueffing, Marius; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M.; Beales, Philip L.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Witman, George B.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. W...

  10. Protective mucosal immunity mediated by epithelial CD1d and IL-10.

    Olszak, Torsten; Neves, Joana F; Dowds, C Marie; Baker, Kristi; Glickman, Jonathan; Davidson, Nicholas O; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Jobin, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Sotlar, Karl; Wada, Koichiro; Katayama, Kazufumi; Nakajima, Atsushi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Kunito; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Müller, Werner; Snapper, Scott B; Schreiber, Stefan; Kaser, Arthur; Zeissig, Sebastian; Blumberg, Richard S

    2014-05-22

    The mechanisms by which mucosal homeostasis is maintained are of central importance to inflammatory bowel disease. Critical to these processes is the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC), which regulates immune responses at the interface between the commensal microbiota and the host. CD1d presents self and microbial lipid antigens to natural killer T (NKT) cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis in animal models and human inflammatory bowel disease. As CD1d crosslinking on model IECs results in the production of the important regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 (ref. 9), decreased epithelial CD1d expression--as observed in inflammatory bowel disease--may contribute substantially to intestinal inflammation. Here we show in mice that whereas bone-marrow-derived CD1d signals contribute to NKT-cell-mediated intestinal inflammation, engagement of epithelial CD1d elicits protective effects through the activation of STAT3 and STAT3-dependent transcription of IL-10, heat shock protein 110 (HSP110; also known as HSP105), and CD1d itself. All of these epithelial elements are critically involved in controlling CD1d-mediated intestinal inflammation. This is demonstrated by severe NKT-cell-mediated colitis upon IEC-specific deletion of IL-10, CD1d, and its critical regulator microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), as well as deletion of HSP110 in the radioresistant compartment. Our studies thus uncover a novel pathway of IEC-dependent regulation of mucosal homeostasis and highlight a critical role of IL-10 in the intestinal epithelium, with broad implications for diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24717441

  11. Protective mucosal immunity mediated by epithelial CD1d and IL-10

    Olszak, Torsten; Neves, Joana F.; Dowds, C. Marie; Baker, Kristi; Glickman, Jonathan; Davidson, Nicholas O; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Jobin, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Sotlar, Karl; Wada, Koichiro; Katayama, Kazufumi; Nakajima, Atsushi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Kunito

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which mucosal homeostasis is maintained are of central importance to inflammatory bowel disease. Critical to these processes is the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC), which regulates immune responses at the interface between the commensal microbiota and the host1,2. CD1d presents self and microbial lipid antigens to natural killer T (NKT) cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis in animal models and human inflammatory bowel disease3–8. As CD1d crosslinking on ...

  12. Simple model of the density of states in 1D photonic crystal

    Rudziński, Adam; Tyszka-Zawadzka, Anna; Szczepański, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple, yet versatile, analytical model of one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC). In our theoretical model, we take into account direction of propagation and therefore do not neglect anisotropic nature of photonic crystals. We derive analytical expressions for mode spectrum and density of states in 1D photonic crystal. With those formulas, we obtain mode spectrum characteristics, which depict formation of photonic band gap and reveal properties of photonic cryst...

  13. *609850 TBC1 DOMAIN FAMILY, MEMBER 1; TBC1D1 [OMIM

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 609850 FIELD TI 609850 TBC1 DOMAIN FAMILY, MEMBER 1; TBC1D1 ;;KIAA1108 FIELD TX DESCRIP ... o obesity, see BMIQ7 (608410). ANIMAL MODEL In the lean ... Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) strain of obesity-resistan ... .; Joost, H.-G.; Al-Hasani, H.: Tbc1d1 mutation in lean ... mouse strain confers lean ness and protects from di ...

  14. Dynamics of reactions O((1)D)+C(6)H(6) and C(6)D(6).

    Chen, Hui-Fen; Liang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Jim J; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Ogilvie, J F; Xu, Z F; Lin, M C

    2008-11-01

    The reaction between O((1)D) and C(6)H(6) (or C(6)D(6)) was investigated with crossed-molecular-beam reactive scattering and time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. From the crossed-molecular-beam experiments, four product channels were identified. The major channel is the formation of three fragments CO+C(5)H(5)+H; the channels for formation of C(5)H(6)+CO and C(6)H(5)O+H from O((1)D)+C(6)H(6) and OD+C(6)D(5) from O((1)D)+C(6)D(6) are minor. The angular distributions for the formation of CO and H indicate a mechanism involving a long-lived collision complex. Rotationally resolved infrared emission spectra of CO (1ratio of [CO]/[OH]=2.1+/-0.4 for O((1)D)+C(6)H(6) and [CO]/[OD]>2.9 for O((1)D)+C(6)D(6) is consistent with the expectation for an abstraction reaction. The mechanism of the reaction may be understood from considering the energetics of the intermediate species and transition states calculated at the G2M(CC5) level of theory for the O((1)D)+C(6)H(6) reaction. The experimentally observed branching ratios and deuterium isotope effect are consistent with those predicted from calculations. PMID:19045343

  15. HERMES Precision Results on g1p, g1d and g1n and the First Measurement of the Tensor Structure Function b1d

    Riedl, C; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Ammosov, V V; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Baturin, V; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V V; Capitani, G P; Chiang, H C; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G M; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Ely, J; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Felawka, L; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gärber, Y; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Garutti, E; Gaskell, D; Gavrilov, G E; Karibian, V; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Greeniaus, L G; Hafidi, K; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Königsmann, K C; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V A; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Lindemann, T; Lipka, K; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H O; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Nass, A; Negodaev, M A; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Oganessyan, K; Ohsuga, H; Orlandi, G; Pickert, N; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Rith, K; Airapetian, A; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Yu I; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shanidze, R G; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V B; Simani, M C; Sinram, K; Stancari, M D; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Tkabladze, A V; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Vetterli, Martin C; Vikhrov, V; Vincter, M G; Visser, J; Vogel, C; Vogt, M; Volmer, J; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Ybeles-Smit, G V; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zohrabyan, H G; Zupranski, P; Riedl, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    Final HERMES results on the proton, deuteron and neutron structure function g1 are presented in the kinematic range 0.00211d are presented.

  16. Stable Interacting $(2 + 1)d$ Conformal Field Theories at the Boundary of a class of $(3 + 1)d$ Symmetry Protected Topological Phases

    Bi, Zhen; BenTov, Yoni; Xu, Cenke

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent studies of symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases, we explore the possible gapless quantum disordered phases in the $(2+1)d$ nonlinear sigma model defined on the Grassmannian manifold $\\frac{U(N)}{U(n)\\times U(N - n)}$ with a Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) term at level $k$, which is the effective low energy field theory of the boundary of certain $(3+1)d$ SPT states. With $k = 0$, this model has a well-controlled large-$N$ limit, $i.e.$ its renormalization group equations can be computed exactly with large-$N$. However, with the WZW term, the large-$N$ and large-$k$ limit alone is not sufficient for a reliable study of the nature of the quantum disordered phase. We demonstrate that at least for $n = 1$, through a combined large-$N$, large-$k$ and $3-\\epsilon$ generalization, a stable fixed point in the quantum disordered phase can be reliably located, which corresponds to a $(2+1)d$ strongly interacting conformal field theory. Extension of our method to $n > 1$ will also be discussed.

  17. Technical Note: Sensitivity of 1-D smoke plume rise models to the inclusion of environmental wind drag

    S. R. Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the parameterization of the vertical transport of hot gases and particles emitted from biomass burning, described in Freitas et al. (2007, to include the effects of environmental wind on transport and dilution of the smoke plume at the cloud scale. Typically, the final vertical height that the smoke plumes reach is controlled by the thermodynamic stability of the atmospheric environment and the surface heat flux released by the fire. However, the presence of a strong horizontal wind can enhance the lateral entrainment and induce additional drag, particularly for small fires, impacting the smoke injection height. This process is quantitatively represented by introducing an additional entrainment term to account for organized inflow of a mass of cooler and drier ambient air into the plume and its drag by momentum transfer. An extended set of equations including the horizontal motion of the plume and the additional increase of the plume radius is solved to explicitly simulate the time evolution of the plume rise with the additional mass and momentum. One-dimensional (1-D model results are presented for two deforestation fires in the Amazon basin with sizes of 10 and 50 ha under calm and windy atmospheric environments. The results are compared to corresponding simulations generated by the complex non-hydrostatic three dimensional (3-D Active Tracer High resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM. We show that the 1-D model results compare well with the full 3-D simulations. The 1-D model may thus be used in field situations where extensive computing facilities are not available, especially under conditions for which several optional cases must be studied.

  18. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    Miller, D S

    2000-08-21

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.

  19. The tumor antigen N-glycolyl-GM3 is a human CD1d ligand capable of mediating B cell and natural killer T cell interaction.

    Gentilini, M Virginia; Pérez, M Eugenia; Fernández, Pablo Mariano; Fainboim, Leonardo; Arana, Eloísa

    2016-05-01

    The expression of N-glycolyl-monosialodihexosyl-ganglioside (NGcGM3) in humans is restricted to cancer cells; therefore, it is a tumor antigen. There are measurable quantities of circulating anti-NGcGM3 antibodies (aNGcGM3 Abs) in human serum. Interestingly, some people have circulating Ag-specific immunoglobulins G (IgGs) that are capable of complement mediated cytotoxicity against NGcGM3 positive cells, which is relevant for tumor surveillance. In light of the chemical nature of Ag, we postulated it as a candidate ligand for CD1d. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the immune mechanism involved in the generation of these Abs entails cross talk between B lymphocytes (Bc) and invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT). Combining cellular techniques, such as flow cytometry and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that CD1d binds to NGcGM3 and that human Bc present NGcGM3 in a CD1d context according to two alternative strategies. We also showed that paraformaldehyde treatment of cells expressing CD1d affects the presentation. Finally, by co-culturing primary human Bc with iNKT and measuring Ki-67 expression, we detected a reproducible increment in the proliferation of the iNKT population when Ag was on the medium. Our findings identify a novel, endogenous, human CD1d ligand, which is sufficiently competent to stimulate iNKT. We postulate that CD1d-restricted Bc presentation of NGcGM3 drives effective iNKT activation, an immunological mechanism that has not been previously described for humans, which may contribute to understanding aNGcGM3 occurrence. PMID:26969612

  20. Exact solution of the 1D Hubbard model with NN and NNN interactions in the narrow-band limit

    Mancini, Ferdinando; Plekhanov, Evgeny; Sica, Gerardo

    2013-10-01

    We present the exact solution, obtained by means of the Transfer Matrix (TM) method, of the 1D Hubbard model with nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) Coulomb interactions in the atomic limit ( t = 0). The competition among the interactions ( U, V 1, and V 2) generates a plethora of T = 0 phases in the whole range of fillings. U, V 1, and V 2 are the intensities of the local, NN and NNN interactions, respectively. We report the T = 0 phase diagram, in which the phases are classified according to the behavior of the principal correlation functions, and reconstruct a representative electronic configuration for each phase. In order to do that, we make an analytic limit T → 0 in the transfer matrix, which allows us to obtain analytic expressions for the ground state energies even for extended transfer matrices. Such an extension of the standard TM technique can be easily applied to a wide class of 1D models with the interaction range beyond NN distance, allowing for a complete determination of the T = 0 phase diagrams.

  1. A Mathematical Model of T1D Acceleration and Delay by Viral Infection.

    Moore, James R; Adler, Fred

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often triggered by a viral infection, but the T1D prevalence is rising among populations that have a lower exposure to viral infection. In an animal model of T1D, the NOD mouse, viral infection at different ages may either accelerate or delay disease depending on the age of infection and the type of virus. Viral infection may affect the progression of T1D via multiple mechanisms: triggering inflammation, bystander activation of self-reactive T-cells, inducing a competitive immune response, or inducing a regulatory immune response. In this paper, we create mathematical models of the interaction of viral infection with T1D progression, incorporating each of these four mechanisms. Our goal is to understand how each viral mechanism interacts with the age of infection. The model predicts that each viral mechanism has a unique pattern of interaction with disease progression. Viral inflammation always accelerates disease, but the effect decreases with age of infection. Bystander activation has little effect at younger ages and actually decreases incidence at later ages while accelerating disease in mice that do get the disease. A competitive immune response to infection can decrease incidence at young ages and increase it at older ages, with the effect decreasing over time. Finally, an induced Treg response decreases incidence at any age of infection, but the effect decreases with age. Some of these patterns resemble those seen experimentally. PMID:27030351

  2. Epitaxial 1D electron transport layers for high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    Han, Gill Sang; Chung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Byeong Jo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Cho, In Sun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport. PMID:26324759

  3. Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection.

    Travis S Hughes

    Full Text Available Fluorine (19F NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC to objectively determine which model (number of peaks would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/.

  4. Possible Dimensional Crossover to 1D of ^3He Fluid in Nanochannels Observed in Susceptibilities

    Matsushita, Taku; Kurebayashi, Katsuya; Shibatsuji, Ryosuke; Hieda, Mitsunori; Wada, Nobuo

    2016-05-01

    Dimensional crossover to the one-dimensional (1D) state from higher dimensions has been studied for dilute ^3He fluid adsorbed in 2.4 nm ^4He-preplated nanochannels, by susceptibility measurements down to 70 mK using 4.29 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance. In nanochannels, since energy states of ^3He motion perpendicular to the channel axis are discrete, a genuine 1D ^3He fluid is expected when the Fermi energy is less than the first excitation Δ _{01} for azimuthal motion. The susceptibilities χ above 0.3 K show the Curie-law susceptibilities independent of the ^3He density, which are characteristic of nondegenerate fluid in higher dimensions. With decreasing the temperature, a significant reduction of χ T was observed from about 0.3 K for all ^3He densities. It is considered to be due to the dimensional crossover below Δ _{01}˜ 0.5 K to the 1D ^3He state in the semi-degenerate regime above the Fermi temperature. In the 1D state at lower temperatures, T-independent χ were observed for ^3He of 0.019 layers below 0.1 K. It suggests that the 1D ^3He fluid enters the quantum degenerate regime.

  5. Solution to 1-D consolidation of non-homogeneous soft clay

    XIE Kang-he; WEN Jie-bang; XIA Jian-zhong

    2005-01-01

    In this work, semi-analytical methods were used to solve the problem of 1-D consolidation of non-homogeneous soft clay with spatially varying coefficients of permeability and compressibility. The semi-analytical solution was programmed and then verified by comparison with the obtained analytical solution of a special case. Based on the results of some computations and comparisons with the 1-D homogeneous consolidation (by Terzaghi) and the 1-D non-linear consolidation theory (by Davis et al.)of soft clay, some diagrams were prepared and the relevant consolidation behavior of non-homogeneous soils is discussed. It was shown that the result obtained differs greatly from Terzaghi's theory and that of the non-linear consolidation theory when the coefficients of permeability and compressibility vary greatly.

  6. Transparent Conducting Electrodes based on 1D and 2D Ag Nanogratings for Organic Photovoltaics

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J

    2014-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of optically-thin one-dimensional (1D) Ag nanogratings and two-dimensional (2D) Ag nanogrids are studied, and their use as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics are explored. A large broadband and polarization-insensitive optical absorption enhancement in the organic light-harvesting layers is theoretically and numerically demonstrated using either single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids or two perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, and is attributed to the excitation of surface plasmon resonances and plasmonic cavity modes. Total photon absorption enhancements of 150% and 200% are achieved for the optimized single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids and double (top and bottom) perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, respectively.

  7. Periodic Properties of 1D FE Discrete Models in High Frequency Dynamics

    A. Żak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element discrete models of various engineering 1D structures may be considered as structures of certain periodic characteristics. The source of this periodicity comes from the discontinuity of stress/strain field between the elements. This behaviour remains unnoticeable, when low frequency dynamics of these structures is investigated. At high frequency regimes, however, its influence may be strong enough to dominate calculated structural responses distorting or even falsifying them completely. In this paper, certain computational aspects of structural periodicity of 1D FE discrete models are discussed by the authors. In this discussion, the authors focus their attention on an exemplary problem of 1D rod modelled according to the elementary theory.

  8. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. REAL-TIME FLOOD FORECASTING METHOD WITH 1-D UNSTEADY FLOW MODEL

    MU Jin-bin; ZHANG Xiao-feng

    2007-01-01

    A real-time forecasting method coupled with the 1-D unsteady flow model with the recursive least-square method was developed. The 1-D unsteady flow model was modified by using the time-variant parameter and revising it dynamically through introducing a variable weighted forgetting factor, such that the output of the model could be adjusted for the real time forecasting of floods. The application of the new real time forecasting model in the reach from Yichang to Luoshan of the Yangtze River was demonstrated. Computational result shows that the forecasting accuracy of the new model is much higher than that of the original 1-D unsteady flow model. The method developed is effective for flood forecasting, and can be used for practical operation in the flood forecasting.

  10. A comparison of 1D and 2D LSTM architectures for the recognition of handwritten Arabic

    Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Breuel, Thomas M.; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Arabic handwriting recognition method based on recurrent neural network. We use the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture, that have proven successful in different printed and handwritten OCR tasks. Applications of LSTM for handwriting recognition employ the two-dimensional architecture to deal with the variations in both vertical and horizontal axis. However, we show that using a simple pre-processing step that normalizes the position and baseline of letters, we can make use of 1D LSTM, which is faster in learning and convergence, and yet achieve superior performance. In a series of experiments on IFN/ENIT database for Arabic handwriting recognition, we demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can outperform 2D LSTM networks. Furthermore, we provide comparisons with 1D LSTM networks trained with manually crafted features to show that the automatically learned features in a globally trained 1D LSTM network with our normalization step can even outperform such systems.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF COUPLED 1D-2D MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR TIDAL RIVERS

    XU Zu-xin; YIN Hai-long

    2004-01-01

    Some coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic and water quality models depicting tidal water bodies with complex topography were presented. For the coupled models, finite element method was used to solve the governing equations so as to study tidal rivers with complex topography. Since the 1D and 2D models were coupled, the principle of model coupling was proposed to account appropriately for the factors of water level, flow and pollutant flux and the related dynamical behavior was simulated. Specifically the models were used to probe quantitative pollution contribution of receiving water from neighboring Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces to the pollution in the Huangpu River passing through Shanghai City. Numerical examples indicated that the developed coupled 1D-2D models are applicable in tidal river network region of Shanghai.

  12. Spin Excitations and Phonon Anomaly in Quasi-1D Spiral Magneti CuBr2

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Chong; Yu, Daiwei; Wang, Lichen; Wang, Fa; Iida, Kazuki; Kamazawa, Kazuya; Wakimoto, Shuichi

    CuBr2 can be considered as a model quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) spin-1/2 magnet, in which the frustrating ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions give rise to a cycloidal magnetic order below TN = 73 K. The removal of inversion symmetry by the magnetic order also makes the material a type-II multiferroic system with a remarkably simple crystal structure. Using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy, we have determined the spin-wave as well as phonon spectra throughout the entire Brillouin zone. The spin-wave spectrum exhibits pronounced anisotropy and magnon damping, consistent with the material's quasi-1D nature and the non-colinear spin structure. The phonon spectrum exhibits dramatic discontinuities in the dispersion across the quasi-1D magnetic wave vector, indicative of strong magnetoelastic coupling and possibly of a spin-orbital texture that comes along with the spin correlations.

  13. Force on a slow moving impurity due to thermal and quantum fluctuations in a 1D Bose-Einstein condensate

    Roberts, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sykes, Andrew [UNIV OF QUEENSLAND

    2009-01-01

    We study the drag force acting on an impurity moving through a 1D Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We are able to find exact analytical solutions of the partial differential equations to the level of the Bogoliubov approximation. At zero temperature, we find a nonzero force is exerted on the impurity at subcritical velocities, due to the scattering of quantum fluctuations. We make the following explicit assumptions: far from the impurity the system is in a quantum state given by that of a zero (or finite) temperature Bose-Einstein condensate, and the scattering process generates only causally related reflection/transmission. The results raise unanswered questions in the quantum dynamics associated with the formation of persistent currents.

  14. A PIC simulation study on the evolution of the real and imaginary frequencies of 1D plasma waves

    Grismayer, Thomas; Fahlen, Jay; Winjum, Benjamin; Tsung, Frank; Morales, George; Mori, Warren

    2009-11-01

    We use electrostatic PIC simulations to study the evolution of both the real and complex frequency of 1D plasma waves. We are considering especially the linear regime where the asymptotic damping rate is much bigger than the bounce frequency. In this regime the waves are typically very small and below the thermal noise. These waves can be studied using a subtraction technique where two simulations where identical random number generation seeds are carried out. In the first, a small amplitude wave is excited. In the second simulation no wave is excited. The results from each simulation are subtracted providing a clean linear wave that can be studied. As previously predicted, the damping is divided in two stages, an initial transient and an asymptotic decay (Landau's formula). The time-dependent resonant width measured in the simulations is compared with the theoretical prediction. In typical ICF plasmas nld^3 damping.

  15. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    G. Reffray

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k + l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993 and two equation models: Generic Lengh Scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003 are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969 under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a one-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011 at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between −2 and 2 °C during the stratified period (June to October. However the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 °C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 °C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA. This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  16. Carboxyl terminus-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors inhibit the ERK pathway.

    Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A; Castillo-Badillo, Jean A; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Rivera, Richard; Chun, Jerold; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2016-08-01

    Human α1D-adrenoceptors are G protein-coupled receptors that mediate adrenaline/noradrenaline actions. There is a growing interest in identifying regulatory domains in these receptors and determining how they function. In this work, we show that the absence of the human α1D-adrenoceptor carboxyl tail results in altered ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and p38 phosphorylation states. Amino terminus-truncated and both amino and carboxyl termini-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors were transfected into Rat-1, HEK293, and B103 cells, and changes in the phosphorylation state of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was assessed using biochemical and biophysical approaches. The phosphorylation state of other protein kinases (p38, MEK1, and Raf-1) was also studied. Noradrenaline-induced ERK phosphorylation in Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing amino termini-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors. However, in cells expressing receptors with both amino and carboxyl termini truncations, noradrenaline-induced activation was abrogated. Interestingly, ERK phosphorylation that normally occurs through activation of endogenous G protein-coupled receptors, EGF receptors, and protein kinase C, was also decreased, suggesting that downstream steps in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway were affected. A similar effect was observed in B103 cells but not in HEK 293 cells. Phosphorylation of Raf-1 and MEK1 was also diminished in Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing amino- and carboxyl-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors. Our data indicate that expression of carboxyl terminus-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors alters ERK and p38 phosphorylation state. PMID:27146292

  17. Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes

    Johnson, Raymond H. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morrison, Stan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morris, Sarah [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Tigar, Aaron [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Dam, William [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Dayvault, Jalena [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management

    2016-04-26

    Motivation for Study: Natural flushing of contaminants at various U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites is not proceeding as quickly as predicted (plume persistence) Objectives: Help determine natural flushing rates using column tests. Use 1D reactive transport modeling to better understand the major processes that are creating plume persistence Approach: Core samples from under a former mill tailings area Tailings have been removed. Column leaching using lab-prepared water similar to nearby Gunnison River water. 1D reactive transport modeling to evaluate processes

  18. Refractive index sensor based on a 1D photonic crystal in a microfluidic channel

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Mortensen, Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter;

    2010-01-01

    A refractive index sensor has been fabricated in silicon oxynitride by standard UV lithography and dry etching processes. The refractive index sensor consists of a 1D photonic crystal (PhC) embedded in a microfluidic channel addressed by fiber-terminated planar waveguides. Experimental demonstrat......A refractive index sensor has been fabricated in silicon oxynitride by standard UV lithography and dry etching processes. The refractive index sensor consists of a 1D photonic crystal (PhC) embedded in a microfluidic channel addressed by fiber-terminated planar waveguides. Experimental...

  19. Characterization of 5-HT1D receptor binding sites in post-mortem human brain cortex.

    Martial, J; de Montigny, C; Cecyre, D; Quirion, R

    1991-01-01

    The present study provides further evidence for the presence of serotonin1D (5-HT1D) receptors in post-mortem human brain. Receptor binding parameters in temporal cortex homogenates were assessed using [3H]5-HT in the presence of 100 nM 8-OH-DPAT, 1 microM propranolol and 1 microM mesulergine to prevent labelling of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1C sites, respectively. Under these conditions, [3H]5-HT apparently bound to a class of high affinity (Kd = 5.0 +/- 1.0 nM) low capacity (Bmax = 96 +/- ...

  20. Dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer signaling pathway in the brain: emerging physiological relevance

    Hasbi Ahmed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter modulating many physiological functions, and is linked to psychopathology of many diseases such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are the most abundant dopaminergic receptors in the striatum, and although a clear segregation between the pathways expressing these two receptors has been reported in certain subregions, the presence of D1-D2 receptor heteromers within a unique subset of neurons, forming a novel signaling transducing functional entity has been shown. Recently, significant progress has been made in elucidating the signaling pathways activated by the D1-D2 receptor heteromer and their potential physiological relevance.

  1. AM1/d parameters for Magnesium in Metalloenzymes. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation

    Imhof, Petra [University of Heidelberg; Noe, F [University of Heidelberg; Fischer, S. [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    AM1/d parameters are derived for magnesium, optimized for modeling reactions in metalloenzymes. The parameters are optimized with a Monte Carlo procedure so as to reproduce the geometries and energies of a training set calculated with density functional theory. The training set consists of compounds with magnesium coordinated to the oxygen atom of typical biological ligands. Optimization of AM1 parameters without extension to d functions leaves serious errors. The new AM1/d parameters provide a clear improvement in accuracy compared to the standard semiempirical methods AM1 and MNDO/d and will be particularly useful for modeling reactions in large biological systems at low computational cost.

  2. 1-D Two-phase Flow Investigation for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    During a severe accident, when a molten corium is relocated in a reactor vessel lower head, the RCF(Reactor Cavity Flooding) system for ERVC (External Reactor Vessel Cooling) is actuated and coolants are supplied into a reactor cavity to remove a decay heat from the molten corium. This severe accident mitigation strategy for maintaining a integrity of reactor vessel was adopted in the nuclear power plants of APR1400, AP600, and AP1000. Under the ERVC condition, the upward two-phase flow is driven by the amount of the decay heat from the molten corium. To achieve the ERVC strategy, the two-phase natural circulation in the annular gap between the external reactor vessel and the insulation should be formed sufficiently by designing the coolant inlet/outlet area and gap size adequately on the insulation device. Also the natural circulation flow restriction has to be minimized. In this reason, it is needed to review the fundamental structure of insulation. In the existing power plants, the insulation design is aimed at minimizing heat losses under a normal operation. Under the ERVC condition, however, the ability to form the two-phase natural circulation is uncertain. Namely, some important factors, such as the coolant inlet/outlet areas, flow restriction, and steam vent etc. in the flow channel, should be considered for ERVC design. T-HEMES 1D study is launched to estimate the natural circulation flow under the ERVC condition of APR1400. The experimental facility is one-dimensional and scaled down as the half height and 1/238 channel area of the APR1400 reactor vessel. The air injection method was used to simulate the boiling at the external reactor vessel and generate the natural circulation two-phase flow. From the experimental results, the natural circulation flow rate highly depended on inlet/outlet areas and the circulation flow rate increased as the outlet height as well as the supplied water head increased. On the other hand, the simple analysis using the drift

  3. 1D Runoff-runon stochastic model in the light of queueing theory : heterogeneity and connectivity

    Harel, M.-A.; Mouche, E.; Ledoux, E.

    2012-04-01

    Runoff production on a hillslope during a rainfall event may be simplified as follows. Given a soil of constant infiltrability I, which is the maximum amount of water that the soil can infiltrate, and a constant rainfall intensity R, runoff is observed where R is greater than I. The infiltration rate equals the infiltrability when runoff is produced, R otherwise. When ponding time, topography, and overall spatial and temporal variations of physical parameters, such as R and I, are neglected, the runoff equation remains simple. In this study, we consider soils of spatially variable infiltrability. As runoff can re-infiltrate on down-slope areas of higher infiltrabilities (runon), the resulting process is highly non-linear. The stationary runoff equation is: Qn+1 = max(Qn + (R - In)*Δx , 0) where Qn is the runoff arriving on pixel n of size Δx [L2/T], R and In the rainfall intensity and infiltrability on that same pixel [L/T]. The non-linearity is due to the dependence of infiltration on R and Qn, that is runon. This re-infiltration process generates patterns of runoff along the slope, patterns that organise and connect to each other differently depending on the rainfall intensity and the nature of the soil heterogeneity. The runoff connectivity, assessed using the connectivity function of Allard (1993), affects greatly the dynamics of the runoff hillslope. Our aim is to assess, in a stochastic framework, the runoff organization on 1D slopes with random infiltrabilities (log-normal, exponential, bimodal and uniform distributions) by means of theoretical developments and numerical simulations. This means linking the nature of soil heterogeneity with the resulting runoff organisation. In term of connectivity, we investigate the relations between structural (infiltrability) and functional (runoff) connectivity. A theoretical framework based on the queueing theory is developed. We implement the idea of Jones et al. (2009), who remarked that the above formulation is

  4. D1D5 systems and AdS/CFT correspondences with 16 supercharges

    Gava, E; Morales, J F; Narain, Kumar S; Gava, Edi; Hammou, Amine B.; Morales, Jose F.; Narain, Kumar S.

    2002-01-01

    We study the spectra of BPS excitations of D1D5 bound states in a class of free orbifolds/orientifolds of type IIB theory and its dual descriptions in terms of chiral primaries of the corresponding $AdS_3$ supergravities.

  5. Fresnel Lenses fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining on Polymer 1D Photonic Crystal

    Guduru Surya S.K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of micro Fresnel lenses by femtosecond laser surface ablation on polymer 1D photonic crystals. This device is designed to focus the transmitted wavelength of the photonic crystal and filter the wavelengths corresponding to the photonic band gap region. Integration of such devices in a wavelength selective light harvesting and filtering microchip can be achieved.

  6. HYDRUS-1D Modeling of an Irrigated Agricultural Plot with Application to Aquifer Recharge Estimation

    A variety of methods are available for estimating aquifer recharge in semi-arid regions, each with advantages and disadvantages. We are investigating a procedure for estimating recharge in an irrigated basin. The method involves computing irrigation return flows based on HYDRUS-1D modeling of root z...

  7. A derivation of Akcasu's 'MLP' equations for 1-D particle transport in stochastic media

    This paper presents a new derivation of Akcasu's Modified Levermore-Pomraning (MLP) model for estimating the ensemble-averaged angular flux for particle transport problems in 1-D geometrically random media. The significant new feature of the MLP equations is that, unlike the earlier Levermore-Pomraning (LP) model, the MLP equations are exact for certain classes of problems with scattering. (authors)

  8. On the extrema of a nonconvex functional with double-well potential in 1D

    Gao, David Yang; Lu, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    This paper mainly investigates the extrema of a nonconvex functional with double-well potential in 1D through the approach of nonlinear differential equations. Based on the canonical duality method, the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation with Neumann boundary condition can be converted into a cubic dual algebraic equation, which will help find the local extrema for the primal problem.

  9. Quantized 1D- and 2D optical molasses: Laser cooling and spectrum of resonance fluorescene

    We present results for laser cooling of optical molasses and the spectrum of resonance fluorescene based on a fully quantum mechanical treatment of the atomic center-of-mass motion for 1D and 2D laser configurations. Our calculations based on recently developed wave function simulations of the quantum master equation for laser cooling

  10. Glucose sensor using periodic nanostructured hybrid 1D Au/ZnO arrays

    Huh, Pil Ho, E-mail: pilho.huh@samsung.com [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Nongseo-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-City, Gyeonggi-Do 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myunghwan [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Nongseo-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-City, Gyeonggi-Do 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong-Cheol, E-mail: sckim07@ynu.ac.kr [School of Textiles, Yeungnam University, Gyeungsan Gyeungbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid 1D nanostructured Au/ZnO arrays were created by heat treatment of a spin-coated zinc acetate-PVA-Au(III) layer on surface relief grating and functioned as an electrochemical and optical D(+)-glucose sensor due to electrochemical oxidation between hybrid nanostructures and D(+)-glucose. The morphology and chemical composition of 1D Au/ZnO hybrid arrays were characterized by means of AFM, SEM, EDAX, and XPS. Electrochemical and optical sensitivities by the addition of D(+)-glucoses on 1D Au/ZnO arrays were investigated using Cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis-NIR spectra in the medical concentration ranges of 0.5, 2.0, and 8.0 mM. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc acetate-PVA-Au(III) composites were prepared by simply mixing zinc acetate-PVA and gold(III) chloride trihydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid 1D nanostructured Au/ZnO arrays were easily fabricated using surface relief gratings without additional process steps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Redox and optical sensor to detect D(+)-glucoses.