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Sample records for seismogram 1-d generation

  1. Programming for seismogram 1-D generation, considering the attenuation and dispersing effects; Programa para gerar sismograma 1-D, considerando os efeitos da atenuacao e dispersao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruno de O.; Oliveira, Sergio A.M. de [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP)

    2004-07-01

    For a processing and an interpretation of correct seismic data, it is necessary to recognize and to know as the factors act that influence in the propagation of the seismic waves, as the attenuation and the dispersion, constituting in the biggest practical impediment for the use of seismic for targets the big depths, limiting the resolution of the method. However these phenomena little are taken in consideration in the analysis of the data, thus the necessity of its bigger agreement, because if attenuation and dispersion they confuse the application of the seismic, if convenient understood and measures, can be valuable sources of information about the constitution of the rocks. Therefore, in this work the effect of the attenuation and dispersion in the data of reflection seismic had been simulated on a program, in Mat-Lab. Being able to generate 1-D seismograms, in the domain of the time, considering the normal incidence of plain wave in a package of plain, horizontal and isotropic layers, taking in account the physical attributes of the way, being able to simulate the effects of ghost and of multiples of free surface, if considering the source in the water. (author)

  2. SeisMac Seismogram Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Wysession

    Teacher will demonstrate the SeisMac program. Shake the laptop in the three different directions, showing how the different directions are recorded on the three different components. Adjust both the vertical and horizontal scales to show how the same motions can be represented differently. Setting the vertical scales on -1 to +1, tilt the laptop 90 deg in each of the three directions to demonstrate that the seismograms are records of acceleration (accelerograms). When the laptop is oriented normally, the baseline of the vertical component is 1 g and the two horizontal components have baselines of 0 g. However, when the laptop is tilted the vertical component goes to 0 g and one of the horizontal components will go to 1 g. Teacher will present real 3-component seismograms for actual data, and discuss the major seismic phases (P, S, Love, Rayleigh), showing the components they arrive on: P is primarily on vertical, S is primarily on radial and transverse, Love is primarily on the transverse, and the Rayleigh wave is primarily on both vertical and radial components. Students will take turns shaking the seismometer to try to directly replicate the actual seismograms. If two sets of seismograms are used, the teacher can talk about the differences between seismograms at stations that are nearer or further from the seismometer. Has minimal/no quantitative component Addresses student misconceptions

  3. Streaming Seismograms into Earth-Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Seismograms are the fundamental observations upon which seismology is based; they are central to any course in seismology and important for any discussion of earthquake-related phenomena based on seismic observations. Advances in the collection and distribution of seismic data have made the use of research-quality seismograms in any network capable classroom feasible. The development of large, deep seismogram archives place an unprecedented quantity of high-quality data within reach of the modern classroom environment. I describe and discuss several computer tools and classroom activities that I use in introductory (general education) and advanced undergraduate courses that present near real-time research-quality seismic observations in the classroom. The Earth Motion Monitor Application (EMMA), is a MacOS application that presents a visually clear seismogram display that can be projected in classrooms with internet access. Seismic signals from thousands of station are available from the IRIS data center and the bandwidth can be tailored to the particular type of signal of interest (large event, low frequencies; small event, high frequencies). In introductory classes for non-science students, the near realtime display routinely shows magnitude 4.0-5.0 earthquake-generated signals, demonstrating to students the frequency of earthquake occurrence. Over the next few minutes as the waves travel through and across the planet, their arrival on the seismogram display provides some basic data for a qualitative estimate of the event's general location. When a major or great earthquake occurs, a broad-band display of signals from nearby stations can dramatically and dynamically illuminate the frequent activity associated with the aftershock sequence. Routine use of the display (while continuing the traditional classroom activities) provides students with a significant dose of seismogram study. Students generally find all the signals, including variations in seismic background motions, interesting and formulate good questions related to the signal details. A few minutes at the beginning of class reviewing the activity between classes and a few minutes when an earthquake occurs provide valuable discussion points related to earthquake science and seismic-wave propagation. Other tools discussed are related to global earthquake geography, with self-updating global maps of earthquakes (Epicentral, a MacOS and iOS application). When a signal first shows up on the EMMA seismogram display, students can invest a few minutes estimating the event's general location (and checking the signal character - relative arrival times, dispersion, etc). When a location is posted by an appropriate authority (e.g. the U. S. Geological Survey) the student's estimates can be checked and discussed. Additionally, Epicentral for MacOS presents a self-updated Twitter stream that can light up substantially when a felt earthquake occurs. Although the language of many of the tweeters can be colorful, the results are interesting and instant. The inclusion of these tools takes some time away from traditional lectures, but helps produce a dynamic, thought-provoking classroom experience.

  4. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Seismogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J Wald

    A seismogram of the 1906 Earthquake from a recording station in Gottingen, Germany. The records here show 26 minutes of north-south and east-west motion, recording the P and S waves from the great quake. When the surface waves arrived 26 minutes later, they threw the seismograph off-scale.

  5. Model-Based Signal Processing: Correlation Detection With Synthetic Seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A.; Harris, D.; Pasyanos, M.; Blair, S.; Matt, R.

    2006-12-01

    Recent applications of correlation methods to seismological problems illustrate the power of coherent signal processing applied to seismic waveforms. Examples of these applications include detection of low amplitude signals buried in ambient noise and cross-correlation of sets of waveforms to form event clusters and accurately measure delay times for event relocation and/or earth structure. These methods rely on the exploitation of the similarity of individual waveforms and have been successfully applied to large sets of empirical observations. However, in cases with little or no empirical event data, such as aseismic regions or exotic event types, correlation methods with observed seismograms will not be possible due to the lack of previously observed similar waveforms. This study uses model-based signals computed for three-dimensional (3D) Earth models to form the basis for correlation detection. Synthetic seismograms are computed for fully 3D models estimated from the Markov Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) method. MCMC uses stochastic sampling to fit multiple seismological data sets. Rather than estimate a single "optimal" model, MCMC results in a suite of models that sample the model space and incorporates uncertainty through variability of the models. The variability reflects our ignorance of Earth structure, due to limited resolution, data and modeling errors, and produces variability in the seismic waveform response. Model-based signals are combined using a subspace method where the synthetic signals are decomposed into an orthogonal basis by singular-value decomposition (SVD) and the observed waveforms are represented with a linear combination of a sub-set of eigenvectors (signals) associated with the most significant eigenvalues. We have demonstrated the method by modeling long-period (80-10 seconds) regional seismograms for a moderate (M~5) earthquake near the China-North Korea border. Synthetic seismograms are computed with the Spectral Element Method for a suite of long-wavelength (2 degree) seismic velocity models based on the MCMC method. We are working on higher resolution (1 degree) models for the same region and methods to increase the frequency content of the synthetic seismograms using both 1D reflectivity synthetics and 3D synthetics with a recently developed elastic finite difference code.

  6. Instaseis: instant global seismograms based on a broadband waveform database

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, M.; Krischer, L.; Stähler, S. C.; Hosseini, K.; Nissen-Meyer, T.

    2015-06-01

    We present a new method and implementation (Instaseis) to store global Green's functions in a database which allows for near-instantaneous (on the order of milliseconds) extraction of arbitrary seismograms. Using the axisymmetric spectral element method (AxiSEM), the generation of these databases, based on reciprocity of the Green's functions, is very efficient and is approximately half as expensive as a single AxiSEM forward run. Thus, this enables the computation of full databases at half the cost of the computation of seismograms for a single source in the previous scheme and allows to compute databases at the highest frequencies globally observed. By storing the basis coefficients of the numerical scheme (Lagrange polynomials), the Green's functions are 4th order accurate in space and the spatial discretization respects discontinuities in the velocity model exactly. High-order temporal interpolation using Lanczos resampling allows to retrieve seismograms at any sampling rate. AxiSEM is easily adaptable to arbitrary spherically symmetric models of Earth as well as other planets. In this paper, we present the basic rationale and details of the method as well as benchmarks and illustrate a variety of applications. The code is open source and available with extensive documentation at target="_blank">www.instaseis.net .

  7. A combined 1D/3D fuel burnup analysis of generation IV light water reactor IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined 1D/3D methodology for the fuel burnup analysis of generation IV light water reactors with thin boron coating that covers the fuel rods is described in this paper. This methodology is founded on three approximations. The first approximation assumes that the problem of fuel depletion in the entire 3D core can be resolved into two independent problems. One is a 3D Monte Carlo evolution of power distribution in large volumes (nodes) with the KENO-V.a code, and the other is a transport method evolution of burnup dependent fuel composition in 1D Wigner-Seitz cell for each node independently. With the second approximation, the time-dependent fuel composition in the node (e.g., in the fuel assembly) is calculated by using a 1D fuel depletion analysis with the SAS2H control module from the SCALE-4.4a code system. The third approximation involves smearing the boron coating with the clad (by volume homogenization). The proposed SAS2H/KENO-V.a methodology is verified for the case of 2D x-y model of IRIS 15x15 fuel assembly (with a reflective boundary condition) by using two well benchmarked code systems. The first one is MOCUP, a coupled MCNP-4C and ORIGEN2.1 utility code, and the second is KENO-V.a/ORIGEN2.1 code system recently developed by authors of this paper. It has been found that the proposed SAS2H/KENO-V.a methodology gives a satisfactory accuracy for keff and nuclide composition. Finally, this methodology was applied for 3D burnup analysis of IRIS-as applied for 3D burnup analysis of IRIS-1000 benchmark?44 core. Detailed keff and power density evolution with burnup are reported. (author)

  8. Synthetic seismograms - II. Synthesis of amplitude spectra and seismograms of P waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of programme of seismic detection of underground nuclear explosions, step by step variations in the amplitude spectra and waveforms of P wave signal, as it propagates from source to receiver region, are investigated. Influences on the amplitude spectra and waveforms of teleseismic p waves due to : (1) variation in the shape of reduced displacement potential, (2) variation of mantle Q values, (3) change in depth, (4) various yields, (5) spalling, and (6) variation of crustal structure at source as well as at receiver are studied. The results show that for a yield of 85 kilotons, the time structure of seismograms is nearly same for four types of reduced displacement potentials considered here. The duration of waveforms is affected both by crustal structure at source as well as due to spalling. In general, effect of receiver crust on seismograms is found to be minor. Synthesized and observed P wave seismograms for Longshot, Milrow and Cannikin underground nuclear explosions are computed at various seismometer array stations of the UKAEA. Computed seismograms compare well with the recorded ones. It is seen that: (1) overburden P wave velocity inferred from seismograms is less as compared to its value obtained from on-site measurements, and (2) the source function, the source crust transfer function, the mantle transfer function and the spalling function are the most important factors that influence shaping of spectra and seismograms. (M.G.B.)

  9. Seismogram Construction to Fit the Recorded B032593c Earthquake, Japan on Observation Station Bfo, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research the model of earth layers between earthquake's epicenter in Hokkaido Japan and observation station in Black Forest of Observatory (BFO, Germany is investigated. The earth model is 1-D that represents the average speed model. The earth model is obtained by seismogram comparison between data and synthetic seismogram in time domain and three components simultaneously. Synthetic Seismogram is calculated with the Green's function of the Earth by MINor Integration (GEMINI program, where program's input is initially the earth model IASPEI91, PREMAN and also the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT solution of the earthquake. A Butterworth low-pass filter with corner frequency of 20 mHz is imposed to measured and synthetic seismogram. On seismogram comparison we can find unsystematic discrepancies, covering the travel time and waveform of all wave phases, namely on P, S, SS wave and surface wave of Rayleigh and Love. Solution to the above mentioned discrepancies needs correction to the earth structure, that covering the change of earth crust thickness, the gradient of ?h and value of zero order coefficient in ?h and ?v in upper mantle, to get the fitting on the surface wave of Love and Rayleigh. Further correction to accomplish the discrepancies on body waves is conducted on layers beneath upper mantle down to depth of 630 km, where a little change at speed model of P and S wave is carried out. The number of oscillation amount especially on Love wave is influenced by earth crust depth earth. Good fitting is obtained at phase and amplitude of Love wave, but also at amplitude of some body wave too. This effect is not yet been exploited for the determination of moment tensor.

  10. Parameter Analysis For A High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL By Numerical Calculation Based On 1D Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuhui; Zhang, Shancai

    2004-01-01

    The high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL) is an important candidate for a fourth-generation light source. Lots of theoretical work has been performed. Recently a further 1D theory about HGHG FEL has been developed. It considers the effects of different parameters for the whole process. An initial program based on this theory has been made. In this paper, a brief comparison of the results from this 1D program and from TDA (3D code) is discussed. It also analyses the parameters for Shanghai deep ultra violate free-electron laser source (SDUV-FEL), including electron beam energy spread, seed laser power, strength of dispersion section etc.

  11. Blind deconvolution of seismograms regularized via minimum support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of earthquake source signature and propagation effects (the Earth’s ‘Green’s function’) that encode a seismogram is a challenging problem in seismology. The task of separating these two effects is called blind deconvolution. By considering seismograms of multiple earthquakes from similar locations recorded at a given station and that therefore share the same Green’s function, we may write a linear relation in the time domain ui(t)*sj(t) ? uj(t)*si(t) = 0, where ui(t) is the seismogram for the ith source and sj(t) is the jth unknown source. The symbol * represents the convolution operator. From two or more seismograms, we obtain a homogeneous linear system where the unknowns are the sources. This system is subject to a scaling constraint to deliver a non-trivial solution. Since source durations are not known a priori and must be determined, we augment our system by introducing the source durations as unknowns and we solve the combined system (sources and source durations) using separation of variables. Our solution is derived using direct linear inversion to recover the sources and Newton’s method to recover source durations. This method is tested using two sets of synthetic seismograms created by convolution of (i) random Gaussian source-time functions and (ii) band-limited sources with a simplified Green’s function and signal to noise levels up to 10% with encouraging res

  12. A hybrid method for the computation of quasi-3D seismograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The development of powerful computer clusters and efficient numerical computation methods, such as the Spectral Element Method (SEM) made possible the computation of seismic wave propagation in a heterogeneous 3D earth. However, the cost of theses computations is still problematic for global scale tomography that requires hundreds of such simulations. Part of the ongoing research effort is dedicated to the development of faster modeling methods based on the spectral element method. Capdeville et al. (2002) proposed to couple SEM simulations with normal modes calculation (C-SEM). Nissen-Meyer et al. (2007) used 2D SEM simulations to compute 3D seismograms in a 1D earth model. Thanks to these developments, and for the first time, Lekic et al. (2011) developed a 3D global model of the upper mantle using SEM simulations. At the local and continental scale, adjoint tomography that is using a lot of SEM simulation can be implemented on current computers (Tape, Liu et al. 2009). Due to their smaller size, these models offer higher resolution. They provide us with images of the crust and the upper part of the mantle. In an attempt to teleport such local adjoint tomographic inversions into the deep earth, we are developing a hybrid method where SEM computation are limited to a region of interest within the earth. That region can have an arbitrary shape and size. Outside this region, the seismic wavefield is extrapolated to obtain synthetic data at the Earth's surface. A key feature of the method is the use of a time reversal mirror to inject the wavefield induced by distant seismic source into the region of interest (Robertsson and Chapman 2000). We compute synthetic seismograms as follow: Inside the region of interest, we are using regional spectral element software RegSEM to compute wave propagation in 3D. Outside this region, the wavefield is extrapolated to the surface by convolution with the Green's functions from the mirror to the seismic stations. For now, these Green's functions are computed using 2D SEM simulation in a 1D Earth model. Such seismograms account for the 3D structure inside the region of interest in a quasi-exact manner. Later we plan to extrapolate the misfit function computed from such seismograms at the stations back into the SEM region in order to compute local adjoint kernels. This opens a new path toward regional adjoint tomography into the deep Earth. Capdeville, Y., et al. (2002). "Coupling the spectral element method with a modal solution for elastic wave propagation in global Earth models." Geophysical Journal International 152(1): 34-67. Lekic, V. and B. Romanowicz (2011). "Inferring upper-mantle structure by full waveform tomography with the spectral element method." Geophysical Journal International 185(2): 799-831. Nissen-Meyer, T., et al. (2007). "A two-dimensional spectral-element method for computing spherical-earth seismograms-I. Moment-tensor source." Geophysical Journal International 168(3): 1067-1092. Robertsson, J. O. A. and C. H. Chapman (2000). "An efficient method for calculating finite-difference seismograms after model alterations." Geophysics 65(3): 907-918. Tape, C., et al. (2009). "Adjoint tomography of the southern California crust." Science 325(5943): 988-992.

  13. Inpainting of historical seismograms using sparse representation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifu; Sun, Yi; Cai, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of inpainting historical seismograms recorded by a pen and paper drum-type seismograph. In the seismogram, some portions of the wave may be lost or distorted owing to time marks or violent shaking. In this study, the seismic waveform is divided into several frames of equal length, and the lost or distorted portions are restored frame by frame. Because a seismogram contains several repetitive patterns in the entire waveform, each frame can be sparsely represented on the basis of these patterns. Therefore, the sparse representation model is employed to represent historical seismograms. In addition, an inpainting model that employs sparsity as a prior is formulated, and it is used to restore the lost portions by solving a L0-norm minimization problem. However, this minimization problem may be ill posed and result in an incorrect outcome if the missing interval duration of the wave is very large. Therefore, to solve this ill-posed problem, a prior based on the Fourier spectrum of the waveform is added to the inpainting method. Simulation results prove that the proposed inpainting method can restore the missing wave well.

  14. Wavelet analysis of the seismograms for tsunami warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chamoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity in the tsunami phenomenon makes the available warning systems not much effective in the practical situations. The problem arises due to the time lapsed in the data transfer, processing and modeling. The modeling and simulation needs the input fault geometry and mechanism of the earthquake. The estimation of these parameters and other aprior information increases the utilized time for making any warning. Here, the wavelet analysis is used to identify the tsunamigenesis of an earthquake. The frequency content of the seismogram in time scale domain is examined using wavelet transform. The energy content in high frequencies is calculated and gives a threshold for tsunami warnings. Only first few minutes of the seismograms of the earthquake events are used for quick estimation. The results for the earthquake events of Andaman Sumatra region and other historic events are promising.

  15. On-demand synthetic seismograms from the IRIS DMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutko, A. R.; Trabant, C. M.; Karstens, R.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Bahavar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) has served waveform data to the seismology community for over 30 years. This presentation highlights a new, on-demand synthetic seismogram service that will complement the observation-based data we have traditionally distributed. We are computing a global-scale database of Green's functions from which users can request synthetic seismograms for arbitrary source and receiver parameters and Earth models. The multi-terabyte scale database of Green's functions is computed by the spectral-element method AxiSEM for a selection of spherically symmetric Earth models (PREM, IASP91, AK135) with anisotropy and attenuation. The resolution of the simulations will be between 2-8 to about 100 sec periods (final resolution to be determined by computational resources available). The synthetics are accessible using a simple web service that returns synthetics according to specified source-receiver combination, Earth model and signal band. On-the-fly post-processing such as convolution with a moment tensor (or specified Global CMT solution) and source-time function is being developed. This service is intended to return synthetic seismograms quickly, making it useful for studying variations in source properties, Earth models or temporal changes in instrument responses. It is also designed to be callable by simple scripts and works well in automated processing. The DMC will also provide a command line script to download selections of synthetics. This new dataset and related service provide a powerful tool in multiple areas of study where synthetic seismograms are useful.

  16. S-Wave Velocity Structure beneath Southwest North America from Seismogram Comparisons of the Mexico Earthquake on 22 June 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates earth structure beneath the Southwest North America landmass, especially between Mexico and California. Models based on S wave velocities for this area were obtained by carrying out seismogram fitting in time domain and three Cartesian components simultaneously. The data used is from an event, coded as C052297B that occurred in the state of Guerrero, Mexico and it was fitted to synthetic data computed with the GEMINI program at TS network stations. Earth model IASPEI91 and SPREM were used as input to create the synthetic data. Real and synthetic seismograms were subjected to a low-pass filter with a frequency corner of 20 mHz.Waveform analysis results show very unsystematic and strong deviations in the waveform, arrival times, amount of oscillation and the height of the wave amplitude. Discrepancies are met on S, Love, Rayleigh and ScS waves, where the stations epicentral distances are below 300. Deviation in analysis waveform because of the usage of model 1-D of SPREM and IASPEI91, because the 1-D was a kind of average value an elastic property at one particular depth of global earth. With the method of waveform analysis we can see how sensitive waveform is to structures within the layers of the Earth.To explain the discrepancies, a correction to the earth structure is essential. The corrections account for the thickness of the crust, speed gradient of bh, the coefficient for the bh and bv in the upper mantle for surface wave fitting, a small variation of the S speed structure at a layer under the upper mantle above 771 km for S wave fitting, and a small variation at the base the mantle layers for ScS wave fitting. At some stations, a correction for S speed structure have yielded P wave fitting. Results of this research indicate that the 1-D earth model obtained through seismogram fitting at every hypocenter-observation station pair is unique. The S-wave velocity on the upper mantle has strong negative anomalies. This paper criticized the previous earth models in the same area, which have been published by other seismologists, by analyzing the seismogram of C052297B earthquake in the TS seismological network station

  17. Simulation of seismograms in a 2-D viscoelastic Earth by pseudospectral methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton P. Plasencia Linares

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Using an improved global pseudospectral modeling algorithm we synthesize seismograms generated by oceanic and continental earthquakes. Attention is given to attenuation, to explicit modeling of boundary conditions at the ocean-bottom interface, simulation of the Rayleigh window and interface-wave propagation. The algorithm is based on Fourier and Chebyshev differential operators and a domain-decomposition technique - one grid for the fluid and another grid for the solid. Wave propagation in the oceanic and continent crusts and mantle is modeled by using a viscoelastic stress-strain relation based on memory variables.The main physical phenomena associated with an ocean-crust system are modeled, including Scholte waves, leaking Rayleigh waves, dispersive modes, and the Rayleigh-window phenomenon due to a minimum in the reflection coefficient of the ocean bottom, which has not been simulated with direct methods. In particular, we model Rayleigh modes (mainly the M11 mode, and coupled Rayleigh-Scholte waves, for which the dispersion relation is solved in simple cases. Also, we model the effects of random inhomogeneities in the crust and mantle by using a von Kármán autocovariance probability function, which simulates scattering-Q-effects.The 2-D modeling code allows general material variability, and a complete and accurate characterization of the seismic response of oceanic and continental earthquakes. A synthetic seismogram for an earthquake in the South Atlantic region is provided.

  18. Full Waveform 3D Synthetic Seismic Algorithm for 1D Layered Anelastic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, H. F.; Aldridge, D. F.; Haney, M. M.

    2007-12-01

    Numerical calculation of synthetic seismograms for 1D layered earth models remains a significant aspect of amplitude-offset investigations, surface wave studies, microseismic event location approaches, and reflection interpretation or inversion processes. Compared to 3D finite-difference algorithms, memory demand and execution time are greatly reduced, enabling rapid generation of seismic data within workstation or laptop computational environments. We have developed a frequency-wavenumber forward modeling algorithm adapted to realistic 1D geologic media, for the purpose of calculating seismograms accurately and efficiently. The earth model consists of N layers bounded by two halfspaces. Each layer/halfspace is a homogeneous and isotropic anelastic (attenuative and dispersive) solid, characterized by a rectangular relaxation spectrum of absorption mechanisms. Compressional and shear phase speeds and quality factors are specified at a particular reference frequency. Solution methodology involves 3D Fourier transforming the three coupled, second- order, integro-differential equations for particle displacements to the frequency-horizontal wavenumber domain. An analytic solution of the resulting ordinary differential system is obtained. Imposition of welded interface conditions (continuity of displacement and stress) at all interfaces, as well as radiation conditions in the two halfspaces, yields a system of 6(N+1) linear algebraic equations for the coefficients in the ODE solution. An optimized inverse 2D Fourier transform to the space domain gives the seismic wavefield on a horizontal plane. Finally, three-component seismograms are obtained by accumulating frequency spectra at designated receiver positions on this plane, followed by a 1D inverse FFT from angular frequency ? to time. Stress-free conditions may be applied at the top or bottom interfaces, and seismic waves are initiated by force or moment density sources. Examples reveal that including attenuation stabilizes the numerical calculations, and reduces wraparound artifacts associated with the spatially-periodic 2D Fourier transform. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram science and engineering facility operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin company, for the US DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. GPS-seismograms reveal amplified shaking in California's San Joaquin Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    The March 10, 2014, the Mw6.8 Ferndale earthquake occurred off the coast of Northern California, near the Mendocino Triple Junction. Aftershocks suggest a northeast striking fault plane for the strike-slip earthquake, oriented such that the California coast is roughly perpendicular to the rupture plane. Consequently, large amplitude Love waves were observed at seismic stations and continuous GPS stations throughout Northern California. While GPS is less sensitive then broadband instruments, in Northern California their station density is much higher, potentially providing valuable detail. A total of 269 GPS stations that have high-rate (1 sps) data available were used to generate GPS-seismograms. These include stations from the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO, operated by UNAVCO), and the USGS, Menlo Park. The Track software package was used to generate relative displacements between pairs of stations, determined using Delaunay triangulation. This network-based approach allows for higher precision than absolute positioning, because common noise sources, in particular atmospheric noise, are cancelled out. A simple least-squares network adjustment with a stable centroid constraint is performed to transform the mesh of relative motions into absolute motions at individual GPS stations. This approach to generating GPS-seismograms is validated by the good agreement between time series records at 16 BARD stations that are co-located with broadband seismometers from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). While the distribution of peak dynamic displacements is dominated in long periods by the radiation pattern, at shorter periods other patterns become visible. In particular, stations in the San Joaquin Delta (SJD) region show higher peak dynamic displacements than those in surrounding areas, as well as longer duration shaking. SJD stations also have higher dynamic displacements on the radial component than surrounding areas, implying that energy has been scattered into the radial direction within the SJD.

  20. Heterogeneity of the Earth's upper mantle, from waveform inversion of over one million broadband seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Andrew; Lebedev, Sergei

    2013-04-01

    We present a new global, vertically-polarized shear speed model of the upper mantle. The model, SL2013sv, is constrained by a massive new dataset selected from more than one million successful waveform fits generated using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface- and S-waveforms. The waveform inversion of each seismogram produces a set of linear equations describing perturbations in elastic structure within approximate sensitivity volumes along the source-receiver path, with respect to a three-dimensional (3D) reference model; structural information is extracted from fundamental modes in addition to overtones. These equations are then simultaneously inverted for a high-resolution, 3D model of shear and compressional speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the crust and upper mantle. From our total dataset, more than half-a-million seismograms were selected to constrain the final model, using elaborate outlier analysis. The selection of only the most mutually consistent equations strongly reduced the effect of errors in the data, enabling improvement upon past global model resolutions, resulting from significantly increased data sampling and redundancy. In continental regions, lateral resolution approaches that of regional-scale studies, and good correlation can be observed with the surface expression of tectonics. In the oceans, spreading ridges are very well resolved, with the main anomalies closely confined near the ridge axis. Additionally, clear images of major subduction zones world-wide are captured, extending from shallow depths (in some cases, 150km depth) through much of the transition zone. We also briefly discuss the distribution of azimuthal anisotropy, which is well resolved globally, although over longer length-scales compared to isotropic heterogeneity. Finally, the large size of our waveform fit dataset provides a strong statistical foundation to re-examine the validity field of the JWKB approximation (surface-wave ray theory), in addition to the quantification of the success rate of fitting using AMI. We conclude that, when selecting the correct portions of the seismogram on a case-by-case basis, the validity of the approximations is warranted in many cases, often at shorter periods than previously assumed. As a by-product of the waveform inversions, numerous phase and group velocity curves of the fundamental and first 15-18 higher modes of Rayleigh and Love waves have been measured. This large, new dispersion dataset and our new upper-mantle model offer complementary perspectives on the bulk heterogeneity of the Earth's upper mantle.

  1. Fully digital 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos as hardware pseudo random number generators

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-10-07

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos using the sawtooth nonlinearity in a 3rd order ODE with the Euler approximation. Systems indicate chaotic behaviour through phase space boundedness and positive Lyapunov exponent. Low-significance bits form a PRNG and pass all tests in the NIST SP. 800-22 suite without post-processing. Real-time control of the number of scrolls allows distinct output streams with 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos enabling greater controllability. The proposed PRNGs are experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.25%, throughput up to 5.25 Gbits/s and up to 512 distinct output streams with low cross-correlation.

  2. Seismogram Analysis of C052198B Earthquake, Minahasa at Observatory Stations in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2012-01-01

    The earth structure between the Minahasa earthquake, coded as C052198B, and observatory stations in Australia has been investigated through analysis in the time domain of three-component seismograms. The synthetic seismograms are constructed from an earth model, the CMT solution of the earthquake and station locations. The calculation is based on the GEMINI method, and the corner frequency is set at 20 mHz. Using deconvolutions of the station instruments responses, the measured and synthetic...

  3. Seismogram Analysis of the Earthquakes in Sumatra on WRAB Observation Station: S Wave Velocity Structure on Subduction Zone of Sumatra-Java

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2008-01-01

    The S wave velocity structure at subduction zone under Sumatra-Java was investigated through seismogram analysis in time domain and three Cartesian’s components simultaneously. The main data set was the comparison between the measured seismogram and the synthetic one, not the travel time data. The synthetic seismogram was calculated with the GEMINI method. The seismogram comparison shows that the global earth mantle of PREMAN gives deviating synthetic seismogram and has later arrival times...

  4. Advanced criteria of seismic zoning and synthetic seismograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief revision of the traditional deterministic and probabilistic methods of first order seismic zonation, outlining their limits and possibilities, indicates that they can only lead to a kind of ''post-event'' zonation, which has a limited local validity. The strong influence of laterial heterogeneities and of source properties on the spatial distribution of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and of the Total Energy of ground motion (W), indicates that the traditional methods require a deep revision. The method we have developed and applied to a first-order seismic zoning of the whole Italian territory and to the microzoning of specific objects, being based on the computation of synthetic seismograms, makes it possible and necessary to take source and propagation effects into account, fully utilizing the large amount of geological and geotechnical data, already available. Even though it falls in the domain of deterministic approaches, the method is very suitable for inclusion in the definition of new integrated procedures which combine probabilistic and deterministic approaches and allow us to minimize the present drawbacks which characterise the two methods when they are considered separately. If the seismotectonic regime is well known, a very important practical aspect of our deterministic approach is the immediate capability to direct the rescue intervention of the Civil Defence where the greatest damage is expected, by drawing post-event synthetic isoseismals for the source regions. Detailed modelling of ground motion for realistic two-dimensional media is a low-cost but very powerful tool for the prevention aspects of Civil Defence since it allows the computation of realistic seismic input for important structures based on the definition of a wide set of possible scenarios, which can be immediately used in the design of new seismo-resistant constructions and in the reinforcement of existing structures. (author). 65 refs, 14 figs

  5. Usability of ocean-bottom seismograms for broadband waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Eva P. S.; Sigloch, Karin

    2013-04-01

    Recordings made by broadband seismometers on the ocean-bottom are generally noisier than recordings of land stations using the same sensor type. The primary reason is that oceanic recordings are more affected by microseismic noise, which originates in the oceans. A similar drawback applies to data from stations on oceanic islands. The frequency band between 0.05 Hz and 0.2 Hz is most affected by microseismic noise -- unfortunately a large overlap with the band that is most useful in highly-resolving body-wave tomography when using land stations. On the other hand, waveform inversion methods, unlike traditional ray theory, do not necessarily depend on the availability of clean, pulse-like broadband signals across the entire frequency range. For example in finite-frequency tomography, the method of our choice, modelling procedures permit the exclusion of unusable frequency bands on a case-by-case basis. Hence we investigate to what extent seismograms from the ocean-bottom and from island stations can be used for broadband waveform inversion of teleseismic P-waves, as compared to continental land stations. We have re-analyzed data from one of the largest onshore-offshore, broadband, long-term seismological experiment to date: the Hawaiian PLUME project (Wolfe et al. 2009, Laske 2009). The data quality was studied in eight overlapping frequency bands (dominant periods between 30.0 s and 2.7 s), for year-long records from 62 ocean-bottom stations (January 2005 - June 2007), complemented by seismograms from 74 regional island stations and 236 continental stations from four different networks on the Pacific-rim, recorded in the same time frame. P-wave seismograms from 103 earthquakes of moment magnitude 6.2 and above, recorded at epicentral distances of 32° to 85° to Hawaii were assessed in this study. The quality of the recorded data was evaluated by calculating the cross-correlation coefficient between the first 1.5 dominant periods of real and predicted waveforms, in eight frequency passbands and on the broadband waveform, after careful correction for source parameters and source time function (Sigloch and Nolet 2006). As expected, permanent continental stations were quieter than permanent island stations in the Pacific, (independent of frequency band), and island stations were quieter than ocean-bottom stations. Relative data quality for both types of oceanic stations is lowest for dominant periods between 11s and 3 s. We present statistics for the fraction of usable data, as a function of station type, frequency band, and sensor type. In the lowest frequency band 55%, 71% and 90% of the data recorded by the PLUME stations, island stations and land stations, respectively, can be used for seismic tomography. These values drop with increasing frequency, to a minimum of 12% for the island stations, 8% for OBS stations and 33% for the land stations. We also compare data quality by OBS sensor type (Nanometrics T-40, Nanometrics T-240, Güralp CMG-3T). We find that frequency bands around 2.7 s and between 20.0 to 30.0 s have low noise levels but have not been used for tomography by the project PIs. A multiple-frequency waveform inversion including these additional bands and wave paths, as well as a larger number of earthquakes (101 versus 97 and 59 used in the original studies by Wolfe et al. 2009 and Wolfe et al. 2011) should be able to improve the resolution of the velocity structure in the upper and lower mantle beneath the Hawaiian hotspot. References: Laske, G., Collins, J. A., Wolfe, C. J., Solomon, S. C., Detrick, R. S., Orcutt, J. A., Bercovici, D., Hauri, E. H. (2009). Probing the Hawaiian hotspot with new broadband ocean bottom instruments. Eos Trans. AGU, 90(41), 362-363. Sigloch, K., & Nolet, G. (2006). Measuring finite-frequency body-wave amplitudes and traveltimes. Geophysical Journal International, 167(1), 271-287, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03116.x Wolfe, C.J, Solomon, S.C., Laske G., Collins, J.A., Detrick, R.S., Orcutt, J.A., Bercovici, D., and Hauri, E.H. (2009) Mantle shear-wave velocity structure bene

  6. Seismogram Analysis of C052198B Earthquake, Minahasa at Observatory Stations in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The earth structure between the Minahasa earthquake, coded as C052198B, and observatory stations in Australia has been investigated through analysis in the time domain of three-component seismograms. The synthetic seismograms are constructed from an earth model, the CMT solution of the earthquake and station locations. The calculation is based on the GEMINI method, and the corner frequency is set at 20 mHz. Using deconvolutions of the station instruments responses, the measured and synthetic seismogram can be compared with the same units. The seismogram comparison indicates discre-pancies between recorded data and synthetic seismograms calculated from the anisotropic PREM model, in the travel times of Rayleigh and Love surface wave, as well as the S and core reflected ScS and ScS2 body waves. Discrepancies of Love wave travel time and the number of oscillations are explained by changes in the crustal velocity model and by setting the positive gradient of ?h in the upper mantle. While for Rayleigh waves and arrival times of body waves, corrections to the zero order coefficients of ? are needed at layers in the mantle. The interpretation of the results of the waveform analyses indicates strong anisotropy in the upper mantle. The anisotropy also occurs, to a lesser extent, at layers beneath the upper mantle.

  7. Investigating the inner time properties of seismograms by using the Fisher Information Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Alcaz, Vasile; Ilies, Ion

    2014-09-01

    The time dynamics of seismograms of nine tectonic earthquakes which occurred in Vrancea (Romania) registered at three seismic stations located in Moldova are analyzed by means of the informational approach of the Fisher Information Measure (FIM). The three seismic stations in Moldova are located, two (MILM and LEOM) within an area with high seismic hazard, while the third (SORM) in a less hazardous region. Our findings point out to a clear discrimination of the two stations MILM and LEOM from SORM on the basis of the informational properties of the recorded seismograms corresponding to the same earthquakes. In particular it is found that larger distance and lower azimuth characterize seismograms with lower FIM, which implies lower organization and higher disorder in seismograms recorded by SORM with respect to those recorded by MILM and LEOM. The lower FIM revealed by seismograms recorded by SORM could be put in relationship with the lower degree of seismic hazard in the area where the seismic station is installed.

  8. Source mechanisms and near-source wave propagation from broadband seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Perrot

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Recording seismic events at teleseismic distances with broadband and high dynamic range instruments provides new high-quality data that allow us to interpret in more detail the complexity of seismic rupture as well as the heterogeneous structure of the medium surrounding the source where waves are initially propagating. Wave propagation analysis is performed by ray tracing in a local cartesian coordinate system near the source and in a global spherical coordinate system when waves enter the mantle. Seismograms are constructed at each station for a propagation in a 2.5-D medium. Many phases can be included and separately analyzed; this is one of the major advantages of ray tracing compared to other wave propagation techniques. We have studied four earthquakes, the 1988 Spitak Armenia Earthquake (Ms = 6.9, the 1990 Iran earthquake (Ms = 7.7, the 1990 romanian earthquake (Ms = 5.8 and the 1992 Erzincan, Turkey earthquake (Ms = 6.8. These earthquakes exhibit in different ways the complexity of the rupture and the signature of the medium surrounding the source. The use of velocity seismograms, the time derivative of displacement, increases the difficulty of the fit between synthetic seismograms and real seismograms but provides clear evidence for a need of careful time delay estimations of the different converted phases. We find that understanding of the seismic rupture as well as the influence of the medium surrounding the source for teleseismically recorded earthquakes requires a multi-stop procedure: starting with ground displacement seismograms, one is able to give a first description of the rupture as well as of the first-order influence of the medium. Then, considering the ground velocity seismograms makes the fit more difficult to obtain but increases our sensitivity to the rupture process and early converted phases. With increasing number of worldwide broadband stations, a complex rupture description is possible independently of field observations, which can be used to check the adequacy of such complicated models.

  9. FrOsT: Enabling the Next Generation of Normal-Mode Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, A. P.; Al-Attar, D.; Trampert, J.; Woodhouse, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the increasing feasibility of fully-numerical simulation of wave propagation, normal mode seismology continues to play an important role: it enables the rapid calculation of exact synthetic seismograms and sensitivity kernels in 1D earth models, and permits both approximate and exact calculations using 3D models. For many day-to-day applications, the improved accuracy of fully-numerical simulations may not justify their computational costs; for other applications -- such as sampling-based approaches to solving inverse problems -- the efficiency of normal mode methods remains essential. Furthermore, observations of free oscillations provide important constraints on long wavelength Earth structure and dynamics. At present, it is difficult to compute normal modes at frequencies higher than around 100 mHz, due to limitations in software available for these calculations. In order to remove this constraint (among others), and to provide the community with up-to-date software to compute normal mode synthetics in 1D and 3D models, we announce the development of the Free Oscillation Toolkit (FrOsT). In particular, we present new codes for calculating eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions in arbitrary 1D earth models, and for generating synthetic seismograms using mode summation. We also outline planned software to compute exact synthetic seismograms in 3D models, using mode coupling theory. All codes will be released on an open-source basis in due course. Our eigenfunction calculations rely on improved radial integration and mode-counting techniques, enabling stable calculations at high frequencies. For mode summation, we adopt the framework of generalised spherical harmonics, with a new algorithm for their efficient calculation. This formalism enables straightforward calculation of strain and rotation fields, in addition to displacement, and the use of higher-order moment tensors. Source parameter sensitivity kernels may also be readily obtained.

  10. Generation of a pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity section by inversion of a series of 1D dispersion curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves utilizes a multichannel recording system to estimate near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities from high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity (vS) section is constructed by aligning 1D models at the midpoint of each receiver spread and using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. The receiver spread length sets the theoretical lower limit and any vS structure with its lateral dimension smaller than this length will not be properly resolved in the final vS section. A source interval smaller than the spread length will not improve the horizontal resolution because spatial smearing has already been introduced by the receiver spread. In this paper, we first analyze the horizontal resolution of a pair of synthetic traces. Resolution analysis shows that (1) a pair of traces with a smaller receiver spacing achieves higher horizontal resolution of inverted S-wave velocities but results in a larger relative error; (2) the relative error of the phase velocity at a high frequency is smaller than at a low frequency; and (3) a relative error of the inverted S-wave velocity is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio of data. These results provide us with a guideline to balance the trade-off between receiver spacing (horizontal resolution) and accuracy of the inverted S-wave velocity. We then present a scheme to generate a pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with high horizontal resolution using multichannel records by inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves calculated through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. This method chooses only a pair of consecutive traces within a shot gather to calculate a dispersion curve. We finally invert surface-wave dispersion curves of synthetic and real-world data. Inversion results of both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves - by a pair of traces through cross-correlation with phase-shift scanning method and with the damped least-square method and the singular-value decomposition technique - can feasibly achieve a reliable pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with relatively high horizontal resolution. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. YASEIS: Yet Another computer program to calculate synthetic SEISmograms for a spherically multi-layered Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanlu

    2013-04-01

    Although most researches focus on the lateral heterogeneity of 3D Earth nowadays, a spherically multi-layered model where the parameters depend only on depth still represents a good first order approximation of real Earth. Such 1D models could be used as starting models for seismic tomographic inversion or as background model where the source mechanisms are inverted. The problem of wave propagation in a spherically layered model had been solved theoretically long time ago (Takeuchi and Saito, 1972). The existing computer programs such as Mineos (developed by G. Master, J. Woodhouse and F. Gilbert), Gemini (Friederich and Dalkolmo 1995), DSM (Kawai et. al. 2006) and QSSP (Wang 1999) tackled the computational aspects of the problem. A new simple and fast program for computing the Green's function of a stack of spherical dissipative layers is presented here. The analytical solutions within each homogeneous spherical layer are joined through the continuous boundary conditions and propagated from the center of model up to the level of source depth. Another solution is built by propagating downwardly from the free surface of model to the source level. The final solution is then constructed in frequency domain from the previous two solutions to satisfy the discontinuities of displacements and stresses at the source level which are required by the focal mechanism. The numerical instability in the propagator approach is solved by complementing the matrix propagating with an orthonormalization procedure (Wang 1999). Another unstable difficulty due to the high attenuation in the upper mantle low velocity zone is overcome by switching the bases of solutions from the spherical Bessel functions to the spherical Hankel functions when necessary. We compared the synthetic seismograms obtained from the new program YASEIS with those computed by Gemini and QSSP. In the range of near distances, the synthetics by a reflectivity code for the horizontally layers are also compared with those from YASEIS. Finally the static displacements in the source region are computed by choosing a very small frequency value in YASEIS which is designed for computing the dynamic response, and compared with the results in a homogeneous half-space model (Okada 1992). [1] Friederich, W. and J. Dalkolmo (1995). Complete synthetic seismograms for a spherically symmetric Earth a numerical computation of the Green's function in the frequency domain, Geophys. J. Int., vol. 122, 537-550. [2] Kawai, K., N. Takeuchi, and R.J. Geller (2006). Complete synthetic seismograms up to 2Hz for transversely isotropic spherically symmetric media, Geophys. J. Int., vol. 164, 411-424. [3] Okada, Y. (1992). Internal deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half space, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., vol. 82, no. 2, 1018-1040. [4] Takeuchi, H. and M. Saito (1972). Seismic surface waves, Methods in computational physics, vol. II, 217-295. [5] Wang, R. (1999). A simple orthonormalization method for stable and efficient computation of Green's functions, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., vol. 89, no. 3, 733-741.

  12. Class Room Exercises Using JMA-59-Type Seismograms for Earthquake Study at High-School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y.; Furuta, S.; Hirota, N.

    2013-12-01

    The JMA-59-type electromagnetic seismograph was the standard seismograph for routine observations by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from the 1960's to the 1990's. Some features of those seismograms include 1) displacement wave records (electrically integrated from a velocity output by a moving-coil-type sensor), 2) ink records on paper (analog recording with time marks), 3) continuous drum recording for 12 h, and 4) lengthy operation time over several decades. However, the digital revolution in recording systems during the 1990's made these analog features obsolete, and their abundant and bulky paper-based records were stacked and sometimes disregarded in the library of every observatory. Interestingly, from an educational aspect, the disadvantages of these old-fashioned systems become highly advantageous for educational or outreach purposes. The updated digital instrument is essentially a 'black-box,' not revealing its internal mechanisms and being too fast for observing its signal processes. While the old seismometers and recording systems have been disposed of long since, stacks of analog seismograms continue to languish in observatories' back rooms. In our study, we develop some classroom exercises for studying earthquakes at the mid- to high-school level using these analog seismograms. These exercises include 1) reading the features of seismic records, 2) measuring the S-P time, 3) converting the hypocentral distance from Omori's distance formula, 4) locating the epicenter/hypocenter using the S-P times of surrounding stations, and 5) estimating earthquake magnitude using the Tsuboi's magnitude formula. For this calculation we developed a 'nomogram'--a graphical paper calculator created using a Python-based freeware tool named 'PyNomo.' We tested many seismograms and established the following rules: 1) shallow earthquakes are appropriate for using the Tsuboi's magnitude formula; 2) there is no saturation at peak amplitude; 3) seismograms make it easy to read S-P time and maximum amplitude; 4) they also make it is easy to locate an earthquake's hypocenter. For advanced study, particularly of the source mechanisms of earthquakes, P-wave arrival phases are typically determined from wave records. In this exercise, we use displacement-based records for use by students for recognizing these arrival phases directly rather than by using velocity or acceleration records. Following are some advantages of using these JMA-59-type seismograms: 1) displacement records are easy to compare with real ground motion; 2) ink records can help young students visualize the analog images of a legacy seismograph; 3) scale dimensions such as amplitude of 100 times and time scale of 1 mm/s are easy to explain while using these seismograms as an exercise resource. We confirmed the availability of our exercises by cooperation with our high-school students. We will offer some practical examples at the conference. Keywords: JMA-59 type seismograph, seismograms, hypocenter location, magnitude estimation, educational tool, classroom exercise, high-school

  13. 1D Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, L. R.; Isopi, M.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    We derive exact expressions for a number of aging functions that are scaling limits of non-equilibrium correlations, R(tw,tw+t) as tw --> infinity with t/tw --> theta, in the 1D homogenous q-state Potts model for all q with T=0 dynamics following a quench from infinite temperature. One such quantity is (the two-point, two-time correlation function) when n/sqrt(tw) --> z. Exact, closed-form expressions are also obtained when one or more interludes of infinite temperature dyn...

  14. Coal-seismic, desktop computer programs in BASIC; Part 7, Display and compute shear-pair seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrouck, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Processing of geophysical data taken with the U.S. Geological Survey's coal-seismic system is done with a desk-top, stand-alone computer. Programs for this computer are written in the extended BASIC language utilized by the Tektronix 4051 Graphic System. This report discusses and presents five computer pro grams used to display and compute shear-pair seismograms.

  15. Focal mechanism and depth of the 1956 Amorgos twin earthquakes from waveform matching of analogue seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, A.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.; Gross, C.

    2014-10-01

    Historic analogue seismograms of the large 1956 Amorgos twin earthquakes which occurred in the volcanic arc of the Hellenic subduction zone (HSZ) were collected, digitized and reanalyzed to obtain refined estimates of their depth and focal mechanism. In total, 80 records of the events from 29 European stations were collected and, if possible, digitized. In addition, bulletins were searched for instrument parameters required to calculate transfer functions for instrument correction. A grid search based on matching the digitized historic waveforms to complete synthetic seismograms was then carried out to infer optimal estimates for depth and focal mechanism. Owing to incomplete or unreliable information on instrument parameters and frequently occurring technical problems during recording, such as writing needles jumping off mechanical recording systems, much less seismograms than collected proved suitable for waveform matching. For the first earthquake, only seven seismograms from three different stations at Stuttgart (STU), Göttingen (GTT) and Copenhagen (COP) could be used. Nevertheless, the waveform matching grid search yields two stable misfit minima for source depths of 25 and 50 km. Compatible fault plane solutions are either of normal faulting or thrusting type. A separate analysis of 42 impulsive first-motion polarities taken from the International Seismological Summary (ISS bulletin) excludes the thrusting mechanism and clearly favors a normal faulting solution with at least one of the potential fault planes striking in SW-NE direction. This finding is consistent with the local structure and microseismic activity of the Santorini-Amorgos graben. Since crustal thickness in the Amorgos area is generally less than 30 km, a source depth of 25 km appears to be more realistic. The second earthquake exhibits a conspicuously high ratio of body wave to surface wave amplitudes suggesting an intermediate-depth event located in the Hellenic Wadati-Benioff zone. This hypothesis is supported by a focal mechanism analysis based on first-motion polarities, which indicates a mechanism very different from that of the first event. A waveform matching grid search done to support the intermediate-depth hypothesis proved not to be fruitful because the body wave phases are overlain by strong surface wave coda of the first event inhibiting a waveform match. However, body to surface wave amplitude ratios of a modern intermediate-depth event with an epicenter close to the island of Milos observed at stations of the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) exhibit a pattern similar to the one observed for the second event with high values in a frequency band between 0.05 Hz and 0.3 Hz. In contrast, a shallow event with an epicenter in western Crete and nearly identical source mechanism and magnitude, shows very low ratios of body and surface wave amplitude up to 0.17 Hz and higher ratios only beyond that frequency. Based on this comparison with a modern event, we estimate the source depth of the second event to be greater than 100 km. The proximity in time and space of the two events suggests a triggering of the second, potentially deep event by the shallow first one.

  16. Phase identification and attribute analysis of broadband seismograms at far-regional distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chao-Ying; Kennett, B. L. N.

    A trained analyst can frequently provide a rapid assessment of a seismic record and provide identification for many seismic phases. For digital data a challenge is to find methods (or combinations of methods) which can provide equivalent levels of phase identification and attribute analysis. Until now, there have been few discussions on phase attribute analysis for broadband records, even though the character of the major phases has been recognised several decades ago. We introduce a combination of four simple methods into the analysis of broadband seismograms so as to provide a means of improving phase recognition and the full use of broadband information for far-regional distances where the seismograms are particularly complex (because of the influence of the upper mantle discontinuities). For arrival detection we can employ the energy ratios of the short term behaviour to the long-term trend, using the vertical component and horizontal components of unrotated seismic records. We also use auto-regressive analysis to endeavour to separate broadband records into three parts: the seismic signal, microseismic noise and white noise. The higher order auto- and cross-correlation coefficient (representing the similarity of waveform) can be used to identify the presence of seismic phases, by avoiding the influence of the relatively low order correlation of microseismic noise. For each broadband 3-component record a set of complex traces are constructed and then a variety of definitions of instantaneous phase and frequency can be exploited to separate the behaviour of signal and noise. The complex traces can also be used for polarisation analysis. The changes in the character of the eigenvectors are particularly helpful for recognising the phases of broadband records in the far-regional range. The individual methods are quite powerful but when used in combination can provide a very effective means of phase characterisation.

  17. 3D resolution tests of two-plane wave approach using synthetic seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, S.; Larmat, C. S.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Two-plane wave tomography (TPWT) is becoming a standard approach to obtain fundamental mode Rayleigh wave phase velocities for a variety of tectonic settings. A recent study by Ceylan et al. (2012) has applied this method to eastern Tibet, using data from INDEPTH-IV and Namche-Barwa seismic experiments. The TPWT assumes that distortion of wavefronts at each station can be expressed as the sum of two plane waves. However, there is currently no robust or complete resolution test for TPWT, to address its limitations such as wavefront healing. In this study, we test the capabilities of TPWT and resolution of INDEPTH-IV seismic experiment, by performing 3D resolution tests using synthetic seismograms. Utilizing SPECFEM3D software, we compute synthetic data sets resolving periods down to ~30 s. We implement a checkerboard upper mantle (for depths between 50 and 650 km) with variable cell sizes, superimposed to PREM as the background model. We then calculate fundamental mode surface wave phase velocities using TPWT for periods between 33-143 seconds, using synthetic seismograms computed from our three dimensional hypothetical model. Assuming a constant Poisson's ratio, we use partial derivatives from Saito (1988) to invert for shear wave velocities. We show that the combination of TPWT and Saito (1988) methods is capable of retrieving anomalies down to depths of ~200 km for Rayleigh waves. Below these depths, we observe evidence of both lateral and vertical smearing. We also find that the traditional method for estimating the resolution of TPWT consistently overestimates phase velocity resolutions. Love waves exhibit adequate resolution down to depths of ~100 km. At depths greater than 100 km, smearing is more evident in SH wave results than those of SV waves. Increased smearing of SH waves is most probably due to propagation characteristics and shallower sensitivity of Love waves. Our results imply that TPWT can be applied to Love waves, making future investigations of radial anisotropy possible at lithospheric depths. Moreover, ongoing tests for the retrieval of azimuthal fast direction will better constrain the reliability of the TPWT.

  18. A digital seismogram archive of nuclear explosion signals, recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory, Kazakhstan, from 1966 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A. An

    2015-06-01

    This second dataset consists of more than 3700 waveforms (digital seismograms from almost 500 nuclear explosions in Eurasia, many of them recorded at regional distances. It is important as a training set for the development and evaluation of seismological methods of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions, and can be used for assessment of three-dimensional models of the Earth’s interior structure.

  19. S-Wave Velocity Structure beneath Southwest North America from Seismogram Comparisons of the Mexico Earthquake on 22 June 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates earth structure beneath the Southwest North America landmass, especially between Mexico and California. Models based on S wave velocities for this area were obtained by carrying out seismogram fitting in time domain and three Cartesian components simultaneously. The data used is from an event, coded as C052297B that occurred in the state of Guerrero, Mexico and it was fitted to synthetic data computed with the GEMINI program at TS network stations. Earth model IASP...

  20. 1D transfer matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Alvarez, R.; Garcia-Moliner, F. [University ' Jaume I' , Castellon de la Plana (Spain)]. E-mails: perez@exp.uji.es; garmol@ext.uji.es; Trallero-Herrero, C. [University ' Jaume I' , Castellon de la Plana (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Many problems of physical interest - for instance, in statistical mechanics - are described by linear ordinary second-order differential systems for which different types of transfer matrices can be introduced and used. Focusing on heterostructures where matching at interfaces is involved, this paper discusses two of them with emphasis on one, here denoted T, which involves the linear differential form expressing the physical quantities matched at the interfaces. The mathematical background is summarized in a simple way and then T is used to study two types of heterostructures involving a large number of interfaces. Firstly, the regular periodic superlattices are studied and the role of different boundary conditions (BCs) at the end of one period is discussed. Only periodic BCs are suitable to study a simple regular superlattices but the discussion provides the background to study different approximants when the period is a largish generation of a quasi-regular heterostructure, like, for instance, a Fibonacci sequence. (author)

  1. Instaseis: Instant Global Broadband Synthetic Seismograms Based on a Waveform Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Martin; Stähler, Simon; Krischer, Lion; Hutko, Alex; Hosseini, Kasra; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje

    2015-04-01

    Spherical models for planetary bodies represent a common characterization of bulk global material properties, often satisfying up to 90% of recorded data. Our new methodology combines accurate seismic wave propagation with symmetry properties of radiation patterns, reciprocity, and high-order interpolation to deliver a comprehensive waveform database from which arbitrary source-receiver configurations and high-frequency record sections for a given model can be extracted within seconds. The database thus acts as a once-and-for-all solution to wave propagation in spherically symmetric models. This not only frees users from re-running wave propagation codes, but opens doors to new applications in which vast numbers of parameter alterations are desired such as modifications in source properties (moment tensor, source-time function, location), filtering, or background models, e.g. in a framework for probabilistic uncertainty assessment. Using reciprocity, two simulations with the global wave-propagation solver, AxiSEM (Nissen-Meyer et al. 2014, www.axisem.info), suffice to generate a complete database of Green's functions: one as a "source" for the vertical, and one for both horizontal components. Storage of the propagating spatio-temporal displacement field at all distances (0-180 degrees) and depths (0-700km for earthquakes) on the actual basis of the spectral-element mesh ensures the same accuracy as for the numerical wave propagation solution upon posteriori interpolation. The ease of computation (10K CPU hours) and tolerable storage requirements (a few TB for 1Hz waveforms) implies that multiple such databases may be computed for several models at high resolution (1Hz for global-Earth synthetics), e.g. continental versus oceanic crust, anisotropic versus isotropic, or various lower-mantle models. Further applications include the efficient generation of reference synthetics for global tomography, wavefields for hybrid 1D-3D methods, and responses to finite-fault sources. Instaseis offers a user friendly interface written in Python and directly integrates with ObsPy, it includes a GUI and can run as Client/Server via HTTP, such that the databases can be accessed and shared via internet without the necessity to download large volumes of data. A first example of such a database is being developed and stored at the IRIS DMC (Seattle), to deliver on-demand customizable synthetics.

  2. A comparison of two methods for earthquake source inversion using strong motion seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Beroza

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we compare two time-domain inversion methods that have been widely applied to the problem of modeling earthquake rupture using strong-motion seismograms. In the multi-window method, each point on the fault is allowed to rupture multiple times. This allows flexibility in the rupture time and hence the rupture velocity. Variations in the slip-velocity function are accommodated by variations in the slip amplitude in each time-window. The single-window method assumes that each point on the fault ruptures only once, when the rupture front passes. Variations in slip amplitude are allowed and variations in rupture velocity are accommodated by allowing the rupture time to vary. Because the multi-window method allows greater flexibility, it has the potential to describe a wider range of faulting behavior; however, with this increased flexibility comes an increase in the degrees of freedom and the solutions are comparatively less stable. We demonstrate this effect using synthetic data for a test model of the Mw 7.3 1992 Landers, California earthquake, and then apply both inversion methods to the actual recordings. The two approaches yield similar fits to the strong-motion data with different seismic moments indicating that the moment is not well constrained by strong-motion data alone. The slip amplitude distribution is similar using either approach, but important differences exist in the rupture propagation models. The single-window method does a better job of recovering the true seismic moment and the average rupture velocity. The multi-window method is preferable when rise time is strongly variable, but tends to overestimate the seismic moment. Both methods work well when the rise time is constant or short compared to the periods modeled. Neither approach can recover the temporal details of rupture propagation unless the distribution of slip amplitude is constrained by independent data.

  3. Development of earthquake early warning system using real time signal of broadband seismogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake pose serious threat of live and properties for urban area near subduction zone offshore and active fault on land. Jakarta and Bandung is an example of big city that no system of Earthquake early warning (EEW) event very high urbanization, and has many important infra structure in the area. The capital city is potentially high risk ground shaking. EEW can be usefull tool for reducing earthquake hazard, if spatial relation between cities and earthquake source is favorable for such warning and their citizens are properly trained to response early warning message. An EEW and rapid response system can provide the critical information needed to minimized lost of live and property and direct rescue. Earthquake ground shaking with magnitude M>6.0 from zone of Megathrust, southern of West Java should potentially damage in the area of west java especially Bandung and Jakarta City. This research development of EEW parameter such as amplitude displacement (Pd), rapid magnitude determination (M) and Peak ground Velocity (PGV). We explore the practical approach to EEW with the use of Broadband seismogram signal. Time effective EEW which epicenter from megathrust zone has potential to provide EEW in the area of west java such as Jakarta first ground shaking more or less 60 second later and strong shaking 118 second after EEW Alarm on CISI Station. EEW notification at potentially damage in the area of west java can be predicted from the characteristic of Pd > 0.5 cm, M> 6 m the characteristic of Pd > 0.5 cm, M> 6 and PGV > 10 cm/sec. GIS as a tool for presentation of hazard mapping in the affected area.

  4. Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables

  5. 75 FR 27411 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1B, 1D, 1D1, and 1S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ...position checks of the gas generator 2nd stage turbine blades on Turbomeca Arriel 1B...replacement of 2nd stage turbines on Arriel 1B, 1D, and...engine to replace the gas turbine discs [[Page 27412

  6. Reducing Uncertainties in the Velocities Determined by Inversion of Phase Velocity Dispersion Curves by Using Synthetic Seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, M.; Pezeshk, S.; Pujol, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The use of Rayleigh waves phase velocity dispersion curves for the determination of shallow shear-wave velocity profiles is widespread in the context of geotechnical, earthquake engineering, and seismic hazard applications because it is a low-cost technique. A significant problem with this technique, however, is its intrinsic non-uniqueness, and although this problem is widely recognized, there have not been systematic efforts to develop approaches to reduce the pervasive uncertainty that affects the velocity profiles determined by the inversion. To minimize the lack of uniqueness different methodologies can be combined together. Genetic algorithms (GA) can be used to maximize the probability of finding the global optimum. Furthermore, considering higher modes of propagation will help reducing the non-uniqueness problem. Here, we present one approach based on the use of synthetic seismograms, which has been tested successfully with synthetic data designed to resemble actual data. For example, two completely different velocity models produce essentially the same dispersion curves for the fundamental mode and the first three higher modes, which mean that there is no objective way to discriminate between the two models. On the other hand, the corresponding synthetic traces have significant differences, which allow choosing the appropriate velocity model. The goal of this study is to apply the synthetic seismogram technique to data collected with method of multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). We use simulated tests to assess the usefulness and the limitations of this technique. We use a target velocity profile with an assumed water level for calculation of synthetic experimental dispersion curve, which is used in the inversion process. The inversion process results in several different inverted velocity profiles with theoretical dispersion curves similar to the target dispersion curve. Applying the synthetic seismogram technique, it is possible to robustly find the inverted velocity of the target profile.

  7. Terahertz Signal Generation in 1-D Photonic Crystals Terahertz Signal Generation in 1-D Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Trejo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and numerical results are presented to assure that a tunable, narrow-band, coherent THz radiation source can be based on parametric down-conversion in aphotonic crystal. Our proposal is based on down-conversion mixing and a local-field enhancement mechanism that is available by tuning each of the two driving laserfields either to band-edge or to a defect mode in the band gap. The frequency of the down-converted signal can be tuned by intersecting two non co-linear laser sources. The polarizations are degenerate at normal incidence and have sub-THz down-conversion maximum. For aspecific sample geometry we show that by changing the angle of incidence of one tunable laser to 30 degrees the THz frequency is about11.5 THz for p-polarization and 3.5THz for s-polarization, since the angle-dependent transmission spectrum is different for p- and spolarizations.The peak conversion efficiency for both polarizations is enhanced by over two orders of magnitude. Finally we also introduce some preliminary experimental results which agree with the numerical results we present here.En este trabajo presentamos resultados teóricos y numéricos que aseguran poder obtener una fuente de radiación coherente, sintonizable y de banda angosta en la región terahertzdel espectro electromagnético. Nuestra propuesta se basa en el efecto de conversión paramétrica no lineal y en el mecanismo de amplificación delcampo. Estos efectos se obtienen simultáneamente al sintonizar dos fuentes láser en la orilla de la banda prohibida o en el modo de un defecto localizado del cristal fotónico. La frecuencia de la señal obtenida puede ser sintonizada al mezclar las dos fuentes láser con diferente ángulo de incidencia. Las polarizaciones son degeneradas a un ángulo de incidencia normal y la conversión paramétrica genera señales sub-terahertz. Para una muestra específica, mostramos que cambiando el ángulo de incidencia de un láser sintonizable a 30 grados,la frecuencia de la señal obtenida en el cristal es de 11.5 THz para la polarización p y de 3.5 THz para la polarización s. Esto es debido a que el espectro de transmisión es dependientedel ángulo y por lo tanto, existen diferencias para la polarización p y para la s. La eficiencia de conversión pico para ambas polarizaciones es amplificada por más de dos órdenes de magnitud. Finalmente, también se muestran algunos resultados experimentales preliminares que concuerdan con los resultados numéricos que presentamos en este artículo.

  8. Seismogram Analysis of the Earthquakes in Sumatra on WRAB Observation Station: S Wave Velocity Structure on Subduction Zone of Sumatra-Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Jaya Santosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The S wave velocity structure at subduction zone under Sumatra-Java was investigated through seismogram analysis in time domain and three Cartesian’s components simultaneously. The main data set was the comparison between the measured seismogram and the synthetic one, not the travel time data. The synthetic seismogram was calculated with the GEMINI method. The seismogram comparison shows that the global earth mantle of PREMAN gives deviating synthetic seismogram and has later arrival times than the measured one. The gradient bh in the upper mantle is altered to positive from its negative slope as in the PREMAN model, and positive corrections are added to the zero order of polynomial’s coefficients in all earth mantle layers. The excellent fitting, as well as travel time or waveform, were obtained on the surface waves of Love and Rayleigh, the S and SS mantle and repetitive depth waves. The additional positive corrections were also confirmed by a well fitting on the repetitive depth waves. This result expresses that part of the earth mantle that due to tectonic processes has positive anomaly on S wave velocity and vertical anisotropy in all of the earth mantle layers.

  9. Reassessment of source parameters for three major earthquakes in the East African rift system from historical seismograms and bulletins

    OpenAIRE

    O. Kulhánek; A. Ayele

    2000-01-01

    Source parameters for three majo earthquakes in the East African rift are re-computed from historical seismograms and bulletins. The main shock and the largest foreshock of the August 25, 1906 earthquake sequence in the main Ethiopian rift are re-located on the eastern shoulder of the rift segment.The magnitude of the main shock is estimated to be 6.5 (Mw) from spectral analysis. The December 13, 1910 earthquake in the Rukwa rift (Western Tanzania) indicated a significant strike-slip componen...

  10. Full-3D Tomography of the Crustal Structure in Southern California Using Earthquake Seismograms and Ambient-Noise Correlagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. J.; Chen, P.; Jordan, T. H.; Maechling, P. J.; Denolle, M.; Beroza, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    We have constructed a high-resolution model for the Southern California crust, CVM-S4.26, by inverting more than half-a-million waveform-misfit measurements from about 38,000 earthquake seismograms and 12,000 ambient-noise correlagrams. The inversion was initiated with the Southern California Earthquake Center's Community Velocity Model, CVM-S4, and seismograms were simulated using K. Olsen's staggered-grid finite-difference code, AWP-ODC, which was highly optimized for massively parallel computation on supercomputers by Y. Cui et al. We navigated the tomography through 26 iterations, alternating the inversion sequences between the adjoint-wavefield (AW) method and the more rapidly converging, but more data-intensive, scattering-integral (SI) method. Earthquake source errors were reduced at various stages of the tomographic navigation by inverting the waveform data for the earthquake centroid-moment tensors. All inversions were done on the Mira supercomputer of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. The resulting model, CVM-S4.26, is consistent with independent observations, such as high-resolution 2D refraction surveys and Bouguer gravity data. Many of the high-contrast features of CVM-S4.26 conform to known fault structures and other geological constraints not applied in the inversions. We have conducted several other validation experiments, including checking the model against a large number (>28,000) of seismograms not used in the inversions. We illustrate this consistency with the excellent fits at low frequencies (? 0.2 Hz) to three-component seismograms recorded throughout Southern California from the 17 Mar 2014 Encino (MW4.4) and 29 Mar 2014 La Habra (MW5.1) earthquakes, and we show these fits to be much better than those obtained by two community velocity models in current use, CVM-S4 and CVM-H11.9. We conclude by describing some of the novel features of the CVM-S4.26 model, which include unusual velocity reversals in some regions of the mid-crust.

  11. Radiative transfer theory for the fractal structure and power-law decay characteristics of short-period seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruo; Fukushima, Rintaro

    2013-12-01

    For short period S-wave seismograms of an earthquake, the maximum amplitude decreases according to a power of traveltime, and the coda amplitude also decreases according to a power of lapse time measured from the earthquake origin time. The radiative transfer theory has been often used for the envelope synthesis of complex seismograms composed of scattered waves due to random heterogeneities in the Earth medium; however, the conventional theory, which supposes uniform distributions of scatterers (heterogeneities) and intrinsic absorbers, predicts that both the ballistic term amplitude and the coda wave amplitude exponentially decrease with time increasing in addition to the geometrical decay. In order to explain their power-law characteristics, this paper proposes the radiative transfer theory for a fractally random and homogeneous distribution of isotropic scatterers and intrinsic absorbers with fractal dimension D ? 3 in the 3-D space: the number density of scatterers/absorbers in a sphere of radius r is proportional to rD - 3 for distance r ? rc but constant for r ? rc, where the corner distance rc is introduced to avoid divergence at a small r. The case of D = 3 corresponds to the conventional uniform distribution. For the case of D = 2, the theory well predicts that the mean square (MS) amplitude of the ballistic-wave decreases according to a power of traveltime and the MS amplitude of coda waves decreases according to a power of lapse time measured from the origin time, where each power is controlled by the scattering coefficient, intrinsic absorption coefficient and corner distance. For the case of D = 1, the ballistic-wave MS amplitude decay is the inverse square of time and the coda decay is much faster. As a preliminary work, fixing D = 2 as a priori choice, we analyse S-seismogram envelopes of a local earthquake in Japan. The case study shows that the radiative transfer theory for a fractal scattering medium is useful for the study of the distribution of small-scale heterogeneities in the Earth medium.

  12. Well logging apparatus and method: synthetic logs and synthetic seismograms with extrapolated reflector dip from log measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A borehole investigating device takes measurements of a subsurface earth formation and provides signals forming sonic, formation density or similar logs of the borehole. Additionally, the investigating device measures the dip of seismic signal reflectors traversed by the borehole and provides corresponding dip signals. A seismic section which may or may not include the borehole is selected, and the log and dip signals are combined with signals defining the location of the seismic section with respect to the borehole, to thereby provide synthetic logs for each of a number of virtual boreholes which coincide with selected virtual and/or actual shotpoints of the seismic section. The synthetic log signals are then combined to form a truly twodimensional synthetic seismogram for the selected seismic section. The synthetically derived signals may be corrected in accordance with a selected geological model of the formation

  13. Solvothermal Process Assisted Sensitization of 1D Anodized TiO2 Nanotubes with 0D Cadmium Chalcogenides (CdTe, CdS) for Efficient Solar to Clean Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Swagotom

    The creation of an n-n heterojunction between TiO2 nanotubes (T_NT) and CdTe nanocrystals (which mostly exist as p-type) is crucial for realizing the benefits of efficient directional charge transport in a photoanode of 1D/0D architecture. The presented one-pot solvothermal approach leverages temperature control to achieve linker-free spatial distribution of CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) on T_NT resulting in highly efficient optical and photoelectrochemical responses. As a result of this positive outcome, a comparative study between the solvothermal approach and the linker mediated approach was performed on water oxidation with CdS NC decorated T_NT. Solvothermally synthesized T_NT/CdS photoelectrode presents ˜600% higher value of short-circuit current density (Isc) than that of the plain T_NT (0.95 mA/cm2); in addition, it demonstrates 4.20-fold increased applied-bias-to photoconversion efficiency (ABPE) in comparison with the lone T_NT (0.77%). However, linker mediated T_NT/MPA-CdS photoelectrode exhibits relatively lower value of I sc (2.51 mA/cm2) and ABPE (1.79 %).

  14. 1D Signal Phase Unwrapper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal phase values are crucial in seismic data interpretation to enhance the analysis of amplitudes, bright spots, dim spots etc. Phase values can be zeroed in a section to enhance signal comparison which can be related to velocities and other petro-physical properties. Homomorphic signal processing and deconvolution both require exact phase value estimates. Consequently, in-depth investigations are necessary to solve problems of phase estimation in various wave propagation situations. Meanwhile, phase values are often measured modulo-2 called principal values and the amount of phase estimation in various wave propagation situations. Meanwhile, values are often measured modulo-2 called principal values and the amount of phase information is independent of any integer multiple of 2 added to the principal value phase. However, to be useful for linear processing, this principal value phase has to be unwrapped. This will result in a continuous function, the 2 discontinuities being eliminated, or at least reduced. Operations like deconvolution and homomorphic signal processing require unwrapped phase values. Phase unwrapping is applied to pre-stack data for the computation of PVA phase variation with angle of incidence attribute used to improve processing and interpretation.Conventional 1D phase unwrapping algorithms integrate the wrapped phase difference between two contiguous points. This was later improved to use adaptive integration of phase differences. Alternativelyration of phase differences. Alternatively, phase difference ambiguity due to sparse sampling can be overcome by taking samples at progressively closer intervals. These methods are often inadequate due to problems of aliasing caused by rapid phase value variations. We develop a 1D phase unwrapping technique using the amplitude of a complex trace and discrete Fourier transforms. This technique is simple, very reliable and less sensitive to aliasing. It exploits the periodicity of Fourier transform to unwind wrapped phase values. We demonstrate this technique using synthetic and real data

  15. Intermittency and clustering in the 1-D lattice gas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct generating functions of the scaled factorial moments of the distribution of the particles and links (two neighbouring particles) in the 1-D statistical system for variable bin size. The results show intermittent-like behaviour. We compare the intermittency signal for particles and links and discuss a possible influence of the clustering in hadronization on the size of fluctuations. (orig.)

  16. Coal-seismic, desktop computer programs in BASIC; Part 5, Perform X-square T-square analysis and plot normal moveout lines on seismogram overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrouck, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Processing of data taken with the U.S. Geological Survey's coal-seismic system is done with a desktop, stand-alone computer. Programs for this computer are written in the extended BASIC language used by the Tektronix 4051 Graphic System. This report presents computer programs to perform X-square/T-square analyses and to plot normal moveout lines on a seismogram overlay.

  17. Reassessment of source parameters for three major earthquakes in the East African rift system from historical seismograms and bulletins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kulhánek

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Source parameters for three majo earthquakes in the East African rift are re-computed from historical seismograms and bulletins. The main shock and the largest foreshock of the August 25, 1906 earthquake sequence in the main Ethiopian rift are re-located on the eastern shoulder of the rift segment.The magnitude of the main shock is estimated to be 6.5 (Mw from spectral analysis. The December 13, 1910 earthquake in the Rukwa rift (Western Tanzania indicated a significant strike-slip component from teleseismcs body-waveform inversion for fault mechanism and seismic moment. The January 6, 1928 earthquake in the Gregory rift (Kenya showed a multiple rupture process and unusually long duration for a size of 6.6(Mw. The May 20, 1990 earthquake in Southern Sudan, mentioned merely for the sake of comparison, is the largest of all instrumentally recorded events in the East African rift system. Despite the fact that the mode of deformation in the continental rift is predominantly of extensional nature, the three largest earthquakes known to occur in the circum-Tanzanian craton have shallow focal depths and significant strike-slip component in their fault mechanisms. This and similar works will enrich the database for seismic hazard assessment in East Africa.

  18. Numerical modeling of seismic waves for estimating the influence of the Greenland ice sheet on observed seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Kanao, Masaki; Tsuboi, Seiji; Tono, Yoko

    2015-03-01

    We calculate regional synthetic seismograms for a realistic structure model beneath Greenland, including surface topography and ice sheet thickness, for observations of the multinational GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN). The thick and heterogeneous Greenland ice sheet can cause distortion of the seismic waveforms observed at the GLISN stations on ice. We developed a numerical technique that calculates accurate regional seismic wavefields with low computational requirements. Here, we calculate the elastic wave propagation up to 2 Hz for four structural models of the Greenland ice sheet from a seismic source at various depths and with different mechanisms. Our computations for a realistic ice sheet model, the near-surface seismic source produced a very characteristic wave train with a group velocity smaller than the S-wavespeed in the ice, considered to be an ice-sheet guided S wave, developed by the superposition of post-critical reflections between the free surface and the ice bed. We named this wave "Le", analogous to the Lg wave, a crustally guided S wave. Furthermore, computation for a deeper seismic source resulted in reinforcement of the crustal Sg-coda wave with a group velocity range of ?3.1-2.6 km/s, which agrees with the characteristic waveform observed on the Greenland ice sheet.

  19. FrOsT: A new generation of normal mode seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Andrew; Al-Attar, David; Trampert, Jeannot; Woodhouse, John

    2015-04-01

    Normal mode seismology provides important constraints on earth structure, particularly at the largest spatial scales, and enables the imaging of density heterogeneities within the Earth. In addition, computational approaches built upon normal modes offer an efficient route towards obtaining synthetic seismograms and their sensitivity kernels (partial derivatives of the seismograms with respect to source or structural model parameters). At present, it is difficult to compute normal modes at frequencies higher than around 100 mHz, and'as far as we are aware'no publicly-released codes can perform complete calculations in 3D earth models. However, these are software limitations, rather than inherent problems with the normal modes framework. We are therefore developing the Free Oscillation Toolkit (FrOsT), a suite of software for normal mode seismology designed to enable calculations for arbitrary 3D earth models, and to arbitrarily high frequencies. All codes will be released on an open-source basis in due course. We demonstrate that improved radial integration and mode-counting techniques enable stable calculations at high frequency, and present initial benchmarks in 1D earth models. Through the use of the generalised spherical harmonic formalism, we show that it is straightforward to obtain strain and rotation seismograms, in addition to displacement fields, enabling a full range of data to be handled simultaneously. Finally, we provide an overview of expected future developments, including software to compute complete seismograms in 3D models through full mode coupling.

  20. 1D copper nanostructures: progress, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanushali, Sushrut; Ghosh, Prakash; Ganesh, Anuradda; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-03-18

    One-dimensional noble metal nanostructures are important components in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology due to their unique optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties. However, their cost and scalability may become a major bottleneck for real-world applications. Copper, being an earth-abundant metallic element, is an ideal candidate for commercial applications. It is critical to develop technologies to produce 1D copper nanostructures with high monodispersity, stability and oxygen-resistance for future low-cost nano-enabled materials and devices. This article covers comprehensively the current progress in 1D copper nanostructures, most predominantly nanorods and nanowires. First, various synthetic methodologies developed so far to generate 1D copper nanostructures are thoroughly described; the methodologies are in conjunction with the discussion of microscopic, spectrophotometric, crystallographic and morphological characterizations. Next, striking electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties of 1D copper nanostructures are highlighted. Additionally, the emerging applications of 1D copper nanostructures in flexible electronics, transparent electrodes, low cost solar cells, field emission devices are covered, amongst others. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the remaining challenges and opportunities. PMID:25504816

  1. Reflected Phases Apparent in Local Event Seismograms at Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, A. K.; McNutt, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Uturuncu volcano is located in the central Andes at 22.27° S, 67.18° W. Despite 270,000 years of volcanic dormancy, a satellite geodetic InSAR survey by Pritchard and Simons (2002) shows an inflation rate of 1.5-2 cm/yr over an area with a width of 70 km (Pritchard and Simons, 2002). The source was modeled, using a Mogi source, to 15-17 km deep located ~3 km to the southwest of Uturuncu's summit. Current studies have found a source area of decreased density with respect to the crust and with a Vp/Vs ratio of > 1.9, with a depth matching that derived from the deformation signature [Potro et al., 2013; M.E. West, H. McFarlin, D. Christensen written comm.] Determining the size, geographic location, source depth, and source shape of deformation at Uturuncu volcano is important because this can indicate either (or a combination of) injection of magma from depth into the system, melting of crustal rock from a previous injection, or the build-up of pressure in a hydrothermal system (Pritchard and Simons, 2002). We are using phases arriving between the P and S phases to constrain some of the deformation source parameters. These result from the interaction of seismic waves with the attenuating source, believed to be local thickening of the regional shallow crustal magma body. Analysis of 200 local events spanning the period of PLUTONS seismic network operation (April 2010 to October 2012) reveals that 55 of these events show at least one station with a phase arrival between the P and S phases. If this trend holds as expected during analysis of the other 377 shallow local events, then 25.7% of the local events will generate an anomalous phase. No observable differences in the frequency of phase occurrence have been noted with time; however, the locations of earthquakes generating this phase strongly cluster (39 of 55) within a 10 km radius of the volcano, skewed to the south and west. There is the possibility of a NE-SW trend between the earthquake epicenter and the locations of the stations showing phases, suggesting anisotropy of the phase source body.

  2. Synthetic seismograms in laterrally heterogeneous anelastic media: Modal summation for the case of offshore seismic sources (deep-sea trough)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While waiting for the increment of strong motion data, especially for earthquake prone areas outside the United States and Japan, a very useful approach to perform immediate site specific seismic hazard assessment is the development and use of modelling tools. They are based, on one hand, on the theoretical knowledge of the physics of the seismic source and of wave propagation and, on the other hand, on the exploitation of the relatively rich database, already available, that can be used for the definition of the source and structural models. With these input data we model the ground motion using the mode-coupling approach for sharply varying laterally heterogeneous anelastic media, i.e. computing the coupling coefficients for the modes transmitted and reflected at the vertical interface, between two quarter spaces in welded contact. The formalism can be readily applied to any laterally heterogeneous structure by using a custom series of layered anelastic structures in welded contact at vertical interfaces. The case of seismic wave propagation in smooth varying laterally heterogeneous layered media, is solved with an approximation, equivalent to WKBJ method. The theoretical formulation that combines both WKBJ and the coupling coefficients approaches, is implemented in a computer program package. The computer code we have developed allows us to calculate synthetic seismograms for a wide range of laterally inhomogeneous layered anelastic media. As a case study we use an earthquake which occurred on December 16, 1999 (mb=4.8) beneath the Bartlett sea trough, south of Santiago de Cuba city, that was recorded by an accelerometer (SMA-100) placed in Rio Carpintero (RCC) station, at an epicentral distance of about 30 Km. The path travelled by the waves corresponds to a complex structure from undersea source to inland seismic station. A good fit between the observed transverse component (SH-waves) of acceleration and the corresponding synthetic signal is obtained for a seismic moment of M0-7,1.1022. (author)

  3. Ejs Intro 1D Motion Lab Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-29

    The Introductory Physics 1D Motion Lab asks students to develop a computer model for a ball moving vertically under the influence of gravity. When the file is opened, it is initially programmed with a mass moving at constant velocity. It is assumed that students have first collected data of a basketball or volleyball bouncing under a motion detector. The lab instructions fully explain how to build the computer model using Easy Java Simulations modeling tool. The students will learn how to modify the model to simulate a bouncing ball, define variables, calculate relationships, and change the properties for plotting the graph. The calculus is done for the student. Editor's Note: The Easy Java Simulation tool greatly reduces the amount of programming required to develop computer models. Exercises in student-generated modeling are becoming much more widespread in physics education because of the opportunities for students to test and apply their own prototypes to explain and predict physical phenomena. This resource is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. In order to modify the simulation (and see how it is designed), users must install the Easy Java Simulations Modeling and Authoring Tool. SEE RELATED MATERIALS for a link to install the EJS modeling tool.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of 1-D diffusing elements

    OpenAIRE

    Bitterli, R.; Kim, M. -s; Scharf, T.; Herzig, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Certain high power laser applications require thin homogeneous laser lines. In this paper we describe the concept, fabrication and characterization of a 1-D diffuser that generates such a line. The device is based on an array of concave cylinder lenses with a statistically distributed width and a fix radius of curvature. The fabrication is based on isotropic wet etching of fused silica. Measurement results are compared to simulation which show good agreement.

  5. Social exploration of 1D games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the apparently meaningless concept of a 1 dimensional computer game is explored, via netnography. A small number of games was designed and implemented, in close contact with online communities of players and developers, providing evidence that 1 dimension is enough to produce interesting gameplay, to allow for level design and even to leave room for artistic considerations on 1D rendering. General techniques to re-design classic 2D games into 1D are also emerging from this exploration.

  6. Synthetic seismograms from vibracores: A case study in correlating the late quaternary seismic stratigraphy of the New Jersey inner continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esker, D.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ashley, G.M.; Waldner, J.S.; Hall, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    A new technique, using empirical relationships between median grain size and density and velocity to calculate proxy values for density and velocity, avoids many of the problems associated with the use of well logs and shipboard measurements to construct synthetic seismograms. This method was used to groundtruth and correlate across both analog and digital shallow high-resolution seismic data on the New Jersey shelf. Sampling dry vibracores to determine median grain size eliminates the detrimental effects that coring disturbances and preservation variables have on the sediment and water content of the core. The link between seismic response to lithology and bed spacing is more exact. The exact frequency of the field seismic data can be realistically simulated by a 10-20 cm sampling interval of the vibracores. The estimate of the percentage error inherent in this technique, 12% for acoustic impedance and 24% for reflection amplitude, is calculated to one standard deviation and is within a reasonable limit for such a procedure. The synthetic seismograms of two cores, 4-6 m long, were used to correlate specific sedimentary deposits to specific seismic reflection responses. Because this technique is applicable to unconsolidated sediments, it is ideal for upper Pleistocene and Holocene strata. Copyright ?? 1996, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  7. PALLAS-1D(V3): variable-dimension version of PALLAS-1D(VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PALLAS-1D(V3) program is a variable-dimension version of the PALLAS-1D(VII) code, which is the revised version of the PALLAS-PL, SP-Br code. The PALLAS-1D(VII) code could treat transport of both neutrons and gamma rays, in particular of secondary photons including the bremsstrahlung and annihilation photons. This document gives a full description of input and output data for PALLAS-1D(V3) code, also with the input description of several sample problems. (author)

  8. Coupling method of 1-d/1-d and 1-d/3-d junctions for an implict WCOBRA/TRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COBRA/TRAC is an advanced thermal-hydraulic computer code, originally developed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The code combines a two-fluid, three-dimensional (3-d) program, COBRA-TF, with a one-dimensional (1-d) drift flux program, TRAC-PD2. COBRA-TF is designed to be used to model the pressurized water reactor (PWR), and loop components are modeled with TRAC-PD2. An implicit method was proposed for the COBRA part of the code, and some success was achieved as demonstrated by an analysis of a film-boiling experiment for a steady-state and power ascension transient. On the other hand, TRAC-PD2 includes an option to choose a semi-implicit or an implicit method in solving component equations. This implicit option improves running time somewhat, but the junctions among the components are treated semi-implicitly. So, the time step is controlled by the Courant numbers at the 1-d/3-d and 1-d/1-d component junctions. In order to speed up the code further, the solution method for the junctions must be changed to implicit. An implicit method is introduced. It is evaluated by a COBRA/TRAC model of a less-of-fluid test (LOFT) and a two-loop PWR

  9. Dealing with a New T1D Diagnosis in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... College Dealing with a New T1D Diagnosis in College A diabetes diagnosis is shocking at any point ... everything you set your heart on. T1D in College T1D in College Studying in College Handling Roommate ...

  10. Six-degree-of-freedom near-source seismic motions II: examples of real seismogram analysis and S-wave velocity retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokešová, Johana; Málek, Ji?í

    2015-04-01

    Near-source records obtained by the mechanical seismic sensor Rotaphone are presented. The Rotaphone can measure six components of seismic movements, three translational and three rotational. The apparent S-wave phase velocity is determined and the possibility to obtain the wavepath S-wave velocity directly under the receiver is discussed. Rotation-to-translation ratios (RTRs) characterize the strength of rotations compared to translations. The Rotaphone records of local microearthquakes were obtained in various European seismoactive regions over the last few years. Three case studies, analyzed in detail, include various geological structures and seismograms recorded at various epicentral distances from 0.7 to 14.9 km. Also, the source depth varies from 4.8 to 10.4 km. The first case is an event from the West Bohemia intraplate seismic swarm region. The seismogram was recorded only 0.7 km from the epicenter. This case shows the complexity of rotation-to-translational relations near the epicenter. The second case is from the Corinthian Gulf active-rift region. The study confirms the expectation of the theory concerning rotations connected with the direct S wave; however, difficulties follow from a very complex 3D geological structure in the vicinity of the station, complicated by a distinctive topography with steep slopes of the hills. The third example is from South Iceland, near the active Katla volcano. The data in this case satisfy the rotation-to-translation relations very well, which is probably caused by the relatively simple geological setting and appropriate source-to-receiver configuration. The RTRs are computed for all three cases, and their frequency dependence is discussed.

  11. Null Mutation of ?1D Ca2+ Channel Gene Results in Deafness but No Vestibular Defect in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Hongwei; Vazquez, Ana E.; Namkung, Yoon; Chu, Hanqi; Cardell, Emma Lou; Nie, Liping; Parson, Susan; Shin, Hee-Sup; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Ca2+ channels confer diverse functions to hair cells of the auditory and vestibular organs in the mammalian inner ear. We used gene-targeting technology to generate ?1D Ca2+ channel-deficient mice to determine the physiological role of these Ca2+ channels in hearing and balance. Analyses of auditory-evoked brainstem recordings confirmed that ?1D?/? mice were deaf and revealed that heterozygous (?1D+/?) mice have increased hearing thresholds. However, hea...

  12. YORP torques with 1D thermal model

    CERN Document Server

    Breiter, Slawomir; Czekaj, Maria

    2010-01-01

    A numerical model of the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect for objects defined in terms of a triangular mesh is described. The algorithm requires that each surface triangle can be handled independently, which implies the use of a 1D thermal model. Insolation of each triangle is determined by an optimized ray-triangle intersection search. Surface temperature is modeled with a spectral approach; imposing a quasi-periodic solution we replace heat conduction equation by the Helmholtz equation. Nonlinear boundary conditions are handled by an iterative, FFT based solver. The results resolve the question of the YORP effect in rotation rate independence on conductivity within the nonlinear 1D thermal model regardless of the accuracy issues and homogeneity assumptions. A seasonal YORP effect in attitude is revealed for objects moving on elliptic orbits when a nonlinear thermal model is used.

  13. Preparation of 1D nanostructures using biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Kacso, Irina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tudoran, Lucian Barbu [Babes-Bolyai University, Electron Microscopy Center, 1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Al-Said, Said A Farha; Hassanien, Reda; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R, E-mail: stela.pruneanu@itim-cj.r [School of Chemistry, Bedson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we have shown that one-dimensional (1D) particle arrays can be obtained using biomolecules, like DNA or amino-acids. Nano-arrays of silver and gold were prepared in a single-step synthesis, by exploiting the binding abilities of {lambda}-DNA and L-Arginine. The morphology and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  14. Finite thermal conductivity in 1d lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Giardina, C; Livi, R; Politi, A; Vassalli, M.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the thermal conductivity of a chain of coupled rotators, showing that it is the first example of a 1d nonlinear lattice exhibiting normal transport properties in the absence of an on-site potential. Numerical estimates obtained by simulating a chain in contact with two thermal baths at different temperatures are found to be consistent with those ones based on linear response theory. The dynamics of the Fourier modes provides direct evidence of energy diffusion. Th...

  15. T1D in College (Type 1 Diabetes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life with T1D / T1D in College T1D in College College for young adults with T1D means more ... college students. Dealing with a new diagnosis in college A diabetes diagnosis is shocking at any point ...

  16. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  17. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 ?m to about 1350 ?m, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge

  18. Synthesis of magnetic 1D dichalcogenide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, Timothy E., E-mail: tim.kidd@uni.edu; O' Shea, Aaron; Griffith, Zach; Leslie, Stroh; Shand, Paul M. [University of Northern Iowa, Physics Department (United States); Boyle, Kayla R.; Strauss, Laura H. [University of Northern Iowa, Chemistry and Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We report the first synthesis of magnetic one-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Pure and Mn-doped tantalum disulfide nanotapes were synthesized using a catalyst-free single-step growth process. The sample yield of nanostructures was nearly 100 %. The nanotapes were composed of a number of smaller nanowires which appear to be open-ended nanotubes. The smaller nanowires have diameters ranging from about 30 to 300 nm. The Mn dopants were incorporated within intercalation sites between TaS{sub 2} layers. Interactions between these dopant ions induced low temperature magnetic phase transitions similar to those seen in macroscopic Mn{sub x}TaS{sub 2} compounds. The magnetic properties do not exactly correspond to their bulk counterparts, as exemplified by a higher than expected ferromagnetic transition temperature in 1D nanostructures. This indicates the magnetic properties are likely influenced by quantum size effects. The simplicity of this one-step synthesis method should allow for this technique to be extended to other dichalcogenide systems and/or magnetic dopants, opening up a new class of 1D magnetic nanostructures.

  19. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitu, M. L.; Tico?, C. M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Department of Physics, University of Bucharest, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 ?m to about 1350 ?m, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  20. Prospects for detection of ?(1D)??(1S)?? via ?(3S)??(1D)+X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At least one state in the first family of D-wave bb(bar sign) quarkonium levels has been discovered near the predicted mass of 10.16 GeV/c2. This state is probably the one with J=2. This state and the ones with J=1 and J=3 may contribute a detectable amount to the decay ?(1D)??(1S)??, depending on the partial widths for these decays for which predictions vary considerably. The prospects for detection of the chain ?(3S)??(1D)+X????+X are discussed

  1. 1D fast coded aperture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Magnus; Bellan, Paul

    2015-04-01

    A fast (100 MHz) 1D coded aperture visible light camera has been developed as a prototype for imaging plasma experiments in the EUV/X-ray bands. The system uses printed patterns on transparency sheets as the masked aperture and an 80 channel photodiode array (9 V reverse bias) as the detector. In the low signal limit, the system has demonstrated 40-fold increase in throughput and a signal-to-noise gain of ?7 over that of a pinhole camera of equivalent parameters. In its present iteration, the camera can only image visible light; however, the only modifications needed to make the system EUV/X-ray sensitive are to acquire appropriate EUV/X-ray photodiodes and to machine a metal masked aperture.

  2. 'A Civil Action' 1-D Transport Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Bair

    The 'A Civil Action' 1-D Contaminant Transport Game is an EXCEL spreadsheet that enables students to compute concentrations of TCE traveling in the groundwater flow system toward well H that emanate from the W.R. Grace site. The idea of the game is to draw students into learning some of the fundamental concepts about (1) how contaminants move in the subsurface and (2) how models can be used to test hypotheses. These concepts are taught within the context of the famous 'A Civil Action' trial described in the book by Jonathan Harr (1996) and the movie starring John Travolta (1998). The spreadsheet computes values of hydraulic head, advective flow velocities and traveltimes, contaminant velocities, and contaminant concentrations at 20 locations along the flowpath from W.R. Grace to the Aberjona River. Breakthrough curves showing changes in concentration versus distance and changes in concentration versus time pop-up automatically (see below). The spreadsheet also creates graphs of advective and contaminant velocities versus distance.

  3. 1-D hybrid code for FRM dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1-D radial hybrid code has been written to study the start-up of the FRM via neutral-beam injection. This code, named FROST (Field Reversed One-dimensional STart-up), models the plasma as azimuthal symmetric with no axial dependence. A multi-group method in energy and canonical angular momentum describes the large-orbit ions from the beam. This method is designed to be more efficient than those employing particle tracking, since the characteristic timescale of the simulation is the ion slowing down time, rather than the much shorter cyclotron period. A time-differentiated Grad-Shafranov equation couples the ion current to massless fluid equations describing electrons and low energy ions. Flux coordinates are used in this fluid model, in preference to an Eulerian framework, so that coupling of plasma at the two different radii of a closed flux surface may be treated with ease. Since a fluid treatment for electrons is invalid near a field null, a separate model for the electron current has been included for this region, a unique feature. Results of simulation of injection into a 2XIIB-like plasma are discussed. Electron currents are found to retard, but not prevent reversal of the magnetic field at the plasma center

  4. Axial turbomachine modelling with a 1D axisymmetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work concerns the design and safety analysis of direct cycle gas cooled reactor. The estimation of compressor and turbine performances in transient operations is of high importance for the designer. The first goal of this study is to provide a description of compressor behaviour in unstable conditions with a better understanding than the models based on performance maps ('traditional' 0D approach). A supplementary objective is to provide a coherent description of the turbine behaviour. The turbomachine modelling approach consists in the solution of 1D axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations on an axial grid inside the turbomachine: mass, axial momentum, circumferential momentum and total-enthalpy balances are written. Blade forces are taken into account by using compressor or turbine blade cascade steady correlations. A particular effort has been developed to generate or test correlations in low mass flow and negative mass flow regimes, based on experimental data. The model is tested on open literature cases of the gas turbine aircraft community. For compressor and turbine, steady situations are fairly described, especially for medium and high mass flow rate. The dynamic behaviour of compressor is also quite well described, even in unstable operation (surge): qualitative tendencies (role of plenum volume and role of throttle) and some quantitative characteristics (frequency) are in a good agreement with experimental data. The application to transient simulations of e application to transient simulations of gas cooled nuclear reactors is concentrated on the hypothetical 10 in. break accident. The results point out the importance of the location of the pipe rupture in a hypothetical break event. In some detailed cases, compressor surge and back flow through the circuit can occur. In order to be used in a design phase, a simplified model of surge has also been developed. This simplified model is applied to the gas fast reactor (GFR) and compared quite favourably with 1D axisymmetric simulation results

  5. Small-aperture array translational and rotational seismograms from distant earthquakes - an example of Jan Mayen Mw 6.8 of August 30, 2012 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Jiri; Brokesova, Johana; Kolinsky, Petr

    2015-04-01

    We compare two independent methods of determining phase velocity of body and surface waves. The first method is based on matching the waveforms of relevant acceleration and rotation rate components derived from a small-aperture seismic array (ADR method). The second method utilizes time delays of corresponding wave phases across the small-aperture array, whereas the sufficient accuracy is reached thanks to focusing on times at which the ground velocity passes through zero value (ZPD method). Both methods are illustrated on the Jan Mayen Island earthquake of Mw 6.8 of August 30, 2012, 13:43:23 UTC as recorded in a small array installed in the vicinity of the underground gas storage Pribram-Haje, the Czech Republic. The array consists of 7 broadband stations with flat frequency response between 0.03 to 30 Hz (sensors Guralp CMG-40T). The area of the network is approximately 14 km2. The array is located about 2740 km from the epicenter of the Jan Mayen Island earthquake. Seismic rotation rate components have been calculated by the ADR method, where the applicability of the method was checked by comparing the real array records with those calculated using the first-order Taylor's expansion around central station. The acceleration seismograms have been obtained by performing the time derivative of the corresponding components in the frequency domain. The prevailing frequency of the rotational rate components is 0.08 Hz, while that of the translational components about 0.06 Hz. Very good waveform match is observed both for the transverse acceleration and vertical-axis rotational rate components as well as for the vertical acceleration and translational-axis rotational rate components. For the S-wave group, the velocity derived matching the relevant acceleration and rotational rate components is 5.87 km/s while the velocity estimated from the time delays across the array (ZPD) is 5.74 km/s; in both cases the values correspond to an apparent phase velocity along the surface. For the main surface wave group, amplitude ratios lead to phase velocity of 3.46 km/s which agrees well with the value 3.47 km/s determined using the ZPD method. When using a suitable multiple filtering, both methods allows to determine dispersion of surface-wave phase velocity.

  6. Analysis of the Om(1D) locus in Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, S; Shrimpton, A E; Hinton, C W; Langley, C H

    1989-11-01

    From the ca;px stock, which is the progenitor of Om mutants caused by insertions of the tom retrotransposon, 50 kb of genomic DNA including the Om(1D) locus was cloned by tom tagging and chromosome walking. Southern blot analyses of six Om(1D) mutants exposed one or two tom elements inserted at five nonrandom sites within an 18-kb distal segment of the restriction map; the phenotypic uniformity between these mutants was not affected by variations in the position, number or orientation of their inserts. Spontaneous revertants or more extreme derivatives of Om(1D) alleles were nonlinearly associated with losses or gains of tom inserts. Seven of eight radiation induced derivatives of Om(1D) mutants had one breakpoint of a chromosome rearrangement in polytene section 13A which includes the Om(1D) locus. Two Om(1D) derivatives, a spontaneous revertant and an induced extreme allele, were associated with overlapping deficiencies which define a region that is likely to contain the Om(1D) coding seguences proximal to the tom insertion sites. Incidental results confirm the previously indicated homology of the Om(1D) locus with the Bar locus of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:2557262

  7. Vlasov-Poisson in 1D: waterbags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Stéphane; Touma, Jihad

    2014-07-01

    We revisit in one dimension the waterbag method to solve numerically Vlasov-Poisson equations. In this approach, the phase-space distribution function f (x, v) is initially sampled by an ensemble of patches, the waterbags, where f is assumed to be constant. As a consequence of Liouville theorem, it is only needed to follow the evolution of the border of these waterbags, which can be done by employing an orientated, self-adaptive polygon tracing isocontours of f. This method, which is entropy conserving in essence, is very accurate and can trace very well non-linear instabilities as illustrated by specific examples. As an application of the method, we generate an ensemble of single-waterbag simulations with decreasing thickness to perform a convergence study to the cold case. Our measurements show that the system relaxes to a steady state where the gravitational potential profile is a power law of slowly varying index ?, with ? close to 3/2 as found in the literature. However, detailed analysis of the properties of the gravitational potential shows that at the centre, ? > 1.54. Moreover, our measurements are consistent with the value ? = 8/5 = 1.6 that can be analytically derived by assuming that the average of the phase-space density per energy level obtained at crossing times is conserved during the mixing phase. These results are incompatible with the logarithmic slope of the projected density profile ? - 2 ? -0.47 obtained recently by Schulz et al. using an N-body technique. This sheds again strong doubts on the capability of N-body techniques to converge to the correct steady state expected in the continuous limit.

  8. 2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. I: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new class of '2D/1D' approximations is proposed for the 3D linear Boltzmann equation. These approximate equations preserve the exact transport physics in the radial directions x and y and diffusion physics in the axial direction z. Thus, the 2D/1D equations are more accurate approximations of the 3D Boltzmann equation than the conventional 3D diffusion equation. The 2D/1D equations can be systematically discretized, to yield accurate simulation methods for 3D reactor core problems. The resulting solutions will be more accurate than 3D diffusion solutions, and less expensive to generate than standard 3D transport solutions. In this paper, we (i) show that the simplest 2D/1D equation has certain desirable properties, (ii) systematically discretize this equation, and (iii) derive a stable iteration scheme for solving the discrete system of equations. In a companion paper [1], we give numerical results that confirm the theoretical predictions of accuracy and iterative stability. (authors)

  9. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17?-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17?-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

  10. T1D in School (Type 1 Diabetes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the importance of a healthy lifestyle, and 2) to provide ... seven students with type 1 diabetes (T1D)… Continue Reading How You Can Help Donate Fundraise Become an ...

  11. Spectral decomposition of 1D Fokker - Planck differential operator

    OpenAIRE

    Tanski, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    We construct spectral decomposition of 1D Fokker - Planck differential operator. This reveal solution of Cauchy problem. We develop fundamental solution of Cauchy problem and compare it with one obtained by other means in our former work [5].

  12. Main: 1D6R [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1D6R ?? Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Bowman-Birk Type Proteinase Inhibitor Precursor Glyci ... Warkentin, G.Wenzl, P.Flecker Crystal Structure Of Cancer ... Chemopreventive Bowman-Birk Inhibitor In Ternary C ...

  13. Time-Resolved 1-D X-ray Imaging Technique for Z-Pinch Plasma Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive time-resolved 1-D x-ray imaging system with linear energy response to 100eV-2keV x-rays is developed and applied in Z-Pinch experiments to investigate time dependent x-ray distribution with one-dimensional(1-D) spatial resolution of 0.1mm?0.4mm and temporal resolution of 3ns. A slit in the system relays the 1-D image of the pinch plasma to a plastic scintillator foil with a thickness of 0.2mm which converts x-ray to visible and near-infrared light and has linear response to x-ray energy. With an optical fiber array consisting of 40 linearly arranged individual fibers behind the scintillator foil, it is capable of transmitting the 1-D image out from within the vacuum chamber. The optical fiber array is subsequently coupled to a streak camera via optical fiber bundle consisting of 40 individual 30-meter-long fibers to allow the investigation of time-resolved 1D x-ray distribution. To avoid viewing the plasma-generated visible light and covering aluminum foil on the scintillator, both the scintillator foil and the fiber array are tilted at an angle of 45 degrees from the line of sight. This diagnostic system has been successfully applied in gas-puff and tungsten wire-array Z-Pinch experiments carried out on Qiang-Guang-1, S-300, and Angara-5-1 facilities for time-resolved measurement of x-ray power distribution along the axis or radius of the imploding plasma. In these experiments, the current is in the range of 1-3MA and the x-ray radiation energy is in th and the x-ray radiation energy is in the order of 10-50kJ. Some experimental results will be presented in this paper

  14. Effect of the twist operator in the D1D5 CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Zaq; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2014-01-01

    The D1D5 CFT has been very useful in the study of black holes. The interaction in this theory involves a twist operator, which links together different copies of a free CFT. For the bosonic fields, we examine the action of this twist when it links together CFT copies with winding numbers M and N to produce a copy with winding M+N. Starting with the vacuum state generates a squeezed state, which we compute. Starting with an initial excitation on one of the copies gives a linear combination of excitations on the final state, which we also compute. These results generalize earlier computations where these quantities were computed for the special case M=N=1. Our results should help in understanding the thermalization process in the D1D5 CFT, which gives the dual of black hole formation in the bulk.

  15. Decoupled 1D/3D analysis of a hydraulic valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, Carsten; Zopeya, Ashok; Latham, Matt; Ihde, Thomas; Massie, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Analysis approaches during product development of fluid valves and other aircraft fluid delivery components vary greatly depending on the development stage. Traditionally, empirical or simplistic one-dimensional tools are being deployed during preliminary design, whereas detailed analysis such as CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) tools are used to refine a selected design during the detailed design stage. In recent years, combined 1D/3D co-simulation has been deployed specifically for system level simulations requiring an increased level of analysis detail for one or more components. The present paper presents a decoupled 1D/3D analysis approach where 3D CFD analysis results are utilized to enhance the fidelity of a dynamic 1D modelin context of an aircraft fuel valve.

  16. Collisional quenching of O(1D) by O(3P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, J.-H.; Guberman, Steven L.; Dalgarno, A.

    1990-01-01

    Metastable O(1D) atoms may be quenched in collisions with ground state O(3P) atoms by transitions in the avoided crossing regions of the three lowest 3Pi(g) states of O2 of which the lowest separates to O(3P) + O(3P) and the two upper to O(3P) + O(1D). Quantal calculations of the adiabatic potential energy curves of the 3Pi(g) states are carried out with particular attention to an avoided crossing region in the lowest two states around a nuclear separation of 3.2a(0). Diabatic potential matrix elements are constructed from the adiabatic curves by imposing the requirement that they be smooth everywhere. A multi-state diabatic formulation is used to describe the scattering and the cross-sections for the collision-induced quenching of O(1D) atoms are calculated.

  17. A study of O( 1D) reactions with CFC substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R.; Gierczak, T.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1991-09-01

    The rate coefficients for the removal of O( 1D) by reaction with the following nine CFC substitutes have been measured using time-resolved vacuum UV atomic resonance fluorescence detection of O( 3P): CHF 2Cl (HCFC 22), CF 3CHCl 2 (HCFC 123), CF 3CHClf (HCFC 124), CF 3CHF 2(HFC 125), CF 3CH 2Cl (HCFC 133a), CF 3CH 2F (HFC 134a), CH 3CFCl 2 (HCFC 14lb), CH 3CF 2Cl (HCFC 142b), and CH 3CHF 2 (HFC 152a). The branching ratios for the quenching of O( 1D) to O( 3P) by the above molecules were determined by measuring the O( 3P) yields in the presence of the HCFC/HFCs relative to that in the presence of N 2. By difference, the rate coefficients for the chemical reaction of O( 1D) with the HCFC/HFCs were calculated.

  18. 1D EM Modeling for Onshore Hydrocarbon Detection using MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H.H.M. Hanif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM is a new technique used for hydrocarbons detection. This study focuses on One dimension (1D modeling of hydrocarbon detection for onshore application using the principles of electromagnetic (EM waves propagation. The transmitted frequency which is 0.25 Hz was used to characterize the hydrocarbon at 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 m. Electric fields detected by the receivers at 500, 1000 and 1500 m were 22.85, 20.4 and 17.1 V m-1, respectively which was determined by using 1D simulation. This non-seismic 1D modeling may provide alternative solution for hydrocarbon (HC detection for oil and gas industry.

  19. A Bayesian Algorithm for Reading 1D Barcodes

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Ender; Coughlan, James

    2009-01-01

    The 1D barcode is a ubiquitous labeling technology, with symbologies such as UPC used to label approximately 99% of all packaged goods in the US. It would be very convenient for consumers to be able to read these barcodes using portable cameras (e.g. mobile phones), but the limited quality and resolution of images taken by these cameras often make it difficult to read the barcodes accurately. We propose a Bayesian framework for reading 1D barcodes that models the shape and appearance of barco...

  20. X(3872) as the 1D2 charmonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1D2 charmonium assignment for the X(3872) is considered, which is compatible with the 2?+ quantum numbers, as favoured by the BABAR Collaboration analysis presented recently for the ?+???0J/? decay mode. It is demonstrated that established properties of the X(3872) are in a drastic conflict with the 1D2c c-bar assignment. Furthermore, it is argued that a combined analysis of the data for different decay channels of the X, with the help of theoretical formulae which meet a number of constraints imposed by phenomenology, results in a suitable description of the experimental data for the X compatible with its quantum numbers 1++

  1. Analysis of the Om(1d) Locus in Drosophila Ananassae

    OpenAIRE

    Tanda, S.; Shrimpton, A. E.; Hinton, C. W.; Langley, C. H.

    1989-01-01

    From the ca;px stock, which is the progenitor of Om mutants caused by insertions of the tom retrotransposon, 50 kb of genomic DNA including the Om(1D) locus was cloned by tom tagging and chromosome walking. Southern blot analyses of six Om(1D) mutants exposed one or two tom elements inserted at five nonrandom sites within an 18-kb distal segment of the restriction map; the phenotypic uniformity between these mutants was not affected by variations in the position, number or orientation of thei...

  2. Numerical simulation of Ge solar cells using D-AMPS-1D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Marcela, E-mail: barrera@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Rubinelli, Francisco [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC)-CONICET, Gueemes 3450, Santa Fe 3000 (Argentina); Rey-Stolle, Ignacio [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense 30, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pla, Juan [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    A solar cell is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. When light with photon energies greater than the band gap is absorbed by a semiconductor material, free electrons and free holes are generated by optical excitation in the material. The main characteristic of a photovoltaic device is the presence of internal electric field able to separate the free electrons and holes so they can pass out of the material to the external circuit before they recombine. Numerical simulation of photovoltaic devices plays a crucial role in their design, performance prediction, and comprehension of the fundamental phenomena ruling their operation. The electrical transport and the optical behavior of the solar cells discussed in this work were studied with the simulation code D-AMPS-1D. This software is an updated version of the one-dimensional (1D) simulation program Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Devices (AMPS) that was initially developed at The Penn State University, USA. Structures such as homojunctions, heterojunctions, multijunctions, etc., resulting from stacking layers of different materials can be studied by appropriately selecting characteristic parameters. In this work, examples of cells simulation made with D-AMPS-1D are shown. Particularly, results of Ge photovoltaic devices are presented. The role of the InGaP buffer on the device was studied. Moreover, a comparison of the simulated electrical parameters with experimental results was performed.

  3. Towards a complete classification of 1D gapped quantum phases in interacting spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xie; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Quantum phases with different orders exist with or without breaking the symmetry of the system. Recently, a classification of gapped quantum phases which do not break time reversal, parity or on-site unitary symmetry has been given for 1D spin systems in [X. Chen, Z.-C. Gu, and X.-G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B 83, 035107 (2011); arXiv:1008.3745]. It was found that, such symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases are labeled by the projective representations of the symmetry group which can be viewed as a symmetry fractionalization. In this paper, we extend the classification of 1D gapped phases by considering SPT phases with combined time reversal, parity, and/or on-site unitary symmetries and also considering the possibility of symmetry breaking. In this way, we obtain a complete classification of gapped quantum phases in 1D spin systems. We find that in general, symmetry fractionalization, symmetry breaking and long range entanglement(present in 2 or higher dimensions) represent three main mechanisms to generate a v...

  4. DYN1D-MSR dynamics code for molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports about the DYN1D-MSR code development and dynamics studies of the molten salt reactors (MSR) - one of the 'Generation IV International Forum' concepts. In this forum the graphite-moderated channel type MSR based on the previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory research is considered. The liquid molten salt serves as a fuel and coolant, simultaneously and causes two physical peculiarities: the fission energy is released predominantly directly into the coolant and the delayed neutrons precursors are drifted by the fuel flow. The drift causes the spread of delayed neutrons distribution to the non-core parts of primary circuit and it can lead to a reactivity loss or gain in the case of fuel flow acceleration or deceleration, respectively. Therefore, specific 3D tool based on in house code DYN3D was developed in FZR. The code DYN3D-MSR is based on the solution of two-group neutron diffusion equation by the help of a nodal expansion method and it includes models of delayed neutrons drift and specific MSR heat release distribution. In this paper the development and verification of 1D version DYN1D-MSR of the code is described. The code has been validated with the experimental data gained from the molten salt reactor experiment performed in the Oak Ridge and after the validation it was applied to several typical transients (overcooling of fuel at the core inlet, reactivity insertion, and the fuel pump trip)

  5. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    CERN Document Server

    Rathod, K D; Natarajan, Vasant

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  6. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  7. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, Pushpander; Natarajan, Vasant

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{1...

  8. Testing the Early Mars H2-CO2 Greenhouse Hypothesis with a 1-D Photochemical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha, Natasha; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James

    2015-01-01

    A recent study by Ramirez et al. (2014) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical mode...

  9. Suppression of spin-orbit effects in 1D system

    CERN Document Server

    Entin, M V

    2004-01-01

    We report the absence of spin effects such as spin-galvanic effect, spin polarization and spin current under static electric field and inter-spin-subband absorption in 1D system with spin-orbit interaction of arbitrary form. It was also shown that the accounting for the direct interaction of electron spin with magnetic field violates this statement.

  10. Scattering approach to classical quasi-1D transport

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, Eugene

    1996-01-01

    General dynamical transport of classical particles in disordered quasi-1D samples is viewed in the framework of scattering approach. Simple equation for the transfer-matrix is obtained within this unified picture. In the case of diffusive transport the solution of this equation exactly coincides with the solution of diffusion equation.

  11. Large Time existence For 1D Green-Naghdi equations

    CERN Document Server

    Israwi, Samer

    2009-01-01

    We consider here the $1D $ Green-Naghdi equations that are commonly used in coastal oceanography to describe the propagation of large amplitude surface waves. We show that the solution of the Green-Naghdi equations can be constructed by a standard Picard iterative scheme so that there is no loss of regularity of the solution with respect to the initial condition.

  12. 1D design style implications for mask making and CEBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2013-09-01

    At advanced nodes, CMOS logic is being designed in a highly regular design style because of the resolution limitations of optical lithography equipment. Logic and memory layouts using 1D Gridded Design Rules (GDR) have been demonstrated to nodes beyond 12nm.[1-4] Smaller nodes will require the same regular layout style but with multiple patterning for critical layers. One of the significant advantages of 1D GDR is the ease of splitting layouts into lines and cuts. A lines and cuts approach has been used to achieve good pattern fidelity and process margin to below 12nm.[4] Line scaling with excellent line-edge roughness (LER) has been demonstrated with self-aligned spacer processing.[5] This change in design style has important implications for mask making: • The complexity of the masks will be greatly reduced from what would be required for 2D designs with very complex OPC or inverse lithography corrections. • The number of masks will initially increase, as for conventional multiple patterning. But in the case of 1D design, there are future options for mask count reduction. • The line masks will remain simple, with little or no OPC, at pitches (1x) above 80nm. This provides an excellent opportunity for continual improvement of line CD and LER. The line pattern will be processed through a self-aligned pitch division sequence to divide pitch by 2 or by 4. • The cut masks can be done with "simple OPC" as demonstrated to beyond 12nm.[6] Multiple simple cut masks may be required at advanced nodes. "Coloring" has been demonstrated to below 12nm for two colors and to 8nm for three colors. • Cut/hole masks will eventually be replaced by e-beam direct write using complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL).[7-11] This transition is gated by the availability of multiple column e-beam systems with throughput adequate for high- volume manufacturing. A brief description of 1D and 2D design styles will be presented, followed by examples of 1D layouts. Mask complexity for 1D layouts patterned directly will be compared to mask complexity for lines and cuts at nodes larger than 20nm. No such comparison is possible below 20nm since single-patterning does not work below ~80nm pitch using optical exposure tools. Also discussed will be recently published wafer results for line patterns with pitch division by-2 and by-4 at sub-12nm nodes, plus examples of post-etch results for 1D patterns done with cut masks and compared to cuts exposed by a single-column e-beam direct write system.

  13. D1D5 system and noncommutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supergravity on AdS3xS3xT4 has a dual description as a conformal sigma-model with the target space being the moduli space of instantons on the noncommutative torus. We derive the precise relation between the parameters of this noncommutative torus and the parameters of the near-horizon geometry. We show that the low energy dynamics of the system of D1D5-branes wrapped on the torus of finite size is described in terms of the noncommutative geometry. As a byproduct, we give a prediction on the dependence of the moduli space of instantons on the noncommutative T4 on the metric and the noncommutativity parameter. We give a compelling evidence that the moduli space of stringy instantons on R4 with the B-field does not receive ?'-corrections. We also study the relation between the D1D5 sigma-model instantons and the supergravity instantons

  14. Developing 1D nanostructure arrays for future nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke DG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is intense and growing interest in one-dimensional (1-D nanostructures from the perspective of their synthesis and unique properties, especially with respect to their excellent optical response and an ability to form heterostructures. This review discusses alternative approaches to preparation and organization of such structures, and their potential properties. In particular, molecular-scale printing is highlighted as a method for creating organized pre-cursor structure for locating nanowires, as well as vapor–liquid–solid (VLS templated growth using nano-channel alumina (NCA, and deposition of 1-D structures with glancing angle deposition (GLAD. As regards novel optical properties, we discuss as an example, finite size photonic crystal cavity structures formed from such nanostructure arrays possessing highQand small mode volume, and being ideal for developing future nanolasers.

  15. Partial breaking of N = 1, D = 10 supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is described the spontaneous partial breaking of N =1, D =10 supersymmetry to N = (1, 0), d = 6 and its dimensionally-reduced versions in the framework of nonlinear realizations. The basic Goldstone superfield is N = (1, 0), d = 6 hyper multiplet superfield satisfying a nonlinear generalization of the standard hyper multiplet constraint. It is here interpreted the generalized constraint as the manifestly world volume supersymmetric form of equations of motion of the type 1 super 5-brane in D 10. The related issues here addressed are a possible existence of brane extension of off-shell hyper multiplet actions, the possibility to utilize vector N = (1, 0), d =6 supermultiplet as the Goldstone one, and the description of 1/4 breaking of N =1, D = 11 supersymmetry

  16. Universal Luttinger Liquid Relations in the 1D Hubbard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Benfatto, Giuseppe; Mastropietro, Vieri

    2011-01-01

    We study the 1D extended Hubbard model with a weak repulsive short-range interaction in the non-half-filled band case, using non-perturbative Renormalization Group methods and Ward Identities. At the critical temperature, T = 0, the response functions have anomalous power-law decay with multiplicative logarithmic corrections. The critical exponents, the susceptibility and the Drude weight verify the universal Luttinger liquid relations. Borel summability and (a weak form of) Spin-Charge separation is established.

  17. Engineered atom-light interactions in 1D photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Hung, Chen-Lung; Yu, Su-Peng; Goban, Akihisa; Muniz, Juan A.; Hood, Jonathan D.; Norte, Richard; McClung, Andrew C.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Lee, Jae Hoon; Peng, Lucas; Painter, Oskar; Kimble, H. Jeff

    2014-05-01

    Nano- and microscale optical systems offer efficient and scalable quantum interfaces through enhanced atom-field coupling in both resonators and continuous waveguides. Beyond these conventional topologies, new opportunities emerge from the integration of ultracold atomic systems with nanoscale photonic crystals. One-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides can be engineered for both stable trapping configurations and strong atom-photon interactions, enabling novel cavity QED and quantum many-body systems, as well as distributed quantum networks. We present the experimental realization of such a nanophotonic quantum interface based on a nanoscale photonic crystal waveguide, demonstrating a fractional waveguide coupling of ?1 D /?' of 0 . 32 +/- 0 . 08 , where ?1 D (?') is the atomic emission rate into the guided (all other) mode(s). We also discuss progress towards intra-waveguide trapping of ultracold Cs. Nano- and microscale optical systems offer efficient and scalable quantum interfaces through enhanced atom-field coupling in both resonators and continuous waveguides. Beyond these conventional topologies, new opportunities emerge from the integration of ultracold atomic systems with nanoscale photonic crystals. One-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides can be engineered for both stable trapping configurations and strong atom-photon interactions, enabling novel cavity QED and quantum many-body systems, as well as distributed quantum networks. We present the experimental realization of such a nanophotonic quantum interface based on a nanoscale photonic crystal waveguide, demonstrating a fractional waveguide coupling of ?1 D /?' of 0 . 32 +/- 0 . 08 , where ?1 D (?') is the atomic emission rate into the guided (all other) mode(s). We also discuss progress towards intra-waveguide trapping of ultracold Cs. This work was supported by the IQIM, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center with support from the Moore Foundation, the DARPA ORCHID program, the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, the DoD NSSEFF program, NSF, and the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI) at Caltech.

  18. Localization in Quasi-1D Systems with Random Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Rutman, Yakov; Feingold, Mario; Avishai, Yshai

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the localization of electrons hopping on quasi-1D strips in the presence of random magnetic field. In the weak-disorder region, by perturbative analytical techniques, we derive scaling laws for the localization length, ${\\xi}$, of the form $ \\xi \\propto \\frac{1}{w^{\\eta}}$, where $w$ is the size of magnetic disorder and the exponent $\\eta$ assumes different values in the various energy ranges. Moreover, in the neighborhood of the energies where a new channel o...

  19. Dimer impurity effect on the 1D density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect of a dimer impurity on the local density of states (LDOS) associated with 1D tight binding Hamiltonian. Theoretical analysis is carried out by studying the resulting three-term recursion relation corresponding to the tridiagonal representation of the system Hamiltonian. We found a closed form expression for the perturbed LDOS in terms of the unperturbed one with a pre-factor that carries information on both location and potential strength of the dimer impurity.

  20. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal that strong saturation gradients exist in chalk core samples after core floods, due to capillary effects. The method is useful in analysis of corefloods, e.g., for determination of capillary pressure functions

  1. Regulatory Role of CD1d in Neurotropic Virus Infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Tsunoda, Ikuo; Tanaka, Tomoko; Fujinami, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    The GDVII strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) causes an acute fatal polioencephalomyelitis in mice. Infection of susceptible mice with the DA strain of TMEV results in an acute polioencephalomyelitis followed by chronic immune-mediated demyelination with virus persistence in the central nervous system (CNS); DA virus infection is used as an animal model for multiple sclerosis. CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells can contribute to viral clearance and regulation o...

  2. Survival of interacting Brownian particles in crowded 1D environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabov, Artem; Chvosta, Petr

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a diffusive motion of a system of interacting Brownian particles in quasi-one-dimensional micropores. In particular, we consider a semi-infinite 1D geometry with a partially absorbing boundary and the hard-core inter-particle interaction. Due to the absorbing boundary the number of particles in the pore gradually decreases. We present the exact analytical solution of the problem. Our procedure merely requires the knowledge of the corresponding single-particle ...

  3. A simple quasi-1D model of Fibonacci anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, David; Mong, Roger; Clarke, David; Alicea, Jason; Fendley, Paul

    2015-03-01

    There exists various ways of understanding the topological properties of Ising anyons--from simple free-fermion toy models to formal topological quantum field theory. For other types of anyons simple toy models rarely exist; their properties have to be obtained using formal self-consistency relations. We explore a family of gapped 1D local bosonic models that in a certain limit become trivial to solve and provide an intuitive picture for Fibonacci anyons. One can interpret this model as a quasi-1D wire that forms the building block of a 2D topological phase with Fibonacci anyons. With this interpretation all topological properties of the Fibonacci anyons become manifest including ground state degeneracy and braid relations. We conjecture that the structure of the model is protected by an emergent symmetry analogous to fermion parity. There exists various ways of understanding the topological properties of Ising anyons--from simple free-fermion toy models to formal topological quantum field theory. For other types of anyons simple toy models rarely exist; their properties have to be obtained using formal self-consistency relations. We explore a family of gapped 1D local bosonic models that in a certain limit become trivial to solve and provide an intuitive picture for Fibonacci anyons. One can interpret this model as a quasi-1D wire that forms the building block of a 2D topological phase with Fibonacci anyons. With this interpretation all topological properties of the Fibonacci anyons become manifest including ground state degeneracy and braid relations. We conjecture that the structure of the model is protected by an emergent symmetry analogous to fermion parity. 1) NSF Grant DMR-1341822 2) Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF physics frontier center with support from the Moore Foundation. 3) NSERC-PGSD.

  4. Overview remarks on homogeneous N = 1, d = 11 supergravity cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of the full class of homogeneous N = 1, d = 11 supergravity world models is investigated. By using the classification of Lie algebras of Lie groups which act simply transitively on 6- and 7-dimensional compact spaces some conclusions are drawn concerning the non-existence of the chaotic regime near the singularity. This is illustrated with some new solutions having a richer structure of the microspace. The significance of known solutions is briefly discussed. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (author)

  5. Electronic properties of the 1D Frenkel-Kontorova model

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, P; Hu, B; Tong, Peiqing; Li, Baowen; Hu, Bambi

    2002-01-01

    The energy spectra and quantum diffusion of an electron in a 1D incommensurate Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model are studied numerically. We found that the spectral and dynamical properties of electron display quite different behaviors in invariance circle regime and in Cantorus regime. In the former case, it is similar to that of the Harper model, whereas in the latter case, it is similar to that of the Fibonacci model. The relationship between spectral and transport properties is discussed.

  6. Electronic properties of the 1D Frenkel-Kontorova model

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Peiqing; Li, Baowen; Hu, Bambi

    2002-01-01

    The energy spectra and quantum diffusion of an electron in a 1D incommensurate Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model are studied numerically. We found that the spectral and dynamical properties of electron display quite different behaviors in invariance circle regime and in Cantorus regime. In the former case, it is similar to that of the Harper model, whereas in the latter case, it is similar to that of the Fibonacci model. The relationship between spectral and transport properties ...

  7. Null controllability of the 1D heat equation using flatness

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Philippe; Rosier, Lionel; Rouchon, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We derive in a straightforward way the null controllability of a 1-D heat equation with boundary control. We use the so-called {\\em flatness approach}, which consists in parameterizing the solution and the control by the derivatives of a "flat output". This provides an explicit control law achieving the exact steering to zero. We also give accurate error estimates when the various series involved are replaced by their partial sums, which is paramount for an actual numerical ...

  8. Spatial stochastic resonance in 1D Ising systems

    CERN Document Server

    Neda, Z; Ravasz, E; Lakdawala, P; Gade, P M

    1999-01-01

    The 1D Ising model is analytically studied in a spatially periodic and oscillatory external magnetic field using the transfer-matrix method. For low enough magnetic field intensities the correlation between the external magnetic field and the response in magnetization presents a maximum for a given temperature. The phenomenon can be interpreted as a resonance phenomenon induced by the stochastic heatbath. This novel "spatial stochastic resonance" has a different origin from the classical stochastic resonance phenomenon.

  9. Spatial stochastic resonance in 1D Ising systems

    OpenAIRE

    Neda, Z.; Rusz, A.; Ravasz, E.; Lakdawala, P.; Gade, P. M.

    1999-01-01

    The 1D Ising model is analytically studied in a spatially periodic and oscillatory external magnetic field using the transfer-matrix method. For low enough magnetic field intensities the correlation between the external magnetic field and the response in magnetization presents a maximum for a given temperature. The phenomenon can be interpreted as a resonance phenomenon induced by the stochastic heatbath. This novel "spatial stochastic resonance" has a different origin from ...

  10. Partial breaking of N=1, D=10 supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Bellucci, S.; Ivanov, E.; Krivonos, S.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous partial breaking of $N=1 D=10$ supersymmetry to $N=(1,0) d=6$ and its dimensionally-reduced versions in the framework of the nonlinear realizations method. The basic Goldstone superfield is $N=(1,0) d=6$ hypermultiplet superfield satisfying a nonlinear generalization of the standard hypermultiplet constraint. We interpret the generalized constraint as the manifestly worldvolume supersymmetric form of equations of motion of the Type I super 5-brane...

  11. Group Manifold Reduction of Dual N=1 d=10 Supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Roo, Mees; Eenink, Martijn G. C.; Panda, Sudhakar; Westra, Dennis B.

    2005-01-01

    We perform a group manifold reduction of the dual version of N=1 d=10 supergravity to four dimensions. The effects of the 3- and 4-form gauge fields in the resulting gauged N=4 d=4 supergravity are studied in particular. The example of the group manifold SU(2)xSU(2) is worked out in detail, and we compare for this case the four-dimensional scalar potential with gauged N=4 supergravity.

  12. Group manifold reduction of dual N = 1 d = 10 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a group manifold reduction of the dual version of N = 1 d = 10 supergravity to four dimensions. The effects of the 3- and 4-form gauge fields in the resulting gauged N = 4 d = 4 supergravity are studied in particular. The example of the group manifold SU(2) x SU(2) is worked out in detail, and we compare for this case the four-dimensional scalar potential with gauged N = 4 supergravity

  13. Phage display-derived recombinant antibodies with TCR-like specificity against alpha-galactosylceramide and its analogues in complex with human CD1d molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkberg, Galit; Stronge, Victoria S; Zahavi, Efrat; Pittoni, Paola; Oren, Ravit; Shepherd, Dawn; Salio, Mariolina; McCarthy, Corinna; Illarionov, Petr A; van der Merwe, Anton; Besra, Gurdyal S; Dellabona, Paolo; Casorati, Giulia; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Reiter, Yoram

    2008-03-01

    The glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is a potent activator of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and has been shown to be an effective agent against cancer, infections and autoimmune diseases. The effectiveness of alpha-GalCer and its alkyl chain analogues depends on efficient loading and presentation by the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. To monitor the ability of CD1d to present the glycolipids, we have used a phage display strategy to generate recombinant antibodies with T cell receptor-like (TCRL) specificity against the human CD1d (hCD1d)-alpha-GalCer complex. These Fab fragments were able to detect specifically hCD1d-alpha-GalCer complexes in cell-free systems such as surface plasmon resonance and ELISA, as well as on the surface of hCD1d(+) antigen-presenting cells (APC) by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, the latter of which could also detect intracellular complexes. We show that our TCRL antibodies can stain dendritic cells from CD11c-hCD1d-transgenic mice administered in vivo with alpha-GalCer and its analogues. Furthermore, the antibody was also able to detect the presentation by hCD1d molecules of analogues of alpha-GalCer with the same polar head structure. Using this reagent, we were able to confirm directly that the alpha-GalCer analogue C20:2 preferentially loads onto cell surface CD1d rapidly without the need for internalization, while the loading of alpha-GalCer is improved with longer incubation times on professional APC. This reagent will be essential for assessing the loading and presenting capabilities of hCD1d of alpha-GalCer and its analogues. PMID:18253930

  14. Applications of AMPS-1D for solar cell simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Kalkan, Ali Kaan; Hou, Jingya; Fonash, Stephen J.

    1999-03-01

    The AMPS-1D PC computer program is now used by over 70 groups world-wide for detector and solar cell analysis. It has proved to be a very powerful tool in understanding device operation and physics for single crystal, poly-crystalline and amorphous structures. For example, AMPS-1D has been successful in explaining the "red kink" [1] and the "transient effect" in CdS/CIGS poly-crystalline solar cells. It has been used to show that thin film poly-Si structures, with reasonable light trapping, are capable of competitive solar cell conversion efficiencies. In the case of a-Si:H structures, it has been used, for example, to settle the discrepancies in bandgap measurement, to predict the effective QE>1 phenomenon later seen in these materials [2], to determine the relative roles of interface and bulk properties, and to point the direction toward 16% triple junction structures. In general AMPS-1D is used for cell and detector design, material parameter sensitivity studies, and parameter extraction. Recently we have shown that it can be used to determine optimum structure and light and voltage biasing conditions in the material parameter extraction function. Information on AMPS can be found at www.psu.edu/dept/AMPS/amps_web/AMPS.html and at other web sites set up by user groups.

  15. MARG1D: One dimensional outer region matching data code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A code MARG1D has been developed which computes outer region matching data of the one dimensional Newcomb equation. Matching data play an important role in the resistive (and non ideal) Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in a tokamak plasma. The MARG1D code computes matching data by using the boundary value method or by the eigenvalue method. Variational principles are derived for the problems to be solved and a finite element method is applied. Except for the case of marginal stability, the eigenvalue method is equivalent to the boundary value method. However, the eigenvalue method has the several advantages: it is a new method of ideal MHD stability analysis for which the marginally stable state can be identified, and it guarantees numerical stability in computing matching data close to marginal stability. We perform detailed numerical experiments for a model equation with analytical solutions and for the Newcomb equation in the m=1 mode theory. Numerical experiments show that MARG1D code gives the matching data with numerical stability and high accuracy. (author)

  16. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  17. Domain walls and instantons in N=1, d=4 supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Huebscher, M; Ortin, T

    2009-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric sources of (multi-) domain-wall and (multi-) instanton solutions of generic N=1, d=4 supergravities, that is: the worldvolume effective actions for said supersymmetric topological defects. The domain-wall solutions naturally couple to the two 3-forms recently found as part of the N=1, d=4 tensor hierarchy (i.e. they have two charges in general) and their tension is the absolute value of the superpotential section L. The introduction of sources (we study sources with finite and vanishing thickness) is equivalent to the introduction of local coupling constants and results in dramatic changes of the solutions. Our results call for a democratic reformulation of N=1,d=4 supergravity in which coupling constants are, off-shell, scalar fields. The effective actions for the instantons are always proportional to the coordinate orthogonal to the twist-free embedding of the null-geodesic (in the Wick-rotated scalar manifold) describing the instanton. We show their supersymmetry and find the as...

  18. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case; Acoplamiento de Nod1D y HOTCHANNEL: caso estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ovando C, R. [IIE-Gcia. de Energia Nuclear, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  19. Optimization of quasi-normal eigenvalues for 1-D wave equations in inhomogeneous media; description of optimal structures

    OpenAIRE

    Karabash, Illya M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to optimization of resonances associated with 1-D wave equations in inhomogeneous media. The medium's structure is represented by a nonnegative function B. The problem is to design for a given $\\alpha \\in \\R$ a medium that generates a resonance on the line $\\alpha + \\i \\R$ with a minimal possible modulus of the imaginary part. We consider an admissible family of mediums that arises in a problem of optimal design for photonic crystals. This admissible fam...

  20. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained by use of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings and is highly nonlinear.

  1. Effects of periodic gate potentials on quasi-1 D excitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical properties of Quasi-1D excitons in a Ga As-Al Ga As quantum well and confined by lateral field effect induced superlattice potentials are investigated. A variational approach is used to calculate the binding energies Eex and absorption coefficient ?ex of these excitonic transitions as functions of the applied voltage and period of the induced superlattice potential. A competition between confinement and Coulomb attraction produce strong oscillations on Eex and ?ex which should be observed experimentally. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig

  2. Effects of periodic gate potentials on quasi-1 D excitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocoletzi, Gregorio H. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Ulloa, Sergio E. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-03-01

    Optical properties of Quasi-1D excitons in a Ga As-Al Ga As quantum well and confined by lateral field effect induced superlattice potentials are investigated. A variational approach is used to calculate the binding energies E{sub ex} and absorption coefficient {alpha}{sub ex} of these excitonic transitions as functions of the applied voltage and period of the induced superlattice potential. A competition between confinement and Coulomb attraction produce strong oscillations on E{sub ex} and {alpha}{sub ex} which should be observed experimentally. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Exotic prepotentials from D(-1)D7 dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the partition functions of D(-1)D7 systems describing the multi-instanton dynamics of SO(N) gauge theories in eight dimensions. This is the simplest instance of the so called exotic instantons. In analogy with the Seiberg-Witten theory in four space-time dimensions, the prepotential and correlators in the chiral ring are derived via localization formulas and found to satisfy relations of the Matone type. Exotic prepotentials of SO(N) gauge theories with N = 2 supersymmetries in four-dimensions are also discussed.

  4. TOF-2: a large 1D channel thorium organic framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Ok, KM; Sung, J; Hu, G.; Jacobs, RM; O'Hare, D.

    2008-01-01

    A new neutral 1D channel thorium organic framework material (TOF-2) has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. TOF-2 exhibits a hexagonal channel structure consisting of eight-coordinate ThO6F2 polyhedra and 1,3,5-benzentricarboxylate ligands. The channels run along the c-axis and are approximately 13 A in diameter. The single-crystal X-ray structure suggests that the amount of void space is 41%. The structure is stable to ca. 400 degrees C. Gas adsorption measurements show deferenti...

  5. Electronic properties of the 1D Frenkel-Kontorova model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Peiqing; Li, Baowen; Hu, Bambi

    2002-01-28

    The energy spectra and quantum diffusion of an electron in a 1D incommensurate Frenkel-Kontorova model are studied numerically. We found that the spectral and dynamical properties of an electron display quite different behaviors in the invariance circle regime and in the Cantorus regime. In the former case, it is similar to that of the Harper model, whereas in the latter case, it is similar to that of the Fibonacci model. The relationship between spectral and transport properties is discussed. PMID:11801152

  6. Effective theory of Black Holes in the 1/D expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Emparan, Roberto; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (eg Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this 'black hole surface' (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory...

  7. 1D EM Modeling for Onshore Hydrocarbon Detection using MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, N. H. H. M.; Shafie, A.; Brahim, S.; Daud, H.; Kashif, M.; Akhtar, M. N.; Yahya, N. B.; Zaid, H. M.; Zorkepli, A. A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Controlled Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) is a new technique used for hydrocarbons detection. This study focuses on One dimension (1D) modeling of hydrocarbon detection for onshore application using the principles of electromagnetic (EM) waves propagation. The transmitted frequency which is 0.25 Hz was used to characterize the hydrocarbon at 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 m. Electric fields detected by the receivers at 500, 1000 and 1500 m were 22.85, 20.4 and 17.1 V m-1, respectively which was determ...

  8. 1D nonnegative Schrodinger operators with point interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. G. Kovalev

    2013-01-01

    Let $Y$ be an infinite discrete set of points in $dR$,satisfying the condition $inf{|y-y'|,; y,y'in Y, y'ey}>0.$ In the paper we prove that the systems${delta(x-y)}_{yin Y}, ;{delta'(x-y)}_{yin Y},{delta(x-y),;delta'(x-y)}_{yin Y}$ {form Riesz} bases in the corresponding closed linear spans in the Sobolev spaces $W_2^{-1}(dR)$ and $W_2^{-2}(dR)$. As an application, we prove the transversalness of the Friedrichs and Kreui n nonnegative selfadjoint extensions of the nonnegative symmetric operat...

  9. Design, fabrication and measurement of sub 1 dB noise figure LNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Sanjay K.; Mishra, Meena; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, HariShankar; Sehgal, B. K.

    2012-10-01

    Amplification is one of the most basic and prevalent RF/Microwave circuit functions. This paper describes the design of an MIC(microwave integrated circuit) LNA(low noise amplifier) using PHEMT(Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) ATF-36077 in the frequency band 4.8 to 5.2 GHz The amplifier is designed using the Agilent's ADS (Advanced Design System). The software was used to do minimum noise matching for the input stage and matching for maximum gain for the second stage. ADS has been used to design the input and output matching networks. A completed design of the amplifier was further optimized. The layout generated by the software was used to fabricate the amplifier. Momentum analysis of all the transmission lines and stubs used in the design was carried out to take into account the parasitic effects. Also, the method for the measurement of sub 1 dB noise figure is described for accurate measurement of noise figure. The LNA has demonstrated gain of 23.4 dB and noise figure 0.8-1.1 dB in the desired frequency band.

  10. A 1D analysis of two high order MOC methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented here provides two different methods for evaluating angular fluxes along long characteristics. One is based off a projection of the 1D transport equation onto a complete set of Legendre polynomials, while the other uses the 1D integral transport equation to evaluate the angular flux values at specific points along each track passing through a cell. The Moment Long Characteristic (M-LC) method is shown to provide 2(P+1) spatial convergence and significant gains in accuracy with the addition of only a few spatial degrees of freedom. The M-LC method, though, is shown to be ill-conditioned at very high order and for optically thin geometries. The Point Long Characteristic (P-LC) method, while less accurate, significantly improves stability to problems with optically thin cells. The P-LC method is also more flexible, allowing for extra angular flux evaluations along a given track to give a more accurate representation of the shape along each track. This is at the expense of increasing the degrees of freedom of the system, though, and requires an increase in memory storage. This work concludes that both may be used simultaneously within the same geometry to provide the best mix of accuracy and stability possible. (authors)

  11. 1-D DCT Using Latency Efficient Floating Point Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanath Gowd A, Yedukondala Rao V, T. Shanmuganantham

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of one-dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT architecture for digital signal processing (DSP applications. DCT is a basic transformation for coding method which converts spatial domain to frequency domain of image. In 1-D DCT operation addition, subtraction, multiplication operations are required. These operations must be accurate, less latency. Floating point operations have dynamic range of representation, more accurate and perform millions of calculations per second. So the floating point operations are used for the above operations. In this floating point adder/subtractor is the most complex operation in a floating-point arithmetic and consists of many variable latency- and area dependent sub-operations. In floating-point addition implementations, latency is the primary performance bottleneck. So different types of floating point adder/subtractor algorithms such as LOD, LOP, Two-path are used to decrease the latency. The trade off is observed in 1-D DCT by changing different types of adders in place of summer. All architectures are designed and implemented using VHDL using Xillinx 13.1software.

  12. Numerical shock instability on 1D Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Nadihah; Ismail, Farzad

    2013-04-01

    Numerical shock instabilities are deficiencies that may occur when predicting a shockwave in compressible flow computations. These deficiencies are usually present in shock capturing schemes with minimal numerical diffusion (i.e. Roe flux) when computing slowly moving shock problems, the hypersonic wall heating problem (Noh's problem) and even when simply predicting a steady state supersonic flow past a circular cylinder. For the supersonic flow past a cylinder, the predicted solution would normally consist of a pair of oblique shocks as opposed to the correct solution which is a bow-shock. Thus, the predicted thermodynamic quantities behind the shockwave are incorrect, compromising the overall flow predictions around the cylinder. This problem is also infamously known as the carbuncle phenomenon. The carbuncle problem has been around for more than 20 years yet there is no consensus within the literature of its true 'cause'. Recent studies have pointed out that the carbuncle may manifest itself in 2D, 1 1/2 D and even 1D shock structures. The current study will investigate the stability of 1D shock profiles based on the scalar and isothermal Euler equations using a numerical method based on Roe-flux. The results of this study will hopefully pave the way to better understand the root of the carbuncle phenomenon.

  13. A Diamagnetic Trap with 1D Camelback Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawan, Oki

    2014-01-01

    The ability to trap matter is of great importance in experimental physics since it allows isolation and measurement of intrinsic properties of the trapped matter. We present a study of a three dimensional (3D) trap for a diamagnetic rod in a pair of diametric cylindrical magnets. This system yields a fascinating 1D camelback potential along the longitudinal axis which is one of the elementary model potentials of interest in physics. This potential can be tailored by controlling the magnet length/radius aspect ratio. We developed theoretical models and verify them with experiments using graphite rods. We show that, in general, a camelback field or potential profile exists in between a pair of parallel linear dipole distribution. By exploiting this potential, we demonstrate a unique and simple technique to determine the magnetic susceptibility of the rod. This system could be further utilized as a platform for custom-designed 1D potential, a highly sensitive force-distance transducer or a trap for semiconductor...

  14. Effective-range signatures in quasi-1D matter waves: sound velocity and solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarlata, F.; Mazzarella, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate ultracold and dilute bosonic atoms under strong transverse harmonic confinement using a 1D modified Gross–Pitaevskii equation (1D MGPE), which accounts for the energy dependence of the two-body scattering amplitude within an effective-range expansion. We study sound waves and solitons of the quasi-1D system, comparing the 1D MGPE results with the 1D GPE ones. We find that when the finite-size nature of the interaction is taken into account, the speed of sound and the density profiles of both dark and bright solitons show relevant quantitative changes with respect to predictions given by the standard 1D GPE.

  15. Development of a borehole stress meter for studying earthquake predictions and rock mechanics, and stress seismograms of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake ( M 9.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Asai, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although precursory signs of an earthquake can occur before the event, it is difficult to observe such signs with precision, especially on earth's surface where artificial noise and other factors complicate signal detection. One possible solution to this problem is to install monitoring instruments into the deep bedrock where earthquakes are likely to begin. When evaluating earthquake occurrence, it is necessary to elucidate the processes of stress accumulation in a medium and then release as a fault (crack) is generated, and to do so, the stress must be observed continuously. However, continuous observations of stress have not been implemented yet for earthquake monitoring programs. Strain is a secondary physical quantity whose variation varies depending on the elastic coefficient of the medium, and it can yield potentially valuable information as well. This article describes the development of a borehole stress meter that is capable of recording both continuous stress and strain at a depth of about 1 km. Specifically, this paper introduces the design principles of the stress meter as well as its actual structure. It also describes a newly developed calibration procedure and the results obtained to date for stress and strain studies of deep boreholes at three locations in Japan. To show examples of the observations, records of stress seismic waveforms generated by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake ( M 9.0) are presented. The results demonstrate that the stress meter data have sufficient precision and reliability.

  16. Acute exercise and physiological insulin induce distinct phosphorylation signatures on TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; PehmØller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the phosphorylation signatures of two Rab GTPase activating proteins TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise and physiological insulin levels induced by a carbohydrate rich meal using a paired experimental design. Eight healthy male volunteers exercised in the fasted or fed state and muscle biopsies were taken before and immediately after exercise. We identified TBC1D1/4 sites that did not respond to either exercise or insulin (TBC1D4: S666), that responded to insulin only (TBC1D4: S318), that responded to exercise only (TBC1D1: S237, S660, S700; TBC1D4: S588, S751), and that responded to both insulin and exercise (TBC1D1: T596; TBC1D4: S341, T642, S704). In the insulin stimulated leg, Akt phosphorylation on both T308 and S473 correlated significantly with multiple sites on both TBC1D1 (T596) and TBC1D4 (S318, S341, S704). Interestingly, in the exercised leg in the fasted state TBC1D1 phosphorylation (S237, T596) correlated significantly with the activity ofthe ?2?2?3 AMPK trimer, whereas TBC1D4 phosphorylation (S341, S704) correlated with the activity of the ?2?2?1 AMPK trimer. Our data show differential phosphorylation of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in response to physiological stimuli in human skeletal muscle and support the idea that Akt and AMPK are upstream kinases. TBC1D1 phosphorylation signatures were comparable between in vitro contracted mouse skeletal muscle and exercised human muscle, and we show that AMPK was regulating phosphorylation of these sites in mouse muscle. Contraction and exercise elicited a different phosphorylation pattern of TBC1D4 in mouse compared with human muscle, and although different circumstances in our experimental setup may contribute to this difference, the observation exemplifies that transferring findings between species are difficult.

  17. Quasi-1D excitons in lateral induced superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoletzi, Gregorio H.; Hernández de La Luz, Alvaro D.; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    1998-03-01

    Effects of electrostatic-potential-induced lateral superlattices on the optical properties of quasi-1D excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells are investigated. Variational estimations are presented, in the tight binding limit, of minibands, binding energies E_ex and absorption coefficients ?_ex of the ground state and first excited state of heavy-hole excitonic transitions as functions of the applied electrostatic potentials and the period of induced superlattices. The limit of small periods and high electrostatic potential produces strong confinement, and consequently, this polarizes the excitons, resembling a type II superlattice where electrons and holes are spatially separated in different potential wells. The variations of the period induce strongh oscillations on E_ex and ?_ex as a result of a competition between quantum structural confinement and Coulomb interactions.

  18. Localization in quasi-1D systems with random magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Rutman, Y; Avishai, Y; Rutman, Yakov; Feingold, Mario; Avishai, Yshai

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the localization of electrons hopping on quasi-1D strips in the presence of random magnetic field. In the weak-disorder region, by perturbative analytical techniques, we derive scaling laws for the localization length, {\\xi}, of the form \\xi \\propto \\frac{1}{w^{\\eta}}, where w is the size of magnetic disorder and the exponent \\eta assumes different values in the various energy ranges. Moreover, in the neighborhood of the energies where a new channel opens a certain rearrangement of the perturbation expansion leads to scaling functions for \\xi. Although the latter are in general quantitatively wrong, they correctly reproduce the corresponding \\eta exponents and the form of the scaling variables and are therefore useful for understanding the behavior of \\xi.

  19. D1D5 System and Noncommutative Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailov, A

    2000-01-01

    Supergravity on $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times {\\bf T}^4$ has dual description as a conformal sigma-model with the target space the moduli space of instantons on the noncommutative torus. We derive the precise relation between the parameters of this noncommutative torus and the parameters of the near-horizon geometry. We show that the low energy dynamics of the system of $D1D5$ branes wrapped on the torus of finite size is described in terms of noncommutative geometry. As a byproduct, we give a prediction on the dependence of the moduli space of instantons on the noncommutative ${\\bf T}^4$ on the metric and the noncommutativity parameter. We give a compelling evidence that the moduli space of stringy instantons on ${\\bf R}^4$ with the $B$ field does not receive sigma-model instantons and the supergravity instantons.

  20. Invariant manifolds and stability: Some results for 1-D maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To give an analytic estimate of the stability domain of nonlinear systems, like large accelerators, has been a subjected of intense theoretical studies for many years. Up to now, even for the simple case of the one-dimensional Henon map, one could not determine the border of the stability domain using analytic tools. On the other hand this estimate can easily be found by tracking through the map. A promising new attempt is presented here, to estimate the dynamic aperture for the Henon map via following the invariant manifolds of its hyperbolic fixed point. The same technique is then applied to a different map and an attempt to generalize the method presented in this paper to generic 1-D polynomial maps is briefly discussed

  1. Microlens Masses from 1-D Parallaxes and Heliocentric Proper Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) microlens parallaxes can be combined with heliocentric lens-source relative proper motion measurements to derive the lens mass and distance, as suggested by Ghosh et al. (2004). Here I present the first mathematical anlysis of this procedure, which I show can be represented as a quadratic equation. Hence, it is formally subject to a two-fold degeneracy. I show that this degeneracy can be broken in many cases using the relatively crude 2-D parallax information that is often available for microlensing events. I also develop an explicit formula for the region of parameter space where it is more difficult to break this degeneracy. Although no mass/distance measurements have yet been made using this technique, it is likely to become quite common over the next decade.

  2. Robust recognition of 1D barcodes using Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinell, John; Bian, Peng; Bian, Long Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for the recognition of 1D barcodes using the Hough transform, which is highly robust regarding the typical degraded image. The algorithm addresses various typical image distortions, such as inhomogeneous illumination, reflections, damaged barcode or blurriness etc. Other problems arise from recognizing low quality printing (low contrast or poor ink receptivity). Traditional approaches are unable to provide a fast solution for handling such complex and mixed noise factors. A multi-level method offers a better approach to best manage competing constraints of complex noise and fast decode. At the lowest level, images are processed in gray scale. At the middle level, the image is transformed into the Hough domain. At the top level, global results, including missing information, is processed within a global context including domain heuristics as well as OCR. The three levels work closely together by passing information up and down between levels.

  3. Slug modeling with 1D two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of condensation-induced water hammer with one-dimensional two-fluid model requires explicit modeling of slug formation, slug propagation, and in some cases slug decay. Stratified flow correlations that are more or less well known in 1D two-fluid models, are crucial for accurate description of the initial phase of the slug formation and slug propagation. Slug formation means transition to other flow regime that requires different set of correlations. To use such two-fluid model for condensation induced water hammer simulations, a single slug must be explicitly recognized and captured. In the present work two cases of condensation-induced water hammer simulations performed with WAHA code, are described and discussed: injection of cold liquid into horizontal pipe filled with steam and injection of hot steam into horizontal pipe partially filled with cold liquid. (orig.)

  4. Effective theory of Black Holes in the 1/D expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Emparan, Roberto; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (eg Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this 'black hole surface' (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for 'black droplets', ie black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.

  5. 1-D array of perforated diode neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of a 4 cm long 64-pixel perforated diode neutron detector array is compared with an identical array of thin-film coated diodes. The perforated neutron detector design has been adapted to a 1-D pixel array capable of 120 ?m spatial resolution and counting efficiency greater than 12%. Deep vertical trenches filled with 6LiF provide outstanding improvement in efficiency over thin-film coated diode designs limited to only 4.5%. This work marks the final step towards the construction of a much larger array consisting of 1024 pixels spanning 10 cm. The larger detector array will be constructed with a sub-array of 64-pixel sensors, and will be used for small-angle neutron scattering experiments at the Spallation Neutron Source of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. 75 FR 11072 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1B, 1D, 1D1, and 1S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ...position checks of the gas generator 2nd stage turbine blades on Turbomeca Arriel...position checks of the gas generator 2nd stage turbine blades on Turbomeca Arriel...engine to replace the gas turbine discs and blades. The average...

  7. Three-field modeling for MARS 1-D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the three-field modeling of the two-phase mixture is developed. The finite difference equations for the three-field equations thereafter are devised. The solution scheme has been implemented into the MARS 1-D code. The three-field formulations adopted are similar to those for MARS 3-D module, in a sense that the mass and momentum are treated separately for the entrained liquid and continuous liquid. As in the MARS-3D module, the entrained liquid and continuous liquid are combined into one for the energy equation, assuming thermal equilibrium between the two. All the non-linear terms are linearized to arrange the finite difference equation set into a linear matrix form with respect to the unknown arguments. The problems chosen for the assessment of the newly added entrained field consist of basic conceptual tests. Among the tests are gas-only test, liquid-only test, gas-only with supplied entrained liquid test, Edwards pipe problem, and GE level swell problem. The conceptual tests performed confirm the sound integrity of the three-field solver

  8. Nanowires and 1D arrays fabrication: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of M41S materials family in 1992, some special features like aligned pores perpendicularly to the substrate surface and long range order, have been looked for with great interest for many applications of these kind of nanomaterials. The growth of thin films displaying meso- and nano-porous structures have attracted the attention of many research groups in the last decade and, with that aim several techniques such as: MBE, CVD, AFM, ion beam lithography, etc., have been used. On the other hand, a lot of down-top techniques, particularly those in which, self-assembly processes play a relevant role in the growth mechanisms of that nanostructures have been reported. Among them, electrochemical techniques constitute one of the most used to fabricate highly ordered nanostructures to be used as templates for replicating other nanostructured materials and for growing functionalized material arrays. In this paper, a brief overview on the nanofabrication techniques is done mainly of those related with the nanowires and, in general, 1D nanostructures fabrication. In addition, we show some results on ordered and disordered nanoporous anodic alumina membranes (AAM) and anodic titania membranes (ATM), respectively. Besides some functionalized systems based on these membranes used as templates are presented such as, magnetic nanowire arrays, biosensors, and carbon nanotubes. The potentiality of these systems for applications on diverse field, such as, nanoelectroons on diverse field, such as, nanoelectronic, magneto-optic, biotechnology and optoelectronic is demonstrated

  9. Specview: 1-D spectral visualization and analysis of astronomical spectrograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Space Telescope Science Institute

    2012-10-01

    Specview is a tool for 1-D spectral visualization and analysis of astronomical spectrograms. Written in Java, it is capable of reading all the Hubble Space Telescope spectral data formats as well as data from several other instruments (such as IUE, FUSE, ISO, FORS and SDSS), preview spectra from MAST, and data from generic FITS and ASCII tables. It can read data from Virtual Observatory servers, and read and write spectrogram data in Virtual Observatory SED format. It can also read files in the SPC Galactic format used in the chemistry field. Once ingested, data can be plotted and examined with a large selection of custom settings. Specview supports instrument-specific data quality handling, flexible spectral units conversions, custom plotting attributes, plot annotations, tiled plots, hardcopy to JPEG files and PostScript file or printer, etc. Specview can be used to build wide-band SEDs, overplotting or combining data from the same astronomical source taken with different instruments and/or spectral bands. Data can be further processed with averaging, splicing, detrending, and Fourier filtering tools. Specview has a spectral model fitting capability that enables the user to work with multi-component models (including user-defined models) and fit models to data.

  10. 1D and 3D resistivity inversions for geotechnical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resistivity method is frequently used in the investigation of the shallow parts of the earth. Interpretation of such data is usually done assuming a layered earth. However, a more complete imaging can be obtained if 3D models are used. Thirty-five vertical electrical soundings (VES) were carried out in a regular mesh at the northwestern part of Greater Cairo in order to characterize different geological units and to study their quality for building foundations. Models obtained from 1D inversion of each VES, together with borehole information, were used for construction of eight geoelectrical sections which exhibit the main geoelectrical characteristics of the geological units present in the area. The 3D inversion of the data indicated a complex subsurface electrical resistivity distribution conditioned by lithology, water content and tectonic structures. The results indicate that the subsurface consists of different geologic units such as gravel and sand, sand, clay and limestone. The main results are related to the characterization of the clay formations in the north of the survey area, which is revealed by low-resistivity values (600 ? m) depicted in the central part of the study zone

  11. Transport properties of 1D disordered models a novel approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dossetti-Romero, V; Krokhin, A A

    2002-01-01

    A new method is developed for the study of transport properties of 1D models with random potentials. It is based on an exact transformation that reduces discrete Schr\\"odinger equation in the tight-binding model to a two-dimensional Hamiltonian map. This map describes the behavior of a classical linear oscillator under random parametric delta-kicks. We are interested in the statistical properties of the transmission coefficient $T_L$ of a disordered sample of length $L$. In the ballistic regime we derive expressions for the mean value of the transmission coefficient $T_L$, its second moment and variance, that are more accurate than the existing ones. In the localized regime we analyze the global characteristics of $\\ln T_L$, and demonstrate that its distribution function approaches the Gaussian form if $L\\to \\infty$. For any finite $L$ there are deviations from the Gaussian law that originate from the subtle correlation effects between different trajectories of the Hamiltonian map.

  12. Nanowires and 1D arrays fabrication: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Velez, M. [Autonoma University of Madrid (UAM) and Materials Science Institute (ICMM-CSIC). Science Faculty, C-XII. Carretera de Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco-28049, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: manuel.hernandez@uam.es

    2006-01-20

    Since the discovery of M41S materials family in 1992, some special features like aligned pores perpendicularly to the substrate surface and long range order, have been looked for with great interest for many applications of these kind of nanomaterials. The growth of thin films displaying meso- and nano-porous structures have attracted the attention of many research groups in the last decade and, with that aim several techniques such as: MBE, CVD, AFM, ion beam lithography, etc., have been used. On the other hand, a lot of down-top techniques, particularly those in which, self-assembly processes play a relevant role in the growth mechanisms of that nanostructures have been reported. Among them, electrochemical techniques constitute one of the most used to fabricate highly ordered nanostructures to be used as templates for replicating other nanostructured materials and for growing functionalized material arrays. In this paper, a brief overview on the nanofabrication techniques is done mainly of those related with the nanowires and, in general, 1D nanostructures fabrication. In addition, we show some results on ordered and disordered nanoporous anodic alumina membranes (AAM) and anodic titania membranes (ATM), respectively. Besides some functionalized systems based on these membranes used as templates are presented such as, magnetic nanowire arrays, biosensors, and carbon nanotubes. The potentiality of these systems for applications on diverse field, such as, nanoelectronic, magneto-optic, biotechnology and optoelectronic is demonstrated.

  13. Simplified 1D modelling of the HGA test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The HGA test is located in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland). It consists of a horizontal borehole of 1.00 m of diameter and 13.00 m of length excavated in the ultra-low permeable Opalinus clay. During the tunnel drilling, the Opalinus clay near the tunnel wall was damaged, giving rise to an EDZ (Excavation Damaged Zone) around the tunnel. A steel liner was placed along the 6.00 m close to the tunnel mouth in order to guarantee the stability. The last 4.00 m at the tunnel end were backfilled with gravel. Along the remaining 3.00 m, an inflatable rubber packer of 1.00 m in diameter, was installed and inflated, thereby compressing the EDZ that was created during the tunnel excavation. The test section was filled with de-aired water and care was taken in order to eliminate the air from this tunnel section. Subsequently, a series of water and gas injection tests were carried out with varying mega-packer pressure, whereby water or gas was injected into the test section and, due to the very low permeability of the intact Opalinus clay, forced to flow back along the EDZ. In order to model the water and gas flow through the EDZ, we have followed a two-track approach. On the one hand, a 2D axisymmetric numerical model using code-bright has been made. On the other hand, a 1D analytical-numerical model has been developed and implemented in an Excel spreadsheet, whereby the field equations defined on a 1D geometrical dld equations defined on a 1D geometrical domain are numerically solved using the finite element method. The 1D model has been used in order to calibrate the 2D axisymmetric model. Both the Opalinus clay and the EDZ will be considered to be porous media, with an incompressible solid phase (clay), an incompressible liquid phase (water and air) and a gas phase (water and air). The properties of the liquid phase will be assumed to be independent of the concentration of dissolved air and the gas phase will be assumed to be a mixture of dry air and water vapour, both assumed to be ideal gases, such that Dalton's law holds. Exchanges of both species water and species air between the liquid phase and the gas phase will be allowed, but it will be assumed that they are always in equilibrium, defined by the psychrometric and Henry's laws. It will be assumed that motions are slow so that terms involving accelerations and products of velocities may be neglected. Motion of the liquid phase and of the gas phase will be described by generalisations of Darcy's laws appropriate to unsaturated porous media and motion of the species water and the species air in the liquid phase and in the gas phase will be described by Fick's laws. In the Opalinus clay the intrinsic permeability will be assumed to be constant, but in the EDZ it will be assumed that it depends on the volumetric deformation of the solid skeleton via an aperture-based cubic law. A generalised form of Terzaghi's effective stress principle will be assumed to hold both in saturated and in unsaturated conditions. The constitutive laws for generalised effective stress both the Opalinus clay and the EDZ will be assumed to be given by isotropic linear elasticity. A water retention curve will govern the degree of saturation of the porous medium and, in particular, the transition between saturated and unsaturated states. Finally, it will be assumed that temperature remains constant everywhere. By combining the balance equations, the equilibrium restrictions and the constitutive relations, we get the field equations, that with suitable initial and boundary conditions allow to determine the unknown functions of the space position and time. In the considered case of the HGA test, we have considered simplifying assumptions that greatly reduce the complexity of the field equations. Mechanical assumptions: (1) there is axisymmetry about the tunnel axis; (2) there are no volume forces; and (3) slices z = const move independently and in plane strain. Hydraulic assumptions: (1) there is axisymmetry about the tunnel axis; and (2) th

  14. Quantum Heat Engines; Multiple-State 1D Box System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Latifah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate quantum Otto, Diesel and Brayton cycles employing multiple-state 1D box system instead of ideal gas filled cylinder. The work and heat are extracted using the change in the expectation of Hamiltonian of the system which leads to the first law of thermodynamics to quantum system. The first law makes available to redefine the force which is in fact not well defined in a quantum mechanical system and then it is applied to define the quantum version of thermodynamic processes, i.e. isobaric, isovolume and adiabatic. As the results, the efficiency of quantum Otto engine depends only on the compression ratio and will be higher than the efficiency of quantum Diesel which can decrease by the widening of expansion under isobaric process. The efficiency of quantum Brayton engine may reach maximum on certain combination between the wide of box under isobaric expansion and compression, under certain conditions. The amount of levels participated in the quantum heat engine system will potentially reduce the performance of the quantum heat cycles consisting isobaric process, but it can be resisted using isobaric process controller.

  15. Control and imaging of O(1D2) precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiou-Min; Radenovic, Dragana ?.; van der Zande, Wim J.; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; Parker, David H.; Vallance, Claire; Zare, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Larmor precession of a quantum mechanical angular momentum vector about an applied magnetic field forms the basis for a range of magnetic resonance techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging. We have used a polarized laser pump-probe scheme with velocity-map imaging detection to visualize, for the first time, the precessional motion of a quantum mechanical angular momentum vector. Photodissociation of O2 at 157 nm provides a clean source of fast-moving O(1D2) atoms, with their electronic angular momentum vector strongly aligned perpendicular to the recoil direction. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the distribution of atomic angular momenta precesses about the field direction, and polarization-sensitive images of the atomic scattering distribution recorded as a function of field strength yield ‘time-lapse-photography’ style movies of the precessional motion. We present movies recorded in various experimental geometries, and discuss potential consequences and applications in atmospheric chemistry and reaction dynamics.

  16. Studies of 1D gases away from integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Aaron; Riou, Jean-Felix; Schafer, Phillip; Weiss, David

    2010-03-01

    We have studied atoms in optical lattices to address the fundamental question of what is needed for a many-body quantum system to approach a thermal distribution. Specifically, we prepare Rb atoms in an array of 1D tubes formed by a 2D optical lattice in so-called quantum Newton's cradle states,ootnotetextKinoshita et. al, ``A quantum Newton's Cradle,'' Nature 440, 900 (2006) and then observe their time evolution. When the lattice is very deep, we can only set lower limits on the collision-dependent evolution of the momentum distribution. When the lattice is shallow enough that some atoms can populate the second vibrational band after a two-body collision, we find that the system thermalizes at a rate proportional to the inter-tube tunneling rate. For intermediate lattice depths, we observe collision-dependent evolution, but to final momentum distributions that seem to retain a memory of the initial state. Such partial thermalization is reminiscent of classical physics described by the KAM theorem.

  17. Sulfur chemistry: 1D modeling in massive dense cores

    CERN Document Server

    Wakelam, V; Herpin, F

    2011-01-01

    The main sulfur-bearing molecules OCS, H2S, SO, SO2, and CS have been observed in four high mass dense cores (W43-MM1, IRAS 18264, IRAS 05358, and IRAS 18162). Our goal is to put some constraints on the relative evolutionary stage of these sources by comparing these observations with time-dependent chemical modeling. We used the chemical model Nahoon, which computes the gas-phase chemistry and gas-grain interactions of depletion and evaporation. Mixing of the different chemical compositions shells in a 1D structure through protostellar envelope has been included since observed lines suggest nonthermal supersonic broadening. Observed radial profiles of the temperature and density are used to compute the chemistry as a function of time. With our model, we underproduce CS by several orders of magnitude compared to the other S-bearing molecules, which seems to contradict observations, although some uncertainties in the CS abundance observed at high temperature remain. The OCS/SO2, SO/SO2, and H2S/SO2 abundance ra...

  18. Phage display-derived recombinant antibodies with TCR-like specificity against alpha-galactosylceramide and its analogues in complex with human CD1d molecules.

    OpenAIRE

    Denkberg, G.; Stronge, Vs; Zahavi, E.; Pittoni, P.; Oren, R.; Shepherd, D.; Salio, M.; Mccarthy, C.; Illarionov, Pa; Merwe, A.; Besra, Gs; Dellabona, P.; Casorati, G.; Cerundolo, V.; Reiter, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is a potent activator of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and has been shown to be an effective agent against cancer, infections and autoimmune diseases. The effectiveness of alpha-GalCer and its alkyl chain analogues depends on efficient loading and presentation by the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d. To monitor the ability of CD1d to present the glycolipids, we have used a phage display strategy to generate recombinant antibodie...

  19. Identification of T1D susceptibility genes within the MHC region by combining protein interaction networks and SNP genotyping data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsson, C.; Hansen, Niclas Tue

    2009-01-01

    To develop novel methods for identifying new genes that contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6, independently of the known linkage disequilibrium (LD) between human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1 genes. We have developed a novel method that combines single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data with protein-protein interaction (ppi) networks to identify disease-associated network modules enriched for proteins encoded from the MHC region. Approximately 2500 SNPs located in the 4 Mb MHC region were analysed in 1000 affected offspring trios generated by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). The most associated SNP in each gene was chosen and genes were mapped to ppi networks for identification of interaction partners. The association testing and resulting interacting protein modules were statistically evaluated using permutation. A total of 151 genes could be mapped to nodes within the protein interaction network and their interaction partners were identified. Five protein interaction modules reached statistical significance using this approach. The identified proteins are well known in the pathogenesis of T1D, but the modules also contain additional candidates that have been implicated in beta-cell development and diabetic complications. The extensive LD within the MHC region makes it important to develop new methods for analysing genotyping data for identification of additional risk genes for T1D. Combining genetic data with knowledge about functional pathways provides new insight into mechanisms underlying T1D.

  20. Fabrication of GaN/AlGaN 1D photonic crystals designed for nonlinear optical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stomeo, T; Tasco, V; Tarantini, I; Campa, A; De Vittorio, M; Passaseo, A; Braccini, M; Larciprete, M C; Sibilia, C; Bovino, F A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a reliable process to fabricate GaN/AlGaN one dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PhC) microcavities with nonlinear optical properties. We used a heterostructure with a GaN layer embedded between two Distributed Bragg Reflectors consisting of AlGaN/GaN multilayers, on sapphire substrate, designed to generate a {\\lambda}= 800 nm frequency down-converted signal (\\chi^(2) effect) from an incident pump signal at {\\lambda}= 400 nm. The heterostructure was epitaxially grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and integrates a properly designed 1D-PhC grating, which amplifies the signal by exploiting the double effect of cavity resonance and non linear GaN enhancement. The integrated 1D-PhC microcavity was fabricate combing a high resolution e-beam writing with a deep etching technique. For the pattern transfer we used ~ 170 nm layer Cr metal etch mask obtained by means of high quality lift-off technique based on the use of bi-layer resist (PMMA/MMA). At the same time, plasma co...

  1. Multiparticle systems in ? -Poincaré inspired by (2 +1 )D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by a Chern-Simons description of 2 +1 -dimensional gravity coupled to point particles we propose a new Lagrangian of a multiparticle system living in ? -Minkowski/? -Poincaré spacetime. We derive the dynamics of interacting particles with ? -momentum space, alternative to the one proposed in the "principle of relative locality" literature. The model that we obtain takes account of the nonlocal topological interactions between the particles, so that the effective multiparticle action is not a sum of their free actions. In this construction the locality of particle processes is naturally implemented, even for distant observers. In particular a particle process is characterized by a local deformed energy-momentum conservation law. The spacetime transformations are generated by total charges/generators for the composite particle system, and leave unaffected the locality of individual particle processes.

  2. POLARISATION OF THE S - PHASE OF SEISMOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. STONELEY

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available In earthquakes recorded at moderate distances it lias been ohservedthat S phase appears first as SII, folloived some 10 to 14 seconds laterby SV. The object of tliis paper is to try to decide ichether doublérefraction is likely to be the explanation of tliis jìlwnomenon.A simpie model to consider ivould be a « transversely isotropie »material, symmetrical about the radiai direction. Formulae for thevelocities of SII and SV waves are available; tliese velocities dependon the angle that the ray makes ivi t li the norma!. It is unlikely thatthe Eartli could be as markedly anisotropie as the minerai beryl, whichis transversely isotropie; aceordingly, this material, of ivhich the fi veclastic constants are knoivn is taken as an extreme example, andthe velocities of SH and SV for different angles of incidence are« scaled down » so as to match the velocity of distortional ivaves ingranite. It is then possible to calcitiate the difference in the timo takenby ivaves from one point of the surface of the Earth to anotlier pointon the surface according as the S wave in the surface layer is of SHor SV type.

  3. A 1d Traffic Model with Threshold Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Sauermann, G.; Herrmann, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    The basic properties of traffic flow are analyzed using a simple deterministic one dimensional "car following model" with continuous variables based on a model introduced by Nagel and Herrmann [Physica A 199 254--269 (1993)] including a few modifications. As a first case we investigate the creation and propagation of jams in a platoon generated by a slow leading vehicle. In a second case we look at a system with the size L, periodic boundary conditions and identical vehicles...

  4. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  5. Radiative lifetime measurement of the 3 1S, 3 1D, 4 1D, 4 1F, and 5 1F excited states of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetimes of the 3 1S, 3 1D, 4 1D, 4 1F, and 5 1F states of He have been determined experimentally to be 54.5 +- 0.8, 16.7 +- 0.8, 36.4 +- 1.2, 67 +- 10, and 142 +- 20 nesc, respectively. The measurements were made at several incident electron energies using a pulsed-electron time-delayed-coincidence technique

  6. Exercise increases TBC1D1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels; An, Ding

    2011-01-01

    Exercise and weight loss are cornerstones in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes, and both interventions function to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Studies in rodents demonstrate that the underlying mechanism for glucose uptake in muscle involves site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 (TBC1D4) and TBC1D1. Multiple kinases, including Akt and AMPK, phosphorylate TBC1D1 and AS160 on distinct residues, regulating their activity and allowing for GLUT4 translocation. In contrast to extensive rodent-based studies, the regulation of AS160 and TBC1D1 in human skeletal muscle is not well understood. In this study, we determined the effects of dietary intervention and a single bout of exercise on TBC1D1 and AS160 site-specific phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. Ten obese (BMI 33.4 ± 2.4, M-value 4.3 ± 0.5) subjects were studied at baseline and after a 2-wk dietary intervention. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the subjects in the resting (basal) state and immediately following a 30-min exercise bout (70% Vo(2 max)). Muscle lysates were analyzed for AMPK activity and Akt phosphorylation and for TBC1D1 and AS160 phosphorylation on known or putative AMPK and Akt sites as follows: AS160 Ser(711) (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser(231) (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser(660) (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser(700) (AMPK), and TBC1D1 Thr(590) (Akt). The diet intervention that consisted of a major shift in the macronutrient composition resulted in a 4.2 ± 0.4 kg weight loss (P <0.001) and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (M value 5.6 ± 0.6), but surprisingly, there was no effect on expression or phosphorylation of any of the muscle-signaling proteins. Exercise increased muscle AMPK?2 activity but did not increase Akt phosphorylation. Exercise increased phosphorylation on AS160 Ser(711), TBC1D1 Ser(231), and TBC1D1 Ser(660) but had no effect on TBC1D1 Ser(700). Exercise did not increase TBC1D1 Thr(590) phosphorylation or TBC1D1/AS160 PAS phosphorylation, consistent with the lack of Akt activation. These data demonstrate that a single bout of exercise regulates TBC1D1 and AS160 phosphorylation on multiple sites in human skeletal muscle.

  7. 1D engine simulation of a turbocharged SI engine with CFD computation on components

    OpenAIRE

    Renberg, Ulrica

    2008-01-01

    Techniques that can increase the SI- engine efficiency while keeping the emissions very low is to reduce the engine displacement volume combined with a charging system. Advanced systems are needed for an effective boosting of the engine and today 1D engine simulation tools are often used for their optimization. This thesis concerns 1D engine simulation of a turbocharged SI engine and the introduction of CFD computations on components as a way to assess inaccuracies in the 1D model. 1D engine ...

  8. Technical Note: Sensitivity of 1-D smoke plume rise models to the inclusion of environmental wind drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation fires emit hot gases and particles which are rapidly transported upward by the positive buoyancy generated by the combustion process. In general, the final vertical height that the smoke plumes reach is controlled by the thermodynamic stability of the atmospheric environment and the surface heat flux released by the fire. However, the presence of a strong horizontal wind can enhance the lateral entrainment and induce additional drag, particularly for small fires, impacting the smoke injection height. In this paper, we revisit the parameterization of the vertical transport of hot gases and particles emitted from vegetation fires, described in Freitas et al. (2007, to include the effects of environmental wind on transport and dilution of the smoke plume at its scale. This process is quantitatively represented by introducing an additional entrainment term to account for organized inflow of a mass of cooler and drier ambient air into the plume and its drag by momentum transfer. An extended set of equations including the horizontal motion of the plume and the additional increase of the plume radius is solved to simulate the time evolution of the plume rise and the smoke injection height. One-dimensional (1-D model results are presented for two deforestation fires in the Amazon basin with sizes of 10 and 50 ha under calm and windy atmospheric environments. The results are compared to corresponding simulations generated by the complex non-hydrostatic three-dimensional (3-D Active Tracer High resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM. We show that the 1-D model results compare well with the full 3-D simulations. The 1-D model may thus be used in field situations where extensive computing facilities are not available, especially under conditions for which several optional cases must be studied.

  9. A 1d Traffic Model with Threshold Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sauermann, G

    1997-01-01

    The basic properties of traffic flow are analyzed using a simple deterministic one dimensional "car following model" with continuous variables based on a model introduced by Nagel and Herrmann [Physica A 199 254--269 (1993)] including a few modifications. As a first case we investigate the creation and propagation of jams in a platoon generated by a slow leading vehicle. In a second case we look at a system with the size L, periodic boundary conditions and identical vehicles. A strong dependence on the initial configuration of the fundamental diagram's shape can be found.

  10. Comments on the Bifurcation Structure of 1D Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belykh, V.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a complementary view on some of the phenomena related to the bifurcation structure of unimodal maps. An approximate renormalization theory for the period-doubling cascade is developed, and a mapping procedure is established that accounts directly for the box-within-a-box structure of the total bifurcation set. This presents a picture in which the homoclinic orbit bifurcations act as a skeleton for the bifurcational set. At the same time, experimental results on continued subharmonic generation for piezoelectrically amplified sound waves, predating the Feigenbaum theory, are called into attention.

  11. Calibração binocular com gabaritos 1D sem restrição demovimentos / Binocular calibration with 1D parttern without movements restriction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Alexandre de, França; Maria Bernadete de M., França; Marcelo Ricardo, Stemmer; Rodrigo Henrique C., Palácios.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Na visão computacional, a calibração de câmeras é um processo necessário quando deseja-se recuperar informações como, por exemplo, ângulos e distâncias. O presente trabalho trata do problema de calibração de câmeras com gabaritos de uma única dimensão. Atualmente, tal problema só tem solução se fore [...] m impostas restrições ao movimento do gabarito ou se alguns parâmetros das câmeras já sejam previamente conhecidos. Contudo, demonstra-se que uma abordagem diferente pode ser aplicada se, ao invés de uma única câmera, um conjunto binocular for considerado. Nesse caso, a calibração é possível com um gabarito 1D que realiza um deslocamento desconhecido e sem restrições, mesmo sem nenhuma informação prévia a respeito das câmeras. Tal método baseia-se na estimação de uma transformação que, após a estimação da matriz fundamental do sistema, permite atualizar uma calibração projetiva para uma calibração euclidiana. Experimentos em imagens reais e sintéticas validam o novo método e mostram que a sua exatidão é comparável a de outros métodos clássicos de calibração, já bem conhecidos na literatura. Abstract in english In computer vision, the camera calibration is a process needed when the recovery of some information, such as angles and distances, is desired. The present work deals with the problem of camera calibration using one-dimensional patterns. Nowadays, this problem only has a solution if some restriction [...] s to the pattern's movement are imposed or if some angles of the cameras are known in advance. However, a different approach can be applied if, instead of only one camera, a stereo system is considered. In that case, the calibration is possible with a one-dimensional pattern that executes an unknown and unrestricted movement, even without any previous information concerning the cameras. Such method is based on the estimation of a transform which, after the estimation of the system's fundamental matrix, allows updating a projective calibration into a Euclidean calibration. Experiments using both real and synthetic images validate the new method and demonstrate that its accuracy is comparable to other well known calibration methods in the literature.

  12. Calibração binocular com gabaritos 1D sem restrição demovimentos Binocular calibration with 1D parttern without movements restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre de França

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Na visão computacional, a calibração de câmeras é um processo necessário quando deseja-se recuperar informações como, por exemplo, ângulos e distâncias. O presente trabalho trata do problema de calibração de câmeras com gabaritos de uma única dimensão. Atualmente, tal problema só tem solução se forem impostas restrições ao movimento do gabarito ou se alguns parâmetros das câmeras já sejam previamente conhecidos. Contudo, demonstra-se que uma abordagem diferente pode ser aplicada se, ao invés de uma única câmera, um conjunto binocular for considerado. Nesse caso, a calibração é possível com um gabarito 1D que realiza um deslocamento desconhecido e sem restrições, mesmo sem nenhuma informação prévia a respeito das câmeras. Tal método baseia-se na estimação de uma transformação que, após a estimação da matriz fundamental do sistema, permite atualizar uma calibração projetiva para uma calibração euclidiana. Experimentos em imagens reais e sintéticas validam o novo método e mostram que a sua exatidão é comparável a de outros métodos clássicos de calibração, já bem conhecidos na literatura.In computer vision, the camera calibration is a process needed when the recovery of some information, such as angles and distances, is desired. The present work deals with the problem of camera calibration using one-dimensional patterns. Nowadays, this problem only has a solution if some restrictions to the pattern's movement are imposed or if some angles of the cameras are known in advance. However, a different approach can be applied if, instead of only one camera, a stereo system is considered. In that case, the calibration is possible with a one-dimensional pattern that executes an unknown and unrestricted movement, even without any previous information concerning the cameras. Such method is based on the estimation of a transform which, after the estimation of the system's fundamental matrix, allows updating a projective calibration into a Euclidean calibration. Experiments using both real and synthetic images validate the new method and demonstrate that its accuracy is comparable to other well known calibration methods in the literature.

  13. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-05-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ?100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor ?-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor ?-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125

  14. Rotated multifractal network generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently introduced multifractal network generator (MFNG), has been shown to provide a simple and flexible tool for creating random graphs with very diverse features. The MFNG is based on multifractal measures embedded in 2d, leading also to isolated nodes, whose number is relatively low for realistic cases, but may become dominant in the limiting case of infinitely large network sizes. Here we discuss the relation between this effect and the information dimension for the 1d projection of the link probability measure (LPM), and argue that the node isolation can be avoided by a simple transformation of the LPM based on rotation

  15. Comparison of 1D magnetotelluric inversion using Levenberg-Marquardt and Occam's inversion schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakusumah, Rocky; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) inversion problem for magnetotelluric (MT) data are addressed using two different schemes: The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) inversion and Occam-type inversion in order to obtain information on the resolvability of each scheme in recovering the Earth's layered model. We tested both schemes to synthetic MT data generated from a blocky and a smooth model. Standard error (SE) is used as statistical criterion for comparing the fitness between the synthetic and the calculated data as well as the test model and the recovered model. It is revealed that based on the inherent properties posed by the LM and Occam inversion, the data SE is least for Occam method for both the blocky and the smooth models (log ?a SE are 0.1167 and 0.0939 for LM and Occam, respectively; phase impedance SE are 0.0649 and 0.0432). The model fitness is achieved best by the Occam inversion (log ? SE are 2.6504 and 1.2512).

  16. Testing the Early Mars H2-CO2 Greenhouse Hypothesis with a 1-D Photochemical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Batalha, Natasha; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James

    2015-01-01

    A recent study by Ramirez et al. (2014) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ~1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere...

  17. Surface roughened 1-D Au host nanorods for visible light induced photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Surface roughened 1-D Au host nanorods for visible light induced photocatalyst are tried. • A nanofilm of hematite coated on high conducting and vertically aligned smooth Au nanorods or nanoporous Au nanorods is prepared. • We report an effect of surface morphology of Au nanorods on the photoactivity of hematite/gold nanorod arrays prepared by the electrodeposition method. -- Abstract: Visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B and hydrogen generation from solar water splitting by hematite (?-Fe2O3) coated gold (Au) nanorods have been investigated, in which two types of ?-Fe2O3/Au nanorods with different Au surfaces were synthesized and then carefully compared. Vertically aligned smooth Au nanorod and porous Au nanorod arrays were prepared by the electro-deposition method using anodized aluminum oxide templates, followed by deposition of hematite onto nanoporous Au nanorods and smooth Au nanorods to synthesize core/shell like nanostructure. The as-prepared samples were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Also, their photocatalytic activities were investigated by photo-degradation of rhodamine B, photocurrent–voltage, and incident photon to current conversion efficiency measurements under AM 1.5G light irradiation. Hematite (?-Fe2O3) coated porous Au nanorods showed better photocatalytic activities than ?-Fe2O3 coated smooth Au nanorods, showing faster dye degradation rate, higher photocurrent density and better photon harvesting

  18. The organic anion transport polypeptide 1d1 (Oatp1d1) mediates hepatocellular uptake of phalloidin and microcystin into skate liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodent Oatp; human OATP) mediate cellular uptake of numerous organic compounds including xenobiotic toxins into mammalian hepatocytes. In the little skate Leucoraja erinacea a liver-specific Oatp (Oatp1d1, also called sOatp) has been identified and suggested to represent an evolutionarily ancient precursor of the mammalian liver OATP1B1 (human), Oatp1b2 (rat), and OATP1B3 (human). The present study tested whether Oatp1d1 shares functional transport activity of the xenobiotic oligopeptide toxins phalloidin and microcystin with the mammalian liver Oatps/OATPs. The phalloidin analogue [3H]-demethylphalloin was taken up into skate hepatocytes with high affinity (Km ? 0.4 ?M), and uptake could be inhibited by phalloidin and a variety of typical Oatp/OATP substrates such as bromosulfophthalein, bile salts, estrone-3-sulfate, cyclosporine A and high concentrations of microcystin-LR (Ki ? 150 ?M). When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes Oatp1d1 increased uptake of demethylphalloin (Km ? 2.2 ?M) and microcystin-LR (Km ? 27 ?M) 2- to 3-fold over water-injected oocytes, whereas the alternative skate liver organic anion transporter, the dimeric Ost?/?, exhibited no phalloidin and only minor microcystin-LR transport. Also, the closest mammalian Oatp1d1 orthologue, the human brain and testis OATP1C1, did not show any phalloidin transport activity. These results demonstrate that the evolutionarily ancient Oatp1d1 is ionarily ancient Oatp1d1 is able to mediate uptake of cyclic oligopeptide toxins into skate liver. The findings support the notion that Oatp1d1 is a precursor of the liver-specific mammalian Oatps/OATPs and that its transport properties are closely associated with certain forms of toxic liver injury such as for example protein phosphatase inhibition by the water-borne toxin microcystin

  19. Transmission profiling of phase shifted 1D Bragg reflectors in standard and coaxial waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Macinnes, P.; Konoplev, Iv; Cross, Aw; Phelps, Adr; Ronald, K.

    2007-01-01

    A Bragg reflector can be defined as a region which shows a periodic change in the wave impedance, leading to gaps in the transmission pass-band. We report the results of initial experimental and theoretical work into the control of the transmission profiles of 1D Bragg reflectors, realized through the introduction of a ±? phase shift defect in the 1D corrugation.

  20. Development of a 3D consistent 1D neutronics model for reactor core simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a 3D consistent 1D model based on nonlinear analytic nodal method is developed to reproduce the 3D results. During the derivation, the current conservation factor (CCF) is introduced which guarantees the same axial neutron currents obtained from the 1D equation as the 3D reference values. Furthermore in order to properly use 1D group constants, a new 1D group constants representation scheme employing tables for the fuel temperature, moderator density and boron concentration is developed and functionalized for the control rod tip position. To test the 1D kinetics model with CCF, several steady state and transient calculations were performed and compared with 3D reference values. The errors of K-eff values were reduced about one tenth when using CCF without significant computational overhead. And the errors of power distribution were decreased to the range of one fifth or tenth at steady state calculation. The 1D kinetics model with CCF and the 1D group constant functionalization employing tables as a function of control rod tip position can provide preciser results at the steady state and transient calculation. Thus it is expected that the 1D kinetics model derived in this report can be used in the safety analysis, reactor real time simulation coupled with system analysis code, operator support system etc.

  1. Influence of lipid rafts on CD1d presentation by dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wei; Martaresche, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    Our main objective was to analyze the role of lipid rafts in the activation of Valpha-14(-) and Valpha-14(+) T hybridomas by dendritic cells. We showed that activation of Valpha-14(+) hybridomas by dendritic cells or other CD1d-expressing cells was altered by disruption of lipid rafts with the cholesterol chelator MbetaCD. However, CD1d presentation to autoreactive Valpha-14(-) anti-CD1d hybridomas which do not require the endocytic pathway was not altered. Using partitioning of membrane fractions with Brij98 at 37 degrees C, we confirmed that CD1d was enriched in subcellular fractions corresponding to lipid rafts and we describe that alpha-GalCer enhanced CD1d amount in the low density detergent insoluble fraction. We conclude that the membrane environment of CD1d can influence antigen presentation mainly when the endocytic pathway is required. Flow cytometry analysis can provide additional information on lipid rafts in plasma membranes and allows a dynamics follow-up of lipid rafts partitioning. Using this method, we showed that CD1d plasma membrane expression was sensitive to low concentrations of detergent. This may suggest either that CD1d is associated with lipid rafts mainly in intracellular membranes or that its association with the lipid rafts in the plasma membrane is weak.

  2. KAM tori in 1D random discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M.; Kopidakis, G.; Aubry, S.

    2010-09-01

    We suggest that KAM theory could be extended for certain infinite-dimensional systems with purely discrete linear spectrum. We provide empirical arguments for the existence of square summable infinite-dimensional invariant tori in the random discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, appearing with a finite probability for a given initial condition with sufficiently small norm. Numerical support for the existence of a fat Cantor set of initial conditions generating almost periodic oscillations is obtained by analyzing i) sets of recurrent trajectories over successively larger time scales, and ii) finite-time Lyapunov exponents. The norm region where such KAM-like tori may exist shrinks to zero when the disorder strength goes to zero and the localization length diverges.

  3. Identification of RAPD Marker for Chromosome 1D of Common Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmad Khan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of genetically compensating nullisomic-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines of commonwheat (Triticum aestivum L. have been widely used to construct high density genetic maps of homoeologouswheat chromosomes. During present research, easier, cheaper and quicker procedure of Polymerase ChainReaction (PCR was used to map Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA primers on chromosome 1D ofcommon wheat. Genomic DNA was isolated from two genetic stocks of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring viz;NT-1D1B and NT-2A2B. PCR were conducted using RAPD primers GLC-07 and GLC-11. RAPD primerGLC-11 amplified a polymorphic allele of approximately 500 bp, which was present in NT-2A2B (used aspositive control but was absent in NT-1D1B indicating that the locus is present on chromosome 1D of commonwheat. Hence this marker (GLC-11 can reliably be used to keep track of chromosome 1D of hexaploid wheat.

  4. Does one-dimensional (1D) adatom and cluster diffusion of Pt on the Pt(110)-(1 x 2) surface lead to 1D ripening?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) uniquely allows dynamic processes on surfaces to be followed directly in real space and at atomic resolution. Results for the 551225 surface diffusion of Pt adatoms and clusters on the anisotropic, missing row reconstructed Pt(110)-(1 x 2) surface are briefly reviewed. Mass transport in this system is entirely one-dimensional (1D) since, at low adatom coverage, atoms and clusters are confined to the missing row troughs. In this paper, we therefore address the question if Pt/Pt(110)-(1 x 2) is a 1D model system to study late stage growth phenomena such as island ripening? From STM measurements, we quantify the morphology changes resulting from annealing a surface configuration with small 1D Pt islands in the missing row troughs to temperatures in the interval 369-395 K. Interestingly, the resulting increase in island sizes (ripening) cannot be accounted for by the known island and adatom mobilities within a 1D model. An explanation is provided from dynamic, time-resolved 'STM-movies' that directly reveal two novel island-mediated mechanisms for inter-trough mass transport which cause the Pt/Pt(110)-(1 x 2) system not to be purely 1D at the higher surface coverage used in the annealing experiments

  5. Mapping of the serotonin 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} autoreceptor gene (HTR1D) on chromosome 1 using a silent polymorphism in the coding region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, N.; Lappalainen, J.; Linnoila, M. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    Serotonin (5-HT){sub ID} receptors are 5-HT release-regulating autoreceptors in the human brain. Abnormalities in brain 5-HT function have been hypothesized in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, mood disorders, eating disorders, impulsive violent behavior, and alcoholism. Thus, mutations occurring in 5-HT autoreceptors may cause or increase the vulnerability to any of these conditions. 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} and 5-HT{sub 1D{Beta}} subtypes have been previously localized to chromosomes 1p36.3-p34.3 and 6q13, respectively, using rodent-human hybrids and in situ localization. In this communication, we report the detection of a 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} receptor gene polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding sequence. The polymorphism was used for fine scale linkage mapping of 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} on chromosome 1. This polymorphism should also be useful for linkage studies in populations and in families. Our analysis also demonstrates that functionally significant coding sequence variants of the 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} are probably not abundant either among alcoholics or in the general population. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Comparison of 1D and 2D modelling with soil erosion model SMODERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, Petr; Weyskrabova, Lenka; Zajicek, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The contribution presents a comparison of a runoff simulated by profile method (1D) and spatially distributed method (2D). Simulation model SMODERP is used for calculation and prediction of soil erosion and surface runoff from agricultural land. SMODERP is physically based model that includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. 1D model was developed in past, new 2D model was developed in last two years. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D model was developed as a tool for widespread GIS software ArcGIS. The physical relations were implemented through Python script. This script uses ArcGIS system tools for raster and vectors treatment of the inputs. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm in the preliminary version of 2D model. More advanced multiple flow algorithm is planned in the next version. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Surface runoff is described in the model by kinematic wave equation. Equation uses Manning roughness coefficient for surface runoff. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of forty measurements performed on the laboratory rainfall simulator. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Numerical stability of the model is solved by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamically changed depending on how flow is generated and developed. SMODERP is meant to be used not only for the research purposes, but mainly for the engineering practice. We also present how the input data can be obtained based on available resources (soil maps and data, land use, terrain models, field research, etc.) and how can the model be used in the assessments of soil erosion risk and in designing of erosion control measures. The research has been supported by the research grants SGS SGS11/148/OHK1/3T/11 "Experimental Research on Rainfall-runoff and Erosion Processes" and by Project No. TA02020647 " Atlas EROZE - a modern tool for soil erosion assessment".

  7. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Samovski, Dmitri [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Su, Xiong [Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Liu, Jialiu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Sundaresan, Sinju [Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Human Nutrition Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Stahl, Philip D., E-mail: pstahl@wustl.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Hominoid-specific oncogene TBC1D3 is targeted to plasma membrane by palmitoylation. •TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. •TBC1D3 palmitoylation governs growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. •Post-translational modifications may regulate oncogenic properties of TBC1D3. -- Abstract: Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis.

  8. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Hominoid-specific oncogene TBC1D3 is targeted to plasma membrane by palmitoylation. •TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. •TBC1D3 palmitoylation governs growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. •Post-translational modifications may regulate oncogenic properties of TBC1D3. -- Abstract: Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis

  9. ASOP, Shield Calculation, 1-D, Discrete Ordinates Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: ASOP is a shield optimization calculational system based on the one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport program ANISN. It has been used to design optimum shields for space applications of SNAP zirconium-hydride-uranium- fueled reactors and uranium-oxide fueled thermionic reactors and to design beam stops for the ORELA facility. 2 - Method of solution: ASOP generates coefficients of linear equations describing the logarithm of the dose and dose-weight derivatives as functions of position from data obtained in an automated sequence of ANISN calculations. With the dose constrained to a design value and all dose-weight derivatives required to be equal, the linear equations may be solved for a new set of shield dimensions. Since changes in the shield dimensions may cause the linear functions to change, the entire procedure is repeated until convergence is obtained. The detailed calculations of the radiation transport through shield configurations for every step in the procedure distinguish ASOP from other shield optimization computer code systems which rely on multiple component sources and attenuation coefficients to describe the transport. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Problem size is limited only by machine size

  10. Control oriented 1D electrochemical model of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries provide high energy and power density energy storage for diverse applications ranging from cell phones to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For efficient and reliable systems integration, low order dynamic battery models are needed. This paper introduces a general method to generate numerically a fully observable/controllable state variable model from electrochemical kinetic, species and charge partial differential equations that govern the discharge/charge behavior of a Li-ion battery. Validated against a 313th order nonlinear CFD model of a 6 Ah HEV cell, a 12th order state variable model predicts terminal voltage to within 1% for pulse and constant current profiles at rates up to 50 C. The state equation is constructed in modal form with constant negative real eigenvalues distributed in frequency space from 0 to 10 Hz. Open circuit potential, electrode surface concentration/reaction distribution coupling and electrolyte concentration/ionic conductivity nonlinearities are explicitly approximated in the model output equation on a local, electrode-averaged and distributed basis, respectively. The balanced realization controllability/observability gramian indicates that the fast electrode surface concentration dynamics are more observable/controllable than the electrode bulk concentration dynamics (i.e. state of charge)

  11. Technical Note: Sensitivity of 1-D smoke plume rise models to the inclusion of environmental wind drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the parameterization of the vertical transport of hot gases and particles emitted from biomass burning, described in Freitas et al. (2007, to include the effects of environmental wind on transport and dilution of the smoke plume at the cloud scale. Typically, the final vertical height that the smoke plumes reach is controlled by the thermodynamic stability of the atmospheric environment and the surface heat flux released by the fire. However, the presence of a strong horizontal wind can enhance the lateral entrainment and induce additional drag, particularly for small fires, impacting the smoke injection height. This process is quantitatively represented by introducing an additional entrainment term to account for organized inflow of a mass of cooler and drier ambient air into the plume and its drag by momentum transfer. An extended set of equations including the horizontal motion of the plume and the additional increase of the plume radius is solved to explicitly simulate the time evolution of the plume rise with the additional mass and momentum. One-dimensional (1-D model results are presented for two deforestation fires in the Amazon basin with sizes of 10 and 50 ha under calm and windy atmospheric environments. The results are compared to corresponding simulations generated by the complex non-hydrostatic three dimensional (3-D Active Tracer High resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM. We show that the 1-D model results compare well with the full 3-D simulations. The 1-D model may thus be used in field situations where extensive computing facilities are not available, especially under conditions for which several optional cases must be studied.

  12. Use of optimized 1D TOCSY NMR for improved quantitation and metabolomic analysis of biofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One dimensional selective TOCSY experiments have been shown to be advantageous in providing improved data inputs for principle component analysis (PCA) (Sandusky and Raftery 2005a, b). Better subpopulation cluster resolution in the observed scores plots results from the ability to isolate metabolite signals of interest via the TOCSY based filtering approach. This report reexamines the quantitative aspects of this approach, first by optimizing the 1D TOCSY experiment as it relates to the measurement of biofluid constituent concentrations, and second by comparing the integration of 1D TOCSY read peaks to the bucket integration of 1D proton NMR spectra in terms of precision and accuracy. This comparison indicates that, because of the extensive peak overlap that occurs in the 1D proton NMR spectra of biofluid samples, bucket integrals are often far less accurate as measures of individual constituent concentrations than 1D TOCSY read peaks. Even spectral fitting approaches have proven difficult in the analysis of significantly overlapped spectral regions. Measurements of endogenous taurine made over a sample population of human urine demonstrates that, due to background signals from other constituents, bucket integrals of 1D proton spectra routinely overestimate the taurine concentrations and distort its variation over the sample population. As a result, PCA calculations performed using data matrices incorporating 1D TOCSY determined taurine concentrations produce better sed taurine concentrations produce better scores plot subpopulation cluster resolution.

  13. Use of optimized 1D TOCSY NMR for improved quantitation and metabolomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, Peter [Eckerd College, Department of Chemistry (United States); Appiah-Amponsah, Emmanuel; Raftery, Daniel, E-mail: raftery@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    One dimensional selective TOCSY experiments have been shown to be advantageous in providing improved data inputs for principle component analysis (PCA) (Sandusky and Raftery 2005a, b). Better subpopulation cluster resolution in the observed scores plots results from the ability to isolate metabolite signals of interest via the TOCSY based filtering approach. This report reexamines the quantitative aspects of this approach, first by optimizing the 1D TOCSY experiment as it relates to the measurement of biofluid constituent concentrations, and second by comparing the integration of 1D TOCSY read peaks to the bucket integration of 1D proton NMR spectra in terms of precision and accuracy. This comparison indicates that, because of the extensive peak overlap that occurs in the 1D proton NMR spectra of biofluid samples, bucket integrals are often far less accurate as measures of individual constituent concentrations than 1D TOCSY read peaks. Even spectral fitting approaches have proven difficult in the analysis of significantly overlapped spectral regions. Measurements of endogenous taurine made over a sample population of human urine demonstrates that, due to background signals from other constituents, bucket integrals of 1D proton spectra routinely overestimate the taurine concentrations and distort its variation over the sample population. As a result, PCA calculations performed using data matrices incorporating 1D TOCSY determined taurine concentrations produce better scores plot subpopulation cluster resolution.

  14. Growth and Magnetic characterization of 1D Permalloy Nanowires using self developed AAO Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Khan, G. G.; Das, B.; Mandal, K.

    2015-02-01

    1D Permalloy refers to an alloy of Ni and Fe with 80% and 20% composition respectively. 1D Permalloy nanowires are particularly attractive because of their high permeability, low coercivity, near zero magnetostriction and high anisotropic magnetoresistance. Because of low magnetostriction of Permalloy shape anisotropy plays a very important role. As a result, the nanowires show unidirectional anisotropy along their length. Because of this property, they can be used in many applications such as recording head sensors, magnetic storage devices etc. In the present work 1D Permalloy nanowires arrays were fabricated into the pores of self engineered Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates by a simple electrodeposition technique (EDT). By varying the Anodization voltage and the parameters of the electrolytic solutions we developed various AAO templates with different average pore diameters. We developed the 1D Permalloy NW's of different diameters depending on the pore size arrangement of AAO templates by varying the deposition conditions. Structural characterization of AAO templates and 1D Permalloy NW's was performed by Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM & SEM). XRD studies of 1D Permalloy NW's shows their fcc crystalline structure and the AAO template was found to be amorphous in nature. Magnetic studies show the 1D Permalloy NW's arrays to have obvious anisotropy, and the easy axis was found to be parallel to the nanowires axis. We performed the angular dependence measurement of 1D Permalloy NW's. When the applied magnetic field was parallel to the nanowires, the coercivity (Hc) and the maximum remanent ratio (Mr/Ms) were considerably higher than those while the magnetic field perpendicular to the nanowires. 1D Permalloy NW's developed in this work are expected to be utilize in magnetic memory and magnetic recording devices.

  15. Cell-attached single-channel recordings in intact prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons reveal compartmentalized D1/D5 receptor modulation of the persistent sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelova, Natalia; Seamans, Jeremy K

    2015-01-01

    The persistent Na(+) current (I(Nap)) is believed to be an important target of dopamine modulation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons. While past studies have tested the effects of dopamine on I(Nap), the results have been contradictory largely because of difficulties in measuring I(Nap) using somatic whole-cell recordings. To circumvent these confounds we used the cell-attached patch-clamp technique to record single Na(+) channels from the soma, proximal dendrite (PD) or proximal axon (PA) of intact prefrontal layer V pyramidal neurons. Under baseline conditions, numerous well resolved Na(+) channel openings were recorded that exhibited an extrapolated reversal potential of 73 mV, a slope conductance of 14-19 pS and were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX). While similar in most respects, the propensity to exhibit prolonged bursts lasting >40 ms was many fold greater in the axon than the soma or dendrite. Bath application of the D1/D5 receptor agonist SKF81297 shifted the ensemble current activation curve leftward and increased the number of late events recorded from the PD but not the soma or PA. However, the greatest effect was on prolonged bursting where the D1/D5 receptor agonist increased their occurrence 3 fold in the PD and nearly 7 fold in the soma, but not at all in the PA. As a result, D1/D5 receptor activation equalized the probability of prolonged burst occurrence across the proximal axosomatodendritic region. Therefore, D1/D5 receptor modulation appears to be targeted mainly to Na(+) channels in the PD/soma and not the PA. By circumventing the pitfalls of previous attempts to study the D1/D5 receptor modulation of I(Nap), we demonstrate conclusively that D1/D5 receptor activation can increase the I(Nap) generated proximally, however questions still remain as to how D1/D5 receptor modulates Na(+) currents in the more distal initial segment where most of the I Nap is normally generated. PMID:25729354

  16. Thermal characterization of large size lithium-ion pouch cell based on 1d electro-thermal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertiz, G.; Oyarbide, M.; Macicior, H.; Miguel, O.; Cantero, I.; Fernandez de Arroiabe, P.; Ulacia, I.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management is one of the key factors to keep lithium-ion cells in optimum electrical performance, under safe working conditions and into a reasonably low ageing process. This issue is becoming particularly relevant due to the heterogeneous heat generation along the cell. Cell working temperature is determined by ambient temperature, heat generation and evacuation capacity. Therefore, thermal management is established by: i) the intrinsic thermal properties (heat capacity & thermal conductivity) and ii) the heat generation electro-thermal parameters (internal resistance, open circuit voltage & entropic factor). In this research, different methods - calculated and experimental - are used to characterize the main heat properties of a 14Ah -LiFePO4/graphite-commercial large sizes pouch cell. In order to evaluate the accuracy of methods, two comparisons were performed. First, Newman heat generation estimations were compared with experimental heat measurements. Secondly, empirical thermal cell behaviour was match with 1D electro-thermal model response. Finally, considering the results, the most adequate methodology to evaluate the key thermal parameters of a large size Lithium-ion pouch cell are proposed to be: i) pulse method for internal resistance, ii)heat loss method for entropic factor; and iii)experimental measurement (ARC calorimeter and C-177-97 standard method) for heat capacity and thermal conductivity.

  17. Evaluation of the entropy consistent euler flux on 1D and 2D test problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Nur Khairunnisa Hanisah; Ismail, Farzad

    2012-06-01

    Perhaps most CFD simulations may yield good predictions of pressure and velocity when compared to experimental data. Unfortunately, these results will most likely not adhere to the second law of thermodynamics hence comprising the authenticity of predicted data. Currently, the test of a good CFD code is to check how much entropy is generated in a smooth flow and hope that the numerical entropy produced is of the correct sign when a shock is encountered. Herein, a shock capturing code written in C++ based on a recent entropy consistent Euler flux is developed to simulate 1D and 2D flows. Unlike other finite volume schemes in commercial CFD code, this entropy consistent flux (EC) function precisely satisfies the discrete second law of thermodynamics. This EC flux has an entropy-conserved part, preserving entropy for smooth flows and a numerical diffusion part that will accurately produce the proper amount of entropy, consistent with the second law. Several numerical simulations of the entropy consistent flux have been tested on two dimensional test cases. The first case is a Mach 3 flow over a forward facing step. The second case is a flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil while the third case is a hypersonic flow passing over a 2D cylinder. Local flow quantities such as velocity and pressure are analyzed and then compared with mainly the Roe flux. The results herein show that the EC flux does not capture the unphysical rarefaction shock unlike the Roe-flux and does not easily succumb to the carbuncle phenomenon. In addition, the EC flux maintains good performance in cases where the Roe flux is known to be superior.

  18. The relation of scan range and reflection shape in single-crystal 1D profile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in shape of 1D profiles of small-single-crystal Bragg reflections have been examined in terms of the shapes of the components which, convoluted together, generate the profile. In most practical cases, operational features require truncation of the angular scan range of measurement and the conventional linear formula for scan range, ?=a+bxtan ?, is then not strictly valid. A more appropriate relationship involves a combination of root mean square (RMS) and linear (LIN) forms, ?=[(p')2+(q'xtan ?2]1/2 + (p''+q''xtan ?) where p' is associated with the leading and trailing edges of the distribution of the combined ?-invariant components and p'' with its plateau width while q' is associated with the leading and trailing edges of the distribution of the wavelength component and q'' with the separation of its outer peaks if there are more than one. For operational purposes, this relationship can be substituted with adequate precision by ?=[c2+(dxtan ?)2]1/2, but the parameters c and d do not then have a simple relationship to the ?-invariant and ?-variant components. Use of a conventional linear formula when a RMS one is the relevant one can mean that, in the lower ? range, the estimate of integrated intensity will be too high and, in the higher ? range, it will be too low, so that, with increasing ?, a positive then a negative systematic error is introduced and not merely a negative error not merely a negative error as the conventional interpretation of truncation holds. The conclusions of the present analysis are tested against experimental data where the conventional treatment for truncation failed. For the estimation of integrated intensity, and hence of structure factors, which are consistent over the operational range of ?, a RMS formula for the scan range is advisable. (orig.)

  19. Quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures: Synthesis, integration and device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chung-Jen

    Quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanowires have been widely regarded as the potential building blocks for nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and sensing devices. In this work, the content can be divided into three categories: Nano-material synthesis and characterizations, alignment and integration, physical properties and application. The dissertation consists of seven chapters as following. Chapter 1 will give an introduction to low dimensional nano-materials. Chapter 2 explains the mechanism how Q1D nanostructure grows. Chapter 3 describes the methods how we horizontally and vertically align the Q1D nanostructure. Chapter 4 and 5 are the electrical and optical device characterization respectively. Chapter 6 demonstrates the integration of Q1D nanostructures and the device application. The last chapter will discuss the future work and conclusion of the thesis.

  20. Non-uniform black strings and the critical dimension in the $1/D$ expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Ryotaku

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniform black strings (NUBS) are studied by the large $D$ effective theory approach. By solving the near-horizon geometry in the $1/D$ expansion, we obtain the effective equation for the deformed horizon up to the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in $1/D$. We also solve the far-zone geometry by the Newtonian approximation. Matching the near and far zones, the thermodynamic variables are computed in the $1/D$ expansion. As the result, the large $D$ analysis gives a critical dimension $D_*\\simeq13.5$ at which the translation-symmetry-breaking phase transition changes between first and second order. This value of $D_*$ agrees perfectly, within the precision of the $1/D$ expansion, with the result previously obtained by E. Sorkin through the numerical resolution. We also compare our NNLO results for the thermodynamics of NUBS to earlier numerical calculations, and find good agreement within the expected precision.

  1. Modeling blood flow circulation in intracranial arterial networks: a comparative 3D/1D simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E

    2011-01-01

    We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645

  2. Comment on supersymmetrization of N=1 D=10 supergravity with Lorentz Chern-Simons term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reexamine supersymmetrization of the N=1 D=10 supergravity with Lorentz Chern-Simons term. The supersymmetric counterparts are determined to the first order of some Noether expansion parameter, ?, and they have three arbitrary parameters. (orig.)

  3. Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaofei; Fullana, Jose-maria; Lagre?e, Pierre-yves

    2013-01-01

    A reliable and fast numerical scheme is crucial for the 1D simulation of blood flow in compliant vessels. In this paper, a 1D blood flow model is incorporated with a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic arterial wall. This leads to a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system, which is then solved with four numerical schemes, namely: MacCormack, Taylor-Galerkin, MUSCL (monotonic upwind scheme for conservation law) and local discontinuous Galerkin. The numerical schemes are tested on a singl...

  4. O(1D) Production Following Electron Impact on Oxygen-Containing Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, W.; Blejdea, E.; DiCarlo, A.; Hein, J. D.; McConkey, J. W.

    2012-11-01

    A solid Ne matrix detector is used to study electron-impact dissociation pathways in CO2 and N2O. This matrix is selectively sensitive to the metastable oxygen species, O(1D). O(1D) is an important constituent in the atmospheres of Earth and other extra-terrestrial objects. Kinetic energy and excitation function data for production of this species will be presented.

  5. R^4 Corrections to D1D5p Black Hole Entropy from Entropy Function Formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodsi, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    We show that in IIB string theory and for D1D5p black holes in ten dimensions the method of entropy function works. Despite the more complicated Wald formula for the entropy of D1D5p black holes in ten dimensions, their entropy is given by entropy function at its extremum point. We use this method for computing the entropy of the system both at the level of supergravity and for its higher order alpha'^3R^4 corrections.

  6. Stress Rapidly Increases Alpha-1d Adrenergic Receptor mRNA in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Campeau, Serge; Nyhuis, Tara J.; Kryskow, Elisabeth M.; Masini, Cher V.; Babb, Jessica A.; Sasse, Sarah K.; Greenwood, Benjamin; Fleshner, Monika; Day, Heidi E. W.

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a highly plastic brain region that is sensitive to stress. It receives extensive noradrenergic projections, and noradrenaline is released in the hippocampus in response to stressor exposure. The hippocampus expresses particularly high levels of the ?1D adrenergic receptor (ADR) and we have previously demonstrated that ?1d ADR mRNA expression in the rat hippocampus is modulated by corticosterone. One of the defining features of a stress response is activation of ...

  7. 1D model for the dynamics and expansion of elongated Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Massignan, Pietro; Modugno, Michele

    2002-01-01

    We present a 1D effective model for the evolution of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate in time dependent potentials whose radial component is harmonic. We apply this model to investigate the dynamics and expansion of condensates in 1D optical lattices, by comparing our predictions with recent experimental data and theoretical results. We also discuss negative-mass effects which could be probed during the expansion of a condensate moving in an optical lattice.

  8. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; Reeuwijk, Jeroen van; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. W...

  9. User's manual of the REFLA-1D/MODE4 reflood thermo-hydrodynamic analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REFLA-1D/MODE4 code has been developed by incorporating local power effect model and fuel temperature profile effect model into REFLA-1D/MODE3 code. This code can calculate the temperature transient of local rod by considering radial power profile effect in core and simulate the thermal characteristics of the nuclear fuel rod. This manual describes the outline of incorporated models, modification of the code with incorporating models and provides application information required to utilize the code. (author)

  10. Exercise and Insulin: Convergence or Divergence at AS160 and TBC1D1?

    OpenAIRE

    Cartee, Gregory D.; Funai, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Akt substrate of 160 kDa (called AS160 or TBC1D4) and TBC1D1, Rab GTPase activating proteins that regulate glucose transport, become phosphorylated with exercise- or insulin-stimulation. Evidence suggests that this convergence may prove to be imperfect, and each stimulus will produce a unique phospho-signature, providing a plausible mechanism for their apparently unique and overlapping roles in exercise- and insulin-stimulated glucose transport.

  11. Simple model of the density of states in 1D photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Rudzi?ski, Adam; Szczepa?ski, Pawe?; 10.1117/12.621688

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple, yet versatile, analytical model of one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC). In our theoretical model, we take into account direction of propagation and therefore do not neglect anisotropic nature of photonic crystals. We derive analytical expressions for mode spectrum and density of states in 1D photonic crystal. With those formulas, we obtain mode spectrum characteristics, which depict formation of photonic band gap and reveal properties of photonic crystals.

  12. Zolmitriptan-induced growth hormone release in humans: mediation by 5-HT1D receptors?

    OpenAIRE

    Whale, R.; Bhagwagar, Z.; Cowen, Pj

    1999-01-01

    RATIONALE: Effective neuroendocrine probes of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor function may facilitate investigation of the role of these receptor subtypes in the pathophysiology of depression and the mode of action of antidepressant medication. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuroendocrine profile of the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist, zolmitriptan, in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twelve subjects entered a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design study of zolmitriptan (5 mg orally). Blood sa...

  13. Probing the function of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors in psychiatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Whale, R.; Cowen, Pj

    1998-01-01

    Pharmacological challenge tests provide a method of assessing the functional responsiveness of serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes in the human brain. A number of selective agonist ligands for the 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor are available for human use; however, these compounds do not distinguish between 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, which is somewhat of a disadvantage. Acute administration of sumatriptan, rizatriptan, and zolmitriptan all increase plasma growth hormone in healthy subjects, possib...

  14. Intersecting 5-brane solution of N=1, D=10 dual supergravity with ?' corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been verified that the ansatz obtained by duality from D5 perpendicular D5(3) solution of IIB supergravity leads to a vacuum solution of the next-to-leading Lagrangian of N=1, D=10 dual supergravity. This vacuum corresponds to the presence of two 5-branes intersecting along M4 and possesses N=1, D=4 supersymmetry. It has been found that the behavior of the two functions defining the ansatz is substantially modified by ?' corrections

  15. Hidden nonlinear su(2|2) superunitary symmetry of N=2 superextended 1D Dirac delta potential problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the N=2 superextended 1D quantum Dirac delta potential problem is characterized by the hidden nonlinear su(2|2) superunitary symmetry. The unexpected feature of this simple supersymmetric system is that it admits three different Z2-gradings, which produce a separation of 16 integrals of motion into three different sets of 8 bosonic and 8 fermionic operators. These three different graded sets of integrals generate two different nonlinear, deformed forms of su(2|2), in which the Hamiltonian plays a role of a multiplicative central charge. On the ground state, the nonlinear superalgebra is reduced to the two distinct 2D Euclidean analogs of a superextended Poincare algebra used earlier in the literature for investigation of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. We indicate that the observed exotic supersymmetric structure with three different Z2-gradings can be useful for the search of hidden symmetries in some other quantum systems, in particular, related to the Lame equation

  16. Syntheses, crystal structures and luminescent properties of two new 1D d 1 coordination polymers constructed from 2,2'-bibenzimidazole and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two novel interesting d 1 metal coordination polymers, [Zn(H2bibzim)(BDC)] n (1) and [Cd(H2bibzim)(BDC)] n (2) [H2bibzim=2,2'-bibenzimidazole, BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate] have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. Both 1 and 2 are constructed from infinite neutral zigzag-like one-dimensional (1D) chains. The ?-? interactions and interchain hydrogen-bonding interactions further extend the 1D arrangement to generate a 3D supramolecular architecture for 1 and 2. Both complexes have high thermal stability and display strong blue fluorescent emissions in the solid state upon photo-excitation at 365 nm at room temperature. They are the first two examples that 2,2'-bibenzimidazole has been introduced into the d 1 coordination polymeric framework

  17. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation

  18. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D S

    2000-08-21

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.

  19. HERMES Precision Results on g1p, g1d and g1n and the First Measurement of the Tensor Structure Function b1d

    CERN Document Server

    Riedl, C; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Ammosov, V V; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Baturin, V; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V V; Capitani, G P; Chiang, H C; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G M; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Ely, J; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Felawka, L; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gärber, Y; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Garutti, E; Gaskell, D; Gavrilov, G E; Karibian, V; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Greeniaus, L G; Hafidi, K; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Königsmann, K C; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V A; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Lindemann, T; Lipka, K; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H O; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Nass, A; Negodaev, M A; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Oganessyan, K; Ohsuga, H; Orlandi, G; Pickert, N; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Rith, K; Airapetian, A; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Yu I; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shanidze, R G; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V B; Simani, M C; Sinram, K; Stancari, M D; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Tkabladze, A V; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Vetterli, Martin C; Vikhrov, V; Vincter, M G; Visser, J; Vogel, C; Vogt, M; Volmer, J; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Ybeles-Smit, G V; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zohrabyan, H G; Zupranski, P; Riedl, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    Final HERMES results on the proton, deuteron and neutron structure function g1 are presented in the kinematic range 0.00211d are presented.

  20. VES/TEM 1D joint inversion by using Controlled Random Search (CRS) algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Santos, Fernando Acácio Monteiro dos; Almeida, Emerson Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Electrical (DC) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) soundings are used in a great number of environmental, hydrological, and mining exploration studies. Usually, data interpretation is accomplished by individual 1D models resulting often in ambiguous models. This fact can be explained by the way as the two different methodologies sample the medium beneath surface. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) is good in marking resistive structures, while Transient Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) is very sensitive to conductive structures. Another difference is VES is better to detect shallow structures, while TEM soundings can reach deeper layers. A Matlab program for 1D joint inversion of VES and TEM soundings was developed aiming at exploring the best of both methods. The program uses CRS - Controlled Random Search - algorithm for both single and 1D joint inversions. Usually inversion programs use Marquadt type algorithms but for electrical and electromagnetic methods, these algorithms may find a local minimum or not converge. Initially, the algorithm was tested with synthetic data, and then it was used to invert experimental data from two places in Paraná sedimentary basin (Bebedouro and Pirassununga cities), both located in São Paulo State, Brazil. Geoelectric model obtained from VES and TEM data 1D joint inversion is similar to the real geological condition, and ambiguities were minimized. Results with synthetic and real data show that 1D VES/TEM joint inversion better recovers simulated models and shows a great potential in geological studies, especially in hydrogeological studies.

  1. CD1d-restricted antigen presentation by V?9V?2-T cells requires trogocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Famke L; Prodöhl, Jan; Ruben, Jurjen M; O'Toole, Tom; Scheper, Rik J; Bonneville, Marc; Scotet, Emmanuel; Verheul, Henk M W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van der Vliet, Hans J

    2014-08-01

    CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) constitute an important immunoregulatory T-cell subset that can be activated by the synthetic glycolipid ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer) and play a dominant role in antitumor immunity. Clinical trials with ?-GalCer-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) have shown anecdotal antitumor activity in advanced cancer. It was reported that phosphoantigen (pAg)-activated V?9V?2-T cells can acquire characteristics of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). Considering the clinical immunotherapeutic applications, V?9V?2-T APC can offer important advantages over moDC, potentially constituting an attractive novel APC platform. Here, we demonstrate that V?9V?2-T APC can present antigens to iNKT. However, this does not result from de novo synthesis of CD1d by V?9V?2-T, but critically depends on trogocytosis of CD1d-containing membrane fragments from pAg-expressing cells. CD1d-expressing V?9V?2-T cells were able to activate iNKT in a CD1d-restricted and ?-GalCer-dependent fashion. Although ?-GalCer-loaded moDC outperformed V?9V?2-T APC on a per cell basis, V?9V?2-T APC possess unique features with respect to clinical immunotherapeutic application that make them an interesting platform for consideration in future clinical trials. PMID:24934445

  2. Vertically integrated ZnO-Based 1D1R structure for resistive switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a ZnO-based 1D1R structure, which is formed by a vertical integration of a FeZnO/MgO switching resistor (1R) and an Ag/MgZnO Schottky diode (1D). The multifunctional ZnO and its compounds are grown through MOCVD with in situ doping. For the R element, the current ratio of the high-resistance state (HRS) over the low-resistance state (LRS) at 1 V is 2.4 × 106. The conduction mechanisms of the HRS and LRS are Poole–Frenkel emission and resistive conduction, respectively. The D element shows the forward/reverse current ratio at ±1 V to be 2.4 × 107. This 1D1R structure exhibits high RHRS/RLRS ratio, excellent rectifying characteristics and robust retention. (paper)

  3. Modave Lectures on Fuzzballs and Emission from the D1-D5 System

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Borun D

    2010-01-01

    These lecture notes present an introduction to the fuzzball proposal and emission from the D1-D5 system which is geared to an audience of graduate students and others with little background in the subject. The presentation begins with a discussion of the Penrose process and Hawking radiation. The fuzzball proposal is then introduced, and the two- and three-charge systems are reviewed. In the three-charge case details are not discussed. A detailed discussion of emission calculations for D1-D5-P black holes and for certain non-extremal fuzzballs from both the gravity and CFT perspectives is included. We explicitly demonstrate how seemingly different emission processes in gravity, namely, Hawking radiation and superradiance from D1-D5-P black holes, and ergoregion emission from certain non-extremal fuzzballs, are only different manifestations of the same phenomenon in the CFT.

  4. Standard 1D solar atmosphere as initial condition for MHD simulations and switch-on effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdin, Philippe-A

    2015-01-01

    Many applications in Solar physics need a 1D atmospheric model as initial condition or as reference for inversions of observational data. The VAL atmospheric models are based on observations and are widely used since decades. Complementary to that, the FAL models implement radiative hydrodynamics and showed the shortcomings of the VAL models since almost equally long time. In this work, we present a new 1D layered atmosphere that spans not only from the photosphere to the transition region, but from the solar interior up to far in the corona. We also discuss typical mistakes that are done when switching on simulations based on such an initial condition and show how the initial condition can be equilibrated so that a simulation can start smoothly. The 1D atmosphere we present here served well as initial condition for HD and MHD simulations and should also be considered as reference data for solving inverse problems.

  5. Universal nature of collective plasmonic excitations in finite 1-D carbon-based nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Polizzi, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Tomonaga-Luttinger (T-L) theory predicts collective plasmon resonances in 1-D nanostructure conductors of finite length, that vary roughly in inverse proportion to the length of the structure. Yet, such resonances have not been clearly identified in experiments so far. Here we provide evidence of the T-L plasmon resonances using first-principle computational real-time spectroscopy studies of representative finite 1-D carbon-based nanostructures ranging from atom and benzene-like chain structures to short carbon nanotubes. Our all-electron Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) real-time simulation framework is capable to accurately capture the relevant nanoscopic effects including correct frequencies for known optical transitions, and various collective plasmon excitations. The presence of 1-D T-L plasmons is universally predicted by the various numerical experiments, which also demonstrate a phenomenon of resonance splitting. Extending these simulations to longer structures will allow the accurate ...

  6. Development of 1-D carbon composites for plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-based materials continue to be proposed and utilized as plasma-facing surfaces in fusion devices because of their low atomic number and superior high temperature thermal properties. This study presents results of a carbon-carbon composite development program for high heat flux surfaces using one-dimensional (1-D), high thermal conductivity materials. Thermal conductivity testing of six 1-D composites was accomplished, along with coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) tests. Results indicate progress toward achieving composites with very high conductivity, approaching pyrolytic graphite values. Several 1-D composites have room temperature thermal conductivities which exceed 500 W/m K in the parallel-to-fiber direction. Perpendicular-to-fiber direction conductivity values were typically more that an order of magnitude lower. Experimental CTE data show values up to 10x10-6/ C perpendicular to fibers and nearly zero values in the fiber direction. Mechanical property testing will be included in future efforts. ((orig.))

  7. Microstates of D1-D5(-P) black holes, as interacting D-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takeshi; Shiba, Shotaro

    2015-07-01

    In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1]), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1-D5 and D1-D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1-D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory.

  8. Observation of a dimensional crossover from 1D to 3D gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David S.

    2007-06-01

    A 1D gas with ?-fn interactions is an integrable many-body system, which means, among other things, that it does not thermalize after it is prepared out of equilibrium. We recently demonstrated this experimentally using a quantum Newton's cradle, an array of out-of-equilibrium 1D Bose gases. When we reduce the depth of the 2D optical lattice that makes the 1D systems, the mapping onto an integrable system is compromised. We see the atoms begin to thermalize, at a rate that depends exponentially on the lattice depth, with no apparent threshold. How energy is shared among dimensions after the system reaches equilibrium also depends on the lattice depth, and varies continuously from all the energy being in one dimension to equipartition of energy among dimensions. We will also describe other experimental handles on integrability. This work was performed with Toshiya Kinoshita and Trevor Wenger.

  9. Transparent Conducting Electrodes based on 1D and 2D Ag Nanogratings for Organic Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J

    2014-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of optically-thin one-dimensional (1D) Ag nanogratings and two-dimensional (2D) Ag nanogrids are studied, and their use as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics are explored. A large broadband and polarization-insensitive optical absorption enhancement in the organic light-harvesting layers is theoretically and numerically demonstrated using either single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids or two perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, and is attributed to the excitation of surface plasmon resonances and plasmonic cavity modes. Total photon absorption enhancements of 150% and 200% are achieved for the optimized single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids and double (top and bottom) perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, respectively.

  10. A comparison of 1D and 2D LSTM architectures for the recognition of handwritten Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Breuel, Thomas M.; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Arabic handwriting recognition method based on recurrent neural network. We use the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture, that have proven successful in different printed and handwritten OCR tasks. Applications of LSTM for handwriting recognition employ the two-dimensional architecture to deal with the variations in both vertical and horizontal axis. However, we show that using a simple pre-processing step that normalizes the position and baseline of letters, we can make use of 1D LSTM, which is faster in learning and convergence, and yet achieve superior performance. In a series of experiments on IFN/ENIT database for Arabic handwriting recognition, we demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can outperform 2D LSTM networks. Furthermore, we provide comparisons with 1D LSTM networks trained with manually crafted features to show that the automatically learned features in a globally trained 1D LSTM network with our normalization step can even outperform such systems.

  11. 1-D Two-phase Flow Investigation for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a severe accident, when a molten corium is relocated in a reactor vessel lower head, the RCF(Reactor Cavity Flooding) system for ERVC (External Reactor Vessel Cooling) is actuated and coolants are supplied into a reactor cavity to remove a decay heat from the molten corium. This severe accident mitigation strategy for maintaining a integrity of reactor vessel was adopted in the nuclear power plants of APR1400, AP600, and AP1000. Under the ERVC condition, the upward two-phase flow is driven by the amount of the decay heat from the molten corium. To achieve the ERVC strategy, the two-phase natural circulation in the annular gap between the external reactor vessel and the insulation should be formed sufficiently by designing the coolant inlet/outlet area and gap size adequately on the insulation device. Also the natural circulation flow restriction has to be minimized. In this reason, it is needed to review the fundamental structure of insulation. In the existing power plants, the insulation design is aimed at minimizing heat losses under a normal operation. Under the ERVC condition, however, the ability to form the two-phase natural circulation is uncertain. Namely, some important factors, such as the coolant inlet/outlet areas, flow restriction, and steam vent etc. in the flow channel, should be considered for ERVC design. T-HEMES 1D study is launched to estimate the natural circulation flow under the ERVC condition of APR1400. The experimental facility is one-dPR1400. The experimental facility is one-dimensional and scaled down as the half height and 1/238 channel area of the APR1400 reactor vessel. The air injection method was used to simulate the boiling at the external reactor vessel and generate the natural circulation two-phase flow. From the experimental results, the natural circulation flow rate highly depended on inlet/outlet areas and the circulation flow rate increased as the outlet height as well as the supplied water head increased. On the other hand, the simple analysis using the drift flux model was carried out to predict the natural circulation flow rate and estimate the pressure drop distribution from the momentum equation. The calculated circulation flow rate was similar to experimental results within about 15% error bound. Also the effect of the turbine flow meter, which was installed to measure the circulation flow rate, was found that the natural circulation flow rate decreased due to the form loss of the turbine flow meter. And the simple analysis without the pressure drop of the turbine flow meter was performed to estimate the natural circulation phenomena under the actual ERVC condition

  12. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Reffray

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k + l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993 and two equation models: Generic Lengh Scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003 are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969 under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a one-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011 at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between ?2 and 2 °C during the stratified period (June to October. However the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 °C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 °C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA. This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  13. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reffray, G.; Bourdalle-Badie, R.; Calone, C.

    2015-01-01

    Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k+l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993, and two equation models: generic length scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003) are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969) under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a 1-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011) at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between -2 and 2 °C during the stratified period (June to October). However, the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 °C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 °C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D) is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (PAPA">http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA). This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  14. Lipid binding orientation within CD1d affects recognition of Borrelia burgorferi antigens by NKT cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yali; Kinjo, Yuki; Mac, Thien-Thi; Gibson, Darren; Gavin F. Painter; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2009-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) respond to CD1d-presented glycolipids from Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although mouse and human iNKT cells respond to different antigens based on subtle differences in their fatty acids, the mechanism by which fatty acid structure determines antigenic potency is not well understood. Here we show that the mouse and human CD1d present glycolipids having different fatty acids, based in part upon a difference at a single...

  15. Construction and Analysis of Lattice Boltzmann Methods Applied to a 1D Convection-Diffusion Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Dellacherie, Ste?phane

    2012-01-01

    We construct and we analyze two LBM schemes build on the D1Q2 lattice to solve the 1D (linear) convection-diffusion equation. We obtain these LBM schemes by showing that the 1D convection-diffusion equation is the fluid limit of a discrete velocity kinetic system. Then, we show in the periodic case that these LBM schemes are equivalent to a finite difference type scheme named LFCCDF scheme. This allows us, firstly, to prove the convergence in L? of these schemes, and to obtain discrete maxi...

  16. Dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer signaling pathway in the brain: emerging physiological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbi Ahmed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter modulating many physiological functions, and is linked to psychopathology of many diseases such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are the most abundant dopaminergic receptors in the striatum, and although a clear segregation between the pathways expressing these two receptors has been reported in certain subregions, the presence of D1-D2 receptor heteromers within a unique subset of neurons, forming a novel signaling transducing functional entity has been shown. Recently, significant progress has been made in elucidating the signaling pathways activated by the D1-D2 receptor heteromer and their potential physiological relevance.

  17. A 1-D model study of Arctic sea-ice salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Griewank, P. J.; Notz, D.

    2014-01-01

    We use a 1-D model to study how salinity evolves in Arctic sea ice. To do so, we first explore how sea-ice surface melt and flooding can be incorporated into the 1-D thermodynamic SAMSIM sea-ice model presented by Griewank and Notz (2013). We introduce flooding and a flushing parametrization which treats sea ice as a hydraulic network of horizontal and vertical fluxes. Forcing SAMSIM with 36 years of ERA-interim atmospheric reanalysis data, we obtain a modeled Arctic sea-i...

  18. Characterization of 5-HT1D receptor binding sites in post-mortem human brain cortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Martial, J; de Montigny, C; Cecyre, D; R. Quirion

    1991-01-01

    The present study provides further evidence for the presence of serotonin1D (5-HT1D) receptors in post-mortem human brain. Receptor binding parameters in temporal cortex homogenates were assessed using [3H]5-HT in the presence of 100 nM 8-OH-DPAT, 1 microM propranolol and 1 microM mesulergine to prevent labelling of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1C sites, respectively. Under these conditions, [3H]5-HT apparently bound to a class of high affinity (Kd = 5.0 +/- 1.0 nM) low capacity (Bmax = 96 +/- ...

  19. Spike-and-Slab Approximate Message-Passing Recovery for 1-D Piecewise-Constant Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jaewook; Jung, Hyoyoung; Lee, Heung-no; Kim, Kiseon

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast AMP algorithm for solving a compressed sensing (CS) recovery problem which includes signal sparsity in finite difference (FD). The proposed AMP algorithm, named ssAMP-1D, is fully scalable, providing low-computationality and phase transition (PT) competitive to the state-of-the-art performance. The key behind the ssAMP-1D construction is based on a sum-product rule over a factor graph consisting of two types of the factor nodes: the "s-factors" des...

  20. The (2 + 1)-d U(1) quantum link model masquerading as deconfined criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (2 + 1)-d U(1) quantum link model is a gauge theory, amenable to quantum simulation, with a spontaneously broken SO(2) symmetry emerging at a quantum phase transition. Its low-energy physics is described by a (2 + 1)-d RP(1) effective field theory, perturbed by an SO(2) breaking operator, which prevents the interpretation of the emergent pseudo-Goldstone boson as a dual photon. At the quantum phase transition, the model mimics some features of deconfined quantum criticality, but remains linearly confining. Deconfinement only sets in at high temperature. (paper)

  1. Immunoregulatory role of CD1d in the hydrocarbon oil-induced model of lupus nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jq; Singh, Ak; Wilson, Mt; Satoh, M.; Stanic, Ak; Park, Jj; Hong, S.; Gadola, Sd; Mizutani, A.; Kakumanu, Sr; Reeves, Wh; Cerundolo, V.; Joyce, S.; Kaer, L.; Singh, Rr

    2003-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is accompanied by the emergence of autoreactive T cells and a reduction in regulatory T cells. Humans and mice with SLE have reduced numbers of CD1d-restricted NK T cells, suggesting a role for these cells in the regulation of SLE. In this study, we show that CD1d deficiency exacerbates lupus nephritis induced by the hydrocarbon oil pristane. This exacerbation in disease is associated with: 1) reduced TNF-alpha and IL-4 ...

  2. Accurate baryon masses from meson masses using potential models and the 1/D expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently derived ratio of three particle to two particle nonrelativistic binding energies for power law potentials in the leading order of the 1/D expansion, where D is the number of spatial dimensions, is used to investigate the ground state baryon spectrum. Using the phenomenologically successful Martin potential and the known meson masses, it is shown how the above ratio can be utilized to obtain accurate masses for baryons, even those containing light quarks. It is also mentioned how the shifted 1/D expansion may be used to study certain excited baryon states

  3. Global analytical ab initio ground-state potential energy surface for the C((1)D)+H2 reactive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunfang; Fu, Mingkai; Shen, Zhitao; Ma, Haitao; Bian, Wensheng

    2014-06-21

    A new global ab initio potential energy surface (called ZMB-a) for the 1(1)A' state of the C((1)D)+H2 reactive system has been constructed. This is based upon ab initio calculations using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set, performed at about 6300 symmetry unique geometries. Accurate analytical fits are generated using many-body expansions with the permutationally invariant polynomials, except that the fit of the deep well region is taken from our previous fit. The ZMB-a surface is unique in the accurate description of the regions around conical intersections (CIs) and of van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The CIs between the 1(1)A' and 2(1)A' states cause two kinds of barriers on the ZMB-a surface: one is in the linear H-CH dissociation direction with a barrier height of 9.07 kcal/mol, which is much higher than those on the surfaces reported before; the other is in the C((1)D) collinearly attacking H2 direction with a barrier height of 12.39 kcal/mol. The ZMB-a surface basically reproduces our ab initio calculations in the vdW interaction regions, and supports a linear C-HH vdW complex in the entrance channel, and two vdW complexes in the exit channel, at linear CH-H and HC-H geometries, respectively. PMID:24952535

  4. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  5. 1D coordination polymers formed by tetranuclear lead(II) building blocks with carboxylate ligands: In situ isomerization of itaconic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of two new lead(II) coordination polymers, [Pb2(mpic)4(H2O)]·0.5H2O (1) and [Pb2(phen)2(cit)(mes)]·2H2O (2) has been reported, where mpic=3-methyl picolinate, phen=o-phenanthroline, H2cit=citraconic acid, H2mes mesaconic acid. X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses showed that the complexes comprise topologically different 1D polymeric chains stabilized by weak interactions and both containing tetranuclear Pb4 units connected by carboxylate groups. In compound 1 3-methylpicolinic acid is formed in situ from 3-methyl piconitrile, and mesaconate and citraconate anions were surprisingly formed from itaconic acid during the synthesis of 2. The photoluminescence and thermal properties of the complexes have been studied. - Graphical abstract: Two new topologically different 1D coordination polymers formed by Pb4 clusters have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray analysis. The luminescence and thermal properties have been studied. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Both the complexes, made up of different ligands, forms topologycally different 1D polymeric chains containing Pb4 clusters. • The final structures are stabilized by weak interactions (H-bond, ????? stacking). • In complex 1, the 3-methylpicolinic acid is generated in situ from 3-methyl piconitrile. • Mesaconate and citraconate anions are surprisingly formed in situ from itaconic acid during the synthesis of complex 2, indicating an exceptional transformation

  6. Column generation

    CERN Document Server

    Desrosiers, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a survey overview of the state-of-the-art in integer programming column generation and its many applications, featuring chapters written by leading experts in the various methodological and application areas of Column Generation.

  7. Characteristics of the low frequency sequence bands observed in the vibronic emission spectra of the jet cooled p-fluorobenzyl radical in the D1?D0 transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The p-fluorobenzyl radical was generated from the p-fluorotoluene and vibronically excited in a corona excited supersonic expansion with inert buffer gases. The vibronic emission spectra of the jet cooled p-fluorobenzyl radical in the D1?D0 transition have been observed in the visible region. The spectra exhibit several low frequency sequence bands in the vicinity of the every strong vibronic band. The characteristics of the sequence bands have been examined by varying the experimental conditions such as carrier gas and nozzle size to identify the origin of the transition in the spectra

  8. Targeting PPM1D by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits the tumorigenicity of bladder cancer cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W., Wang; H., Zhu; H., Zhang; L., Zhang; Q., Ding; H., Jiang.

    1044-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase magnesium/manganese-dependent 1D (PPM1D) is a p53-induced phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of stress response pathways and has oncogenic properties. However, the functional role of PPM1D in bladder cancer (BC) remains largely unknown. In the present study, lenti [...] virus vectors carrying small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting PPM1D were used to explore the effects of PPM1D knockdown on BC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. shRNA-mediated knockdown of PPM1D significantly inhibited cell growth and colony forming ability in the BC cell lines 5637 and T24. Flow cytometric analysis showed that PPM1D silencing increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase. Downregulation of PPM1D also inhibited 5637 cell tumorigenicity in nude mice. The results of the present study suggest that PPM1D plays a potentially important role in BC tumorigenicity, and lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA against PPM1D might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of BC.

  9. Activation of an oncogenic TBC1D7 (TBC1 domain family, member 7) protein in pulmonary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nagato; Koinuma, Junkichi; Ito, Tomoo; Tsuchiya, Eiju; Kondo, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Daigo, Yataro

    2010-04-01

    To develop novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for lung cancers, we screened molecules that were highly expressed in lung cancers by means of cDNA microarray analysis and found an elevated expression of TBC1 domain family, member 7 (TBC1D7) in the majority of lung cancers. Northern-blot analysis using mRNAs from 16 normal tissues detected its expression only in testis. Immunohistochemical staining using tumor tissue microarrays consisting of 261 archived non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens suggested an association of TBC1D7 expression with poor prognosis for NSCLC patients (P = 0.0063). Treatment of lung cancer cells using siRNA against TBC1D7, suppressed its expression and resulted in inhibition of the cell growth. Furthermore, the induction of exogenous expression of TBC1D7 conferred growth-promoting activity at in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also identified TBC1D7 to interact with TSC1 protein in lung cancer cells. TSC1 introduction into cells increased the level of TBC1D7 protein, whereas knockdown of TSC1 expression decreased the level of TBC1D7 protein, suggesting that TBC1D7 is stabilized probably through interaction with TSC1. In addition, inhibition of the binding between TBC1D7 and TSC1 by a TBC1D7-derived 20-amino acid cell-permeable peptide (11R-TBC1D7(152-171)), which corresponded to the binding domain to TSC1, effectively suppressed growth of lung cancer cells. Selective suppression of TBC1D7 and/or inhibition of the TBC1D7-TSC1 complex formation could be promising therapeutic strategies for lung cancer therapy. PMID:20095038

  10. A fast sonochemical method to prepare 1D and 3D nanostructures of bismuth sulfide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo R. R., Mesquita; Jorge S., Almeida; Leonardo S. G., Teixeira; Antônio F. da, Silva; Luciana A., Silva.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho, um método sonoquímico de síntese de nanoestruturas de sulfeto de bismuto em 1D e 3D foi desenvolvido e comparado com uma rota sintética empregando aquecimento sob refluxo. O método sonoquímico monstrou ser mais rápido e eficiente na obtenção de nanoestruturas com alta homogeneidade m [...] orfológica. A forma e qualidade dos nanocristais foram dependentes do tipo de solvente empregado na síntese. Superestruturas em 3D semelhantes a flores foram obtidas quando etileno glicol puro foi utilizado como solvente, enquanto estruturas em 1D na forma de nanobastões foram obtidas quando utilizada uma mistura de dimetilsulfóxido e etileno como solvente. Abstract in english In this work, a sonochemical method to synthesize nanostructures of bismuth sulfide in 1D and 3D framework was developed and compared with a synthetic route with heating under reflux. The sonochemical method showed to be faster and more efficient than refluxing method to obtain nanostructures with h [...] igh morphological homogeneity. Form and quality of the nanocrystals were dependent on the type of solvent employed in the synthesis procedure. 3D flower-like superstructures were obtained when ethylene glycol was used as solvent, while 1D nanorods were obtained when a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol was used as solvent.

  11. Quantized 1D- and 2D optical molasses: Laser cooling and spectrum of resonance fluorescene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results for laser cooling of optical molasses and the spectrum of resonance fluorescene based on a fully quantum mechanical treatment of the atomic center-of-mass motion for 1D and 2D laser configurations. Our calculations based on recently developed wave function simulations of the quantum master equation for laser cooling

  12. Two-photon spectroscopy of 3snd1D2 Rydberg states of magnesium I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-photon spectroscopy was applied to investigate the 3snd 1D2 Rydberg series of magnesium using a frequency-doubled N2-laser-pumped dye laser. New energy values for states between n = 25 and n = 43 are presented. (orig.)

  13. Effective potential in N=1, d=4 supergravity coupled to the Volkov-Akulov field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only-loop effective potential for N=1, d=4 supergravity theory coupled to the Volkov-Akulov field is calculated. Then it is shown that after an ajustment of some parameters the local supersymmetry is dynamically broken and as a consequence the gravitino acquires mass. (Author)

  14. Lipid binding orientation within CD1d affects recognition of Borrelia burgorferi antigens by NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Yali; Kinjo, Yuki; Mac, Thien-Thi; Gibson, Darren; Painter, Gavin F; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2010-01-26

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) respond to CD1d-presented glycolipids from Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although mouse and human iNKT cells respond to different antigens based on subtle differences in their fatty acids, the mechanism by which fatty acid structure determines antigenic potency is not well understood. Here we show that the mouse and human CD1d present glycolipids having different fatty acids, based in part upon a difference at a single amino acid position that is involved in positioning the sugar epitope. CD1d also can bind nonantigenic lipids, however, but unexpectedly, mouse CD1d orients the two aliphatic chains of a nonantigenic lipid rotated 180 degrees, causing a dramatic repositioning of the exposed sugar. Therefore, our data reveal the biochemical basis for the high degree of antigenic specificity of iNKT cells for certain fatty acids, and they suggest how microbes could alter fatty acid biosynthesis as an immune evasion mechanism. PMID:20080535

  15. Minimal representations of supersymmetry and 1D N-extended ?-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the minimal representations of the 1D N-Extended Supersymmetry algebra (the Z2-graded symmetry algebra of the Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics) linearly realized on a finite number of fields depending on a real parameter t, the time. Their knowledge allows to construct one-dimensional sigma-models with extended off-shell supersymmetries without using superfields (author)

  16. Exact Embedding of N=1, D=7 Gauged Supergravity in D=11

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, H

    1999-01-01

    We obtain the explicit and complete bosonic non-linear Kaluza-Klein ansatz for the consistent S^4 reduction of D=11 supergravity to N=1, D=7 gauged supergravity. This provides a geometrical interpretation of the lower dimensional solutions from the eleven-dimensional point of view.

  17. Fresnel Lenses fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining on Polymer 1D Photonic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guduru Surya S.K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of micro Fresnel lenses by femtosecond laser surface ablation on polymer 1D photonic crystals. This device is designed to focus the transmitted wavelength of the photonic crystal and filter the wavelengths corresponding to the photonic band gap region. Integration of such devices in a wavelength selective light harvesting and filtering microchip can be achieved.

  18. Formation of 1D adsorbed water structures on CaO(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xunhua; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of fundamental importance for basic and engineering sciences. Recently, a spontaneous formation of one-dimensional (1D) adsorbed water structures have been observed on CaO(001). Interestingly, at other alkaline earth metal oxides, in particular MgO(001) and SrO(001), such structures have not been found experimentally. We calculate the relative stability of adsorbed water structures on the three oxides using density-functional theory combined with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics. Low-energy structures at different coverages are obtained with a first-principles genetic algorithm. Finite-temperature vibrational spectra are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics. We find a range of (T, p) conditions where 1D structures are thermodynamically stable on CaO(001). The orientation and vibrational spectra of the 1D structures are in agreement with the experiments. The formation of the 1D structures is found to be actuated by a symmetry breaking in the adsorbed water tetramer, as well as by a balance between water-water and water-substrate interactions, determined by the lattice constant of the oxide.

  19. Challenges and Future Directions of the T1D Exchange Clinic Network and Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kellee M.; Xing, Dongyuan; Tamborlane, William V.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Beck, Roy W.

    2013-01-01

    The T1D Exchange Clinic Network consists of 67 clinics throughout the United States. Among the more than 100,000 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who receive care at these centers, more than 26,000 have been enrolled in a registry. The registry includes participants over a wide age range, from age

  20. Phase structure of (2+1)d strongly coupled lattice gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Strouthos, C G

    2003-01-01

    We study the chiral phase transition in (2+1)d strongly coupled U(N) lattice gauge theories with staggered fermions. We show with high precision simulations performed directly in the chiral limit that these models undergo a Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. We also show that this universality class is unaffected even in the large N limit.

  1. Electron localization in 1D conductors due to the phonon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolin, A. A.

    1983-09-01

    Electron localization in 1D conductors due to scattering by dispersionless optical phonons at low temperatures has been studied by applying the Berezinsky diagram technique. The large localization length lloc, much longer than the mean free path l, has been found. The low frequency optical absorption is described by the law: Re ?( ?) ˜ ?2 |ln 3?|.

  2. Elucidation of slow magnetic relaxation in a ferromagnetic 1D dysprosium chain through magnetic dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li; Chen, Qi; Meng, Yin-Shan; Sun, Hao-Ling; Gao, Song

    2014-06-01

    A novel ferromagnetic 1D dysprosium chain was synthesized. It exhibits slow magnetic relaxation, originating from the single-ion behaviour of Dy(3+) as indicated by dc and ac magnetic data of both diluted and un-diluted samples. PMID:24769724

  3. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy using the Mythen 1D detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeier, F.; Zozulya, A. V.; Bondarenko, S.; Parenti, A.; Lohmann, M.; Schavkan, A.; Grübel, G.; Sprung, M.

    2013-03-01

    X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) is an experimental technique to measure the dynamics of materials on nano- and microscales. Often, the maximum frame rate of the detector limits which dynamical processes can be investigated. This study examines the applicability of the Mythen 1D detector for coherent scattering applications with special focus on XPCS experiments.

  4. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy using the Mythen 1D detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) is an experimental technique to measure the dynamics of materials on nano- and microscales. Often, the maximum frame rate of the detector limits which dynamical processes can be investigated. This study examines the applicability of the Mythen 1D detector for coherent scattering applications with special focus on XPCS experiments.

  5. Clifford algebras and the minimal representations of the 1D N-extended supersymmetry algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atiyah-Bott-Shapiro classification of the irreducible Clifford algebra is used to derive general properties of the minimal representations of the 1D N-Extended Supersymmetry algebra (the Z2-graded symmetry algebra of the Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics) linearly realized on a finite number of fields depending on a real parameter t, the time. (author)

  6. Systematics of the single-particle properties of the 1d2s shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data on pickup and stripping reactions have been used to investigate single-particle properties of the most stable nuclei of the 1d2s shell. Populations of proton subshells and single-particle energies of the nuclear hamiltonian are obtained. (orig.)

  7. Interaction of Dual N=1, D=10 Supergravity with Yang-Mills Matter Multiplet

    OpenAIRE

    Saulina, N. A.; Terentiev, M. V.; Zyablyuk, K. N.

    1994-01-01

    The lagrangian of the N=1, D=10 dual supergravity interacting with the Yang-Mills matter multiplet is constructed starting immediately from the equations of motion obtained from the Bianchi Identities in the superspace approach. The difference is established in comparison with the Gates-Nishino lagrangian at the fourth order level in fermionic fields.

  8. The comparison of the amount of FP deposition on the SG U-tube between the lumped model and 1-D model with consideration of temperature and velocity gradient by the thermophoresis phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the severe accident, the deposition of the aerosol and gas from the released fission product on the inside of RCS is an important research field in terms of the evaluation of source terms. But the ISP- 46 results showed that the current severe accident codes based on the lumped model over-predicted (?40%) the amount of fission product deposited on the steam generator U-tube by the thermo-phoresis phenomena compared with that (17%) of measured. In order to improve the current model deficiency, 1-D model has been developed considering the distribution of temperature and velocity within the boundary layer near the wall surface. The amount of deposit mass was predicted with this 1-D model. From the calculation results, the 1-D model predicts the amount of FP deposition by the thermo-phoresis phenomena closer than the lumped model does. Also this model can contribute to improve the MELCOR code using the lumped type thermophoresis model

  9. Design and initial 1D radiography tests of the FANTOM mobile fast-neutron radiography and tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, P.; Valldor-Blücher, J.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Sjöstrand, H.; Jacobsson-Svärd, S.

    2014-08-01

    The FANTOM system is a tabletop sized fast-neutron radiography and tomography system newly developed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Division of Uppsala University. The main purpose of the system is to provide time-averaged steam-and-water distribution measurement capability inside the metallic structures of two-phase test loops for light water reactor thermal-hydraulic studies using a portable fusion neutron generator. The FANTOM system provides a set of 1D neutron transmission data, which may be inserted into tomographic reconstruction algorithms to achieve a 2D mapping of the steam-and-water distribution. In this paper, the selected design of FANTOM is described and motivated. The detector concept is based on plastic scintillator elements, separated for spatial resolution. Analysis of pulse heights on an event-to-event basis is used for energy discrimination. Although the concept allows for close stacking of a large number of detector elements, this demonstrator is equipped with only three elements in the detector and one additional element for monitoring the yield from the neutron generator. The first measured projections on test objects of known configurations are presented. These were collected using a Sodern Genie 16 neutron generator with an isotropic yield of about 1E8 neutrons per second, and allowed for characterization of the instrument's capabilities. At an energy threshold of 10 MeV, the detector offered a count rate of about 500 cps per detector element. The performance in terms of spatial resolution was validated by fitting a Gaussian Line Spread Function to the experimental data, a procedure that revealed a spatial unsharpness in good agreement with the predicted FWHM of 0.5 mm.

  10. TBC1D5 and the AP2 complex regulate ATG9 trafficking and initiation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Doris; Dikic, Ivan

    2014-04-01

    The RabGAP protein TBC1D5 controls cellular endomembrane trafficking processes and binds the retromer subunit VPS29 and the ubiquitin-like protein ATG8 (LC3). Here, we describe that TBC1D5 also associates with ATG9 and the active ULK1 complex during autophagy. Moreover, ATG9 and TBC1D5 interact with clathrin and the AP2 complex. Depletion of TBC1D5 leads to missorting of ATG9 to late endosomes upon activation of autophagy, whereas inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis or AP2 depletion alters ATG9 trafficking and its association with TBC1D5. Taken together, our data show that TBC1D5 and the AP2 complex are important novel regulators of the rerouting of ATG9-containing vesicular carriers toward sites of autophagosome formation. PMID:24603492

  11. Universal scheme of the minimal reduction of conventional and dual N=1, D=10 supergravity to Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reduction from N=1, D=10 to N=4, D=4 supergravity with Yang-Mills matter is considered. For this purpose, constraints are found that eliminate six additional Abelian multiplets and which preserve supersymmetry. Conventional N=1, D=10 supergravity and dual N=1, D=10 supergravity are both considered in the superspace approach. the effective potential of the resulting theory is presented

  12. TBC1D5 and the AP2 complex regulate ATG9 trafficking and initiation of autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, D.; Dikic, I

    2014-01-01

    The RabGAP protein TBC1D5 controls cellular endomembrane trafficking processes and binds the retromer subunit VPS29 and the ubiquitin-like protein ATG8 (LC3). Here, we describe that TBC1D5 also associates with ATG9 and the active ULK1 complex during autophagy. Moreover, ATG9 and TBC1D5 interact with clathrin and the AP2 complex. Depletion of TBC1D5 leads to missorting of ATG9 to late endosomes upon activation of autophagy, whereas inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis or AP2 depletion a...

  13. O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Fleming, Eric L; Jackman, Charles H; Burkholder, James B

    2013-03-28

    A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ? -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included in this study. PMID:23441917

  14. Minimum 1D P- and S- Velocity Models for Montenegro and Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Ljiljana; Kissling, Edi; Spakman, Wim; Glavatovic, Branislav

    2015-04-01

    The territory of Montenegro and its vicinity are characterized by high-seismicity rate and very complex tectonics. Namely, southern Adria microplate subducts beneath Eurasia, forming the Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt which spreads through whole Montenegro and the western Balkans. Present-day lithosphere structure of the Adria-Dinarides collision zone in general is not constrained very well and, consequently, there is a lack of three-dimensional (3D) velocity models in this region. For these reasons, high resolution 3D tomography modeling of this area is considered to be of great importance. As part of preparatory phase for conducting a 3D local earthquake tomography study, a substantial amount of waveform data was collected, from all surroundings national seismic networks including 130 seismic stations from 11 countries. The data set comprises waveforms from 1452 earthquakes in the region recorded during time period 1990 - 2014. The collected data were obtained in different formats and the data base was harmonized by converting and integrating all data to miniseed format. The potential resolution of collected data for seismic tomography purpose was analyzed by ray density testing, using specially developed software for this specific purpose. The result is expressed as the number of rays between selected group of earthquake hypocenters and seismic stations, penetrating through the 3D model of the Earth crust and it documents the great potential of the data set for 3D seismic tomography. As a prerequisite to 3D tomography and for consistent high-precision earthquake locations, a minimum 1D velocity model has been calculated. The data set of around 400 earthquakes was selected from the main database and consistent wave onsets picking was performed, including seismic phase interpretation and its quality assessment. This highly consistent travel time data set is used for calculation of 1D velocity models for the region under study. The minimum 1D models were derived through the iterative inversion procedure using VELEST software. Comparison of the results between previous routinely processed seismic data at the studied area and the earthquake relocation results by applying the new 1D models, shows a significant improvement in quality of hypocenter parameters of all earthquakes used in the experiment. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem, the resulting velocity information will be used as a suitable velocity model for further routine earthquake location in the region, and also as the appropriate initial reference model for 3D tomography modeling, applying the full seismic database. Keywords: minimum 1D model, seismic tomography, Velest, Montenegro

  15. Generation Of Flood Inundation Model – General Approach And Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Mazlan,; Mohd Adib Mohammed Razi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents in general the approach, methodology and applied practice for the generation of flood inundation model. The generation of the model cover on: (1) data availability, (2) methodology, (3) flood modeling using the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model, and (4) generation of flood inundation modelof integration of hydrodynamic model and flood mapping approach. The Sembrong River hydrodynamic model, Sembrong River flood mapping, and Ko...

  16. Wind Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    Windmills have been used for hundreds of years to collect energy from the wind in order to pump water, grind grain, and more recently generate electricity. There are many possible designs for the blades of a wind generator and engineers are always trying new ones. Design and test your own wind generator, then try to improve it by running a small electric motor connected to a voltage sensor.

  17. Thermoelectric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is described, of very general way, the principal cycles and technologies for the thermoelectric generation. It is made special reference to power cycles that employ steam as work fluid, to those of internal combustion, as well as to the combined (heat and power, steam and power) and the principal alternatives of cogeneration. As a means of general illustration comparative tables of thermoelectric generation costs for different thermal generation plans are presented

  18. Modeling of impurity spectroscopy in the divertor and SOL of DIII-D using the 1D multifluid model NEWT1D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NEWT1D, a one dimensional multifluid model of the scrape-off layer and divertor plasma, has been used to model the plasma including the distribution of carbon ionization states in the SOL and divertor of ELMing H-mode at two injected power levels in DIII-D. Comparison of the code predictions to the measured divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma density and temperature shows good agreement. Comparison of the predicted line emissions to the spectroscopic data suggests that physically sputtered carbon from the strike point is not transported up the flux tube; a distributed source of carbon a few centimeters up the flux tube is required to achieve reasonable agreement

  19. Non-Abelian String and Particle Braiding in Topological Order - Modular SL(3,Z) Representation and 3+1D Twisted Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Juven

    2014-01-01

    String and particle excitations are examined in a class of 3+1D topological order described by a discrete gauge theory with a gauge group $G$ and a 4-cocycle twist $\\omega_4 \\in \\mathcal{H}^4(G,\\mathbb{R}/\\mathbb{Z})$ of $G$'s cohomology group. We demonstrate the topological spin and the spin-statistics relation for the closed strings, and their multi-string braiding. The 3+1D twisted gauge theory can be characterized by a representation of SL$(3,\\mathbb{Z})$ modular transformation, which we find its generators $\\mathsf{S}^{xyz}$ and $\\mathsf{T}^{xy}$ in terms of the gauge group $G$ and the 4-cocycle $\\omega_4$. As we compactify one of the 3D's direction $z$ into a compact circle inserted with a gauge flux $b$, we can use the generators of SL$(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ subgroup of SL$(3,\\mathbb{Z})$, $\\mathsf{S}^{xy}$ and $\\mathsf{T}^{xy}$, to study the dimension reduction of the 3D topological order $\\mathcal{C}^{3\\text{D}}$ to a direct sum of degenerate states of 2D topological orders $\\mathcal{C}_b^{2\\text{D}}$ in di...

  20. Quantization of coupled 1D vector modes in integrated photonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum mechanical analysis of the guided light in integrated photonics waveguides is presented. The analysis is made starting from one-dimensional (1D) guided vector modes by taking into account the modal orthonormalization property on a cross section of an optical waveguide, the vector structure of the guided optical modes and the reversal-time symmetry in order to quantize the 1D vector modes and to derive the quantum momentum operator and the Heisenberg equations. The results provide a quantum-consistent formulation of the linear and nonlinear quantum light propagations as a function of forward and backward creation and annihilation operators in integrated photonics. As an illustration, an application to an integrated nonlinear directional coupler is given, that is, both the nonlinear momentum and the Heisenberg equations of the nonlinear coupler are derived

  1. Interaction between (1+1) D Gaussian spatial double solitons with losses in strongly nonlocal media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation properties of (1+1) D Gaussian double light beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media with low losses are studied. By simplifying the nonlocal nonlinear Schroedinger equation which the light propagation in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media with low losses obeys, the propagation model of (1+1) D Gaussian double light beams in the media is obtained. With analysis method, the evolution laws of double light beams propagation are studied, the quasi double solitons solution is obtained. Further studies point out that the trajectories of the two light beams' centers in propagation are Airy functions; the two light beams will collide and separate; with the increase of propagation distance, the maximal distance between the two light beams' centers will become larger. When the losses increase, the collision spatial period will become smaller, and the maximal distance between the two light beams' centers will become larger. (authors)

  2. Slice imaging of nitric acid photodissociation: The O(1D) + HONO channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an imaging study of nitric acid (HNO3) photodissociation near 204 nm with detection of O(1D), one of the major decomposition products in this region. The images show structure reflecting the vibrational distribution of the HONO coproduct and significant angular anisotropy that varies with recoil speed. The images also show substantial alignment of the O(1D) orbital, which is analyzed using an approximate treatment that reveals that the polarization is dominated by incoherent, high order contributions. The results offer additional insight into the dynamics of the dissociation of nitric acid through the S3 (2 1A') excited state, resolving an inconsistency in previously reported angular distributions, and pointing the way to future studies of the angular momentum polarization.

  3. A contribution to the 1D modelling of fuel element mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel element mechanics model must involve such effects as fuel cracking, the friction contact of the fuel and the cladding and so on. These effects are however essentially 3D ones and far from being trivial. This paper makes an attempt to model the fuel element mechanical behavior in the simplest way as a system of 1D problems depending only on one space variable. The presented general theories deal with a boundary (contact) value problem for one fuel rod section, a homogenized fuzzy-crack problem and a 1D axial friction contact problem. An interconnection of particular submodels is discussed. Numerical examples illustrating the particular submodels and the model as a whole are presented. (orig.)

  4. A 1D model for the description of mixing-controlled reacting diesel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desantesa, J.M.; Pastor, J.V.; Garcia-Oliver, J.M.; Pastor, J.M. [CMT - Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The paper reports an investigation on the transient evolution of diesel flames in terms of fuel-air mixing, spray penetration and combustion rate. A one-dimensional (1D) spray model, which was previously validated for inert diesel sprays, is extended to reacting conditions. The main assumptions of the model are the mixing-controlled hypothesis and the validity of self-similarity for conservative properties. Validation is achieved by comparing model predictions with both CFD gas jet simulations and experimental diesel spray measurements. The 1D model provides valuable insight into the evolution of the flow within the spray (momentum and mass fluxes, tip penetration, etc.) when shifting from inert to reacting conditions. Results show that the transient diesel flame evolution is mainly governed by two combustion-induced effects, namely the reduction in local density and the increase in flame radial width. (author)

  5. FPGA Implementation of Efficient VLSI Architecture for Fixed Point 1-D DWT Using Lifting Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Sowjanya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme for the design of area efficient and high speed pipeline VLSI architecture for the computation of fixed point 1-d discrete wavelet transform using lifting scheme is proposed. The main focus of the scheme is to reduce the number and period of clock cycles and efficient area with little or no overhead on hardware resources. The fixed point representation requires less hardware resources compared with floating point representation. The pipelining architecture speeds up the clock rate of DWT and reduced bit precision reduces the area required for implementation. The architecture has been coded in verilog HDL on Xilinx platform and the target FPGA device used is Virtex-II Pro family, XC2VP7-7board. The proposed scheme requires the least computing time for fixed point 1-D DWT and achieves theless area for implementation, compared with other architectures. So this architecture is realizable for real time processing of DWT computation applications.

  6. An alternative scheme for the multiplexed acquisition of 1D and 2D NMR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plainchont, B.; Martinez, A.; Tisse, S.; Bouillon, J.-P.; Wieruszeski, J.-M.; Lippens, G.; Jeannerat, D.; Nuzillard, J.-M.

    2010-09-01

    Spin system selective 1D 1H, 2D DQF-COSY and 2D HSQC NMR spectra were recorded in order to fully assign the 1H and 13C 1D NMR spectra of an asymmetrical ?-cyclodextrin derivative. Instead of individually accessing the seven sugar anomeric protons by means of long multiplet selective pulses, only short region selective pulses were used. The simultaneously selected anomeric protons were differentiated by allowing their magnetization to evolve under the sole effect of the chemical shift interaction. In each experiment, the seven recorded spectra were linear combinations of the seven desired ones. The combination coefficients were measured and used to obtain almost perfectly separated sugar unit sub-spectra. This multiplexed acquisition scheme resulted in a time gain factor of about 2.

  7. The Dynamic Structure Factor of the 1D Bose Gas near the Tonks-Girardeau Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, J; Brand, Joachim; Cherny, Alexander Yu.

    2004-01-01

    While the 1D Bose gas appears to exhibit superfluid response under certain conditions, it fails the Landau criterion according to the elementary excitation spectrum calculated by Lieb. The apparent riddle is solved by calculating the dynamic structure factor of the Lieb-Liniger 1D Bose gas. A pseudopotential Hamiltonian in the fermionic representation is used to derive a Hartree-Fock operator, which turns out to be well-behaved and local. The Random-Phase approximation for the dynamic structure factor based on this derivation is calculated analytically and is expected to be valid at least up to first order in $1/\\gamma$, where $\\gamma$ is the dimensionless interaction strength of the model. The dynamic structure factor in this approximation clearly indicates a crossover behavior from the non-superfluid Tonks to the superfluid weakly-interacting regime, which should be observable by Bragg scattering in current experiments.

  8. Effect of the deformation operator in the D1D5 CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Zaq; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2014-01-01

    The D1D5 CFT gives a holographic dual description of a near-extremal black hole in string theory. The interaction in this theory is given by a marginal deformation operator, which is composed of supercharges acting on a twist operator. The twist operator links together different copies of a free CFT. We study the effect of this deformation operator when it links together CFT copies with winding numbers M and N to produce a copy with winding M+N, populated with excitations of a particular form. We compute the effect of the deformation operator in the full supersymmetric theory, firstly on a Ramond-Ramond ground state and secondly on states with an initial bosonic or fermionic excitation. Our results generalize recent work which studied only the bosonic sector of the CFT. Our findings are a step towards understanding thermalization in the D1D5 CFT, which is related to black hole formation and evaporation in the bulk.

  9. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabtaji, Agung; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-01

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  10. D1/D5 system and Wilson Loops in (Non-)commutative Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, H; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, Hidenori; Nakajima, Tadahito; Suzuki, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    We study the behavior of the Wilson loop in the (5+1)-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with the presence of the solitonic object. Using the dual string description of the Yang-Mills theory that is given by the D1/D5 system, we estimate the Wilson loops both in the temporal and spatial cases. For the case of the temporal loop, we obtain the velocity dependent potential. For the spatial loop, we find that the area law is emerged due to the effect of the D1-branes. Further, we consider D1/D5 system in the presence of the constant $B$ field. It is found that the Wilson loop obeys the area law for the effect of the noncommutativity.

  11. Hyperbranched Quasi-1D TiO2 Nanostructure for Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Passoni, Luca; Grancini, Giulia; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Li Bassi, Andrea; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2015-04-15

    The performance of hybrid solar cells is strongly affected by the device morphology. In this work, we demonstrate a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/TiO2 hybrid solar cell where the TiO2 photoanode comprises an array of tree-like hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures self-assembled from the gas phase. This advanced architecture enables us to increase the power conversion efficiency to over 1%, doubling the efficiency with respect to state of the art devices employing standard mesoporous titania photoanodes. This improvement is attributed to several peculiar features of this array of nanostructures: high interfacial area; increased optical density thanks to the enhanced light scattering; and enhanced crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) inside the quasi-1D nanostructure. PMID:25822757

  12. Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    A reliable and fast numerical scheme is crucial for the 1D simulation of blood flow in compliant vessels. In this paper, a 1D blood flow model is incorporated with a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic arterial wall. This leads to a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system, which is then solved with four numerical schemes, namely: MacCormack, Taylor-Galerkin, monotonic upwind scheme for conservation law and local discontinuous Galerkin. The numerical schemes are tested on a single vessel, a simple bifurcation and a network with 55 arteries. The numerical solutions are checked favorably against analytical, semi-analytical solutions or clinical observations. Among the numerical schemes, comparisons are made in four important aspects: accuracy, ability to capture shock-like phenomena, computational speed and implementation complexity. The suitable conditions for the application of each scheme are discussed. PMID:25145651

  13. Thermal conductivity of quasi-1D antiferromagnetic spin-chain materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhkov, A V

    2005-01-01

    We study the heat transport in quasi-1D spin-chain systems, a subject of current experimental and theoretical interest. The model of 1D bosonic spin excitations interacting with 3D phonons and impurities is analyzed in the limit of weak spin-lattice coupling and fast spin-boson excitations. Combined effect of the phonon and impurity scatterings yields the following spin-boson thermal conductivity behavior: kappa_s ~ T^2 at low, kappa_s ~ 1/T at intermediate, and kappa_s=const at higher temperatures, T ~ Theta_D, where Theta_D is the Debye temperature. Our results compare favorably with the existing experimental data for the spin-chain material Sr2CuO3. We predict an unusual dependence on the impurity concentration for a number of observables and propose further experiments.

  14. Effective stripes and angular magnetic oscillations in Q1D conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, A. G.; Naughton, M. J.

    2003-03-01

    We have derived a common analytical expression to describe angular magnetic oscillations observed in quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) conductors (TMTSF)_2X and (DMET)_2I_3. Among these are the "magic angle" effect, the Danner-Kang-Chaikin oscillations, the "third angular effect", and very rich angular oscillations discovered by Lee and Naughton [L-N, PRB 57,7423(1998)]. Taking into account the quantum nature of electron motion on a warped Q1D Fermi surface, the physical meaning of the latter oscillations is shown to be related to interference effects between stripes of effective electrons. In particular, we obtain quantitative agreement with experiment for the L-N oscillations, and make predictions of the field dependence of the magnetoresistance in particular orientations.

  15. Magnetic Anticrossing of 1D Subbands in Coupled Ballistic Double Quantum Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLOUNT,MARK A.; MOON,JEONG-SUN; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; LYO,SUNGKWUN K.; WENDT,JOEL R.; RENO,JOHN L.

    2000-07-13

    We study the low-temperature in-plane magnetoconductance of vertically coupled double quantum wires. Using a novel flip-chip technique, the wires are defined by two pairs of mutually aligned split gates on opposite sides of a s 1 micron thick AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum well heterostructure. We observe quantized conductance steps due to each quantum well and demonstrate independent control of each ID wire. A broad dip in the magnetoconductance at -6 T is observed when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to both the current and growth directions. This conductance dip is observed only when 1D subbands are populated in both the top and bottom constrictions. This data is consistent with a counting model whereby the number of subbands crossing the Fermi level changes with field due to the formation of an anticrossing in each pair of 1D subbands.

  16. Assessment of core thermo-hydrodynamic models of REFLA-1D with CCTF data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the core thermo-hydrodynamic models of REFLA-1D/MODE3, which is the latest version of REFLA-1D, several calculations of the core thermo-hydrodynamics have been performed for the CCTF Core-I series tests. The measured initial and boundary conditions were used for these calculations. The calculational results showed that the water accumulation model of Case 2 could predict the CCTF results fairly well as it could for the JAERI small scale facility. The calculated results for the base case and the EM tests were in good agreement with the CCTF data. The parameter effects, such as system pressure, initial clad temperature, Acc injection rate, LPCI injection rate and initial down-comer wall temperature, were predicted correctly, except for the high system pressure and the high LPCI injection rate tests. (author)

  17. Magnetic Anticrossing of 1D Subbands in Coupled Ballistic Double Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the low-temperature in-plane magnetoconductance of vertically coupled double quantum wires. Using a novel flip-chip technique, the wires are defined by two pairs of mutually aligned split gates on opposite sides of a s 1 micron thick AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum well heterostructure. We observe quantized conductance steps due to each quantum well and demonstrate independent control of each ID wire. A broad dip in the magnetoconductance at -6 T is observed when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to both the current and growth directions. This conductance dip is observed only when 1D subbands are populated in both the top and bottom constrictions. This data is consistent with a counting model whereby the number of subbands crossing the Fermi level changes with field due to the formation of an anticrossing in each pair of 1D subbands

  18. Calculation of zero-offset vertical seismic profiles generated by a horizontal point force acting on the surface of an elastic half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi-Ping, Liu

    1990-01-01

    Impulse responses including near-field terms have been obtained in closed form for the zero-offset vertical seismic profiles generated by a horizontal point force acting on the surface of an elastic half-space. The method is based on the correspondence principle. Through transformation of variables, the Fourier transform of the elastic impulse response is put in a form such that the Fourier transform of the corresponding anelastic impulse response can be expressed as elementary functions and their definite integrals involving distance angular frequency, phase velocities, and attenuation factors. These results are used for accurate calculation of shear-wave arrival rise times of synthetic seismograms needed for data interpretation of anelastic-attenuation measurements in near-surface sediment. -Author

  19. Finite-size scaling behavior of Bose-Einstein condensation in the 1D Bose gas

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Jun; Kaminishi, Eriko; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Through exact numerical solutions we show Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) for the one-dimensional (1D) bosons with repulsive short-range interactions at zero temperature by taking a particular large size limit. Following the Penrose-Onsager criterion of BEC, we define condensate fraction by the fraction of the largest eigenvalue of the one-particle reduced density matrix. % We show the finite-size scaling behavior such that condensate fraction is given by a scaling function...

  20. Solution of the 1-D multigroup time-dependent diffusion equation using the orthogonal collocation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, M.A.; Shirani, A. (Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Feiz, M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Beaver Campus, Monaca, PA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This note describes the application of the orthogonal collocation method to solve reactor dynamics equations. In particular, the method is developed for the 1-D group diffusion and precursor concentration equations in slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries. The results of the method, however, are only tested for slab geometry. The eigenvalue or group flux distributions obtained are good approximations in comparison to other numerical methods. (Author).

  1. Solution of the 1-D multigroup time-dependent diffusion equation using the orthogonal collocation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note describes the application of the orthogonal collocation method to solve reactor dynamics equations. In particular, the method is developed for the 1-D group diffusion and precursor concentration equations in slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries. The results of the method, however, are only tested for slab geometry. The eigenvalue or group flux distributions obtained are good approximations in comparison to other numerical methods. (Author)

  2. Spatial nonlocal pair correlations in a repulsive 1D Bose gas

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, A. G.; Gangardt, D. M.; Davis, M. J.; Viering, K.; Raizen, M. G.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.

    2007-01-01

    We analytically calculate the spatial nonlocal pair correlation function for an interacting uniform 1D Bose gas at finite temperature and propose an experimental method to measure nonlocal correlations. Our results span six different physical realms, including the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. We show explicitly that the characteristic correlation lengths are given by one of four length scales: the thermal de Broglie wavelength, the mean interparticle separation, ...

  3. Modeling Soil Salt and Nitrogen Transport under Different Fertigation Practices with Hydrus-1D

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Wen-zhi; Huang Jie-sheng; Wu Jing-wei; Xu Chi

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effects of different fertigation practices on salt and nitrogen dynamics were analyzed in the Hetao District, China by using the Hydrus-1D model. The results indicated that the soil electrical conductivity increased gradually with depth after irrigation and the electrical conductivity of 0~60 cm depth changed faster than that of 60~100 cm depth. However, the soil ammonium nitrogen concentration decreased with depth and high irrigation intensity could promote the increase of ...

  4. Asymptotic solutions of the 1D nonlocal Fisher-KPP equation

    OpenAIRE

    Shapovalov, A. V.; Trifonov, A. Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Two analytical methods have been developed for constructing approximate solutions to a nonlocal generalization of the 1D Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation. This equation is of special interest in studying the pattern formation in microbiological populations. In the greater part of the paper, we consider in detail a semiclassical approximation method based on the WKB-Maslov theory under the supposition of weak diffusion. The semiclassical asymptotics are sought...

  5. Li-diffusion and lattice relaxation in the 1-d superionic-conductor beta-eucryptite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1-d Li+ conductor ?-eucryptite (LiAlSiO4) was studied by quasi-elastic neutron measurements. From the coherent scattering it can be shown that correlations between the Li+ ions are extremely important up to the highest investigated temperatures (T0C). The diffusion of individual ions was studied by incoherent scattering. For the Li+ a jump diffusion along c with mainly a jump-distance of c/3 was confirmed. (Auth.)

  6. Modave Lectures on Fuzzballs and Emission from the D1-D5 System

    OpenAIRE

    Borun D. Chowdhury; Virmani, Amitabh

    2010-01-01

    These lecture notes present an introduction to the fuzzball proposal and emission from the D1-D5 system which is geared to an audience of graduate students and others with little background in the subject. The presentation begins with a discussion of the Penrose process and Hawking radiation. The fuzzball proposal is then introduced, and the two- and three-charge systems are reviewed. In the three-charge case details are not discussed. A detailed discussion of emission calcu...

  7. Evidence for BCS diquark condensation in the 3+1d lattice NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of numerical simulations of the 3+1d Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with a non-zero baryon chemical potential ?, with particular emphasis on the superfluid diquark condensate and associated susceptibilities. The results, when extrapolated to the zero diquark source limit, are consistent with the existence of a non-zero BCS condensate at high baryon density. The nature of the infinite volume and zero temperature limits are discussed

  8. Resistivity structure of Sumatran Fault (Aceh segment) derived from 1-D magnetotelluric modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasan, Sutarno, D.; Bachtiar, H.; Sugiyanto, D.; Ogawa, Y.; Kimata, F.; Fitriani, D.

    2012-06-01

    Sumatran Fault Zone is the most active fault in Indonesia as a result of strike-slip component of Indo-Australian oblique convergence. With the length of 1900 km, Sumatran fault was divided into 20 segments starting from the southernmost Sumatra Island having small slip rate and increasing to the north end of Sumatra Island. There are several geophysical methods to analyze fault structure depending on physical parameter used in these methods, such as seismology, geodesy and electromagnetic. Magnetotelluric method which is one of geophysical methods has been widely used in mapping and sounding resistivity distribution because it does not only has the ability for detecting contras resistivity but also has a penetration range up to hundreds of kilometers. Magnetotelluric survey was carried out in Aceh region with the 12 total sites crossing Sumatran Fault on Aceh and Seulimeum segments. Two components of electric and magnetic fields were recorded during 10 hours in average with the frequency range from 320 Hz to 0,01 Hz. Analysis of the pseudosection of phase and apparent resistivity exhibit vertical low phase flanked on the west and east by high phase describing the existence of resistivity contras in this region. Having rotated the data to N45°E direction, interpretation of the result has been performed using three different methods of 1D MT modeling i.e. Bostick inversion, 1D MT inversion of TM data, and 1D MT inversion of the impedance determinant. By comparison, we concluded that the use of TM data only and the impedance determinant in 1D inversion yield the more reliable resistivity structure of the fault compare to other methods. Based on this result, it has been shown clearly that Sumatra Fault is characterized by vertical contras resistivity indicating the existence of Aceh and Seulimeum faults which has a good agreement with the geological data.

  9. Raman scattering on DWCNT filled with 1D CdSe nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Belandria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio el espectro Raman no polarizado a temperatura ambiente de los modos radiales y tangenciales de nanotubos de carbono de doble pared rellenos del semiconductor CdSe nanocristalino 1D, excitado con 514.5 nm. En la region de bajo numero de onda observamos varios ´ fonones que corresponden a los modos radiales de los tubos internos y externos, los fonones opticos confinados LO y TO y fonones ´ opticos ´ superficiales del nanoalambre de CdSe.

  10. On the ultraviolet behaviour of softly broken N=1, D=2 supersymmetric non-linear ?-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explicit soft breaking terms of N=1, D=2 supersymmetry are added to the N=1 non-linear ?-model action. Supergraph methods are employed to analyse the structure of divergences induced by the breaking terms. Genuine three-loop divergences appear, that are proportional to a dimensionless breaking coupling parameter. They survive the Ricci-flatness condition and modify the three-loop function of the exact model, which is known to be vanishing. (orig.)

  11. Evidence of 1D behaviour of He$^4$ confined within carbon-nanotube bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Lasjaunias, J. C.; Biljakovic, K.; Sauvajol, J. L.; Monceau, P.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first low-temperature thermodynamic investigation of the controlled physisorption of He$^{4}$ gas in carbon single-wall nanotube (SWNT) samples. The vibrational specific heat measured between 100 mK and 6 K demonstrates an extreme sensitivity to outgassing conditions. For bundles with a few number of NTs the extra contribution to the specific heat, C$_{ads}$, originating from adsorbed He$^{4}$ at very low density displays 1D behavior, typical for He atoms loca...

  12. Insulin stimulation regulates AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation sites in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelbeek, R J W; Chambers, M A

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are typically insulin resistant, exhibiting impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Animal and cell culture experiments have shown that site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 and TBC1D1 is critical for GLUT4 translocation facilitating glucose uptake, but their regulation in human skeletal muscle is not well understood.

  13. High-Resolution Radiation Hybrid Map of Wheat Chromosome 1D

    OpenAIRE

    Kalavacharla, Venu (Kal); Hossain, Khwaja; Gu, Yong; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Vales, M. Isabel; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Jose L.; Maan, Shivcharan S.; Kianian, Shahryar F

    2006-01-01

    Physical mapping methods that do not rely on meiotic recombination are necessary for complex polyploid genomes such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This need is due to the uneven distribution of recombination and significant variation in genetic to physical distance ratios. One method that has proven valuable in a number of nonplant and plant systems is radiation hybrid (RH) mapping. This work presents, for the first time, a high-resolution radiation hybrid map of wheat chromosome 1D (D geno...

  14. A density-functional approach to fermionization in the 1D Bose gas

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    A time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme for 1D bosons with contact interaction is derived based on a model of spinor fermions. This model is specifically designed for the study of the strong interaction regime close to the Tonks gas. It allows us to treat the transition from the strongly-interacting Tonks-Girardeau to the weakly-interacting quasicondensate regime and provides an intuitive picture of the extent of fermionization in the system. An adiabatic local-density approximati...

  15. Characterisation of J(O1D at Cape Grim 2000–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the rate of production of excited oxygen atoms due to the photolysis of ozone J(O1D have been derived from radiation measurements carried out at Cape Grim, Tasmania (40.6° S, 144.7° E. These estimates agree well with measurements made during SOAPEX-II and with model estimates of clear sky photolysis rates. Observations spanning 2000–2005 have been used to quantify the impact of season, cloud and ozone column amount. The annual cycle of J(O1D has been investigated via monthly means. These means show an inter-annual variation (monthly standard deviation of 9%, but in midsummer and midwinter this reduces to 3–4%. Factors dependent upon solar zenith angle and satellite derived total ozone column explain 87% of the observed signal variation of the individual measurements. The impact of total column ozone, expressed as a Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF, is found to be ~1.45, in agreement with model estimates. This ozone dependence explains 20% of the variation observed at medium solar zenith angles (30–50°. The impact of clouds results in a median reduction of 14% in J(O1D for the same solar zenith angle range. At all solar zenith angles less than 50° approximately 10% of measurements show enhanced J(O1D due to cloud scattering and this fraction climbs to 25% at higher solar angles. Including estimates of cloudiness derived from Long Wave Radiation measurements resulted in a statistically significant fit to observations but the quality of the fit did not increase significantly as measured by the reduced R2.

  16. Soliton phase near antiferromagnetic quantum critical point in Q1D conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Gor Kov, L. P.; Grigoriev, P. D.

    2005-01-01

    In the frameworks of a nesting model for Q1D organic conductor at the antiferromagnetic (SDW) quantum critical point the first-order transition separates metallic state from the soliton phase having the periodic domain structure. The low temperature phase diagram also displays the 2nd-order transition line between the soliton and the uniformly gapped SDW phases. The results agree with the phase diagram of (TMTSF)$_2$PF$_6$ near critical pressure [T. Vuletic et al., Eur. Phys...

  17. A Note on D1-D5 Entropy and Geometric Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Chethan

    2015-01-01

    We quantize the space of 2-charge fuzzballs in IIB supergravity on $K3$. The resulting entropy precisely matches the D1-D5 black hole entropy, including a specific numerical coefficient. A partial match (ie., a smaller coefficient) was found by Rychkov a decade ago using the Lunin-Mathur subclass of solutions - we use a simple observation to generalize his approach to the full moduli space of $K3$ fuzzballs, filling a small gap in the literature.

  18. Exact electron states in 1D (quasi-) periodic arrays of delta-potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Peter; Kramer, Tobias

    1999-01-01

    Exact one-electron eigenstates in finite parts of 1D periodic and Fibonacci chains of attractive and repulsive delta potentials are computed and analyzed. Bloch and bound state boundary conditions are related in terms of transfer matrices. Scenarios of positive and negative energy are distinguished. The dependence on the potential strength parameter is analyzed. The scattering matrix is computed. Implications for the interpretation of band germs in quasiperiodic chains are d...

  19. Exact electron states in 1D (quasi-) periodic arrays of delta-potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, P H; Kramer, Peter; Kramer, Tobias

    1999-01-01

    Exact one-electron eigenstates in finite parts of 1D periodic and Fibonacci chains of attractive and repulsive delta potentials are computed and analyzed. Bloch and bound state boundary conditions are related in terms of transfer matrices. Scenarios of positive and negative energy are distinguished. The dependence on the potential strength parameter is analyzed. The scattering matrix is computed. Implications for the interpretation of band germs in quasiperiodic chains are discussed.

  20. MNM1D: A Numerical Code for Colloid Transport in Porous Media: Implementation and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Tosco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Understanding the mechanisms that control the transport and fate of colloidal particles in subsurface environments is a crucial issue faced by several researchers in the last years. In many cases, natural colloids have been shown to play a major role in the spreading of strongly sorbing contaminants, while manufactured micro-and nanoparticles, which are nowadays widely spread in the subsurface, can be toxic themselves. On the other hand, in recent years studies have been addressed to the use of highly reactive micro-and nanoparticle suspensions for the remediation of contaminated aquifers. Provide the set of partial-differential model equations and its numerical solution for the colloid transport under transient hydrochemical conditions, that have been previously shown to be extremely important in micro-and nanoparticle transport in porous media. Approach: This study presented a novel colloid transport model, called MNM1D (Micro-and Nanoparticle transport Model in porous media in 1D geometry, able to simulate the colloid behavior in porous media in the presence of both constant and transient hydrochemical parameters (namely ionic strength. The model accounts for attachment and detachment phenomena, that can be modeled with one or two linear and/or langmuirian interaction sites. The governing equations were solved using a finite-differences approach, herein presented and discussed in details. Results: Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons with results of well-established colloid transport models, based both on analytical and numerical solutions of the colloid transport equation, were performed. The MNM1D results were found to be in good agreement with these solutions. Conclusion: The shown good agreement between MNM1D and the other models indicated that this code can represent in the future a useful tool for the simulation of colloidal transport in groundwater under transient hydrochemical conditions.

  1. Ground-state energy for 1D (t,U,X)-model at low densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In describing the properties of quasi-1D materials with a highly-screened interelectronic potential, an attractive hopping term has to be added to the Hubbard Hamiltonian. The effective interaction and the ground-state energy in ladder approximation are analyzed. At low electronic densities, the attractive part of the interaction, initially smaller than the repulsive term, can become more effective, the ground-state energy decreasing below the unperturbed value. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  2. 2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. II: Numerical comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a companion paper [1], (i) several new '2D/1D equations' are introduced as accurate approximations to the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, (ii) the simplest of these approximate equations is systematically discretized, and (iii) a theoretically stable iteration scheme is developed to solve the discrete equations. In this paper, numerical results are presented that confirm the theoretical predictions made in [1]. (authors)

  3. Spline in Compression Methods for Singularly Perturbed 1D Parabolic Equations with Singular Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noopur Khosla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss three difference schemes; for the numerical solution of singularity perturbed 1-D parabolic equations with singular coefficients using spline in compression. The proposed methods are of accurate and applicable to problems in both cases singular and non-singular. Stability theory of a proposed method has been discussed and numerical examples have been given in support of the theoretical results.

  4. The effect of optical lattice heating on the momentum distribution of a 1D Bose gas

    OpenAIRE

    Riou, Jean-fe?lix; Zundel, Laura A.; Reinhard, Aaron; Weiss, David S.

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study how excitations due to spontaneous emission and trap fluctuations combine with elastic collisions to change the momentum distribution of a trapped non-degenerate one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas. Using calculated collisional relaxation rates, we first present a semi-analytical model for the momentum distribution evolution to get insight into the main processes responsible for the system dynamics. We then present a Monte-Carlo simulation that includes feat...

  5. Evidence for BCS Diquark Condensation in the 3+1d Lattice NJL Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hands, S; Hands, Simon; Walters, David N.

    2002-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of the 3+1d Nambu - Jona-Lasinio model with a non-zero baryon chemical potential mu, with particular emphasis on the superfluid diquark condensate and associated susceptibilities. The results, when extrapolated to the zero diquark source limit, are consistent with the existence of a non-zero BCS condensate at high baryon density. The nature of the infinite volume and zero temperature limits are discussed.

  6. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Mi Jung; Hyun Young Jung; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Yung Joon Jung; Jing Kong

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the tra...

  7. High--field NMR of the quasi--1D antiferromagnet LiCuVO$_4$

    OpenAIRE

    Buttgen, N.; Kuhns, P.; Prokofiev, A.; Reyes, A. P.; Svistov, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on NMR studies of the quasi one--dimensional (1D) antiferromagnetic $S=1/2$ chain cuprate LiCuVO$_4$ in magnetic fields $H$ up to $\\mu_0H$ = 30 T ($\\approx 70$% of the saturation field $H_{\\rm sat}$). NMR spectra in fields higher than $H_{\\rm c2}$ ($\\mu_0H_{\\rm c2} \\approx 7.5$ T) and temperatures $T

  8. Universality for SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (2+1)D

    CERN Document Server

    Hamer, C J; Weihong, Z; Schütte, D R; Weihong, Zheng

    1996-01-01

    The Green's Function Monte Carlo method of Chin et al is applied to SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (2+1)D. Accurate measurements are obtained for the ground-state energy and mean plaquette value, and for various Wilson loops. The results are compared with series expansions and coupled cluster estimates, and with the Euclidean Monte Carlo results of Teper. A striking demonstration of universality between the Hamiltonian and Euclidean formulations is obtained.

  9. Controllability of the 1D Schrodinger equation by the flatness approach

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Philippe; Rosier, Lionel; Rouchon, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We derive in a straightforward way the exact controllability of the 1-D Schrodinger equation with a Dirichlet boundary control. We use the so-called flatness approach, which consists in parameterizing the solution and the control by the derivatives of a "flat output". This provides an explicit control input achieving the exact controllability in the energy space. As an application, we derive an explicit pair of control inputs achieving the exact steering to zero for a simply...

  10. WKB approach applied to 1D time-dependent nonlinear Hamiltonian oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Papamikos, Georgios; Robnik, Marko

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple WKB-like approach to obtain approximate analytic solutionsto a certain class of time-dependent nonlinear 1D Hamiltonian oscillators. The case of homogeneous power-law potentials is solved explicitlyin a closed form in the leading order. The accuracy of the approximation is surprisingly good and we illustrate it in the case of the quartic oscillator. PACS numbers: 02.30.Mv, 05.45.-a, 45.05.+x

  11. Finite difference approximation of control via the potential in a 1-D Schrodinger equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kime

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of steering given initial data to given terminal data via a time-dependent potential, the control, in a 1-D Schrodinger equation. We determine a condition for existence of a transferring potential within our approximation. Using Maple, we give equations for the control and also examples in which the potential is restricted to be centralized and to be a step potential.

  12. A versatile compact model for ballistic 1D transistor: GNRFET and CNTFET comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégonèse, Sébastien; Maneux, Cristell; Zimmer, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a versatile compact model dedicated to 1D transistors in order to predict the ultimate performances of nano-device-based circuits. We have developed a thermionic charge model based on the non-parabolic-energy-dispersion-relation NPEDR. The model is valid for both CNTFET and GNRFET. Model results are compared with GNRFET NEGF simulations. Then, GNRFET and CNTFET performances are analysed through two circuit demonstrators such as a ring oscillator circuit and 6T RAM.

  13. Formulações semi-discretas para a equação 1D de Burgers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.A., Ladeia; N.M.L., Romeiro; P.L., Natti; E.R., Cirilo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho fizemos comparações entre formulações semi-discretas para a obtenção de soluções numéricas para a equação 1D de Burgers. As formulações consistem em discretizar o domínio temporal via métodos implícitos multi-estágios de segunda e quarta ordem: aproximantes de Padé R11 e R22; e o domí [...] nio espacial via métodos de elementos finitos: mínimos quadrados (MEFMQ), Galerkin (MEFG) e Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG). Conhecendo as soluções analíticas da equação 1D de Burgues, para diferentes condições iniciais e de fronteira, foram realizadas análises dos erros numéricos a partir das normas L2 e L?. Verificamos que o método com o aproximante de Padé R22 adicionado as formulações MEFMQ, MEFG e SUPG, aumentou a região de convergência das soluções numéricas e apresentou maior precisão quando comparado as soluções obtidas por meio do aproximante de Padé R11. Constatamos que o método R22 amenizou as oscilações das soluções numéricas associadas as formulações MEFG e SUPG. Abstract in english In this work we compare semi-discrete formulations to obtain numericalsolutions for the 1D Burgers equation. The formulations consist in the discretization ofthe time-domain via multi-stage methods of second and fourth order: R11 and R22 Padé approximants, and of the spatial-domain via finite elemen [...] t methods: least-squares (MEFMQ), Galerkin (MEFG) and Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG). Knowing the analytical solutions of the 1D Burgues equation, for different initial and boundary conditions, analyzes were performed for numerical errors from L2 and L? norm. We found that the R22 Padé approximants, added to the MEFMQ, MEFG, and SUPG formulations, increased the region of convergence of the numerical solutions, and showed greater accuracy when compared to the solutions obtained by the R11 Padé approximants. We note that the R22 Padé approximants softened the oscillations of the numerical solutions associated to the MEFG and SUPG formulations.

  14. Solar absorbers using 1D and 2D periodic nanostructured nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results obtained from finite difference time domain and transfer matrix method modelling of nickel thin films. It is shown that by adding a periodic 1D grating to the surface of the nickel its optical absorption over the 300 nm–1000 nm spectral range can be dramatically increased. 2D gratings show excellent polarization independence making them ideally suited to high temperature solar thermal applications. (paper)

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of 1-D Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kuen-Song Lin; Sujan Chowdhury

    2010-01-01

    The present work provides a comprehensive overview of the recent progress of research work toward developing new one dimensional (1-D) ceria (CeO2) nanomaterials. The review has been classified into three parts: the preparation procedures with identification of the existing different dimensional ceria nanomaterials, the formation mechanisms, and an analysis of their applications. From literature survey, it is inaugurated that the fundamental structures of the ceria nanomaterials constructivel...

  16. On variational data assimilation for 1D and 2D fluvial hydraulics

    OpenAIRE

    Gejadze, Igor; Honnorat, Marc; Le Dimet, François-Xavier; Monnier, Jerome

    2006-01-01

    We address two problems related to variational data assimilation (VDA) as applied to river hydraulics (1D and 2D shallow water models). First, we seek to estimate accurately some parameters such as the inflow discharge, manning coefficients, the topography and/or the initial state. We develop a method which allow to assimilate lagrangian data (trajectory particles at the surface e.g. extracted from video images). Second, we develop a joint data assimilation - coupling method. We seek to coupl...

  17. Duality in N=1, D=10 Superspace and Supergravity with Tree Level Superstring Corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Saulina, N. A.; Terentiev, M. V.; Zyablyuk, K. N.

    1995-01-01

    The equations of motion (e.m.'s) of the N=1, D=10 anomaly free supergravity, obtained in the framework of the superspace approach, are analyzed. The formal equivalence of the usual and dual supergravities is discussed at the level of e.m.'s. The great simplicity of the dual formulation is established. The possibillity of the lagrangian formulation of the dual supergravity is pointed out. The bosonic part of the lagrangian is constructed including anomaly compensating superst...

  18. Compactifications of N=1, D=10 supergravity to 2 and 3 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing Killing spinors on spheres we show that N=1, D=10 supergravity admits compactifications to d=2 and 3, which are AdS3 x S7, AdS3 x S1 x S6, AdS3 x S1 x S3, AdS2 x S8, AdS2 x SU(3). In all these solutions the Yang-Mills field configuration is non-vanishing, and supersymmetry is broken. (orig.)

  19. Generative Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bagha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Generative semantics is (or perhaps was a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of the program are a matter of some controversy and have been extensively debated. Generative semanticists took Chomsky's concept of deep structure and ran with it, assuming (contrary to later work by Chomsky and Ray Jackendoff that deep structures were the sole input to semantic interpretation. This assumption, combined with a tendency to consider a wider rang of empirical evidence than Chomskyan linguists, lead generative semanticists to develop considerably more abstract and complex theories of deep structure than those advocated by Chomsky and his students. Throughout the late 1960s and 1970s, there were heated debates between generative semanticists and more orthodox Chomskyans. The generative semanticists lost the debate, in so far as their research program ground to a halt by the 1980s. However, this was in part because the interests of key generative semanticists such as George Lakoff had gradually shifted away from the narrow study of syntax and semantics. A number of ideas from later work in generative semantics have been incorporated into cognitive linguistics (and indeed into main stream Chomskyan linguistics, often without citation

  20. Radioisotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope generator is described in which it is possible to interupt the elution process at any desired time, i.e. before the electron flacon is full. The interuption is performed in such a way that sterile air is simultaneously admitted into the generator, into both the column and the elution flacon. (Th.P.)

  1. Tuning the 1D-self-assembly of dicyano-functionalized helicene building-blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Effective control of chirality in supramolecular systems is an important challenge towards the assembly of well-defined nano-architectures from the bottom-up. The chirality transfer from single molecules onto 3D- and 2D-crystals is well known, however chirality in case of the 1D-objects (wires) is largely unexplored. Here we present a study based on Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to understand the formation of 1D conglomerates from enantiopure dicyano functionalized heptahelicene molecules of both chiralities at different, well defined single-crystal surfaces. We show that the main bonding motif can be switched by temperature, substrate or adatom stimuli. We discuss the key driving forces for the formation of well-ordered long-range arrays and the chirality transfer on the single molecule scale as well as onto the 1D conglomerate as a whole. In comparison of experiment and theory, we deepen the insight into the chirality transfer in competition between molecule-molecule and surface-molecule interactions. (author)

  2. Design and modeling of large deflection micromechanical 1D and 2D scanning mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Harald; Duerr, Peter; Kunze, Detlef; Lakner, Hubert K.; Kueck, Heinz

    2000-08-01

    Design and modeling aspects of torsional 1D and 2D Micro Scanning Mirrors are presented. During the oscillation of the mirror plate the inertial moment gives rise to a deformation of the plate. This dynamic deformation results in a defocusing of the reflected laser beam. Therefore, the scan frequency of a device with a given size of the mirror plate and deflection angle is limited. Further restrictions arise from the demanded mechanical robustness like resistivity against shock and torsional stress. This leads to a minimum eignefrequency of the device which in the case of a rectangular shaped is proportional to the width of the spring. To enable a single mode operation it is advantageous that the torsion around the springs is the lowest mode sufficiently separated from all others. A FEM-analysis has been carried out to determine the mode sequence of a 1D and a 2D Micro Scanner respectively. The analytical calculated eigenfrequencies agree well with the numerical determined. Taken into account the result of the analytical and numerical investigations 1D and 2D Micro Scanning Mirrors have been designed and fabricated. The mirror and the springs are defined in a 20 to 30 micrometers thick single crystal silicon layer. The results of the experimental investigations with respect to the shock resistivity and the long run behavior probe the suitability of the modeling.

  3. Transient dynamic and modeling parameter sensitivity analysis of 1D solid oxide fuel cell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A multiphysics, 1D, dynamic SOFC model is developed. • The presented model is validated experimentally in eight different operating conditions. • Electrochemical and thermal dynamic transient time expressions are given in explicit forms. • Parameter sensitivity is discussed for different semi-empirical parameters in the model. - Abstract: In this paper, a multiphysics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) dynamic model is developed by using a one dimensional (1D) modeling approach. The dynamic effects of double layer capacitance on the electrochemical domain and the dynamic effect of thermal capacity on thermal domain are thoroughly considered. The 1D approach allows the model to predict the non-uniform distributions of current density, gas pressure and temperature in SOFC during its operation. The developed model has been experimentally validated, under different conditions of temperature and gas pressure. Based on the proposed model, the explicit time constant expressions for different dynamic phenomena in SOFC have been given and discussed in detail. A parameters sensitivity study has also been performed and discussed by using statistical Multi Parameter Sensitivity Analysis (MPSA) method, in order to investigate the impact of parameters on the modeling accuracy

  4. Neutronic analysis of the 1D and 1E banks reflux detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two H Canyon neutron monitoring systems for early detection of postulated abnormal reflux conditions in the Second Uranium Cycle 1E and 1D Mixer-Settle Banks have been designed and built. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations using the general purpose, general geometry, n-particle MCNP code have been performed to model expected response of the monitoring systems to varying conditions.The confirmatory studies documented herein conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to achieve adequate neutron count rates for various neutron source and detector configurations, thereby eliminating excessive integration count time. Neutron count rate sensitivity studies are also performed. Conversely, the transport studies concluded that the neutron count rates are statistically insensitive to nitric acid content in the aqueous region and to the transition region length. These studies conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to predict the postulated reflux conditions for all examined perturbations in the neutron source and detector configurations. In the cases examined, the relative change in the neutron count rates due to postulated transitions from normal 235U concentration levels to reflux levels remain satisfactory detectable

  5. Tunable evolutions of wave modes and bandgaps in quasi-1D cylindrical phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidani, Mehrashk; Kim, Eunho; Li, Feng; Yang, Jinkyu; Ngo, Duc

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the tunable characteristics of mechanical waves propagating in quasi-1D phononic crystals composed of horizontally stacked short cylinders at various contact angles and offsets. According to the Hertzian contact theory, elastic compression of laterally-touching cylindrical bodies exhibits a various range of contact stiffness depending on their alignment angles. In this study, we first assemble cylindrical particles in various combinations of inclination angles and systematically examine their forming mechanisms of frequency bandgaps. We also investigate the effect of the rattling motions of cylindrical particles by introducing asymmetric center-of-mass offsets with respect to their contact points. We find that the frequency responses of these quasi-1D phononic crystals evolve into multiple band structures as we employ higher deviations of contact angles and offsets. We calculate the dispersive behavior of propagating waves using a discrete particle model for simple zero-offset cases, while we use a finite element method for simulating the rattling motions of particles under non-zero offsets. We report branching behavior of frequency band structures and the evolution of their vibration modes as we manipulate the contact angles and offsets of the phononic crystals. This study implies that we can leverage the versatile wave filtering characteristics of quasi-1D phononic crystals to construct tunable wave filtering devices for engineering applications.

  6. Self-assembly of functional molecules into 1D crystalline nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanbing; Xu, Liang; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yongjun; Che, Chi-Ming; Li, Yuliang

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembled functional nanoarchitectures are employed as important nanoscale building blocks for advanced materials and smart miniature devices to fulfill the increasing needs of high materials usage efficiency, low energy consumption, and high-performance devices. One-dimensional (1D) crystalline nanostructures, especially molecule-composed crystalline nanostructures, attract significant attention due to their fascinating infusion structure and functionality which enables the easy tailoring of organic molecules with excellent carrier mobility and crystal stability. In this review, we discuss the recent progress of 1D crystalline self-assembled nanostructures of functional molecules, which include both a small molecule-derived and a polymer-based crystalline nanostructure. The basic principles of the molecular structure design and the process engineering of 1D crystalline nanostructures are also discussed. The molecular building blocks, self-assembly structures, and their applications in optical, electrical, and photoelectrical devices are overviewed and we give a brief outlook on crucial issues that need to be addressed in future research endeavors. PMID:25523368

  7. Neutronic analysis of the 1D and 1E banks reflux detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-12-21

    Two H Canyon neutron monitoring systems for early detection of postulated abnormal reflux conditions in the Second Uranium Cycle 1E and 1D Mixer-Settle Banks have been designed and built. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations using the general purpose, general geometry, n-particle MCNP code have been performed to model expected response of the monitoring systems to varying conditions.The confirmatory studies documented herein conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to achieve adequate neutron count rates for various neutron source and detector configurations, thereby eliminating excessive integration count time. Neutron count rate sensitivity studies are also performed. Conversely, the transport studies concluded that the neutron count rates are statistically insensitive to nitric acid content in the aqueous region and to the transition region length. These studies conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to predict the postulated reflux conditions for all examined perturbations in the neutron source and detector configurations. In the cases examined, the relative change in the neutron count rates due to postulated transitions from normal {sup 235}U concentration levels to reflux levels remain satisfactory detectable.

  8. Reversible interconversion of a divalent vanadium bronze between ? and ? quasi-1D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Peter M; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2012-05-01

    Charge fluctuations along the quasi-1D frameworks of M(x)V(2)O(5) bronzes have evinced much recent interest owing to the manifestation of colossal metal-insulator transitions and superconductivity. Depending upon the nature of the intercalating cation (M), distinctive geometries of the V(2)O(5) framework are accessible. Herein, we demonstrate an unprecedented reversible transformation between double-layered (?) and tunnel (?) quasi-1D geometries for nanowires of a divalent vanadium bronze, Ca(x)V(2)O(5) (x ? 0.23), upon annealing-induced dehydration and hydrothermally induced hydration. Such a facile hydration/dehydration-induced interconversion between two prominent quasi-1D structures (accompanied by a change in charge-ordering motifs) has not been observed in the bulk and is posited to result from the ease of propagation of crystallographic slip processes across the confined nanowire widths for the ? ? ? conversion and the facile diffusion of water molecules within the tunnel geometries for the ? ? ? reversion. PMID:22506534

  9. 1-D axial X-ray power distribution of wire-array implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-space-resolved 1-D X-ray imaging system is developed to investigate the X-ray power distribution with one-dimensional space and continuous time resolution in Z-pinch experiments performed on Angara-5-1 facility. A slit relays the 1-D image of the pinch to a scintillator which converts X-ray to visible light, and the image is subsequently relayed to the cathode of an optical streak camera via an optical fiber array, optical fiber bundles and a lens and finally the time resolved 1-D X-ray distribution is obtained. As the inner plasma reduced the R-T instability of the implosion, the (40+20) double tungsten array implosion had a better axial implosion uniformity and synchronization than the 40 single tungsten array implosion, as well as the higher peak radiated X-ray power. Axial implosion synchronization in implosions of (60 + 30) double tungsten array was nearly the same in case of 90 single tungsten array because of the bending, distorting and breaking of the loads. For specific facility, current and wire array configuration, higher X-ray radiation power corresponds to better axial uniformity and synchronization of implosion and faster rise time. Analysis indicates that better axial implosion synchronization corresponds to higher X-ray power, and faster rise time of the local X-ray pulse corresponds to higher radiation power. (authors)

  10. Optimization of quasi-normal eigenvalues for 1-D wave equations in inhomogeneous media; description of optimal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Karabash, Illya M

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to optimization of quasi-normal eigenvalues of a spectral problem associated with a 1-D wave equation in an inhomogeneous medium. The wave equation is equipped with a radiation boundary condition, and so the set of quasi-normal eigenvalues lies in $\\C_+$. The problem is to design for a given $\\alpha \\in \\R$ the structure of the inhomogeneous medium such that it generates a quasi-normal eigenvalue on the line $\\alpha + \\i \\R$ with a minimal possible imaginary part. We consider the problem for three admissible families of structures. Two of these families have a natural mechanical interpretation as classes of Krein strings with total mass and static moment constraints. For these two classes we find optimal quasi-normal eigenvalues explicitly. The third class of admissible structures is connected with the problem of optimal design for photonic crystals. For this class, the paper gives a wider statement of the optimization problem, proves existence of optimal structures, and study their prope...

  11. Fast electron propagation in high-density plasmas created by 1D shock wave compression: Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from an experimental characterization of fast electron transport in high density plasmas created by 1D shock wave compression. The K? fluorescence from a Cu layer embedded in Al or CH foil targets is measured. We use long laser pulses (LP) with 180 J, 1.5 ns, 0.53?m to compress the foils by shock wave propagation to 2-3 times their solid density and heat them to ? 4eV (close to the Fermi temperature). A counter-propagating high-intensity short laser pulse (SP), with 40 J, 1 ps, 57x1019 Wcm-2, generates intense currents of fast electrons which propagate through the deep regions of the target just before shock breakthrough. The results are compared to the uncompressed, solid density case (without the LP beam). The complete set of measurements is compared to numerical results, including a 2D hydrodynamic description of the compression and pre-pulse effects, 2D PIC simulations of the SP beam interaction and both hybrid and PIC simulations of the electron transport in the target depth and sheaths. In the case of the non-compressed targets we need to take fast electron refluxing into account to reproduce the experimental results. By exploring the domain of warm temperatures, we identify a regime for the incident fast electron current density, 1010 12 Acm-2, for which the collective mechanisms of electron transport differs appreciably between solid density and compressed matter.sity and compressed matter.

  12. REFLA-1D/MODE3: a computer code for reflood thermo-hydrodynamic analysis during PWR-LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the REFLA-1D/MODE3 reflood system analysis code. This code can solve the core thermo-hydrodynamics under forced flooding conditions and gravity feed conditions in a system similar to FLECHT-SET Phase A. This manual describes the REFLA-1D/MODE3 models and provides application information required to utilize the code. (author)

  13. Regulatory mode shift of Tbc1d1 is required for acquisition of insulin-responsive GLUT4-trafficking activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Tbc1d1 is involved in AICAR-dependent GLUT4 liberation. Tbc1d1 acquires temporal insulin responsiveness with AICAR pretreatment. This shift in regulatory mode requires Ser- 237 phosphorylation and the PTB1 domain. PTB1 mutants exhibit no shift in regulatory mode and thus no insulin responsiveness.

  14. Thermally activated polymorphic transition from a 1D ribbon to a 2D carpet: squaric acid on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueji, Kan; Jung, Jaehoon; Oh, Junepyo; Miyamura, Kazuo; Kim, Yousoo

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphic transition from the 1D ribbon to the 2D carpet superstructure of squaric acid molecules on Au(111) was achieved through a thermally activated process. Our combined STM and DFT study revealed that the molecular arrangements in 1D and 2D superstructures are determined by the stability of their conformational isomers and assembled structures, respectively. PMID:25116868

  15. Position error in profiles retrieved from MIPAS observations with a 1-D algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carlotti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The information load (IL analysis, first introduced for the two-dimensional approach (Carlotti and Magnani, 2009, is applied to the inversion of MIPAS observations operated with a 1-dimensional (1-D retrieval algorithm. The IL distribution of MIPAS spectra is shown to be often asymmetrical with respect to the tangent points of the observations and permits to identify the preferential latitude where the profiles retrieved with a 1-D algorithm should be geo-located. Therefore a position error is made when the tangent points of the observations are used to assign the geo-location of the retrieved profile. We assess the amplitude of the position error for some of the MIPAS main targets and we show that the IL analysis can also be used as a tool for the selection of observations that, when analyzed, minimize the position error of the retrieved profile. When the temperature (T profiles are used for the retrieval of volume mixing ratio (VMR of atmospheric constituents, the T position error (of the order of 1.5 degrees of latitude induces a VMR error that is directly connected with the horizontal T gradients. Temperature profiles can be externally-provided or determined in a previous step of the retrieval process. In the first case, the IL analysis shows that a meaningful fraction (often exceeding 50% of the VMR error deriving from the 1-D approximation is to be attributed to the mismatch between the position assigned to the external T profile and the positions where T is required by the analyzed observations. In the second case the retrieved T values suffer by an error of 1.5–2 K due to neglecting the horizontal variability of T; however the error induced on VMRs is of minor entity because of the generally small mismatch between the IL distribution of the observations analyzed to retrieve T and those analyzed to retrieve the VMR target. An estimate of the contribution of the T-position error to the error budget is provided for MIPAS main targets. This study shows that the information load analysis can be successfully exploited in a 1-D context that makes the assumption of horizontal homogeneity of the analyzed portion of atmosphere. The analysis that we propose can be extended to the 1-D inversion of other limb-sounding experiments.

  16. A reference 1-D model of electrical conductivity for the upper mantle beneath the Philippine Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. We have run a three-year-long seafloor electromagnetic (EM) survey project in the Philippine Sea in order to image electrical feature of deep mantle slab stagnating in the transition zone and surrounding mantle in three dimensions (3-D). The project iterated one-year-long deployment of ocean bottom electromagnetometers (OBEMs), involving total of 37 instruments installed at 18 sites. The data obtained by each phase have been analyzed in turn based on magnetotelluric (MT) method. As the first step toward the 3-D analysis, we have attempted to obtain one-dimensional (1-D) model which can be used as a reference model for the Philippine Sea mantle. To have a good representative model is critical for subsequent 3-D inversion analysis with quick and stable convergence. The seafloor MT responses are severely affected by surface heterogeneity because of high contrast in the conductivity between crustal rocks and seawater. Thus, the effect of the surface heterogeneity is stripped from the observed responses by 3-D forward modeling analysis. Then, the corrected responses are averaged over the sites and the mean response is inverted in a 1-D space. After a few iterations of this procedure, we obtain a 1-D conductivity model that is free from the effect of the surface heterogeneity. The resultant 1-D model shows that the mantle in 100 - 400 km depth is relatively homogeneous with about 0.03 S/m. In the mantle transition zone, the conductivitye mantle transition zone, the conductivity increases by 0.2 - 1.0 S/m. Both the upper mantle and the transition zone are much more conductive than the 1-D reference models for northern Pacific obtained by Utada et al. (2003), Kuvshinov et al. (2005) and Shimizu et al. (talk in this session). Some of the discrepancies may be attributed to the difference in water contents and/or in the degree of partial melting. However, we need more careful examination as they might be ascribed to different modeling approaches applied for the modeling of different scales.

  17. Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms : from Purcell enhancement to single-photon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust platform for realizing a 1D atom, and are the subject of theoretical and experimental investigations in this thesis. We use _nite element method in 3D to calculate the local density of states (LDOS) in photonic-crystal membranes. The detailed spatial maps show strong inhibition of LDOS in the bandgap of the PhC, as large as 160 times. The method is extended to PCWs using a set of active boundary conditions. The extended method allows separating the contribution to the LDOS from the propagating mode and the radiation continuum. The detailed spatial maps of the LDOS show that for a broad spectral range, the contribution from the radiation continuum is much less than the contribution from the guided mode. The coupling e_ciency between an embedded emitter and the PCW is shown to be higher than 90% for a wide range of dipole positions, frequencies and orientaitions, which quali_es the system as a candidate for a 1D atom. One of the signatures and functions of a 1D atom is the nonlinear optical response at the single-photon level. A PCW chip is designed to experimentally study the transmission spectrum of an embedded QD. The transmission spectrum is shown to be modi_ed by 30% around the resonance of the QD. The power dependence of the transmission shows a nonlinearity with a critical power of 1:9 nW, which corresponds to an average number of 0.8 photons per lifetime of the emitter at the position of the QD. The autocorrelation function of the transmitted _eld shows bunching of the transmitted photons as expected from the theory. The value of g(2)(0) is around 1.08. The results con_rm the observation of an on-chip giant optical nonlinearity and the 1D atom behavior. Another direction in this thesis has been to investigate the e_ect of Anderson localization on the electrodynamics of QDs in PCWs. A large data set of the statistics of Purcell-enhancement of QDs in Anderson-localized cavities is presented. The average Purcell-enhancement of 4.5 times, with a peak value of 12 is observed for QDs randomly positioned in Anderson-localized modes of a PCW.

  18. Coupled 1D-3D hydrodynamic modelling, with application to the Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigt, Daniel J.; de Goede, Erik D.; Zijl, Firmijn; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Chiu, Alex Y. W.

    2009-12-01

    Within the hydrodynamic modelling community, it is common practice to apply different modelling systems for coastal waters and river systems. Whereas for coastal waters 3D finite difference or finite element grids are commonly used, river systems are generally modelled using 1D networks. Each of these systems is tailored towards specific applications. Three-dimensional coastal water models are designed to model the horizontal and vertical variability in coastal waters and are less well suited for representing the complex geometry and cross-sectional areas of river networks. On the other hand, 1D river network models are designed to accurately represent complex river network geometries and complex structures like weirs, barrages and dams. A disadvantage, however, is that they are unable to resolve complex spatial flow variability. In real life, however, coastal oceans and rivers interact. In deltaic estuaries, both tidal intrusion of seawater into the upstream river network and river discharge into open waters play a role. This is frequently approached by modelling the systems independently, with off-line coupling of the lateral boundary forcing. This implies that the river and the coastal model run sequentially, providing lateral discharge (1D) and water level (3D) forcing to each other without the possibility of direct feedback or interaction between these processes. An additional disadvantage is that due to the time aggregation usually applied to exchanged quantities, mass conservation is difficult to ensure. In this paper, we propose an approach that couples a 3D hydrodynamic modelling system for coastal waters (Delft3D) with a 1D modelling system for river hydraulics (SOBEK) online. This implies that contrary to off-line coupling, the hydrodynamic quantities are exchanged between the 1D and 3D domains during runtime to resolve the real-time exchange and interaction between the coastal waters and river network. This allows for accurate and mass conserving modelling of complex coastal waters and river network systems, whilst the advantages of both systems are maintained and used in an optimal and computationally efficient way. The coupled 1D-3D system is used to model the flows in the Pearl River Delta (Guangdong, China), which are determined by the interaction of the upstream network of the Pearl River and the open waters of the South China Sea. The highly complex upstream river network is modelled in 1D, simulating river discharges for the dry and wet monsoon periods. The 3D coastal model simulates the flow due to the external (ocean) periodic tidal forcing, the salinity distribution for both dry and wet seasons, as well as residual water levels (sea level anomalies) originating from the South China Sea. The model is calibrated and its performance extensively assessed against field measurements, resulting in a mean root mean square (RMS) error of below 6% for water levels over the entire Pearl River Delta. The model also represents both the discharge distribution over the river network and salinity transport processes with good accuracy, resolving the discharge distribution over the main branches of the river network within 5% of reported annual mean values and RMS errors for salinity in the range of 2 ppt (dry season) to 5 ppt (wet season).

  19. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.R. Maskaly

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with increasing RMS roughness. Again, the homogenization approximation is able to predict these results. The problem of surface scratches on 1D photonic crystals is also addressed. Although the reflectivity decreases are lower in this study, up to a 15% change in reflectivity is observed in certain scratched photonic crystal structures. However, this reflectivity change can be significantly decreased by adding a low index protective coating to the surface of the photonic crystal. Again, application of homogenization theory to these structures confirms its predictive power for this type of imperfection as well. Additionally, the problem of a circular pores in 2D photonic crystals is investigated, showing that almost a 50% change in reflectivity can occur for some structures. Furthermore, this study reveals trends that are consistent with the 1D simulations: parameter changes that increase the absolute reflectivity of the photonic crystal will also increase its tolerance to structural imperfections. Finally, experimental reflectance spectra from roughened 1D photonic crystals are compared to the results predicted computationally in this thesis. Both the computed and experimental spectra correlate favorably, validating the findings presented herein.

  20. Nanoestructuras mesoporosas 1D de TiO2 obtenidas por el método hidrotermal / Mesoporous 1D TiO2 nanostructures obtained by the hydrothermal method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julieta, Cabrera; Alcides, López; Ricardo, Vílchez; Hugo, Alarcón; Juan, Rodríguez.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Estructuras unidimensionales (1D) mesoporosas tipo nanotubos/nanobarras de TiO2 fueron sintetizadas por el método hidrotermal en medio alcalino, empleando como material de inicio nanopartículas de TiO2 obtenidas por el proceso Sol Gel (SG-TiO2). Imágenes obtenidas por Microscopía Electrónica de Barr [...] ido por Emisión de Campo (MEB-EC) y Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión de Alta Resolución (MET-AR) mostraron la formación de nanoestructuras tipo tubo de 8 nm de diámetro y tamaños mayores a 400 nm de largo luego del tratamiento hidrotermal de 18 y 24 horas; éstas nanoestructuras se conservaron luego del proceso de intercambio iónico con ácido clorhídrico (HCl). Luego de la calcinación, se convirtieron a estructuras tipo barras de TiO2 anatasa como lo muestran los resultados obtenidos por Difracción de Rayos X (DRX). La conversión de nanopartículas a nanotubos y posteriormente a estructuras tipo barras fue también confirmada por la variación en el área superficial BET de alrededor de 201, a 269 y 97 m²/g, respectivamente. Las isotermas de adsorción-desorción revelaron curvas de histéresis típicas de materiales mesoporosos. Estas cualidades resultan atractivas en aplicaciones tales como remoción de contaminantes en agua. Abstract in english Mesoporous one dimensional nanostructures (1D) such as nanotubes/nanorods of TiO2 were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by Sol Gel process (SG-TiO2). The electronic microscopy images revealed the nanotubes formation of approximately 8 nm in diameter and m [...] ore than around 400 nm long after hydrothermal treatment of 18 h and 24 h. These tube-like structures were maintained after acid treatment but after annealing at 400 °C during 2 hours these turn into rod-like structures of crystalline TiO2 corresponding to anatase phase as revealed the diffraction patterns obtained by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The conversion of nanoparticles into nanotubes and afterward into rodlike shape was also confirmed by the variations in the BET surface area from 201, 269 and 97 m²/g around, respectively. The adsorption-desorption isotherms also revealed hysteresis loop typical of mesoporous materials. These qualities are attractive to use these materials for the treatment of pollutants in water, for example.

  1. On Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero, A.

    1999-01-01

    The well known operator ordering ambiguity could motivate the existence of generations. This possibility is explored by exploiting the relationship between ordering and discretization rules. Context is drawn from lattice theory and non commutative geometry.

  2. Pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic circuit of a tunnel-diode relaxation generator designed for use in a pulse NMR spectrometer is described. The distinguishing feature of the developed pulse generator is the possibility to linearly change output pulse durations and spacings between pulses in accordance with resistance of the time-setting resistor. This proved to be possible due to the employment of two transistor current generators and a time-setting capacitor. The generator may operate both in driven and continuous modes. The relative instability of pulse parameters is not below than 10-3 at the power supply instability of approximately 2x10-2. If time-setting resistance varies from 10 kOhm to 10 MOhm the spacing duration changes from 100 ?s to 100 ms

  3. What causes the large extensions of red-supergiant atmospheres? Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1-D hydrostatic, 3-D convection, and 1-D pulsating model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Arroyo-Torres, B; Chiavassa, A; Scholz, M; Freytag, B; Marcaide, J M; Hauschildt, P H; Wood, P R; Abellan, F J

    2015-01-01

    We present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants, increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of 3 RSGs in the near-infrared K-band with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution. To comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3-D convection, and new 1-D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Our near-infrared flux spectra are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict ...

  4. Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of interactions within the 1D sewer network. Other areas that recorded flooding outside the main streets have been also included with the second mesh resolution for an accurate determination of flood maps (12.5m2 - 50m2). Permeable areas have been identified and used as infiltration zones using the Horton infiltration model. A mesh sensitivity analysis has been performed for the low flood risk areas for a proper model optimization. As outcome of that analysis, the third mesh resolution has been chosen (75m2 - 300m2). Performance tests have been applied for several synthetic design storms as well as historical storm events displaying satisfactory results upon comparing the flood mapping outcomes produced by the different approaches. Accounting for the infiltration in the green city spaces reduces the flood extents in the range 39% - 68%, while the average reduction in flood volume equals 86%. Acknowledgement: Funding for this research was provided by the Interreg IVB NWE programme (project RainGain) and the Belgian Science Policy Office (project PLURISK). The high resolution topographical information data were obtained from the geographical information service AGIV; the original full hydrodynamic sewer network model from the service company Farys, and the InfoWorks licence from Innovyze.

  5. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H Irradiation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposition and the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. The AFC-1 irradiation experiments on transmutation fuels are expected to provide irradiation performance data on non-fertile and low-fertile fuel forms specifically, irradiation growth and swelling, helium production, fission gas release, fission product and fuel constituent migration, fuel phase equilibria, and fuel-cladding chemical interaction. Contained in this report are the to-date physics evaluations performed on three of the AFC-1 experiments; AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H. The AFC-1D irradiation experiment consists of metallic non-fertile fuel compositions with minor actinides for potential use in accelerator driven systems and AFC-1G and AFC-1H irradiation experiments are part of the fast neutron reactor fuel development effort. These experiments are high burnup analogs to previously irradiated experiments and are to be irradiated to = 20 atom % burnup. Results of the evaluations show that AFC-1D will remain in the ATR for approximately 100 additional effective full power days (EFPDs), and AFC-1G and AFC-1H for approximately 300 additional EFPDs in order to reach ly 300 additional EFPDs in order to reach the desired programmatic burnup. The specific irradiation schedule for these tests will be determined based on future physics evaluations and all results will be documented in subsequent reports

  6. Hillslope Hydrographs Analyzed Using 1D and 2D Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Vogel, T. N.; Dohnal, M.; Sanda, M.

    2014-12-01

    Stable isotopes of water naturally occurring in rainwater have the potential to reveal principal transport mechanisms at multiple scales - from soil profile to hillslope and catchment scale. In this contribution, we study transport processes at the hillslope scale by combining field observations of hillslope discharge and the associated oxygen-18 contents with detailed process-based numerical modeling. In the one-dimensional (1D) approach, 1D dual-continuum vertical flow and transport model (based on Richards and advection-dispersion equations) is coupled with 1D single-continuum lateral flow and transport model (based on diffusion wave equation for saturated subsurface flow and advection-dispersion equation for isotope transport). In the two-dimensional (2D) approach, the movement of water in a variably saturated hillslope segment is modeled as vertical planar flow (i.e., the vertical and lateral flow components are fully integrated into one flow system). Both modeling approaches, taking into account flow and transport through the soil matrix and the system of preferential pathways, were used to simulate the subsurface processes during observed rainfall-runoff episodes. The observed subsurface runoff and its oxygen-18 composition were compared with the model predictions. In addition, contributions of pre-event and event water to hillslope runoff during major rainfall-runoff episodes were evaluated by means of numerical experiments involving synthetic oxygen-18 rainfall signatures. The simulated hillslope responses showed a reasonable agreement with the experimental data in terms of subsurface runoff and oxygen-18 transport dynamics. Pre-event water was found to be the significant runoff component in most major rainfall-runoff events, though preferential flow played an important role in the hillslope runoff formation.

  7. Lysophospholipid presentation by CD1d and recognition by a human Natural Killer T-cell receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Sagaseta, Jacinto; Sibener, Leah V.; Kung, Jennifer E.; Gumperz, Jenny; Adams, Erin J. (UC); (UW-MED)

    2014-10-02

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells use highly restricted {alpha}{beta} T cell receptors (TCRs) to probe the repertoire of lipids presented by CD1d molecules. Here, we describe our studies of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) presentation by human CD1d and its recognition by a native, LPC-specific iNKT TCR. Human CD1d presenting LPC adopts an altered conformation from that of CD1d presenting glycolipid antigens, with a shifted {alpha}1 helix resulting in an open A pocket. Binding of the iNKT TCR requires a 7-{angstrom} displacement of the LPC headgroup but stabilizes the CD1d-LPC complex in a closed conformation. The iNKT TCR CDR loop footprint on CD1d-LPC is anchored by the conserved positioning of the CDR3{alpha} loop, whereas the remaining CDR loops are shifted, due in part to amino-acid differences in the CDR3{beta} and J{beta} segment used by this iNKT TCR. These findings provide insight into how lysophospholipids are presented by human CD1d molecules and how this complex is recognized by some, but not all, human iNKT cells.

  8. Numerical study of two-body correlation in a 1D lattice with perfect blockade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the dynamics of excitation and two-body correlation for two-level 'pseudoatoms' in a one-dimensional (1D) lattice. We adopt a simplified model where pair excitation within a finite range is perfectly blocked. Each superatom is initially in the ground state, and then subjected to an external driving laser with Rabi frequency satisfying a Poissonian distribution, mimicking the scenario in Rydberg gases. We find that two-body quantum correlation drops very fast with the distance between pseudoatoms. However, the total correlation decays slowly even at large distance. Our results may be useful to the understanding of Rydberg gases in the strong blockade regime

  9. 1-D transport model for analysis of expanding radius and full bore startup of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the physics models and numerical algorithms that have been used in the WHIST one-dimensional (1-D) transport code to study expanding radius vs full bore startup scenarios for tokamak plasmas. The phase of the tokamak discharge that is modeled is the time segment following plasma breakdown (and initial current channel formation) up to ignition. The code has been applied to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) The Next Step (TNS) reference design. The various physics models are presented, and references are made to benchmarking calculations when they exist

  10. Thermal impedance at the interface of contacting bodies: 1-D examples solved by semi-derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple 1-D semi-infinite heat conduction problems enable to demonstrate the potential of the fractional calculus in determination of transient thermal impedances of two bodies with different initial temperatures contacting at the interface ( x = 0 at t = 0 . The approach is purely analytic and uses only semi-derivatives (half-time and semi-integrals in the Riemann-Liouville sense. The example solved clearly reveals that the fractional calculus is more effective in calculation the thermal resistances than the entire domain solutions.

  11. Design for manufacturability from 1D to 4D for 90-22 nm technology nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    This book explains integrated circuit design for manufacturability (DfM) at the product level (packaging, applications) and applies engineering DfM principles to the latest standards of product development at 22 nm technology nodes.  It is a valuable guide for layout designers, packaging engineers and quality engineers, covering DfM development from 1D to 4D, involving IC design flow setup, best practices, links to manufacturing and product definition, for process technologies down to 22 nm node, and product families including memories, logic, system-on-chip and system-in-package.

  12. Phase diagrams of half-filled 1D and 2D extended Hubbard model within COM

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, A; Avella, Adolfo; Mancini, Ferdinando

    2006-01-01

    The half-filled extended Hubbard model, in one and two dimensions, is studied by means of the 2-pole approximation within the Composite Operator Method with the aim at improving the possibilities to describe some of the experimental features observed for quasi-1D organic superconductors and Cu-O planes of cuprates. The phase diagrams ($T$-$V$ and $V$-$U$) are analyzed with respect to the paramagnetic metal - paramagnetic insulator - charge ordered phase transitions. The relevant features of the diagrams (rank of the phase transitions, critical points, reentrant behavior) are discussed in detail.

  13. Soliton phase near antiferromagnetic quantum critical point in Q1D conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkov, L P

    2005-01-01

    In the frameworks of a nesting model for Q1D organic conductor at the antiferromagnetic (SDW) quantum critical point the first-order transition separates metallic state from the soliton phase having the periodic domain structure. The low temperature phase diagram also displays the 2nd-order transition line between the soliton and the uniformly gapped SDW phases. The results agree with the phase diagram of (TMTSF)$_2$PF$_6$ near critical pressure [T. Vuletic et al., Eur. Phys. J. B 25, 319 (2002)]. Detection of the 2nd-order transition line is discussed. We comment on superconductivity at lowest temperature.

  14. Li intercalation into 1D TiS2(en) chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyang; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Chitara, Basant; Goldberger, Joshua E

    2014-02-26

    The intercalation of metal cations in 2D layered materials allows for the discovery of unique electronic, magnetic and correlated properties. We demonstrate that reversible Li intercalation is also achievable in the hybrid organic/inorganic dimensionally reduced 1D van der Waals solid TiS2(ethylenediamine). Upon intercalation, electrons are injected into the lattice as Ti(4+) is reduced to Ti(3+) leading to an order of magnitude decrease in electrical resistivity. This reversible intercalation process opens up new opportunities to fine-tune the physical properties in this emerging family of dimensionally reduced materials. PMID:24521478

  15. Detecting topological phase transition in 1D superconducting systems with next nearest neighbor hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the effect of next-nearest-neighbor hopping on topological quantum phase transitions (QPTs) that are characterized by the number of Majorana zero modes in one-dimensional (1D) p-wave superconducting systems. We also numerically analyze the scaling behavior and the universality of the Berry phase (BP) of the ground state close to the critical point. For critical line (I), the derivative of the ground-state BP is nonanalytic at the phase boundaries. For the phase boundary (II), a noncontractible BP of the ground state itself is also a witness of quantum phase transition. (letter)

  16. Simulation of Tunnel Junction in Cascade Solar Cell (GaAs/Ge Using AMPS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmoussa Dennai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the tunnel junction interconnect was key the first two-terminal monolithic, multi-junction solar cell development. This paper describes simulation for the tunnel junction (GaAs between top cell (GaAs and bottom cell (Ge. This solar cell cascade was simulated when using one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D. In the simulation, the thickness of the tunnel junction layer was varied from 10 to 50 nm. By varying thickness of tunnel junction layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage(I-V characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE.

  17. A simple 1-D PC-based plasma edge engineering model for divertor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, but comprehensive, PC-based 1D axial divertor model has been developed for divertor design and pumping calculations. In the course of successfully benchmarking the model several interesting observations emerged which impact the engineering approaches generally considered to alleviate excessive heat loads and sputtering. The major conclusion is that first attention must be paid to the total heat flux being exhausted to each divertor. Other approaches (such as adjusting the recycling regime, inclining the plate, or injecting impurities) can be used to finetune divertor operation for optimal results. These other approaches all have limited utility or costs associated with their use which may degrade divertor performance

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of 1-D Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a comprehensive overview of the recent progress of research work toward developing new one dimensional (1-D ceria (CeO2 nanomaterials. The review has been classified into three parts: the preparation procedures with identification of the existing different dimensional ceria nanomaterials, the formation mechanisms, and an analysis of their applications. From literature survey, it is inaugurated that the fundamental structures of the ceria nanomaterials constructively dominate their properties and applications. In addition, this work will also provide a perspective on the future technical trends for the development of different dimensional CeO2 nanomaterials.

  19. 1D action and partition function for the 2D Ising model with boundary magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Clusel, Maxime; Fortin, Jean-yves

    2004-01-01

    In this article we obtain some exact results for the 2D Ising model with a general boundary magnetic field and for a finite size system, by an alternative method to that developed by B. McCoy and T.T. Wu. This method is a generalization of ideas from V.N. Plechko presented for the 2D Ising model in zero field, based on the representation of the Ising model using a Grassmann algebra. In this way, a Gaussian 1D action is obtained for a general configuration of the boundary mag...

  20. Delocalization of weakly interacting bosons in a 1D quasiperiodic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, V P; Altshuler, B L; Shlyapnikov, G V

    2014-07-25

    We consider weakly interacting bosons in a 1D quasiperiodic potential (Aubry-Azbel-Harper model) in the regime where all single-particle states are localized. We show that the interparticle interaction may lead to the many-body delocalization and we obtain the finite-temperature phase diagram. Counterintuitively, in a wide range of parameters the delocalization requires stronger coupling as the temperature increases. This means that the system of bosons can undergo a transition from a fluid to insulator (glass) state under heating. PMID:25105630

  1. Monochromatic Neutron Tomography Using 1-D PSD Detector at Low Flux Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the monochromatic neutron tomography experiment using the 1-D Position Sensitive Neutron Detector (PSD) located at Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA MARK II Research reactor. Experimental work was performed using monochromatic neutron source from beryllium filter and HOPG crystal monochromator. The principal main aim of this experiment was to test the detector efficiency, image reconstruction algorithm and the usage of 0.5 nm monochromatic neutrons for the neutron tomography setup. Other objective includes gathering important parameters and features to characterize the system

  2. Characterization of alpha 1 D-adrenoceptor subtype in rat myocardium, aorta and other tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, X. F.; Chemtob, S.; Varma, D R

    1996-01-01

    1. This study was done to characterize the functional role of alpha 1D-adrenoceptors in rat myocardium, aorta, spleen, vas deferens and prostate by use of the selective antagonist BMY 7378. 2. BMY 7378 inhibited [3H]-prazosin binding to aortic membranes with a potency (pKi 9.8 +/- 0.40) approximately 100 fold higher than in right ventricular membranes (pKi 7.47 +/- 0.11) and approximately 1,000 fold higher than that in plasma membranes of the prostate (pKi 6.62 +/- 0.39), vas deferens (pKi 6....

  3. Anti-cytokine therapies in T1D : Concepts and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepom, Gerald T; Ehlers, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of proinflammatory cytokines is clinically beneficial in several autoimmune disorders. Several of these cytokines are directly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, suggesting opportunities for design of clinical trials in type 1 diabetes that incorporate selective cytokine blockade as a component of preventative or interventional immunotherapy. The rationale and status of inhibitory therapy directed against IL-1, TNF, IL-12, IL-23, and IL-6 are discussed, towards a goal of using cytokine inhibition as a therapeutic platform to establish an in vivo milieu suitable for modulating the immune response in T1D.

  4. D1/D5 system and Wilson Loops in (Non-)commutative Gauge Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Nakajima, Tadahito; Suzuki, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    We study the behavior of the Wilson loop in the (5+1)-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with the presence of the solitonic object. Using the dual string description of the Yang-Mills theory that is given by the D1/D5 system, we estimate the Wilson loops both in the temporal and spatial cases. For the case of the temporal loop, we obtain the velocity dependent potential. For the spatial loop, we find that the area law is emerged due to the effect of the D1-branes. ...

  5. Bosonization approach to charge and spin dynamics of 1D fermions with band-curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Teber, Sofian

    2006-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional (1D) spin-1/2 fermions in a clean quantum wire, with forward scattering interactions and a non-linear single-particle spectrum, $\\xi_k = v|k| + k^2/2m$ where $v$ is the Fermi velocity and $1/m$ is the band-curvature. We calculate the dynamical structure factor (DSF) of the model at small wave-vector $q$ with the help of the bosonization technique. For spinless fermions, we show that, starting from the single-parametric spectrum: $\\om = u |q|$, bos...

  6. Long-range memory elementary 1D cellular automata: Dynamics and nonextensivity

    OpenAIRE

    Rohlf, Thimo; Tsallis, Constantino

    2006-01-01

    We numerically study the dynamics of elementary 1D cellular automata (CA), where the binary state $\\sigma_i(t) \\in \\{0,1\\}$ of a cell $i$ does not only depend on the states in its local neighborhood at time $t-1$, but also on the memory of its own past states $\\sigma_i(t-2), \\sigma_i(t-3),...,\\sigma_i(t-\\tau),...$. We assume that the weight of this memory decays proportionally to $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$, with $\\alpha \\ge 0$ (the limit $\\alpha \\to \\infty$ corresponds to the usual CA...

  7. Characteristics of the FTU scrape-off layer (SOL) determined by a simple 1-D model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple 1-D model analytical model has been developed to determine the SOL characteristics from the parameters of the main plasma. The solutions are compared with FTU experimental data. The solutions fit quite well the experimental data and their trend. Moreover the model suggests the presence of a critical density related to the non isothermal power flux and the corresponding maximum power which can be safely removed by volumetric sinks. Differences between a limiter-like configuration and a divertor-like configuration are described

  8. Exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo for the 1-D transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We define a new exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo method for solving the one-speed 1-D slab-geometry transport equation. This method is based upon the use of a linear discontinuous finite-element trial space in space and direction to represent the transport solution. A space-direction h-adaptive algorithm is employed to restore exponential convergence after stagnation occurs due to inadequate trial-space resolution. This methods uses jumps in the solution at cell interfaces as an error indicator. Computational results are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the new approach. (authors)

  9. Complete classification of 1D gapped quantum phases in interacting spin systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xie; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Quantum phases with different orders exist with or without breaking the symmetry of the system. Recently, a classification of gapped quantum phases which do not break time reversal, parity or on-site unitary symmetry has been given for 1D spin systems in [X. Chen, Z.-C. Gu, and X.-G. Wen, Phys. Rev. B \\textbf{83}, 035107 (2011); arXiv:1008.3745]. It was found that, such symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases are labeled by the projective representations of the symmetry ...

  10. S-Matrix for Magnons in the D1-D5 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that integrability and symmetries of the near horizon geometry of the D1-D5 system determine the S-matrix for the scattering of magnons in this system completely up to a phase. Using semi-classical methods we evaluate the phase to the leading and to the one-loop approximation in the strong coupling expansion. We then show that the phase obeys the unitarity constraint implied by the crossing relations to the one-loop order. We also verify that the dispersion relation obeyed by these magnons is one-loop exact at strong coupling which is consistent with their BPS nature. (author)

  11. Convergence to equilibrium for a directed (1+d)-dimensional polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Pietro; Sohier, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We consider a flip dynamics for directed (1+d)-dimensional lattice paths with length L. The model can be interpreted as a higher dimensional version of the simple exclusion process, the latter corresponding to the case d=1. We prove that the mixing time of the associated Markov chain scales like L^2\\log L up to a d-dependent multiplicative constant. The key step in the proof of the upper bound is to show that the system satisfies a logarithmic Sobolev inequality on the diffu...

  12. Static quadrupole moments of first 2+ states in the 2s-1d shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available experimental information on the static electric quadrupole moments Qsub(2+) of the 2sub(+) first excited states of even-mass nuclei in the 2s-1d shell is tabulated and critically reviewed, and 'adopted values' are presented. The results reveal a well defined pattern for the variation of Qsub(2+) through the shell. Predictions of Qsub(2+) made from various nuclear models are tabulated and compared with experiment. For each nucleus the quantity and quality of the existing data for Qsub(2+), together with the current theoretical significance of the result, are used as criteria to determine whether new experimental work is desirable. (orig.)

  13. Spoof plasmon resonance with 1D periodic grooves for terahertz refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yusheng; Hong, Zhi; Han, Zhanghua

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the use of spoof plasmon resonance due to the excitation of spoof surface plasmons in a 1D array of rectangular grooves for terahertz refractive index sensing in an Otto configuration. The dependence of the resonant angle on the change of the refractive index is numerically investigated and a high angular sensitivity about S=320°/RIU is demonstrated, which leads to a high resolution of 3×10-7 RIU assuming 1×10-4 degree for angular resolution. We further show that by using a slanted geometry an even higher sensitivity up to 452°/RIU can be achieved. These results provide a novel method for terahertz refractive index sensing.

  14. Refractive index sensor based on a 1D photonic crystal in a microfluidic channel

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Klaus B.; Kutter, Jo?rg P.; Niels Asger Mortensen; Nunes, Pedro S.

    2010-01-01

    A refractive index sensor has been fabricated in silicon oxynitride by standard UV lithography and dry etching processes. The refractive index sensor consists of a 1D photonic crystal (PhC) embedded in a microfluidic channel addressed by fiber-terminated planar waveguides. Experimental demonstrations performed with several ethanol solutions ranging from a purity of 96.00% (n = 1.36356) to 95.04% (n = 1.36377) yielded a sensitivity (??/?n) of 836 nm/RIU and a limit of detection (LOD) of 6 x...

  15. Adiabatic evolution of 1D shape resonances: an artificial interface conditions approach

    CERN Document Server

    Faraj, Ali; Nier, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Artificial interface conditions parametrized by a complex number $\\theta_{0}$ are introduced for 1D-Schr{\\"o}dinger operators. When this complex parameter equals the parameter $\\theta\\in i\\R$ of the complex deformation which unveils the shape resonances, the Hamiltonian becomes dissipative. This makes possible an adiabatic theory for the time evolution of resonant states for arbitrarily large time scales. The effect of the artificial interface conditions on the important stationary quantities involved in quantum transport models is also checked to be as small as wanted, in the polynomial scale $(h^N)_{N\\in \\N}$ as $h\\to 0$, according to $\\theta_{0}$.

  16. Binding and excitation energies of Lennard-Jones clusters in the 1/d-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present simple estimates of the binding energies of clusters of rare-gas atoms and excitation energies of low-lying states in trimers, which are obtained by writing formally the Schroedinger equation in d dimensions and expanding its solution in powers of 1/d. Comparison with Monte Carlo calculations for Lennard-Jones clusters (Nen, Arn, Krn, Xen, n=3-7 and 13) shows good agreement, and suggests that our formulae may be used to estimate the energy of rare-gas atoms interacting through realistic potentials. (author). 24 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Seven--Superform Gauge Fields in N=1, D=10 Supergravity and Duality

    OpenAIRE

    Lechner, Kurt; Tonin, Mario

    1995-01-01

    We present a formulation of $N=1,D=10$ Supergravity--Super--Maxwell theory in superspace in which the graviphoton can be described by a 2--form $B_2$ or a 6--form $B_6$, the photon by a 1--form $A_1$ or a 7--form $A_7$ and the dilaton by a scalar $\\varphi$ or an 8--form $\\varphi_8$, the supercurvatures of these fields being related by duality. Duality interchanges Bianchi identities and equations of motion for each of the three couples of fields. This construction envisages ...

  18. Lagrangian density and equations of dual N=1, D=10 supergravity in the superspace approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lagrangian density of N=1, D=10 supergravity interacting with the Yang-Mills matter multiplet is constructed on the basis of the equations of motion that follow from the Bianchi identities in the superspace formalism. It is found that the relation between the Lagrangian equations of motion and the equations for fields in the superspace formalism is not quite trivial. It is established that in the fourth-order terms in fermions, the resulting Lagrangian density differs from the Gates-Nishino Lagrangian of dual supergravity

  19. Study of the 1D anisotropic Kondo necklace model at criticality via an entanglement entropy estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saguia, A., E-mail: amen@if.uff.br

    2013-11-08

    We use an estimator of quantum criticality based on the entanglement entropy to discuss the ground state properties of the 1D anisotropic Kondo necklace model. We found that the T=0 phase diagram of the model is described by a critical line separating an antiferromagnetic phase from a Kondo singlet state. Moreover we calculate the conformal anomaly on the critical line and obtain that c tends to 0.5 as the thermodynamic limit is reached. Hence we conclude that these transitions belong to Ising universality class being, therefore, second order transitions instead of infinite order as claimed before.

  20. The heterotic string in curved N=1, D=10 superspace and the equations of motion of D=10 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of the heterotic string on a curved-superspace background is considered as a two-dimensional nonlinear ? model with N=1, D=10 superspace as the tangent space. The background-field method is used to calculate the one-loop ultraviolet divergences of the effective action of the ? model in an explicitly supersymmetric and covariant manner. The conditions of one-loop finiteness are used to derive the background-superfield equations, which (in the linearized approximation) are equivalent to the equations of motion of N=1, D=10 supergravity and N=1 supersymmetric Yang--Mills matter in N=1, D=10 superspace

  1. Impurity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental stUdy Was made on various mechanisms, responsible for impurity generation plasma at the inner surface of a gas-discharge tokamak chamber. Consideration is given to basic characteristics of impurity formation processes resulting from th.ermal evaporation and sputtering of surface atom as well as erosion caused by homopolar arc burning. Data are presented on generation mechanism of impurities which could be used for erosion identification during discharge and for evaluation of impurity inflow into a plasma. It is concluded that an arc can be formed and the limiter surface can melt in discharges with limiters, therefore different mechanisms of impurity generation could exist at different discharge phases. A decrease in the ion-and electron temperatures at the end of a discharge reduces the effect of such mechanisms of impurity formation as arc origination, evaporation and ionic sputtering. In this case sputtering due to atom recharging can become dominating mechanism

  2. On time derivatives for and : formal 1D calculations / Sobre as derivadas com respeito ao tempo para e : cálculos formais em 1D

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salvatore, De Vincenzo.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos cálculos formais em 1D das derivadas com respeito ao tempo dos valores médios dos operadores da posição (x) e do momento linear (p) na representação de coordenadas. Chamamos esses cálculos formais porque não nos preocupamos com o tipo apropriado de funções sobre as quais devem atuar os [...] operadores (auto-adjuntos) envolvidos e alguns de seus produtos. Ao longo do artigo, examinamos e discutimos em detalhe as condições em que dois pares de relações que envolvem essas derivadas (que foram previamente publicadas) podem ser formalmente equivalentes. Mostramos que os termos de fronteira presentes em d{x}/dt e d{x}/dt podem ser escritos de modo que eles só dependem dos valores a tomados pela densidade de probabilidade, sua derivada espacial, a densidade de corrente de probabilidade e do potencial externo V = V(x).. Também mostramos que d(p)/dté igual a -dv /dx=(FQ)mais um termo de fronteira ((Fq = aQ/ax)é a força quântica e Q é o potencial quântico de Bohm). Verificamos que (fQ)é obtido simplesmente através do cálculo de uma certa quantidade em cada extremidade do intervalo contendo a partcula e subtraindo os dois resultados. Em alguns casos particulares essa quantidade é justamente proporcional ao integrando da assim chamada informação de Fisher. Notamos que (fQ )tem um papel significativo em situações em que a partcula é confinada a uma região, mesmo se V é zero dentro dessa região. Abstract in english We present formal 1D calculations of the time derivatives of the mean values of the position (x) and momentum (p) operators in the coordinate representation. We call these calculations formal because we do not care for the appropriate class of functions on which the involved (self-adjoint) operators [...] and some of its products must act. Throughout the paper, we examine and discuss in detail the conditions under which two pairs of relations involving these derivatives (which have been previously published) can be formally equivalent. We show that the boundary terms present in d{x}/dt and d{x}/dt can be written so that they only depend on the values taken there by the probability density, its spatial derivative, the probability current density and the external potential V= V9 (x) V = V(x). We also show that d(p)/dt is equal to -dv /dx=(FQ) plus a boundary term (Fq = aQ/ax)is the quantum force and Q is the Bohm's quantum potential). We verify that (fq) is simply obtained by evaluating a certain quantity on each end of the interval containing the particle and by subtracting the two results. That quantity is precisely proportional to the integrand of the so-called Fisher information in some particular cases. We have noted that fQ has a significant role in situations in which the particle is confined to a region, even if V is zero inside that region.

  3. Reactive scattering of carbon atoms: the reaction dynamics of C(3P, 1D) +C2H2 and C2H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction dynamics of C(3P, 1D) with acetylene and ethylene have been investigated by using the crossed beam technique with mass spectrometric detection and time-of-flight (TOF) analysis. The novel capability of generating continuous supersonic beams of carbon atoms by a radio-frequency discharge beam source is exploited. From angular and velocity distribution measurements, the primary reaction products are identified, their relative importance assessed, and their dynamics of formation characterized. While the reaction C(3P) + C2H2(X1?g+) has been found to lead to C3H + H and C3(X1?g+) + H2(X1?g+) in comparable amount, the reaction C(3P) + C2H4(X1At) has been found to lead, predominantly, to H + C3H3 (propargylene). The dynamics of the C(1D) reactions are also characterized. The spin-forbidden H2 elimination channel in the reaction C(3P) + C2H2 is attributed to the occurrence of inter-system-crossing between the triplet and singlet manifold of the C3H2 potential energy surfaces. Interestingly, these findings provide evidence that the C(3P) + C2H2 reaction maybe the source of both C3H and C3 species detected in the extreme environment of dense interstellar clouds and outflows of carbon stars, as well as in combustion systems. (author)

  4. A world-line framework for 1D Topological Conformal sigma-models

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, L; Toppan, F

    2015-01-01

    We use world-line methods for pseudo-supersymmetry to construct $sl(2|1)$-invariant actions for the $(2,2,0)$ chiral and ($1,2,1)$ real supermultiplets of the twisted $D$-module representations of the $sl(2|1)$ superalgebra. The derived one-dimensional topological conformal $\\sigma$-models are invariant under nilpotent operators. The actions are constructed for both parabolic and hyperbolic/trigonometric realizations (with extra potential terms in the latter case). The scaling dimension $\\lambda$ of the supermultiplets defines a coupling constant, $2\\lambda+1$, the free theories being recovered at $\\lambda=-\\frac{1}{2}$. We also present, generalizing previous works, the $D$-module representations of one-dimensional superconformal algebras induced by ${\\cal N}=(p,q)$ pseudo-supersymmetry acting on $(k,n,n-k)$ supermultiplets. Besides $sl(2|1)$, we obtain the superalgebras $A(1,1)$, $D(2,1;\\alpha)$, $D(3,1)$, $D(4,1)$, $A(2,1)$ from $(p,q)= (1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), (5,1)$, at given $k,n$ and critical values ...

  5. Analytical solutions for quantum walks on 1D chain with different shift operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the discrete-time quantum walks on 1D Chain with the moving and swapping shift operators. We derive analytical solutions for the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the evolution operator U-hat using the Chebyshev polynomial technique, and calculate the long-time averaged probabilities for the two different shift operators respectively. It is found that the probability distributions for the moving and swapping shift operators display completely different characteristics. For the moving shift operator, the probability distribution exhibits high symmetry where the probabilities at mirror positions are equal. The probabilities are inversely proportional to the system size N and approach to zero as N??. On the contrary, for the swapping shift operator, the probability distribution is not symmetric, the probability distribution approaches to a power-law stationary distribution as N?? under certain coin parameter condition. We show that such power-law stationary distribution is determined by the eigenstates of the eigenvalues ±1 and calculate the intrinsic probability for different starting positions. Our findings suggest that the eigenstates corresponding to eigenvalues ±1 play an important role for the swapping shift operator. - Highlights: • QWs on 1D chain with the moving and swapping operators are studied for the first time. • We derive analytical results for the probability distribution for the two operators. •We compare the dynamics of QWs with two different shift operators. • We find the particular eigenvalues ±1 play an important role for the dynamics. • We use the Chebyshev technique to treat the problem

  6. Scale-Invariant Local Descriptor for Event Recognition in 1D Sensor Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Jierui

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a shape-based, time-scale invariant feature descriptor for 1-D sensor signals. The time-scale invariance of the feature allows us to use feature from one training event to describe events of the same semantic class which may take place over varying time scales such as walking slow and walking fast. Therefore it requires less training set. The descriptor takes advantage of the invariant location detection in the scale space theory and employs a high level shape encoding scheme to capture invariant local features of events. Based on this descriptor, a scale-invariant classifier with "R" metric (SIC-R) is designed to recognize multi-scale events of human activities. The R metric combines the number of matches of keypoint in scale space with the Dynamic Time Warping score. SICR is tested on various types of 1-D sensors data from passive infrared, accelerometer and seismic sensors with more than 90% classification accuracy.

  7. 1D camera geometry and its application to the self-calibration of circular motion sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan-Yee K; Zhang, Guoqiang; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Hui

    2008-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for robustly recovering the camera geometry of an uncalibrated image sequence taken under circular motion. Under circular motion, all the camera centers lie on a circle and the mapping from the plane containing this circle to the horizon line observed in the image can be modelled as a 1D projection. A 2 x 2 homography is introduced in this paper to relate the projections of the camera centers in two 1D views. It is shown that the two imaged circular points of the motion plane and the rotation angle between the two views can be derived directly from such a homography. This way of recovering the imaged circular points and rotation angles is intrinsically a multiple view approach, as all the sequence geometry embedded in the epipoles is exploited in the estimation of the homography for each view pair. This results in a more robust method compared to those computing the rotation angles using adjacent views only. The proposed method has been applied to self-calibrate turntable sequences using either point features or silhouettes, and highly accurate results have been achieved. PMID:18988956

  8. Assessment of improved root growth representation in a 1-D, field scale crop model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltin Mboh, Cho; Gaiser, Thomas; Ewert, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Many 1-D, field scale crop models over-simplify root growth. The over-simplification of this "hidden half" of the crop may have significant consequences on simulated root water and nutrient uptake with a corresponding reflection on the simulated crop yields. Poor representation of root growth in crop models may therefore constitute a major source of uncertainty propagation. In this study we assess the effect of an improved representation of root growth in a model solution of the model framework SIMPLACE (Scientific Impact assessment and Modeling PLatform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem management) compared to conventional 1-D approaches. The LINTUL5 crop growth model is coupled to the Hillflow soil water balance model within the SIMPLACE modeling framework (Gaiser et al, 2013). Root water uptake scenarios in the soil hydrological simulator Hillflow (Bronstert, 1995) together with an improved representation of root growth is compared to scenarios for which root growth is simplified. The improvement of root growth is achieved by integrating root growth solutions from R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) into the SIMPLACE model solution. R-SWMS is a three dimensional model for simultaneous modeling of root growth, soil water fluxes and solute transport and uptake. These scenarios are tested by comparing how well the simulated water contents match with the observed soil water dynamics. The impacts of the scenarios on above ground biomass and wheat grain are assessed

  9. Quasi-1D physics in metal-organic frameworks: MIL-47(V from first principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny E. P. Vanpoucke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The geometric and electronic structure of the MIL-47(V metal-organic framework (MOF is investigated by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT calculations. Special focus is placed on the relation between the spin configuration and the properties of the MOF. The ground state is found to be antiferromagnetic, with an equilibrium volume of 1554.70 Å3. The transition pressure of the pressure-induced large-pore-to-narrow-pore phase transition is calculated to be 82 MPa and 124 MPa for systems with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic chains, respectively. For a mixed system, the transition pressure is found to be a weighted average of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transition pressures. Mapping DFT energies onto a simple-spin Hamiltonian shows both the intra- and inter-chain coupling to be antiferromagnetic, with the latter coupling constant being two orders of magnitude smaller than the former, suggesting the MIL-47(V to present quasi-1D behavior. The electronic structure of the different spin configurations is investigated and it shows that the band gap position varies strongly with the spin configuration. The valence and conduction bands show a clear V d-character. In addition, these bands are flat in directions orthogonal to VO6 chains, while showing dispersion along the the direction of the VO6 chains, similar as for other quasi-1D materials.

  10. A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new “2D/1D” approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.

  11. Effect of copper doping on the crystal structure and morphology of 1D nanostructured manganese oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Dae Hoon; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2007-11-01

    We have tried to control the aspect ratio and physicochemical properties of 1D nanostructured manganese oxides through copper doping. Copper-doped manganese oxide nanostructures have been synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal treatment for the mixed solution of permanganate anions and copper cations. According to powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic analyses, all the present materials commonly crystallize with alpha-MnO2-type structure but their aspect ratio decreases significantly with increasing the content of copper. Such a variation of crystallite dimension is attributable to the limitation of crystal growth by the incorporation of copper ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies at Mn K- and Cu K-edges clearly demonstrate that the average oxidation state of manganese ions is increased by the substitution of divalent copper ions. Electrochemical measurements reveal the improvement of the electrode performance of nanostructured manganate upon copper doping, which can be interpreted as a result of the decrease of aspect ratio and the increase of Mn valence state. From the present experimental findings, it becomes certain that the present Cu doping method can provide an effective way of controlling the crystal dimension and electrochemical property of 1D nanostructured manganese oxide. PMID:18047111

  12. Solar photolysis of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms, O(1D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground level solar photolysis rate coefficients (jO3) were measured for the photolysis of ozone by sunlight, (O3 + hnu(2 + O(1D)). The O(1D) atoms produced react with nitrous oxide (N2O) carrier gas to form higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Computer model predictions show that these are mainly N2O5 and NO3. Seventy five days of data were taken during the summer of 1983, at Ann Arbor, Michigan, and are presented in the appendix. Over 390 clear air jO3 values are correlated with effective ozone column densities, and 500 nm aerosol optical depths. The solar direct beam component of ozone photolysis was measured for the different aerosol optical depths, over two entire days from sun-up to sun-down. Temperature dependence of jO3 was measured from 100C to 390C with good agreement to models. Comparison of jO3 versus global and ultraviolet radiation are made under various ozone column densities and aerosol optical depths. A jO3-photometer was built using an interference filter to pass only ozone photolyzing light. Improvements to instrumental parts are shown for balloon and aircraft flyable payloads

  13. 1D self-assembly of chemisorbed thymine on Cu(110) driven by dispersion forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temprano, I.; Thomas, G.; Haq, S.; Dyer, M. S.; Latter, E. G.; Darling, G. R.; Uvdal, P.; Raval, R.

    2015-03-01

    Adsorption of thymine on a defined Cu(110) surface was studied using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). In addition, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were undertaken in order to further understand the energetics of adsorption and self-assembly. The combination of RAIRS, TPD, and DFT results indicates that an upright, three-point-bonded adsorption configuration is adopted by the deprotonated thymine at room temperature. DFT calculations show that the upright configuration adopted by individual molecules arises as a direct result of strong O-Cu and N-Cu bonds between the molecule and the surface. STM data reveal that this upright thymine motif self-assembles into 1D chains, which are surprisingly oriented along the open-packed [001] direction of the metal surface and orthogonal to the alignment of the functional groups that are normally implicated in H-bonding interactions. DFT modelling of this system reveals that the molecular organisation is actually driven by dispersion interactions, which cause a slight tilt of the molecule and provide the major driving force for assembly into dimers and 1D chains. The relative orientations and distances of neighbouring molecules are amenable for ?-? stacking, suggesting that this is an important contributor in the self-assembly process.

  14. A mass-conservative finite volume predictor-corrector solution of the 1D Richards' equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wencong; Ogden, Fred L.

    2015-04-01

    Numerical solution of the Richards' equation (RE) in variably saturated soils continues to be a challenge due to its highly non-linear behavior. This is particularly true as soils approach saturation and the behavior of the fundamental partial differential equation changes from elliptic to parabolic. In this paper, a finite volume predictor-corrector method with adaptive time-stepping was developed to solve the 1D vertical RE. The numerical method was mass-conservative and non-iterative. In the predictor step, the pressure head-based form of the RE was solved using the cell-centered finite volume method and the pressure head was updated. In the corrector step, the soil water content was calculated by solving the mixed form RE. Five different schemes to evaluate the inter-cell hydraulic conductivity were investigated. The robustness and accuracy of the numerical model were demonstrated through simulation of experimental tests, including free drainage, field infiltration into wet and dry soils, and laboratory infiltration with falling water table. Numerical results were compared against laboratory measurements, simulation results from the Hydrus-1D program, or analytical solution when available. Results showed that the developed scheme is robust and accurate in simulating variably saturated flows with various boundary conditions. The arithmetic mean and Szymkiewicz's mean of inter-cell hydraulic conductivity performed better than other methods especially in the case of infiltration into very dry soil.

  15. Unveiling the Role of CNTs on the Phase Formation of 1D Ferroelectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Mahajan, Amit

    2015-05-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to act as templates or bottom electrodes for three dimension (3D) capacitor arrays, which utilise one dimension (1D) ferroelectric nanostructures to increase memory size and density. However, growing a ferroelectric on the surface of CNTs is non-trivial. Here, we demonstrate that multi-walled (MW) CNTs decrease the time and temperature for formation of lead zirconium titanate Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) by ~100 ºC commensurate with a decrease in activation energy from 68±15 kJ/mol to 27±2 kJ/mol. As a consequence, monophasic PZT was obtained at 575 ºC for MWCNTs/PZT whereas for pure PZT traces of pyrochlore were still present at 650 ºC, where PZT phase formed due to homogeneous nucleation. The piezoelectric nature of MWCNT/PZT synthesised at 500 ºC for 1 h was proved. Although further work is required to prove the concept of 3D capacitor arrays, our result suggests that it is feasible to utilise MWCNTs as templates/electrodes for the formation of 1D PZT nano ferroelectrics.

  16. Quasinormal modes of (anti-)de Sitter black holes in the 1 /D expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-04-01

    We use the inverse-dimensional expansion to compute analytically the frequencies of a set of quasinormal modes of static black holes of Einstein-(Anti-)de Sitter gravity, including the cases of spherical, planar or hyperbolic horizons. The modes we study are decoupled modes localized in the near-horizon region, which are the ones that capture physics peculiar to each black hole (such as their instabilities), and which in large black holes contain hydrodynamic behavior. Our results also give the unstable Gregory-Laflamme frequencies of Ricci-flat black branes to two orders higher in 1 /D than previous calculations. We discuss the limits on the accuracy of these results due to the asymptotic but not convergent character of the 1 /D expansion, which is due to the violation of the decoupling condition at finite D. Finally, we compare the frequencies for AdS black branes to calculations in the hydrodynamic expansion in powers of the momentum k. Our results extend up to k 9 for the sound mode and to k 8 for the shear mode.

  17. Quasinormal modes of (Anti-)de Sitter black holes in the 1/D expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Emparan, Roberto; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    We use the inverse-dimensional expansion to compute analytically the frequencies of a set of quasinormal modes of static black holes of Einstein-(Anti-)de Sitter gravity, including the cases of spherical, planar or hyperbolic horizons. The modes we study are decoupled modes localized in the near-horizon region, which are the ones that capture physics peculiar to each black hole (such as their instabilities), and which in large black holes contain hydrodynamic behavior. Our results also give the unstable Gregory-Laflamme frequencies of Ricci-flat black branes to two orders higher in 1/D than previous calculations. We discuss the limits on the accuracy of these results due to the asymptotic but not convergent character of the 1/D expansion, which is due to the violation of the decoupling condition at finite D. Finally, we compare the frequencies for AdS black branes to calculations in the hydrodynamic expansion in powers of the momentum k. Our results extend up to k^9 for the sound mode and to k^8 for the shear...

  18. Quantum dynamics of O(1D)+D2 reaction: isotope and vibrational excitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, G. B.; Balakrishnan, N.; Kendrick, Brian K.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of initial vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule on the quantum dynamics of the O(1D)+D2 reaction is investigated as a function of collision energy. The potential energy surface of Dobbyn and Knowles (1997 Mol. Phys. 91 1107) and a time-independent quantum mechanical method based on hyperspherical coordinates have been adopted for the dynamics calculations. Results for elastic, inelastic, and reactive scattering over collision energies ranging from the ultracold to thermal regimes are reported for total angular momentum quantum number J = 0. Calculations show that the collisional outcome of the O(1D)+D2 reaction is not strongly influenced by the initial vibrational excitation of the D2 molecule similar to its H2 counterpart. A J-shifting approximation is used to calculate the initial state selected reactive rate coefficients over the temperature range T = 1 - 500 K. The reactive rate coefficients for D2(v = 0) are found to be in excellent agreement with available experimental results. The temperature dependence of the kinetic isotope effect is also investigated and its value at room temperature is found to be in good agreement with available theoretical and experimental results.

  19. 1-D Air-snowpack modeling of atmospheric nitrous acid at South Pole during ANTCI 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D air-snowpack model of HONO has been developed and constrained by observed chemistry and meteorology data. The 1-D model includes molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion, windpumping in snow, gas phase to quasi-liquid layer phase HONO transfer and quasi-liquid layer nitrate and interstitial air HONO photolysis. Photolysis of nitrate is important as a dominant HONO source inside the snowpack, however, the observed HONO emission from the snowpack was triggered mainly by the equilibrium between quasi liquid layer nitrite and firn air HONO deep down the snow surface (i.e. 30 cm below snow surface. The high concentration of HONO in the firn air is subsequently transported above the snowpack by diffusion and windpumping. The model uncertainties come mainly from lack of measurements and the interpretation of the QLL properties based on the bulk snow measurements. One critical factor is the ionic strength of QLL nitrite, which is estimated here by the bulk snow pH, nitrite concentration, and QLL to bulk snow volume ratio.

  20. A 1-D model study of Arctic sea-ice salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Griewank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a 1-D model to study how salinity evolves in Arctic sea ice. To do so, we first explore how sea-ice surface melt and flooding can be incorporated into the 1-D thermodynamic SAMSIM sea-ice model presented by Griewank and Notz (2013. We introduce flooding and a flushing parametrization which treats sea ice as a hydraulic network of horizontal and vertical fluxes. Forcing SAMSIM with 36 years of ERA-interim atmospheric reanalysis data, we obtain a modeled Arctic sea-ice salinity that agrees well with ice-core measurements. The simulations hence allow us to identify the main drivers of the observed mean salinity profile in Arctic sea ice. Our results show a 1.5–4 g kg?1 decrease of bulk salinity via gravity drainage after ice growth has ceased and before flushing sets in, which hinders approximating bulk salinity from ice thickness beyond the first growth season. In our simulations, salinity variability of first-year ice is mostly restricted to the top 20 cm. We find that ice thickness, thermal resistivity, freshwater column, and stored energy change by less than 5% on average when the full salinity parametrization is replaced with a prescribed salinity profile. We conclude that for earth system models the impact of fully parametrizing the Arctic temporal salinity evolution is too small to justify the increase in computational cost and model complexity.

  1. A 1-D modelling study of Arctic sea-ice salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griewank, P. J.; Notz, D.

    2015-02-01

    We use a 1-D model to study how salinity evolves in Arctic sea ice. To do so, we first explore how sea-ice surface melt and flooding can be incorporated into the 1-D thermodynamic Semi-Adaptive Multi-phase Sea-Ice Model (SAMSIM) presented by Griewank and Notz (2013). We introduce flooding and a flushing parametrization which treats sea ice as a hydraulic network of horizontal and vertical fluxes. Forcing SAMSIM with 36 years of ERA-interim atmospheric reanalysis data, we obtain a modelled Arctic sea-ice salinity that agrees well with ice-core measurements. The simulations thus allow us to identify the main drivers of the observed mean salinity profile in Arctic sea ice. Our results show a 1.5-4 g kg-1 decrease of bulk salinity via gravity drainage after ice growth has ceased and before flushing sets in, which hinders approximating bulk salinity from ice thickness beyond the first growth season. In our simulations, salinity interannual variability of first-year ice is mostly restricted to the top 20 cm. We find that ice thickness, thermal resistivity, freshwater column, and stored energy change by less than 5% on average when the full salinity parametrization is replaced with a prescribed salinity profile.

  2. NOKIN1D: one-dimensional neutron kinetics based on a nodal collocation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, G.; Ginestar, D.; Miró, R.; Jambrina, A.; Barrachina, T.; Soler, Amparo; Concejal, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    The TRAC-BF1 one-dimensional kinetic model is a formulation of the neutron diffusion equation in the two energy groups' approximation, based on the analytical nodal method (ANM). The advantage compared with a zero-dimensional kinetic model is that the axial power profile may vary with time due to thermal-hydraulic parameter changes and/or actions of the control systems but at has the disadvantages that in unusual situations it fails to converge. The nodal collocation method developed for the neutron diffusion equation and applied to the kinetics resolution of TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulics, is an adaptation of the traditional collocation methods for the discretization of partial differential equations, based on the development of the solution as a linear combination of analytical functions. It has chosen to use a nodal collocation method based on a development of Legendre polynomials of neutron fluxes in each cell. The qualification is carried out by the analysis of the turbine trip transient from the NEA benchmark in Peach Bottom NPP using both the original 1D kinetics implemented in TRAC-BF1 and the 1D nodal collocation method.

  3. 1D graphene-like silicon systems: silicene nano-ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through this review we can follow the various phases that have led to the discovery of the new allotrope form of silicon: silicene. This is a one-atom thick silicon sheet arranged in a honeycomb lattice, similar to graphene. For silicon, which usually is sp3 hybridized, it represents an unusual and rare structure. First, silicene was theoretically hypothesized and subsequently its structure calculated as a possible candidate for nano-ribbons of Si grown on the anisotropic Ag(110) surface. It was only later, when the physical and chemical properties of this peculiar form of silicon, demonstrating the presence of ? and ?* bands giving the so-called Dirac cones at the K corners of the Brillouin zone, the sp2-like nature of the valence orbitals of the Si-Si bonds and its strong resistance towards oxygen were reported, that the real existence of silicene became recognized in the scientific community. This review is essentially focused on the experimental work performed on 1D isolated silicene nano-ribbons and their 1D dense array grown on Ag(110) surfaces. (topical review)

  4. Phase Transitions in 1D Open Quantum Systems and Liouville-space Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoening, Michael; Moos, Matthias; Unanyan, Razmik; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2011-06-01

    We discuss 1D lattice fermions and bosons coupled to quasi-local reservoirs. In the steady state these systems can undergo a transition to a critical phase for certain values of the reservoir parameters [1]. For free bosons the critical transition is accompanied by a dynamical instability, for free fermions it is associated with a vanishing of the component with long-range order. We discuss the critical transition including critical exponents, purity and entanglement in free and interacting, open fermionic and bosonic systems within a mean-field approach. 1D quantum systems can be efficiently simulated if the many-body state can be written in terms of matrix product states. A good measure for this is the bi-partite von-Neumann entropy. In the case of an open system it is no longer an appropriate measure for simulability. Instead we introduce the Liouville space entropy which quantifies the resources for a representation of the density matrix in terms of tensor product operators.[4pt] [1] J. Eisert and T. Prosen, arxiv:1012.501

  5. Direct Observation of Chiral Topological Solitons in 1D Charge-Density Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cheon, Sangmo; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Yeom, Han Woong

    2015-03-01

    Macroscopic and classical solitons are easily and ubiquitously found, from tsunami to blood pressure pulses, but those in microscopic scale are hard to observe. While the existence of such topological solitons were predicted theoretically and evidenced indirectly by the transport and infrared spectroscopy measurements, the direct observation has been hampered by their high mobility and small dimension. In this talk, we show direct observation of topological solitons in the quasi-1D charge-density wave (CDW) ground state of indium atomic wires, which are consisting of interacting double Peierls chains. Such solitons exhibit a characteristic spatial variation of the CDW amplitudes as expected from the electronic structure. Furthermore, these solitons have an exotic hidden topology originated by topologically different 4-fold degenerate CDW ground states. Their exotic topology leads to the chirality of 1D topological solitons through interaction between two solitons in the double Peierls chains. Detailed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveal their chiral nature at the atomic scale. This work paves the avenue toward the microscopic exploitation of the peculiar properties of nanoscale chiral solitons.

  6. The JPL Benchmarking Suite for Scalar and Vector 1D Radiative Transfer in Scattering Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. B.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Lo, M. W.; Martonchik, J. V.; Natraj, V.; Sanghavi, S.; Seidel, F. C.; West, R. A.; Xu, F.; Zhai, P.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Future aerosol/cloud remote sensing missions by NASA, ESA, JAXA and others will have stringent accuracy requirements for cloud and aerosol property retrievals in order to meet their science goals, themselves driven by demands for improved global and regional climate modeling as well as air quality monitoring. At the core of physics-based retrieval algorithms is a forward radiative transfer model (RTM) that determines the ultimate limitations of the retrieval scheme by making assumptions about atmospheric structure and particle microphysics, hence optics. One such assumption is that the atmosphere is strictly uniform in the horizontal plane, i.e., a "1D" RTM is used. Cloud remote sensing is particularly vulnerable to this assumption, and the resulting forward model error is associated with "3D RT" effects. Other such assumptions relevant to aerosol remote sensing are that it is often assumed to be confined to the boundary layer (e.g., 0-2 km) when in reality the particulates can be lofted, or that they are spherical when in reality they can take many shapes. These qualitative issues of forward RTM fidelity with respect to nature are preceded by quantitative questions about numerical accuracy and precision as well as computational efficiency, including whether or not the RTM is linearized (provides Jacobians as well as radiances, as required for optimization-based retrievals). A rationalized 1D RTM benchmarking framework has been developed at JPL to guide investments in forward model development that will lead to the best combinations of accuracy/precision, efficiency and fidelity from a programmatic perspective. The present focus is on aerosols. A small number of particle types have been carefully selected to be both representative of what is in nature and computationally challenging to accommodate in a typical 1D RTM implemented in code. Thus realistic particles with smooth and forward-peaked phase functions are present, spherical or not, with or without variability in the backscattering region, with or without absorption. A few different surface types were also selected: Lambertian or not; if non-Lambertian, polarizing or not. Finally, the aerosols can be in the boundary layer (0-2 km) or lofted (3-5 km); either way, they are assumed to be uniform within their layer but mixed continuously with an exponential background of Rayleigh scattering with optical depths that exceed the aerosol's or not. The golden standard is a new Monte Carlo 1D RTM, either vector or scalar (i.e., polarized or not), with guarantied accuracy, controlled precision and high fidelity. It has flexible output, and can thus be customized for a specific instrument or instrument concept. It makes no claim of efficiency but, in sharp contrast with its deterministic counterparts, there is no strict need for any kind of discretization in angular or spatial quadratures; nor is there any need for forward peak truncation procedures when the scattering particles have large size parameters and efficiency is of the essence. We will present results that document the performance of a wide variety of deterministic 1D RTMs used at JPL, and one guest RTM from Bremen (SCIATRAN) that has been used in a recent benchmarking exercise with a much more limited scope. Plans to release the benchmarking data and Monte Carlo code to the broader remote sensing community will be discussed.

  7. 76 FR 49300 - Corporate Reorganizations; Distributions Under Sections 368(a)(1)(D) and 354(b)(1)(B); Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9475] RIN 1545-BF83 Corporate Reorganizations; Distributions Under Sections 368(a)(1)(D) and 354(b)(1)(B); Correction AGENCY:...

  8. Ds1*(2860) and Ds3*(2860): candidates for 1D charmed-strange mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newly observed two charmed-strange resonances, Ds1*(2860) and Ds3*(2860), are investigated by calculating their Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed strong decays, which shows that they are suitable candidates for the 13D1 and 13D3 states in the charmed-strange meson family. Our study also predicts other main decay modes of Ds1*(2860) and Ds3*(2860), which can be accessible at the future experiment. In addition, the decay behaviors of the spin partners of Ds1*(2860) and Ds3*(2860), i.e., 1D(2-) and 1D'(2-), are predicted in this work, which are still missing at present. The experimental search for the missing 1D(2-) and 1D'(2-) charmed-strange mesons is an intriguing and challenging task for further experiments. (orig.)

  9. Magnet Free Generators - 3rd Generation Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to superconducting wind turbine generators, which are often referred to as 3rd generation wind turbine generators. Advantages and challenges of superconducting generators are presented with particular focus on possible weight and efficiency improvements. A comparison of the rare earth usage in different topologies of permanent magnet generators and superconducting generators is also presented.

  10. Influence of Surface Waves on Plasma High Harmonic Generation

    OpenAIRE

    der Brügge, Daniel an; Kumar, Naveen; Pukhov, Alexander; Rödel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The influence of surface plasma waves (SPW) on high harmonic generation (HHG) from the interaction of intense lasers with overdense plasma is analyzed. It is shown, that the surface waves lead to the emission of harmonics away from the optical axis. These off-axis harmonics violate the parity selection rules found from 1D models. Further, our investigations in the highly relativistic regime point towards the existence of a new SPW generation process.

  11. CD1d-restricted NKT cells modulate placental and uterine leukocyte populations during chlamydial infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbeddine, Mohamed; Verbeke, Philippe; Delarbre, Christiane; Moutier, René; Prieto, Stéphane; Ojcius, David M; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette

    2013-11-01

    Invariant CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells play an important immunoregulatory role and can influence a broad spectrum of immunological responses including against bacterial infections. They are present at the fetal-maternal interface and although it has been reported that experimental systemic iNKT cell activation can induce mouse abortion, their role during pregnancy remain poorly understood. In the present work, using a physiological Chlamydia muridarum infection model, we have shown that, in vaginally infected pregnant mice, C. muridarum is cleared similarly in C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and CD1d(-/-) mice. We have also shown that infected- as well as uninfected-CD1d(-/-) mice have the same litter size as WT counterparts. Thus, CD1d-restricted cells are required neither for the resolution of chlamydial infection of the lower-genital tract, nor for the maintenance of reproductive capacity. However, unexpected differences in T cell populations were observed in uninfected pregnant females, as CD1d(-/-) placentas contained significantly higher percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells than WT counterparts. However, infection triggered a significant decrease in the percentages of CD4(+) T cells in CD1d(-/-) mice. In infected WT pregnant mice, the numbers of uterine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, monocytes and granulocytes were greatly increased, changes not observed in infected CD1d(-/-) mice. An increase in the percentage of CD8(+) T cells seems independent of CD1d-restricted cells as it occurred in both WT and CD1d(-/-) mice. Thus, in the steady state, the lack of CD1d-restricted NKT cells affects leukocyte populations only in the placenta. In Chlamydia-infected pregnant mice, the immune response against Chlamydia is dampened in the uterus. Our results suggest that CD1d-restricted NKT cells play a role in the recruitment or homeostasis of leukocyte populations at the maternal-fetal interface in the presence or absence of Chlamydia infection. PMID:23999314

  12. Potential role of TBC1D4 in enhanced post-exercise insulin action in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; FrØsig, Christian

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: TBC1 domain family, member 4 (TBC1D4; also known as AS160) is a cellular signalling intermediate to glucose transport regulated by insulin-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity is increased after acute exercise by an unknown mechanism that does not involve modulation at proximal insulin signalling intermediates. We hypothesised that signalling through TBC1D4 is involved in this effect of exercise as it is a common signalling element for insulin and exercise. METHODS: Insulin-regulated glucose metabolism was evaluated in 12 healthy moderately trained young men 4 h after one-legged exercise at basal and during a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Vastus lateralis biopsies were taken before and immediately after the clamp. RESULTS: Insulin stimulation increased glucose uptake in both legs, with greater effects (~80%, p < 0.01) in the previously exercised leg. TBC1D4 phosphorylation, assessed using the phospho-AKT (protein kinase B)substrate antibody and phospho- and site-specific antibodies targeting six phosphorylation sites on TBC1D4, increased at similar degrees to insulin stimulation in the previously exercised and rested legs (p < 0.01). However, TBC1D4 phosphorylation on Ser-318, Ser-341, Ser-588 and Ser-751 was higher in the previously exercised leg, both in the absence and in the presence of insulin (p < 0.01; Ser-588, p = 0.09; observed power = 0.39). 14-3-3 binding capacity for TBC1D4 increased equally (p < 0.01) in both legs during insulin stimulation. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: We provide evidence for site-specific phosphorylation of TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physiological hyperinsulinaemia. The data support the idea that TBC1D4 is a nexus for insulin- and exercise-responsive signals that may mediate increased insulin action after exercise.

  13. The quenching rate of O(1D) by O(3P). [with data from Visible Airglow experiment on AE satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, V. J.; Yee, J. H.; Solomon, S. C.; Dalgarno, A.

    1986-01-01

    The rate coefficient for the quenching of O(1D) by O(3P) has recently been calculated by Yee et al. (1985). Their results indicate that quenching by atomic oxygen should not be ignored in the analysis of the 6300 A emission airglow. Data obtained by the Visible Airglow Experiment on board the AE satellites have been reanalyzed to determine the quenching rate of O(1D) by atomic oxygen. The results of this analysis are presented.

  14. TBC1D9B functions as a GTPase-activating protein for Rab11a in polarized MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luciana I; Liao, Yong; Ruiz, Wily G; Clayton, Dennis R; Li, Min; Liu, Yong-Jian; Jiang, Yu; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Apodaca, Gerard; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-15

    Rab11a is a key modulator of vesicular trafficking processes, but there is limited information about the guanine nucleotide-exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that regulate its GTP-GDP cycle. We observed that in the presence of Mg(2+) (2.5 mM), TBC1D9B interacted via its Tre2-Bub2-Cdc16 (TBC) domain with Rab11a, Rab11b, and Rab4a in a nucleotide-dependent manner. However, only Rab11a was a substrate for TBC1D9B-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. At limiting Mg(2+) concentrations (<0.5 mM), Rab8a was an additional substrate for this GAP. In polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, endogenous TBC1D9B colocalized with Rab11a-positive recycling endosomes but less so with EEA1-positive early endosomes, transferrin-positive recycling endosomes, or late endosomes. Overexpression of TBC1D9B, but not an inactive mutant, decreased the rate of basolateral-to-apical IgA transcytosis--a Rab11a-dependent pathway--and shRNA-mediated depletion of TBC1D9B increased the rate of this process. In contrast, TBC1D9B had no effect on two Rab11a-independent pathways--basolateral recycling of the transferrin receptor or degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Finally, expression of TBC1D9B decreased the amount of active Rab11a in the cell and concomitantly disrupted the interaction between Rab11a and its effector, Sec15A. We conclude that TBC1D9B is a Rab11a GAP that regulates basolateral-to-apical transcytosis in polarized MDCK cells. PMID:25232007

  15. Universal scheme of minimal reduction of usual and dual N=1,D=10 supergravity to the Minkowsky space

    OpenAIRE

    Zyablyuk, K. N.

    1996-01-01

    The reduction from N=1, D=10 to N=4, D=4 supergravity with the Yang-Mills matter is considered. For this purpose a set of constraints is imposed in order to exclude six additional abelian matter multiplets and conserve the supersymmetry. We consider both the cases of usual and dual N=1, D=10 supergravity using the superspace approach. Also the effective potential of the deriving theory is written.

  16. 1,2,4-Triphospholyl anions - versatile building blocks for the formation of 1D, 2D and 3D assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, Claudia; Peresypkina, Eugenia V; Virovets, Alexander V; Komarov, Vladislav Yu; Scheer, Manfred

    2015-05-27

    The potential of K[P3C2R2] (R = (t)Bu, Mes) as building blocks in metallo-supramolecular chemistry was investigated and self-assembly processes with Cu(i) halides resulted in the formation of a large variety of unprecedented one-, two- and even three-dimensional aggregates. The 3D networks showed an interesting topological similarity to allotropes of carbon: diamond and the theoretically proposed polybenzene. Furthermore, the negative charge of the phospholyl ligand favoured the generation of cationic CuaXb (a > b, X = Cl, Br, I) assemblies, a challenging area within the well-studied coordination chemistry of CuX units. In addition, the 1D strands were also characterized in solution, revealing the presence of oligomeric units. PMID:25960365

  17. 1D and 2D photonic crystal nanocavities for semiconductor cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benjamin C.

    The topic of this dissertation is photonic crystal nanocavities for semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamics. For the purposes of this study, these nanocavities may be one dimensional (1D) or two dimensional (2D) in design. The 2D devices are active and contain embedded InAs quantum dots (QDs), whereas the 1D devices are passive and contain no active emitters. The 2D photonic crystal nanocavities are fabricated in a slab of GaAs with a single layer of InAs QDs embedded in the slab. When a cavity mode substantially overlaps the QD ensemble, the dots affect the linewidths of the observed modes, leading to broadening of the linewidth at low excitation powers due to absorption and narrowing of the linewidths at high excitation powers due to gain when the QD ensemble absorption is saturated. We observe lasing from a few QDs in such a nanocavity. A technique is discussed with allows us to tune the resonance wavelength of a nanocavity by condensation of an inert gas onto the sample, which is held at cryogenic temperatures. The structural quality at the interfaces of epitaxially grown semiconductor heterostructures is investigated, and a growth instability is discovered which leads to roughness on the bottom of the GaAs slabs. Adjustment of MBE growth parameters leads to the elimination of this roughness, and the result is higher nanocavity quality factors. A number of methods for optimizing the fabrication of nanocavities is presented, which lead to higher quality factors. It is shown that some fundamental limiting factor, not yet fully understood, is preventing high quality factors at wavelengths shorter than 950 nm. Silicon 1D devices without active emitters are investigated by means of a tapered microfiber loop, and high quality factors are observed. This measurement technique is compared to a cross-polarized resonant scattering method. The quality factors observed in the silicon nanocavities are higher than those observed in GaAs, consistent with our observation that quality factors are in general higher at longer wavelengths.

  18. Generation Rent

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn, Scott; Larkin, DJ; Singh, Alvin; Ferguson, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Generation Rent is a special public storytelling night and panel discussion that will close a year of affordable housing reporting by the Tyee Solutions Society, supported with grant funding from the Real Estate Foundation of BC. ?The night will feature a set of short, image-driven presentations by local renters about what they value about their homes. Presenters will also share what challenges they experience as renters in Vancouver. Following the renters' presentations, panelists will ...

  19. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I. (Urbana, IL); Petrov, Ivan G. (Champaign, IL)

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  20. Hydroelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipprian, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The idea behind a hydro electric generator is to have a large potential well of water that you can be controlled to be able to convert into kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is from the flow of water which is directed towards some kind of turbine. In turn the kinetic energy is turned into mechanical energy. The turning of the turbine rotates the rotor part of the generator, and the stator remains stationary. Induction is caused when the rotor is rotating around the stator. This is caused when a magnetic field interacts with a wire causing the electrons inside the wire to face in the same direction. Once the magnetic field begins to move the electrons start to flow through the wire creating current. For this to work the direction of the magnetic field has to be perpendicular to the direction of the coils of wires. For my design I plan to funnel the flow of water into a nozzle which will be aimed towards my turbine. The turbine with be connected to a shaft that will be connected to my rotor. The rotor I designed uses a brake router for the surface to hold me magnets. The system will be vertical, with the rotor as the highest part on the generator and the turbine at the bottom. The magnets will be facing downwards with the magnetic field going in a vertical direction. The stator of my generator will be the coils which will sit on top of a metal ring that have the ability to rise or low to match the height of the brake router.

  1. A 1-D modelling of streaming potential dependence on water content during drainage experiment in sand

    CERN Document Server

    Allègre, Vincent; Ackerer, Philippe; Jouniaux, Laurence; Sailhac, Pascal; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05371.x

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of electrokinetics for unsaturated conditions is crucial for numerous of geophysical data interpretation. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the streaming potential coefficient C as a function of the water saturation Sw is still discussed. We propose here to model both the Richards' equation for hydrodynamics and the Poisson's equation for electrical potential for unsaturated conditions using 1-D finite element method. The equations are first presented and the numerical scheme is then detailed for the Poisson's equation. Then, computed streaming potentials (SPs) are compared to recently published SP measurements carried out during drainage experiment in a sand column. We show that the apparent measurement of DV / DP for the dipoles can provide the SP coefficient in these conditions. Two tests have been performed using existing models for the SP coefficient and a third one using a new relation. The results show that existing models of unsaturated SP coefficients C(Sw) provide poor results in term...

  2. Stochastic and Deterministic Vector Chromatography of Suspended Particles in 1D-Periodic Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Bernate, Jorge A

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive description of vector chromatography that includes deterministic and stochastic transport in 1D-periodic free-energy landscapes, with both energetic and entropic contributions, and highlights the parameters governing the deflection angle, i.e. the Peclet number and the partition ratio. We also investigate the dependence of the deflection angle on the shape of the free-energy landscape by varying the width of the linear transitions in an otherwise dichotomous potential. Finally, we present experimental results obtained in a microfluidic system in which gravity drives the suspended particles and, in combination with a bottom surface patterned with shallow rectangular grooves, creates a periodic landscape of (potential) energy barriers. The experiments validate the model and demonstrate that a simple, passive microdevice can lead to vector separation of colloidal particles based on both size and density.

  3. A 1-D multigroup diffusion equation nodal model using the orthogonal collocation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1-D nodal model is developed for solving the multigroup diffusion equation. The neutron flux is calculated at certain collocation points within a given node using an iterative process. The partial currents are used at the nodal interfaces. The location of the collocation points within a node is determined from the roots of the transformed Legendre polynomials. Two sample problems, using two and four internal collocation points, were used to test the accuracy of the model. In both sample problems, the results of the nodal model matched the results of the fine-mesh finite-difference calculations. The model presented here has been developed in a general format and the necessary equations for any number of collocation points can be obtained with great ease. (Author)

  4. A 1-D multigroup diffusion equation nodal model using the orthogonal collocation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiz, M. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Soddy-Daisy, TN (United States). TVA-On site Degree Program

    1997-02-01

    A 1-D nodal model is developed for solving the multigroup diffusion equation. The neutron flux is calculated at certain collocation points within a given node using an iterative process. The partial currents are used at the nodal interfaces. The location of the collocation points within a node is determined from the roots of the transformed Legendre polynomials. Two sample problems, using two and four internal collocation points, were used to test the accuracy of the model. In both sample problems, the results of the nodal model matched the results of the fine-mesh finite-difference calculations. The model presented here has been developed in a general format and the necessary equations for any number of collocation points can be obtained with great ease. (Author).

  5. Identification of yeast and human 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-d-ribofuranoside (AICAr) transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Johanna; Saint-Marc, Christelle; Laporte, Jean; Labriet, Adrien; Philippe, Chloé; Moenner, Michel; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Pinson, Benoît

    2014-06-13

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-d-ribofuranoside (AICAr) is the precursor of the active monophosphate form (AICAR), a small molecule with potent anti-proliferative and low energy mimetic properties. The molecular bases for AICAR toxicity at the cellular level are poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of several yeast AICAr-hypersensitive mutants. Identification of the cognate genes allowed us to establish that thiamine transporters Thi7 and Thi72 can efficiently take up AICAr under conditions where they are overexpressed. We establish that, under standard growth conditions, Nrt1, the nicotinamide riboside carrier, is the major AICAr transporter in yeast. A study of AICAR accumulation in human cells revealed substantial disparities among cell lines and confirmed that AICAr enters cells via purine nucleoside transporters. Together, our results point to significant differences between yeast and human cells for both AICAr uptake and AICAR accumulation. PMID:24778186

  6. Miniband lasing in a 1D dual-periodic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we demonstrate miniband lasing in a 1D dual-periodic photonic crystal (PC). The lasing efficiency is dramatically enhanced by about eight times and meanwhile the threshold is decreased to about 1/6 of that of the band-edge lasing in a single-periodic PC. This high optical conversion efficiency can be attributed to the extremely flat dispersion and large mode volume of the miniband induced by dual-periodicity. Numerical studies are presented to explain the mechanism of the spontaneous emission enhancement induced by the miniband, which are in good accord with our experiments. This finding may provide potential applications to low-threshold lasers and the semiconductor laser community. (letter)

  7. Reparametrization invariance in some non-local 1D field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we consider 1D non-local field theories with a particular 1/r2 interaction, a constant gauge field and an arbitrary scalar potential. We show that any such theory that is at a renormalization group fixed point also satisfies an infinite set of reparametrization invariance Ward identities. We also prove that, for special values of the gauge field, the value of the potential that satisfies the Ward identities to first order in the potential strength remains a solution to all orders in the potential strength, summed over all loops. These theories are of interest because they describe dissipative quantum mechanics with an arbitrary potential and a constant magnetic field. They also give solutions to open string theory in the presence of a uniform gauge field and an arbitrary tachyon field. ((orig.))

  8. Toward a consistent use of overshooting parametrizations in 1D stellar evolution codes

    CERN Document Server

    Viallet, Maxime; Prat, Vincent; Arnett, David

    2015-01-01

    Several parametrizations for overshooting in 1D stellar evolution calculations coexist in the literature. These parametrizations are used somewhat arbitrarily in stellar evolution codes, based on what works best for a given problem, or even for historical reasons related to the development of each code. We bring attention to the fact that these different parametrizations correspond to different physical regimes of overshooting, depending whether the effects of radiation are dominant, marginal, or negligible. Our analysis is based on previously published theoretical results, as well as multidimensional hydrodynamical simulations of stellar convection where the interaction between the convective region and a stably-stratified region is observed. Although the underlying hydrodynamical processes are the same, the outcome of the overshooting process is profoundly affected by radiative effects. Using a simple picture of the scales involved in the overshooting process, we show how three regimes are obtained, dependi...

  9. Quantum phase transition of light in a 1-D photon-hopping-controllable resonator array

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chun-Wang; Deng, Zhi-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2011-01-01

    We give a concrete experimental scheme for engineering the insulator-superfluid transition of light in a one-dimensional (1-D) array of coupled superconducting stripline resonators. In our proposed architecture, the on-site interaction and the photon hopping rate can be tuned independently by adjusting the transition frequencies of the charge qubits inside the resonators and at the resonator junctions, respectively, which permits us to systematically study the quantum phase transition of light in a complete parameter space. By combining the techniques of photon-number-dependent qubit transition and fast read-out of the qubit state using a separate low-Q resonator mode, the statistical property of the excitations in each resonator can be obtained with a high efficiency. An analysis of the various decoherence sources and disorders shows that our scheme can serve as a guide to coming experiments involving a small number of coupled resonators.

  10. A density-functional approach to fermionization in the 1D Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Joachim [Max Plank Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-04-14

    A time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme for 1D bosons with contact interaction is derived based on a model of spinor fermions. This model is specifically designed for the study of the strong interaction regime close to the Tonks gas. It allows us to treat the transition from the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau to the weakly interacting quasicondensate regime and provides an intuitive picture of the extent of fermionization in the system. An adiabatic local-density approximation is devised for the study of time-dependent processes. This scheme is shown to yield not only accurate ground-state properties but also overall features of the elementary excitation spectrum, which is described exactly in the Tonks-gas limit.

  11. A density-functional approach to fermionization in the 1D Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme for 1D bosons with contact interaction is derived based on a model of spinor fermions. This model is specifically designed for the study of the strong interaction regime close to the Tonks gas. It allows us to treat the transition from the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau to the weakly interacting quasicondensate regime and provides an intuitive picture of the extent of fermionization in the system. An adiabatic local-density approximation is devised for the study of time-dependent processes. This scheme is shown to yield not only accurate ground-state properties but also overall features of the elementary excitation spectrum, which is described exactly in the Tonks-gas limit

  12. Amplification effects on the transmission and reflexion phases in 1D periodic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the localization recently observed for locally non-hermitian Hamiltonians by studying the effect of the amplification on the scaling behavior of the transmission and reflection phases in 1D periodic chains of ?-potentials. The amplification here is represented by an imaginary term added to the on-site potential. It is found that both phases of the transmission and reflection amplitudes are strongly affected by the amplification term. In particular, the phases in the region of amplification become independent of the length scale while they oscillate strongly near the maximum transmission (or reflection). The interference effects on the phase in passive systems are used to interpret those observed in the presence of amplification. The phases of the transmission and reflection are found to oscillate in passive systems with increasing periods in the allowed band for the transmission phase while for the reflection phase, its initial value is always less than ?/2 in this band. (author)

  13. Psoriasis-associated variant Act1 D10N with impaired regulation by Hsp90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenhui; Wu, Ling; Bulek, Katarzyna; Martin, Bradley N.; Zepp, Jarod A.; Kang, Zizhen; Liu, Caini; Herjan, Tomasz; Misra, Saurav; Carman, Julie A.; Gao, Ji; Dongre, Ashok; Han, Shujie; Bunting, Kevin D.; Ko, Jennifer S.; Xiao, Hui; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Ouyang, Wenjun; Li, Xiaoxia

    2012-01-01

    Act1 is an essential adaptor molecule in IL-17-mediated signaling and is recruited to the IL-17 receptor upon IL-17 stimulation. Here, we report that Act1 is a client protein of the molecular chaperone, Hsp90. The Act1 variant (D10N) linked to psoriasis susceptibility is defective in its interaction with Hsp90, resulting in a global loss of Act1 function. Act1-/- mice modeled the mechanistic link between Act1 loss of function and psoriasis susceptibility. Although Act1 is necessary for IL-17-mediated inflammation, Act1-/- mice exhibited a hyper TH17 response and developed spontaneous IL-22-dependent skin inflammation. In the absence of IL-17-signaling, IL-22 is the main contributor to skin inflammation, providing a molecular mechanism for the association of Act1 (D10N) with psoriasis susceptibility. PMID:23202271

  14. Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaofei; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model. In the case with a small nonlinearity (small amplitude of wave), asymptotic analysis predicts several behaviours of the wave: propagation in a uniform tube, attenuation of the amplitude due to the skin friction, diffusion due to the viscosity of the wall, and reflection and transmission at a branching point. These predictions are compared very favorably with all of the numerical solutions. The schemes are also tested in case with a larger nonlinearity. Finally, we apply all of the schemes on a relatively realistic arterial system with 55 arteries. The schemes are compared in four aspects: the spatial and temporal convergence speed, the ability to capture shock phenomena, the computation speed and the complexity of the implementation. The suitable conditions for the application of the various schemes are discussed.

  15. A 1D Optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap

    CERN Document Server

    Gomis-Bresco, J; Oudich, M; El-Jallal, S; Griol, A; Puerto, D; Chavez, E; Pennec, Y; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Alzina, F; Martínez, A; Torres, C M Sotomayor

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the boom of cavity optomechanics, which exploits the confinement and coupling of optical waves and mechanical vibrations at the nanoscale. Amongst the different physical implementations,optomechanical (OM) crystals built on semiconductor slabs are particularly interesting since they enable the integration and manipulation of multiple OM elements in a single chip and provide GHz phonons suitable for coherent phonon manipulation. Different demonstrations of coupling of infrared photons and GHz phonons in cavities created by inserting defects on OM crystals have been performed. However, the considered structures do not show a complete phononic bandgap at the frequencies of interest, which in principle should allow longer dephasing time, since acoustic leakage is minimized. In this work we demonstrate the excitation of acoustic modes in a 1D OM crystal properly designed to display a full phononic bandgap for acoustic modes at about 4 GHz. The confined phonons have an OM coupling rangin...

  16. Fep1d: A script for the analysis of reaction coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banushkina, Polina V; Krivov, Sergei V

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of complex systems with many degrees of freedom can be analyzed by projecting it onto one or few coordinates (collective variables). The dynamics is often described then as diffusion on a free energy landscape associated with the coordinates. Fep1d is a script for the analysis of such one-dimensional coordinates. The script allows one to construct conventional and cut-based free energy profiles, to assess the optimality of a reaction coordinate, to inspect whether the dynamics projected on the coordinate is diffusive, to transform (rescale) the reaction coordinate to more convenient ones, and to compute such quantities as the mean first passage time, the transition path times, the coordinate dependent diffusion coefficient, and so forth. Here, we describe the implemented functionality together with the underlying theoretical framework. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25716583

  17. Measurement-induced disturbance and thermal negativity in 1D optical lattice chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) in a 1D optical lattice chain with nonlinear coupling. Special attention is paid to the difference between the thermal entanglement and MID when considering the influences of the linear coupling constant, nonlinear coupling constant and external magnetic field. It is shown that MID is more robust than thermal entanglement against temperature T and external magnetic field B, and MID may reveal more properties about quantum correlations of the system, which can be seen from the point of view that MID can be nonzero when there is no thermal entanglement and MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: ? The nonlinear coupling constant can strengthen the quantum correlation. ? MID is more robust than entanglement against temperature and magnetic field. ? MID exhibits more information about quantum correlation than entanglement. ? MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature.

  18. O(D) invariant tachyon condensates in the 1/D expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Grignani, G; Orselli, M; Semenoff, Gordon W

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of condensation of open string tachyon fields which have an O(D) symmetric profile. This problem is described by a boundary conformal field theory with D scalar fields on a disc perturbed by relevant boundary operators with O(D) symmetry. The model is exactly solvable in the large D limit and we analyze its 1/D expansion. We find that this expansion is only consistent for tachyon fields which are polynomials. In that case, we show that the theory is renormalized by normal ordering the interaction. The beta-function for the tachyon field is the linear wave operator. We derive an expression for the tachyon potential and compare with other known expressions. In particular, our technique gives the exact potential for the quadratic tachyon profile. It can be used to correct the action which has been derived in that case iteratively in derivatives of the tachyon field.

  19. Harmonic Oscillator in a 1D or 2D Cavity with General Perfectly Reflecting Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Hashimi, M H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the simple harmonic oscillator in a 1-d box, and the 2-d isotropic harmonic oscillator problem in a circular cavity with perfectly reflecting boundary conditions. The energy spectrum has been calculated as a function of the self-adjoint extension parameter. For sufficiently negative values of the self-adjoint extension parameter, there are bound states localized at the wall of the box or the cavity that resonate with the standard bound states of the simple harmonic oscillator or the isotropic oscillator. A free particle in a circular cavity has been studied for the sake of comparison. This work represents an application of the recent generalization of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation related to the theory of self-adjoint extensions in a finite volume.

  20. Entanglement properties of the nontrivial Haldane insulator in the 1D extended Bose-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejima, Satoshi; Fehske, Holger

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the entanglement properties of a nontrivial topological phase in the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model with additional nearest-neighbor repulsion. Employing the large-scale density-matrix renormalization group technique we show that a gapped insulating phase protected by lattice inversion symmetry, the so-called Haldane insulator, appears between the Mott and density wave phases in the intermediate-coupling regime. The phase boundaries were determined from the central charge via the von Neumann entropy. The Haldane insulator reveals a characteristic degeneracy in the entanglement spectra. Breaking the lattice inversion symmetry strongly affects the distinctive gapped dispersion of the dynamical charge response of the bosonic Haldane insulator.

  1. Development of input structure software for MARS 1D-3D graphic user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A user-friendly Input Software for MARS 1D-3D GUI called MARA (MARS Adjunct Reactor Assembler) has been developed. Extension of the current MARA to the overall input system for MARS will result in an integrated commercial GUI comparable to those for computational analysis codes ANSYS, ABAQUS, FLUENT and CFX. MARA will help accelerate marketing of MARS and other potential system analysis codes to developing countries in Southeast Asia planning to put nuclear power in their electrical grids. MARS code and associated developmental technology are in the process of being disseminated to twenty-two organizations spanning the industry, academia and laboratories across the country. MARA will find its way to practical applications in a variety of engineering problems

  2. Efficient transparent thin dye solar cells based on highly porous 1D photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colodrero, Silvia; Lopez-Lopez, Carmen; Miguez, Hernan [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, C/Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Forneli, Amparo; Pelleja, Laia [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) Avda., Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Palomares, Emilio [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ) Avda., Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Avda. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-03-21

    A working electrode design based on a highly porous 1D photonic crystal structure that opens the path towards high photocurrents in thin, transparent, dye-sensitized solar cells is presented. By enlarging the average pore size with respect to previous photonic crystal designs, the new working electrode not only increases the device photocurrent, as predicted by theoretical models, but also allows the observation of an unprecedented boost of the cell photovoltage, which can be attributed to structural modifications caused during the integration of the photonic crystal. These synergic effects yield conversion efficiencies of around 3.5% by using just 2 {mu}m thick electrodes, with enhancements between 100% and 150% with respect to reference cells of the same thickness. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Evidence of 1D behaviour of He$^4$ confined within carbon-nanotube bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Lasjaunias, J C; Sauvajol, J L; Monceau, P

    2003-01-01

    We present the first low-temperature thermodynamic investigation of the controlled physisorption of He$^{4}$ gas in carbon single-wall nanotube (SWNT) samples. The vibrational specific heat measured between 100 mK and 6 K demonstrates an extreme sensitivity to outgassing conditions. For bundles with a few number of NTs the extra contribution to the specific heat, C$_{ads}$, originating from adsorbed He$^{4}$ at very low density displays 1D behavior, typical for He atoms localized within linear channels as grooves and interstitials, for the first time evidenced. For larger bundles, C$_{ads}$ recovers the 2D behaviour akin to the case of He$^{4}$ films on planar substrates (grafoil).

  4. Continuous models for 1D discrete media valid for higher-frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We deal with a 1D differential-difference equation governing the behavior of a n-mass oscillator. It is known that a string-type approximation is justified for low part of frequency spectra of a continuous model, but for free and forced oscillations a solution of a discrete model and of a wave equation can be quite different. The difference operator makes analysis difficult due to its non-local form. Approximate equations can be gained by replacing the difference operators via a local derivative operator. Although the application of a model with derivative of more than second order improves the continuous model, a higher order of approximated differential equation seriously complicates a solution to the stated problem. It is known that accuracy of the approximation can dramatically increase using one-point Pade approximation. In this report, we show that better results may be obtained when a two-point Pade approximation is applied

  5. An anti-symmetric exclusion process for two particles on an infinite 1D lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, J. R.; Harris, S.; Giuggioli, L.

    2011-12-01

    A system of two biased, mutually exclusive random walkers on an infinite 1D lattice is studied whereby the intrinsic bias of one particle is equal and opposite to that of the other. The propagator for this system is solved exactly and expressions for the mean displacement and mean square displacement (MSD) are found. Depending on the nature of the intrinsic bias, the system’s behaviour displays two regimes, characterised by (i) the particles moving towards each other and (ii) away from each other, both qualitatively different from the case of no bias. The continuous-space limit of the propagator is found and is shown to solve a Fokker-Planck equation for two biased, mutually exclusive Brownian particles with equal and opposite drift velocity. Connections to territorial dynamics in animal populations are discussed.

  6. An anti-symmetric exclusion process for two particles on an infinite 1D lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, J R; Giuggioli, L [Bristol Centre for Complexity Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Harris, S, E-mail: jonathan.potts.08@bris.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-02

    A system of two biased, mutually exclusive random walkers on an infinite 1D lattice is studied whereby the intrinsic bias of one particle is equal and opposite to that of the other. The propagator for this system is solved exactly and expressions for the mean displacement and mean square displacement (MSD) are found. Depending on the nature of the intrinsic bias, the system's behaviour displays two regimes, characterised by (i) the particles moving towards each other and (ii) away from each other, both qualitatively different from the case of no bias. The continuous-space limit of the propagator is found and is shown to solve a Fokker-Planck equation for two biased, mutually exclusive Brownian particles with equal and opposite drift velocity. Connections to territorial dynamics in animal populations are discussed. (paper)

  7. Diameter-dependent relaxation dynamics of 1D excitons in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied 1D exciton relaxation dynamics in semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by femtosecond pump-probe experiments. The time evolution of change in transmittance ?T/T induced by photo-excitation varies depending on the tube diameter. The decay time decreases with a decrease in the tube diameter. Pressure measurements have been conducted to explore the relaxation mechanism. The deformation potential estimated from the pressure dependence of photoluminescence spectra increases with decreasing tube diameter. This means that the exciton-phonon interaction becomes stronger in the smaller diameter tubes. The diameter dependences of decay time and deformation potential suggest that the exciton-phonon interaction plays an important role in exciton nonradiative relaxation process in semiconducting SWNTs

  8. A density-functional approach to fermionization in the 1D Bose gas

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, J

    2004-01-01

    A time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme for 1D bosons with contact interaction is derived based on a model of spinor fermions. This model is specifically designed for the study of the strong interaction regime close to the Tonks gas. It allows us to treat the transition from the strongly-interacting Tonks-Girardeau to the weakly-interacting quasicondensate regime and provides an intuitive picture of the extent of fermionization in the system. An adiabatic local-density approximation is devised for the study of time-dependent processes. This scheme is shown to yield not only accurate ground-state properties but also overall features of the elementary excitation spectrum, which is described exactly in the Tonks-gas limit.

  9. Pressure Sensor via Optical Detection Based on a 1D Spin Transition Coordination Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C?t?lin M. Jureschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the suitability of using the 1D spin crossover coordination polymer [Fe(4-(2’-hydroxyethyl-1,2,4-triazole3]I2?H2O, known to crossover around room temperature, as a pressure sensor via optical detection using various contact pressures up to 250 MPa. A dramatic persistent colour change is observed. The experimental data, obtained by calorimetric and Mössbauer measurements, have been used for a theoretical analysis, in the framework of the Ising-like model, of the thermal and pressure induced spin state switching. The pressure (P-temperature (T phase diagram calculated for this compound has been used to obtain the P-T bistability region.

  10. Pressure sensor via optical detection based on a 1D spin transition coordination polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jureschi, C?t?lin M; Linares, Jorge; Rotaru, Aurelian; Ritti, Marie Hélène; Parlier, Michel; Dîrtu, Marinela M; Wolff, Mariusz; Garcia, Yann

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the suitability of using the 1D spin crossover coordination polymer [Fe(4-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-1,2,4-triazole)3]I2?H2O, known to crossover around room temperature, as a pressure sensor via optical detection using various contact pressures up to 250 MPa. A dramatic persistent colour change is observed. The experimental data, obtained by calorimetric and Mössbauer measurements, have been used for a theoretical analysis, in the framework of the Ising-like model, of the thermal and pressure induced spin state switching. The pressure (P)-temperature (T) phase diagram calculated for this compound has been used to obtain the P-T bistability region. PMID:25621610

  11. Symmetric discontinuous Galerkin methods for 1-D waves Fourier analysis, propagation, observability and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marica, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the propagation properties of the so-called symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin (SIPG) approximations of the 1-d wave equation. This is done by means of linear approximations on uniform meshes. First, a careful Fourier analysis is constructed, highlighting the coexistence of two Fourier spectral branches or spectral diagrams (physical and spurious) related to the two components of the numerical solution (averages and jumps). Efficient filtering mechanisms are also developed by means of techniques previously proved to be appropriate for classical schemes like finite differences or P1-classical finite elements. In particular, the work presents a proof that the uniform observability property is recovered uniformly by considering initial data with null jumps and averages given by a bi-grid filtering algorithm. Finally, the book explains how these results can be extended to other more sophisticated conforming and non-conforming finite element methods, in particular to quad...

  12. Reduction formula for fermion loops and density correlations of the 1D Fermi gas

    CERN Document Server

    Neumayr, A; Neumayr, Arne; Metzner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Fermion N-loops with an arbitrary number of density vertices N > d+1 in d spatial dimensions can be expressed as a linear combination of (d+1)-loops with coefficients that are rational functions of external momentum and energy variables. A theorem on symmetrized products then implies that divergencies of single loops for low energy and small momenta cancel each other when loops with permuted external variables are summed. We apply these results to the one-dimensional Fermi gas, where an explicit formula for arbitrary N-loops can be derived. The symmetrized N-loop, which describes the dynamical N-point density correlations of the 1D Fermi gas, does not diverge for low energies and small momenta. We derive the precise scaling behavior of the symmetrized N-loop in various important infrared limits.

  13. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration. PMID:26145177

  14. Statistics of scattered photons from a driven three-level emitter in 1D open space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Dibyendu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bondyopadhaya, Nilanjan [Integrated Science Education and Research Centre, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan (India)

    2014-01-07

    We derive the statistics of scattered photons from a - or ladder-type three-level emitter (3LE) embedded in a 1D open waveguide. The weak probe photons in the waveguide are coupled to one of the two allowed transitions of the 3LE, and the other transition is driven by a control beam. This system shows electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) which is accompanied with the Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) at a strong driving by the control beam, and some of these effects have been observed recently. We show that the nature of second-order coherence of the transmitted probe photons near two-photon resonance changes from bunching to antibunching to constant as strength of the control beam is ramped up from zero to a higher value where the ATS appears.

  15. TAU: A 1D radiative transfer code for transmission spectroscopy of extrasolar planet atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Hollis, M D J; Tinetti, G

    2013-01-01

    The TAU code is a 1D line-by-line radiative transfer code, which is generally applicable for modelling transmission spectra of close-in extrasolar planets. The inputs are the assumed pressure-temperature profile of the planetary atmosphere, the continuum absorption coefficients and the absorption cross-sections for the trace molecular absorbers present in the model, as well as the fundamental system parameters taken from the published literature. The program then calculates the optical path through the planetary atmosphere of the radiation from the host star, and quantifies the absorption due to the modelled composition in a transmission spectrum of transit depth as a function of wavelength. The code is written in C++, parallelised using OpenMP, and is available for public download and use from http://www.ucl.ac.uk/exoplanets/.

  16. 1D3V PIC simulation of propagation of relativistic electron beam in an inhomogeneous plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Chandrashekhar; Patel, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    A recent experimental observation has shown efficient transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents through aligned carbon nanotube arrays [Phys. Rev Letts. 108, 235005 (2012)]. The result was subsequently interpreted on the basis of suppression of the filamentation instability in an inhomogeneous plasma [Phys. Plasmas 21, 012108 (2014)]. This inhomogeneity forms as a result of the ionization of the carbon nanotubes. In the present work a full 1D3V Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations have been carried out for the propagation of relativistic electron beams (REB) through an inhomogeneous background plasma. The suppression of the filamentation instability, responsible for beam divergence, is shown. The simulation also confirms that in the nonlinear regime too the REB propagation is better when it propagates through a plasma whose density is inhomogeneous transverse to the beam. The role of inhomogeneity scale length, its amplitude and the transverse beam temperature etc., in the suppression of the instability is ...

  17. 1D accretion discs around eccentric planets: observable near-infrared variability

    CERN Document Server

    Dunhill, Alex

    2014-01-01

    I present the results of 1D models of circumplanetary discs around planets on eccentric orbits. I use a classical viscous heating model to calculate emission fluxes at the wavelengths targeted by the NIRCam instrument on JWST, and compare the variability of this signal with the published NIRCam sensitivity specifications. This variability is theoretically detectable by JWST for a sufficiently viscous disc ($\\alpha \\sim 10^{-2}$) around a sufficiently eccentric planet ($e \\sim 0.1-0.2$) and if the circumplanetary disc accretes material from its parent disc at a rate $\\dot{M} \\gtrsim 10^{-7}\\, \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}\\,\\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$. I discuss the limitations of the models used, and the implications of the result for probing the effectiveness of disc interactions for growing a planet's orbital eccentricity.

  18. MODICO, 1-D Time-Dependent 1 Group, 2 Group Neutron Diffusion with Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The program solves the 1-D time-dependent one and two group coarse-mesh neutron diffusion equations, coupled with the equations for the delayed-neutron precursor, in plane geometry. 2 - Method of solution: The program is based on a simple coarse-mesh cubic approximation formula for the spatial behaviour of the flux inside each interval. An implicit scheme (the time-integrated method) is used for the advancement of the solution. The resulting (block three-diagonal) matrix is inverted at each time step by Thomas' method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of coarse- mesh intervals LE 80; number of material regions LE 10; number of delayed-neutron precursor groups LE 10. Typical mesh sizes range from 5 cm to 20 cm; typical step length (non-prompt critical transients) ranges from 0.005 to 0.1 seconds

  19. MOL1D: a general purpose subroutine package for the numerical solution of partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOL1D is a FORTRAN subroutine package for the method of lines solution for systems of initial-boundary-value partial differential equations in one space dimension. Using the package, a programer with limited experience in numerical analysis can accurately solve linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations with or without discontinuities, linear and nonlinear parabolic equations (including those arising in reaction-diffusion equations), and elliptic boundary-value problems when posed as the stable time-independent solution of a parabolic equation. Systems are handled as easily as single equations, and a wide variety of boundary conditions can be accommodated, including most that arise in applications. The major advantage of the package is that initial-value problems can be solved accurately with a minimum of programing effort and with moderate computer cost. 4 figures, 1 table

  20. Canonical quantization of nonlocal theories related to bosonization in 2 + 1D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a canonical formulation for theories whose actions contain non-integer powers of the d'Alembertian operator and which were recently shown to play a central role in 2 + 1D bosonization. We show that these theories possess an infinite number of constraints and use the Dirac method in order to obtain the classical brackets. The casual and classical Green functions are obtained and their meaning in terms of field expectation values is discussed. The Wightman functions are introduced and shown to lead to the microcausality principle. A mode expansion for the field is obtained. This permits the reobtention of the Wightman functions as vacuum expectation values of products of the basic fields. Creation and annihilation operators are naturally introduced but, as shown, they are not related to definite mass particle states. This is also confirmed by the spectral decomposition of the Wightman functions. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig