WorldWideScience

Sample records for secondary hydrocarbon migration

  1. Hydrocarbon migration characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous in the Erlian Basin

    2007-01-01

    The paper systematically analyzes the hydrocarbon migration characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous in the Erlian Basin, based on the geochemical data of mudstone and sandstone in the main hydrocarbon-generating sags. (1) The source rocks in K1ba and K1bt1 are estimated to be the mature ones, their hydrocarbon expulsion ratio can reach 32%-72%. The Type-I sags in oil windows possess good hydrocarbon generation and expulsion conditions, where commercial reservoirs can be formed. (2) According to the curves of the mudstone compaction and evolution of clay minerals, the rapid compaction stage of mudstones is the right time of hydrocarbon expulsion, i.e., primary migration. (3) The timing between hydrocarbon generation and expulsion is mainly related to the accordance of the oil window and the rapid compaction stage of mudstones in the hydrocarbon generation sags of Type-I. That forms the most matching relation between hydrocarbon generation and migration. (4) The faults and unconformities are the important paths for the secondary hydrocarbon migration. Especially, the unconformity between K1ba and K1bt1 has a favorable condition for oil accumulation, where the traps of all types are the main exploration targets. (5) Hydrocarbon migration effect, in the Uliastai sag, is most significant; that in the Saihan Tal and Anan sags comes next, and that in the Bayandanan and Jargalangt sags is worst.

  2. A Model of Secondary Hydrocarbon Migration As a Buoyancy-Driven Separate Phase Flow Un modèle de migration secondaire des hydrocarbures considéré comme un écoulement en phases séparées régi par la poussée d'Archimède

    Lehner F. K.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of secondary migration is described which permits the prediction of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation patterns in a sedimentary basin, if source rock expulsion rates and geometrical and hydraulic properties of major carrier systems are known through geological time. In this model, secondary migration is treated as buoyancy-driven, segregated flow of hydrocarbons in hydrostatic aquifers. Lateral, updip migration is conceived as a Boussinesq-type, free-surface flow, with source and sink terms representing supply from source rocks and leakage through cap rocks and faults. This permits a two-dimensional, map-view mathematical description of a three-dimensional, time-dependent secondary migration system. A nine-point finite difference approximation has been developed to minimize numerical dispersion, and upstream-weighting is used to obtain stable solutions. Example computations for simple, single carrier bed structures are presented. L'article décrit un modèle mathématique de migration secondaire prédisant la migration des hydrocarbures et leur accumulation dans un bassin sédimentaire, lorsque les taux d'expulsion des roches mères et les propriétés géométriques et hydrauliques des principaux systèmes de drainage sont connus à l'échelle du temps géologique. Dans ce modèle, la migration secondaire est traitée comme un écoulement des hydrocarbures en phase séparée, contrôlé par la poussée d'Archimède, dans des aquifères hydrostatiques. La migration latérale est considérée comme un écoulement de type Boussinesq, à surface libre, avec des termes sources et puits représentant les apports venant des roches mères et les fuites à travers les couvertures et les failles. Ceci permet une description mathématique bidimensionnelle cartographiable d'un système de migration secondaire tridimensionnel et dépendant du temps. On utilise une approximation type différences finies à neuf points pour minimiser

  3. Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation in Dongying Basin

    Li Chunguang; Shang Weirong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Dongying basin is a faulted basin rich in hydrocarbon and is under more exploration (wildcat well density is 0.155 well/km ) in the southern Bohai Bay area of China, covering an area of 5700 km. Based on the paleotopographic setting of Paleozoic basement rocks, the basin was evolved into Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin which was faulted in the north and overlapped in the south by the blockfaulting movement in J2-J3. So, each formation of the source rocks in Paleogene is characterized by thick deposit in the north and thin deposit in the south.

  4. Artificial Neural Network Model of Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation

    刘海滨; 吴冲龙

    2002-01-01

    Based on the dynamic simulation of the 3-D structure the sedimentary modeling, the unit entity model has been adopted to transfer the heterogeneous complex pas sage system into limited simple homogeneous entity, and then the traditional dyn amic simulation has been used to calculate the phase and the drive forces of the hyd rocarbon , and the artificial neural network(ANN) technology has been applied to resolve such problems as the direction, velocity and quantity of the hydrocarbo n migration among the unit entities. Through simulating of petroleum migration a nd accumulation in Zhu Ⅲ depression, the complex mechanism of hydrocarbon migra tion and accumulation has been opened out.

  5. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  6. Numerical modeling of secondary migration and its applications to Chang-6 Member of Yanchang Formation (Upper Triassic), Longdong area, Ordos Basin, China

    2007-01-01

    Mathematic modeling, established on the basis of physical experiments, is becoming an increasingly important tool in oil and gas migration studies. This technique is based on the observation that hydrocarbon migration tends to take relative narrow pathways. A mathematical model of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation is constructed using the percolation theory. It is then calibrated using physical experimental results, and is tested under a variety of conditions, to understand the applicability of the model in different migration cases. Through modeling, dynamic conditions of large-scale migration pathways within homogeneous formations can be evaluated. Basin-scale hydrocarbon migration pathways and their characteristics are analyzed during the model application to the Chang-8 Member of the Triassic Yanchang Formation in Longdong area of Ordos Basin. In heterogeneous formations, spatial changes in fluid potential determine the direction of secondary migration, and heterogeneity controls the characteristics and geometry of secondary migration pathways.

  7. Concerning the petroleum hydrocarbons migration in the permafrost zone

    Goncharov, I. V.; Panova, E.; Grinko, A.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms controlling methane emissions in the Laptev Sea it is extremely important to know the distribution patterns of subsea permafrost in the coastal zone. One possible solution to this problem is to analyze the hydrocarbon fluids in the bottom sediments. The object of our study was the core sample from Ivashkinskaya lagoon (Lena Delta, Sakha Republic). Pyrolytic studies were performed for this core sample (ROCK- EVAL 6 TURBO). According to the pyrolysis results there were 5 samples from the upper section in the range 0.36-5.58m selected for the further studies. The common feature of these samples is high content level of the pelitic component. They contain more than 1.0% of TOC and are composed of volatile organic compounds. Extracts obtained from the core sample were analyzed by GC-MS («Hewlett Packard» 6890/5973). Analyzed extracts demonstrated different classes of organic compounds in their composition with saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons and acids dominating. Here are the histograms of n-alkanes in function of the carbon atoms number in the molecule (Figure). Considering our work experience with the Black Sea sediments we suggest that the samples with a high degree of even n-alkanes are confined to zones of petroleum hydrocarbons migration coming from the deep oil deposits. Figure. Typical n-alkanes distribution in the extracts (horizontal axis - the number of carbon atoms in the molecule, vertical axis - relative abundance)

  8. Arsenic cycling in hydrocarbon plumes: secondary effects of natural attenuation

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Schreiber, Madeline E.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Ziegler, Brady A.

    2016-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation is widely applied as a remediation strategy at hydrocarbon spill sites. Natural attenuation relies on biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled with reduction of electron acceptors, including solid phase ferric iron (Fe(III)). Because arsenic (As) adsorbs to Fe-hydroxides, a potential secondary effect of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons coupled with Fe(III) reduction is a release of naturally occurring As to groundwater. At a crude-oil-contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota, anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled to Fe(III) reduction has been well documented. We collected groundwater samples at the site annually from 2009 to 2013 to examine if As is released to groundwater and, if so, to document relationships between As and Fe inside and outside of the dissolved hydrocarbon plume. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the plume reached 230 µg/L, whereas groundwater outside the plume contained less than 5 µg/L As. Combined with previous data from the Bemidji site, our results suggest that (1) naturally occurring As is associated with Fe-hydroxides present in the glacially derived aquifer sediments; (2) introduction of hydrocarbons results in reduction of Fe-hydroxides, releasing As and Fe to groundwater; (3) at the leading edge of the plume, As and Fe are removed from groundwater and retained on sediments; and (4) downgradient from the plume, patterns of As and Fe in groundwater are similar to background. We develop a conceptual model of secondary As release due to natural attenuation of hydrocarbons that can be applied to other sites where an influx of biodegradable organic carbon promotes Fe(III) reduction.

  9. Migration of hydrocarbons in the subsoil of an industrial installation

    The fate of old industrial sites is a major problem at the beginning of the new millennium for government organization, agencies owning polluted sites... These brown-field sites often generate considerable pollution of soils and groundwater, the main source of drinking water. The National Center for Research on Polluted Soils and Sites (CNRSSP), in which the CEA is an active partner, is developing a strategy to study and, using several scientific tools, characterize industrial sites polluted by various contaminants: metals, metalloids, hydrocarbons, nitrates. The present study offers an example of the investigation of an old industrial site (coke plant), built in 1919 (in operation for 50 years), located in northern France. The storage of tars and wastewaters on these sites causes soil and groundwater contamination with organic compounds such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene BTEX), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic and other hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds including metalloids (free and complexed cyanides) and metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Hg). The more soluble constituents tend to migrate to adjacent areas with the groundwater flow and thereby reach receptors such as drinking water resources. Among the above pollutants, the 16 PAHs from the priority list of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are of great environmental concern due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The remediation of PAH-polluted sites poses a crucial challenge given the large number of sites contaminated by these pollutants and the difficulty in eliminating the pollution. A better evaluation of the PAH transfer and transport in soils and aquifers will also help draw up remediation strategies. In this study, a numerical model, called SIMUSCOPP and developed by the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), BURGEAP and ENI group for organic pollutants, was used to simulate 3D transfer and

  10. Hydrocarbon solubility and its migration processes: a look at the present status

    Mamun, C.K.; Ohkuma, H.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1985-12-01

    In this study we review the present status of knowledge of solubility of hydrocarbons and its implications on primary migration processes. The intent is to examine the solubility and the transportation mechanisms relevant to geopressured-geothermal reservoirs, although the discussion included here accommodates a wide range of related aspects. Influences of parameters associated with hydrocarbon (especially methane) solubility have been studied. We have sought to evaluate several primary hydrocarbon migration processes and to point out their attractive features as well as their limitations. A brief discussion of hydrocarbon generation processes is also included.

  11. Source and migration of light hydrocarbons indicated by carbon isotopic ratios

    Carbon isotopic ratios can distinguish among different sources of methane and can be used to correlate maturity of sediments with the methane. This technique has been applied to several wells and the isotopic values have been used to suggest the sources of the methane and whether the methane migrated into the area. Comparison of the isotopic ratio changes in ethane, propane, and butanes indicated that isotopic fractionation of methane by migration is not a major factor. The significant changes in methane isotopic ratio and the small changes in the isotopic ratios of these heavier hydrocarbons suggest that, although diffusion is not the sole process in migration, the time for migration is moderate

  12. Steering Proton Migration in Hydrocarbons Using Intense Few-Cycle Laser Fields

    Kübel, M.; Siemering, R.; Burger, C.; Kling, Nora G.; Li, H.; Alnaser, A. S.; Bergues, B.; Zherebtsov, S.; Azzeer, A. M.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Moshammer, R.; de Vivie-Riedle, R.; Kling, M. F.

    2016-05-01

    Proton migration is a ubiquitous process in chemical reactions related to biology, combustion, and catalysis. Thus, the ability to manipulate the movement of nuclei with tailored light within a hydrocarbon molecule holds promise for far-reaching applications. Here, we demonstrate the steering of hydrogen migration in simple hydrocarbons, namely, acetylene and allene, using waveform-controlled, few-cycle laser pulses. The rearrangement dynamics is monitored using coincident 3D momentum imaging spectroscopy and described with a widely applicable quantum-dynamical model. Our observations reveal that the underlying control mechanism is due to the manipulation of the phases in a vibrational wave packet by the intense off-resonant laser field.

  13. Dating hydrocarbon genera-tion and migration based on bitumen reflectance

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of thermal maturation theories of organic matter in sediments and an improved Karweil's method, a method for dating hydrocarbon generation and migration by means of bitumen reflectance has been suggested. A few representative boreholes in the Tazhong Area of the Tarim Basin was investigated by this method. The results indicate that the three phases of bitumen from the Tazhong Area formed during Middle and Late Ordovician, Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary, and Late Tertiary, respectively. This implicates that there were three phases of hydrocarbon generation and migration occurring in this area during geological history. This study provided a new idea for the geological application of geochemical data of bitumen.

  14. Steering proton migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields

    Kübel, M; Burger, C; Kling, Nora G; Li, H; Alnaser, A S; Bergues, B; Zherebtsov, S; Azzeer, A M; Ben-Itzhak, I; Moshammer, R; de Vivie-Riedle, R; Kling, M F

    2015-01-01

    Proton migration is a ubiquitous process in chemical reactions related to biology, combustion, and catalysis. Thus, the ability to control the movement of nuclei with tailored light, within a hydrocarbon molecule holds promise for far-reaching applications. Here, we demonstrate the steering of hydrogen migration in simple hydrocarbons, namely acetylene and allene, using waveform-controlled, few-cycle laser pulses. The rearrangement dynamics are monitored using coincident 3D momentum imaging spectroscopy, and described with a quantum-dynamical model. Our observations reveal that the underlying control mechanism is due to the manipulation of the phases in a vibrational wavepacket by the intense off-resonant laser field.

  15. The performance of ammonium exchanged zeolite for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in soil water.

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoff W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen deficiency has been identified as the main inhibiting factor for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in low nutrient environments. This study examines the performance of ammonium exchanged zeolite to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons migrating in soil water within laboratory scale flow cells. Biofilm formation and biodegradation were accelerated by the exchange of cations in soil water with ammonium in the pores of the exchanged zeolite when compared with natural zeolite flow cells. These results have implications for sequenced permeable reactive barrier design and the longevity of media performance within such barriers at petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites deficient in essential soil nutrients. PMID:27132074

  16. Modeling the Role of Alkanes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Their Oligomers in Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    A computationally efficient method to treat secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from various length and structure alkanes as well as SOA from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to predict aerosol concentrations ...

  17. Steering of hydrogen migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields

    Li, Hui; Kuebel, Matthias; Burger, Christian; Kling, Nora; Foerg, Benjamin; Zherebtsov, Sergey; Kling, Matthias; Kaziannis, Spyros; Siemering, Robert; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina; Stierle, Johannes; Kessel, Alexander; Betsch, Kelsie; Bergues, Boris; Trushin, Sergei; Alnaser, Ali; Azzeer, Abdallah; Ben-Itzhak, Itzik; Moshammer, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Structural rearrangements in hydrocarbons, namely acetylene, allene and toluene, are initiated by phase- and intensity-controlled few-cycle laser pulses. The momentum distributions of several ionic fragments are monitored using single-shot VMI and COLTRIMS. The results show that the hydrogen migration in these hydrocarbons can be steered by changing the CEP and the intensity of the few-cycle pulses. Quantum dynamical calculations performed on acetylene and allene show that a superposition of vibrational modes can be created by wave-form controlled few-cycle laser fields, which will result in a directionality of the hydrogen migration. This mechanism, which appears to be of general importance for such complex molecules, should also be able to explain the molecular dynamics observed in toluene.

  18. Importance des phénomènes de migration verticale des hydrocarbures Significance of Vertical Migration Phenomea of Hydrocarbons

    Chiarelle A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette publication a pour but de démonter les mécanismes de migration verticale des hydrocarbures et d'en analyser les conséquences, à partir d'exemples concrets choisis sur les domaines d'activité de la Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (Production [SNEA (PJ. Les hydrocarbures, huile et gaz, rassemblés en phase individualisée évoluent dans un milieu poreux, fin, généralement mouillé à l'eau. Dans un tel environnement la migration suppose des pressions capillaires élevées. On démontre que cette condition se realise plus particulièrement sur Ies zones hautes fermées où les élements d'hydrocarbures expulses de la roche mère peuvent se rassembler en amas de taille importante, développant une forte poussee d'Archimède. De même le gaz, du fait de sa masse volumique faible par rapport à celle de l'eau, manifestera une grande aptitude à la migration verticale, ce qui conduira souvent à une redistribution verticale des hydrocarbures non conforme au schéma diagénétique classique : présence d'un gisement de gaz en surface et huile en profondeur. Combinés à l'effet Gussow, phénomène de refoulement de l'huile par le gaz hors de la fermeture critique d'une structure, les processus envisagés ici, où tes accidents tectoniques tiennent une place importante, aboutiront généralement à sil: aerer spatialement l'huile et le gaz. Ces transferts semblent s'accompagner fréquemment de modifications dans la composition chimique des huiles : augmentation des teneurs en soufre, en métaux traces, en hydrocarbures aromatiques, et alourdissement des huiles The purpose of this article is ta described the vertical migration mechanisms of hydrocarbons and to analyze their conséquences, on the basis of concrete examples selected in the fields of activities carried on by Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA. When hydrocarbons (ai( and gas are gathered in a distinct phase, they evolve in a fine porous medium that is usually water wet. In

  19. Numerical modeling of compositional variation in petroleum secondary migration; Modelagem numerica da variacao composicional na migracao secundaria de petroleo

    Magalhaes, Marcia Santos de Almeida

    1999-07-01

    The secondary migration of petroleum is analyzed in this study from a compositional perspective, with phase separation, using a numerical simulator. The modeling is focused on two different geologic scenarios, where migration occurs along the formation rocks or through a fault. Each scenario is initialized with a single-phase hydrocarbon bank, with mixtures defined in the oil and gas zones and in the proximity of the critical point in their respective phase envelopes. These fluids are obtained using a PVT simulator based on four samples (Black-oil, volatile oil and two retrograde gases) which generate various hydrocarbon mixtures from which some are selected to meet the pressure and temperature conditions established for the models. The results obtained indicate that the phase separation process, the migration and the oil and gas differences are adequately represented, and that this type of modeling may be used to explain complex fluid distribution in a single accumulation or petroleum province. However, the analysis of post-filling processes indicate the need for the inclusion of a diffusive term in the flow equations used in the simulator and for a higher precision in the fluid properties outputs. (author)

  20. Fracturing controlled primary migration of hydrocarbon fluids during heating of organic-rich shales

    Kobchenko, Maya; Renard, Francois; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Malthe-Sorenssen, Anders; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Meakin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved three-dimensional in situ high resolution synchrotron x-ray tomographic imaging was used to investigate the effects of slowly heating organic-rich Green River Shale from 60\\deg; to 400\\deg;C, in air without confinement, to better understand primary migration of hydrocarbon fluids in very low permeability source rock. Cracks nucleate in the interior of the sample at a temperature around 350\\deg;C. As the temperature increases, they grow and coalesce along lamination planes to form bigger cracks. This process is accompanied by a release of light hydrocarbons generated by decomposition of the initially immature organic matter, as determined by thermogravimetry and gas chromatography. These results provide the first 4D monitoring of an invasion percolation-like fracturing process in organic-rich shales. This process increases the permeability of the sample and provides pathways for fluid expulsion - an effect that might also be relevant for primary migration under natural conditions. We propose a 2D...

  1. Estimate Secondary Oil Migration Distance Using Pyrrolic Nitrogen Compounds in Petroleum

    Li Maowen

    1997-01-01

    @@ Secondary oil migration represents one of the most important, yet least understood, geological processes responsible for the petroleum accumulation in a sedimentary basin. During secondary migration, petroleum moves updip as high-petroleum saturation rivers driven largely by buoyancy over migration distances ranging from millimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Mass balance calculations indicate that the oil-saturated portions of the carrier bed are in the order of 1%~10% of the carrier bed volume. In most cases, however, the actual dimensions of migration conduits cannot be defined by direct observation,thus preventing useful volumetric estimates of oil charges to structures, or prospect-scale deterministic modeling of secondary migration for predictive purpose.

  2. Kinetic simulating experiment on the secondary hydrocarbon generation of kerogen

    XIONG; Yongqiang

    2002-01-01

    [1]Magoon, L. B., Dow, W. G., The petroleum system, in The Petroleum System--from Source to Trap (eds., Magoon, L. B., Dow, W. G..), AAPG Memoir 60, 1994, 3-24.[2]Ungerer, P., Pelet, R., Extrapolation of oil and gas formation kinetics from laboratory experiments to sedimentary basins, Nature, 1987, 327: 52-54.[3]Behar, F., Kressmann, S., Vandenbroucke, M. et al., Experimental simulation in a confined system and kinetic modelling of kerogen and oil cracking, Org. Geochem., 1991, 19: 173-189.[4]Behar, F., Vandenbroucke, M., Tang, Y. et al., Thermal cracking of kerogen in open and closed systems: determination of kinetic parameters and stoichiometric coefficients for oil and gas generation, Org. Geochem, 1997, 26(5/6): 321-339.[5]Waples, D. W., Time and temperture in petroleum exploration: application of Lopatin's method to petroleum exploration, AAPG Bulletin, 1980, 64: 916-926.[6]Dai, H. M., Wang, S. Y., Wang, H. Q. et al., Formation characteristics of natural gas reservoirs and favorable exploration areas in Sinian-Cambrian, Petroleum Exploration and Development (in Chinese), 1999, 26(5): 16-20.[7]Editorial Committee of Petroleum Geology of China Petroleum, Petroleum Geology of China, Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1989.[8]Liu, J. Z., Tang, Y. C., One example of predicting methane generation yield by hydrocarbon generating kinetics, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1998, 43(11): 1187-1191.[9]Wang, J., Huang, S. Y., Huang, G. S. et al., Basic Characteristics of the Earth's Temperature Distribution in China (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismological Press, 1990.[10]Wang, Y. G., Yu X. F., Yang Y. et al., Applications of fluid inclusions in the study of paleogeotemperature in Sichuan Basin, Earth Science--Journal of China University of Geosciences (in Chinese), 1998, 23(3): 285-288.[11]Wu, D. M., Wu, N. L., Gao, J. J., The study of paleogeotemperature in Shichuan Basin and their geological significance, Acta Petroleum Sinica (in

  3. Novel Approach for Evaluating Secondary Organic Aerosol from Aromatic Hydrocarbons: SOA Yield and Chemical Composition

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Qi, Li; Kacarab, Mary; Cocker, David

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons account for 20%-30% of urban atmospheric VOCs and are major contributors to anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, prediction of SOA from aromatic hydrocarbons as a function of structure, NOx concentration, and OH radical levels remains elusive. Innovative SOA yield and chemical composition evaluation approaches are developed here to investigate SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons. SOA yield is redefined in this work by adjusting the molecular weight of all aromatic precursors to the molecular weight of benzene (Yield'= Yieldi×(MWi/MWBenzene); i: aromatic hydrocarbon precursor). Further, SOA elemental ratio is calculated on an aromatic ring basis rather than the classic mole basis. Unified and unique characteristics in SOA formed from aromatic hydrocarbons with different alkyl groups (varying in carbon number and location on aromatic ring) are explored by revisiting fifteen years of UC Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber data on 129 experiments from 17 aromatic precursors at urban region relevant low NOx conditions (HC:NO 11.1-171 ppbC:ppb). Traditionally, SOA mass yield of benzene is much greater than that of other aromatic species. However, when adjusting for molecular weight, a similar yield is found across the 17 different aromatic precursors. More importantly, four oxygens per aromatic ring are observed in the resulting SOA regardless of the alkyl substitutes attached to the ring, which majorly affect H/C ratio in SOA. Therefore, resulting SOA bulk composition from aromatic hydrocarbons can be predicted as C6+nH6+2nO4 (n: alkyl substitute carbon number). Further, the dominating role of the aromatic ring carbons is confirmed by studying the chemical composition of SOA formed from the photooxidation of an aromatic hydrocarbon with a 13C isotopically labeled alkyl carbon. Overall, this study unveils the similarity in SOA formation from aromatic hydrocarbons enhancing the understanding of SOA formation from

  4. The Role of Migration and Single Motherhood in Upper Secondary Education in Mexico

    Creighton, Mathew J.; Park, Hyunjoon; Teruel, Graciela M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between migration, family structure, and the risk of dropping out of upper secondary school in Mexico. Using two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey, which includes 1,080 upper secondary students, we longitudinally modeled the role of family structure in the subsequent risk of dropping out, focusing on the role of…

  5. Analysis of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons migrating from a polyolefin-based hot-melt adhesive into food.

    Lommatzsch, Martin; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Simat, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    Hot-melt adhesives are widely utilised to glue cardboard boxes used as food packaging material. They have to comply with the requirements of Article 3 of the European Framework Regulation for food contact materials (1935/2004). The hot melt raw materials analysed mainly consisted of paraffinic waxes, hydrocarbon resins and polyolefins. The hydrocarbon resins, functioning as tackifiers, were the predominant source of hydrocarbons of sufficient volatility to migrate into dry foods: the 18 hydrocarbon resins analysed contained 8.2-118 g kg(-1) saturated and up to 59 g kg(-1) aromatic hydrocarbons eluted from GC between n-C16 and n-C24, substantially more than the paraffinic waxes and the polyolefins. These tackfier resins, especially the oligomers ≤ C24, have been characterised structurally by GC×GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Migration into food was estimated using a simulating system with polenta as food simulant, which was verified by the analysis of a commercial risotto rice sample packed in a virgin fibre folding box sealed with a hot melt. About 0.5-1.5% of the potentially migrating substances (between n-C16 and n-C24) of a hot melt were found to be transferred into food under storage conditions, which can result in a food contamination in the order of 1 mg kg(-1) food (depending on the amount of potentially migrating substances from the hot melt, the hot melt surface, amount of food, contact time etc.). Migrates from hot melts are easily mistaken for mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled cardboard. PMID:26744923

  6. Nitrogen isotope geochemistry of organic matter and minerals during diagenesis and hydrocarbon migration

    Williams, Lynda B.; Ferrell, Ray E., Jr.; Hutcheon, Ian; Bakel, Allen J.; Walsh, Maud M.; Krouse, H. Roy

    1995-02-01

    The magnitude of isotopic variations between organic and inorganic nitrogen was examined in samples from three stacked hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fordoche Field (Louisiana Gulf Coast Basin, USA). Measurements were made of δ 15N in kerogen, bitumen, oil, formation water, and fixed-NH 4 extracted from mudstones, nonproductive sandstones, and productive sandstones. Nitrogen isotope fractionation occurs because 14N is released preferentially to 15N from organic molecules during thermal maturation. Released 14N goes into solution, or may be adsorbed by minerals, leaving crude oil enriched in 15N. Diagenetic clay minerals (e.g., illite) commonly form in the temperature range of hydrocarbon generation, and NH 4+ may be fixed in clay interlayers with an isotopic ratio similar to that of the migrating fluids. Results indicate that the influence of organic matter on mineral δ 15N depends on the timing of authigenic mineral formation relative to fluid migration. The average δ 15N of kerogen (3.2 ± 0.3‰) and fixed-NH 4 from mudstones (3.0 ± 1.4) is similar, while bitumen increases from +3.5 to +5.1‰ with depth. In deep reservoir sandstones (>100°C), the δ 15N of crude oil averages +5.2 ± 0.4‰, similar to the δ 15N of bitumen in the proposed source rocks. Formation waters are 14N-enriched with an average δ 15N of -2.2 ± 2.6‰. Fixed-NH 4 δ 15N values lie between that of the oil and water. The average δ 15N of fixed-NH 4 is 3.0 ± 1.2‰ in productive sandstones, and 0.2 ± 2.4‰ innonproductive sandstones. In the shallower reservoir sandstones (presently associated fluids. Productive and nonproductive sandstones have distinctly low average δ 15N values (-1.2 ± 0.8‰), yet crude oil (+11.1 ± 0.3‰) and water (+3.8 ± 0.1‰) have been 15N-enriched by ˜6‰ relative to the deeper reservoirs. This suggests that the present fluids migrated into the reservoir after authigenic illite had formed. Fluids become enriched in 15N during migration and the

  7. Mobile and immobile migrated hydrocarbons in the Embla Field, North Sea

    Bharati, Sunil

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with the geology of the Embla Field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. This field has proven to be an excellent example to apply some of the recent ideas in reservoir geochemistry and has provided a sample set. Although the Embla field is in one of the most prolific regions of the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the Central Graben, its petroleum population is significantly different from neighbouring fields in more than one way. It is hoped that this work will provide a useful database for the planning of Embla`s further development. Migrated hydrocarbons are evaluated with respect to composition, maturity, intra-reservoir communication, compartmentalization and filling history of the field. The presence of immobile solid reservoir bitumen phase (paleo-oil) is mapped and explained and its origin and implications on overall reservoir quality are discussed. 206 refs., 118 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. Physics of Buoyancy, pressure potential and Buoyancy reversal for CO2 and hydrocarbon migration

    Udo Weyer, K. [WDA Consultants Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)], email: weyer@wda-consultants.com

    2011-07-01

    Buoyancy reversal has been proven to exist by the three means of theoretical derivation, field evidence, and mathematical modelling. It is becoming urgent to use Hubbert's force potential and buoyancy reversal for studying carbon sequestration and the accumulation and production of hydrocarbons, in order to better understand the physical processes involved. As well, this study is important for optimization of both the methods of carbon sequestration and the recovery rate of hydrocarbons from reservoirs and unconventional gas plays, such as CBM and shale gas. The application of correct physics, through the existing models of regional groundwater flow, to the long-term migration of CO2, helps identify the eventual discharge points of injected CO2 and gives an estimation of the time required. With proper selection of the injection sites, it will take more than thousands or tens of thousands of years before the CO2 will re-enter the atmosphere, and the amount of CO2 discharged at that time will be significantly reduced by geochemical processes.

  9. Hydrocarbon-water interactions during brine migration: Evidence from hydrocarbon inclusions in calcite cements from Danish North Sea oil fields

    Jensenius, Jørgen; Burruss, Robert C.

    1990-03-01

    Crude oils in primary and secondary fluid inclusions in calcite from fractures in seven offshore oil fields associated with diapiric salt structures in the Danish sector of the North Sea were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography and compared with crude oils produced from the same reservoirs. Oils from fluid inclusions in all fields show evidence of biodegradation (decreased n- C17/pristane and n- C18/phytane ratios and loss of n-C 7, 2-methyl hexane, and 3-methyl hexane relative to methyl cyclohexane) and water washing (absence of benzene and depletion of toluene). Some oils in inclusions are extremely enriched in C 6 and C 7 cyclic alkanes suggesting that these samples contain hydrocarbons exsolved from ascending, hotter formation waters. Compared to inclusion oils the produced oils are less biodegraded, but are water washed, indicating that both types of oil interacted with large volumes of formation water. The carbon isotopic composition of the calcite host of the fluid inclusions in the Dagmar and Skjold fields is as light as -16.5%. PDB and the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite in and adjacent to the calcite veins in the Skjold field is as light as -39.6%. CDT, indicating that biodegradation of the oils was a source of some of the carbon in the calcite and sulfate reduction was the source of sulfur for the pyrite. The evidence for microbial degradation of petroleum is consistent with present-day reservoir temperatures (65°-96°C) but is not consistent with previous estimates of the temperatures of calcite vein filling (95°-130°C) which are much higher than the temperatures of known occurrences of biodegraded oil.

  10. Use of Invasion Percolation Models To Study the Secondary Migration of Oil and Related Problems

    Wagner, G.

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies simulations of the slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in porous media and in a single fracture. The simulations are based on the invasion percolation model. New modified versions of the model are presented that simulate migration, fragmentation and coalescence processes of the clusters of non-wetting fluid. The resulting displacement patterns are characterized by scaling laws. In particular, simulations of the secondary migration of oil through porous homogeneous rock are discussed. Fractured rocks are extreme cases of inhomogeneous porous media. Simulations of the slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in a single fracture using the standard invasion model are presented. There is a discussion of a scenario in which a cluster of non-wetting fluid migrates through a porous medium that was saturated with a wetting fluid. The migration is driven by continuously driven buoyancy forces. Both experiments and simulations are described. The same scenario is also studied theoretically and by simulations using a simplified percolation model of fluid migration in one dimension. The migration model in two dimensions, with constant buoyancy forces, is also discussed. Simulations of fluid migration, such as the secondary migration of oil, in two- and three-dimensional media are examined, the media having multi-affine properties rather than being homogeneous. Slow immiscible displacement processes in single fractures are studied using fractal geometries to model single fractures. 167 refs., 123 figs.

  11. A 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the formation of hydrocarbon migration pathways in heated organic-rich shale

    Panahi, Hamed; Kobchenko, Maya; RENARD, Francois; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Meakin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interests in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydroca...

  12. A 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the formation of hydrocarbon migration pathways in heated organic-rich shale

    Panahi, Hamed; Renard, Francois; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Meakin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interests in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms for the transport of hydrocarbons from the source rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures have been proposed, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes it is imperative to use the ...

  13. Elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked sausages by migration into polyethylene packaging.

    Semanová, Jana; Skláršová, Božena; Šimon, Peter; Šimko, Peter

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this work was a study of interactions between a smoked meat product and plastic packaging to find a possibility of elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from smoked sausages by migration into the packaging. Smoked meat sausages were packed into o-polyamide/low density polyethylene laminated film and content of four PAH was determined at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min by HPLC. During this time, total PAH4 content decreased from 30.1 to 5.7 μg/kg, benzo[a]anthracene decreased from 11.5 to 2.1 μg/kg, chrysene from 9.4 to 1.9 μg/kg, benzo[b]fluoranthene from 5.3 to 0.6 μg/kg and benzo[a]pyrene from 3.9 to 1.1 μg/kg while PAH4 content in non-packed sausages remained at a constant level. So, while sausages did not meet European safety limits set for PAH4 content of 12 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene before packaging, these limits were met at the end of the experiment. This decrease was brought about by migration of PAH4 from sausages into low density polyethylene packaging bulk and the measure of decrease can be predicted by a kinetic equation, making it possible to calculate PAH content equal to any time of experiment as well as the time of interaction necessary to fulfil EU legislative limits. PMID:26868540

  14. Use of Invasion Percolation Models To Study the Secondary Migration of Oil and Related Problems

    Wagner, G.

    1997-09-01

    In oil reservoir engineering, multi-phase displacement processes are important. This doctoral thesis describes simulations of the slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in a complex, random porous medium and in a single fracture. The study is restricted to two-phase flow in the quasi-static limit in which viscous forces can be neglected. The secondary migration of oil takes place in this regime, however, the discussion is broader in scope. The thesis connects the problem of slow two-phase flow to percolation theory and discusses the mechanisms that control immiscible displacements. A new, modified version of the invasion percolation model is used to simulate an imbibition process in a porous medium and the migration of a cluster of non-wetting fluid through a porous medium saturated with a wetting fluid. The simulations include the secondary migration of oil through porous homogeneous rock. Fluid migration through heterogeneous porous media is simulated qualitatively. Slow displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting fluid in a single rock fracture is simulated by using the standard invasion percolation model. Experiments and simulations are performed to study the fragmentation of invasion percolation-like structures of non-wetting fluid in a porous medium saturated with a wetting fluid. A scenario is studied in which a cluster of non-wettable fluid migrates through a porous medium that is saturated with a wetting fluid, the migration being driven by continuously increasing buoyancy forces. There is a simulation of the secondary migration of oil in both two- and three-dimensional media. 361 refs., 115 figs.

  15. An Assessment of Risk of Migration of Hydrocarbons or Fracturing Fluids to Fresh Water Aquifers: Wattenberg Field, CO

    Eustes, A. W.; Fleckenstein, W. W.; Stone, C.; Howell, P.

    2015-12-01

    The United States National Science Foundation, engaging 29 researchers at nine institutions, has funded a Sustainability Research Network (SRN) focused on natural gas development. The mission of this Sustainability Research Network is to provide a logical, science-based framework for evaluating the environmental, economic, and social trade-offs between development of natural gas resources and protection of water and air resources and to convey the results of these evaluations to the public in a way that improves the development of policies and regulations governing natural gas and oil development. Currently, there are a wide range of estimates of the probability of shallow aquifer contamination. There are a series of independent events that must occur to allow hydrocarbon migration and estimates were made of these probabilities. An analysis of data from drilling in the Wattenberg field, CO was made to quantify the probability of contamination. It has been determined that there are five events that must each independently happen to allow the migration of fracturing fluids, and there are three events that must occur independently for the migration of hydrocarbons. The lower number of independent events, which must arise for hydrocarbon migration to occur, explains the infrequent, but well publicized natural gas migrations in poorly constructed wellbores, and the lack of such publicized events of hydraulic fracturing fluid contamination, which was confirmed by our analysis. The significance of these results is to help quantify the risks associated with natural gas development, as related to the contamination of surface aquifers. These results will help shape the discussion of the risks of natural gas development and will assist in identifying areas of improved well construction and hydraulic fracturing practices to minimize risk.

  16. Contribution of First- versus Second-Generation Products to Secondary Organic Aerosols Formed in the Oxidation of Biogenic Hydrocarbons

    Ng, Nga L.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Keywood, Melita D.; Bahreini, Roya; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbons emitted by vegetation are important contributors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the aerosol formation mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, the formation of aerosols and gas-phase products from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of a series of biogenic hydrocarbons (isoprene, 8 monoterpenes, 4 sesquiterpenes, and 3 oxygenated terpenes) are examined. By comparing aerosol growth (measured by Differential Mobility Analyzers, DMAs) and gas-phase conc...

  17. Modeling potential migration of petroleum hydrocarbons from a mixed-waste disposal site in the vadose zone

    Environmental monitoring of a mixed-waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has confirmed release and migration into the vadose zone of: (1) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vapor phase and (2) trace levels of certain transuranic elements. The finding has prompted an evaluation of the potential role of waste petroleum hydrocarbons in mediating or influencing contaminant migration from the disposal site. Disposal records indicate that a large volume of machine oil contaminated with transuranic isotopes was disposed at the site along with the chlorinated solvents and other radioactive wastes. A multiphase flow model was used to assess the possible extent of oil and vapor movement through the 177 m thick vadose zone. One dimensional simulations were performed to estimate the vertical distribution of the vapor phase, the aqueous phase, and immiscible free liquid as a function of time. The simulations indicate that the oil may migrate slowly through the vadose zone, to potentially significant depths. Calculated transport rates support the following ranking with regard to relative mobility: vapor phase > aqueous phase > free liquid. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Secondary Vesical Calculus Resulting from Migration of an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    Suvarna Vagholkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD is the commonest form of contraception used in view of less systemic side effects. However, there are a multitude of local complications caused by it. Of all the local complications described, migration of the device into adjacent organs is the most morbid of all complications. A patient presenting with history of loss or disappearance of the intrauterine contraceptive device accompanied by urinary symptoms should raise the doubt of a migrated device with the formation of a secondary calculus. This prompts further radiological investigations and merits surgical intervention either endourologically or by open surgery depending upon the merits of the case. A case report elucidating this fact is presented.

  19. Seismic imaging and analysis of source and migration within an integrated hydrocarbon system study: Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Gross, Oliver P.; Hood, Kenneth C.; Harrison, Stanley C. [Exxon Exploration Co., Houston, TX (United States); Wenger, Lloyd M. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The sources for hydrocarbons in young Tertiary reservoirs of the offshore Gulf of Mexico have been enigmatic in the past due to the lack of source rock penetration in offshore drilling. Exxon formed a multidisciplinary team to address source, maturation, and migration in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The study was initiated in a pilot area east of the Mississippi River Delta where the complete hydrocarbon system can be seismically imaged, then expanded to the west across much of the shelf and slope. Hydrocarbons from seeps and reservoirs were geochemically characterized across the entire northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, and direct oil to source rock correlations were made both offshore (in pilot area) and onshore. Modern 2-D and 3-D seismic was used to develop a geologic framework and to map potential offshore source intervals. The major sources identified offshore are centered on the Eocene, Turonian, Tithonian, and Oxfordian, and correspond to second-order sequence stratigraphic transgressions. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. A Study of the Migration and Accumulation Efficiency and the Genesis of Hydrocarbon Natural Gas in the Xujiaweizi Fault Depression

    LI Jijun; LU Shuangfang; XUE Haitao; HUO Qiuli; XU Qingxia

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the migration and accumulation efficiency of hydrocarbon natural gas in the Xujiaweizi fault depression, and to provide new evidence for the classification of its genesis, a source rock pyrolysis experiment in a closed system was designed and carried out. Based on this, kinetic models for describing gas generation from organic matter and carbon isotope fractionation during this process were established, calibrated and then extrapolated to geologic conditions by combining the thermal history data of the Xushen-1 Well. The results indicate that the coal measures in the Xujiaweizi fault depression are typical "high-efficiency gas sources", the natural gas generated from them has a high migration and accumulation efficiency, and consequently a large-scale natural gas accumulation occurred in the area. The highly/over matured coal measures in the Xujiaweizi fault depression generate coaliferons gas with a high δ13C1 value (> -20‰) at the late stage, making the carbon isotope composition of organic alkane gases abnormally heavy. In addition, the mixing and dissipation through the caprock of natural gas can result in the negative carbon isotope sequence (δ13C1 >δ13C2 >δ13C3 >δ13C4) of organic alkane gases, and the dissipation can also lead to the abnormally heavy carbon isotope composition of organic alkane gases. As for the discovery of inorganic nonhydrocarbon gas reservoirs, it can only serve as an accessorial evidence rather than a direct evidence that the hydrocarbon gas is inorganic. As a result, it needs stronger evidence to classify the hydrocarbon natural gas in the Xujiaweizi fault depression as inorganic gas.

  1. Spatial variations in magnetic properties in three reservoirs of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin : insights into hydrocarbon generation and migration

    Cioppa, M.T.; Symons, D.T.A. [Windsor Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Windsor, ON (Canada); Gillen, K.P. [Vox Terrae International, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Some of the possible applications of paleomagnetism and rock magnetism in the petroleum industry were discussed. It has been shown that paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data can be used to track and map fluid migration. A study was conducted in 1997 in which limestones, dolostones and anhydrites of the Mississippian Upper Debolt Formation in the Dunvegan, Cindy and Belloy fields in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were sampled for rock magnetic, paleomagnetic, petrological and geochemical analysis. It was determined that, contrary to expectations, there was a significant spatial variation in the paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data. Analysis of about 300 specimens indicated the presence of three components: (1) a low temperature or low coercivity `A` component, removed at temperatures of less than 250 degrees C and coercivities of less than 20 mT, (2) the `B` component removed at temperatures between 250 and 350 degrees C and AF fields between 20 and 80 mT, and (3) the `C` component, a high temperature or high coercivity component removed at temperatures above 350 degrees C and fields above 20 mT. The spatial variation in paleomagnetic and rock magnetic properties has important implications for fluid migration, fluid migration pathways, and possible hydrocarbon sources. 3 refs.

  2. Vertical migration through faults and hydrocarbon accumulation patterns in deepwater areas of the Qiongdongnan Basin

    WANG Zhenfeng; LIU Zhen; CAO Shang; SUN Zhipeng; ZUO Qianmei; WANG Yahui; HE Weijun

    2014-01-01

    In the Qiongdongnan Basin, faults are well developed.Based on the drilling results, the traps controlled two or more faults are oil-rich. However, when only one fault cut through the sand body, there is no sign for hy-drocarbon accumulation in the sandstone. In terms of this phenomenon, the principle of reservoir-forming controlled by fault terrace is proposed, i.e., when the single fault activates, because of the incompressibility of pore water, the resistance of pore and the direction of buoyancy, it is impossible for hydrocarbon to ac-cumulate in sandstone. But when there are two or more faults, one of the faults acts as the spillway so the hydrocarbon could fill in the pore of sandstone through other faults. In total five gas bearing structures and four failure traps are considered, as examples to demonstrate our findings. According to this theory, it is well-advised that south steep slope zone of Baodao-Changchang Depression, south gentle slope zone of Lingshui Depression, north steep slope zone of Lingshui Depression, and north steep slope zone of Baodao Depression are the most favorable step-fault zones, which are the main exploration direction in next stage.

  3. Migration of hydrocarbons in the subsoil of an industrial installation; Migration d'hydrocarbures dans le sous-sol d'une installation industrielle

    Van Dorpe, F. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues (CNRSSP), 59 - Douai (France)

    2000-07-01

    The fate of old industrial sites is a major problem at the beginning of the new millennium for government organization, agencies owning polluted sites... These brown-field sites often generate considerable pollution of soils and groundwater, the main source of drinking water. The National Center for Research on Polluted Soils and Sites (CNRSSP), in which the CEA is an active partner, is developing a strategy to study and, using several scientific tools, characterize industrial sites polluted by various contaminants: metals, metalloids, hydrocarbons, nitrates. The present study offers an example of the investigation of an old industrial site (coke plant), built in 1919 (in operation for 50 years), located in northern France. The storage of tars and wastewaters on these sites causes soil and groundwater contamination with organic compounds such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylene BTEX), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic and other hydrocarbons, and inorganic compounds including metalloids (free and complexed cyanides) and metals (As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Hg). The more soluble constituents tend to migrate to adjacent areas with the groundwater flow and thereby reach receptors such as drinking water resources. Among the above pollutants, the 16 PAHs from the priority list of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are of great environmental concern due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The remediation of PAH-polluted sites poses a crucial challenge given the large number of sites contaminated by these pollutants and the difficulty in eliminating the pollution. A better evaluation of the PAH transfer and transport in soils and aquifers will also help draw up remediation strategies. In this study, a numerical model, called SIMUSCOPP and developed by the French Petroleum Institute (IFP), BURGEAP and ENI group for organic pollutants, was used to simulate 3D transfer and

  4. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    location varies. Fracturing started in the southwest deep in the stratigraphic section during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, moving northeastward and upsection as the Colville basin filled from the west. Active fracturing is occurring today in the northeastern parts of the Colville basin, north of the northeastern Brooks thrust front. Across northern Alaska, the early deep basin fractures were probably synchronous with hydrocarbon generation. Initially, these early fractures would have been good migration pathways, but would have been destroyed where subsequently overridden by the advancing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. However, at these locations younger fracture sets related to folding and thrusting could have enhanced reservoir permeability and/or served as vertical migration pathways to overlying structural traps.

  5. Research on the direction of secondary migration of oil by making use of nitrogen compounds as tracers in the No. 6 area of the Melut Basin

    TANG Youjun; WEN Zhigang; DOU Lirong; XU Youde

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the direction of secondary migration of oil in the No. 6 area of the Melut Basin by making use of nitrogen compounds as secondary oil migration tracers. From the results, we have found that the occurrence and compositional characteristics of isomeric-nitrogen compounds in crude oil precisely manifest the fractionation effect of oil migration: with increasing secondary migration distance, the absolute concentrations tend to decrease, and the ratio of nitrogen-shielded isomers to nitrogenexposed isomers tends to increase. It is considered that the main direction of oil migration in the No. 6 area of the Melut Basin is from north to south.

  6. Synergy between shear-induced migration and secondary flows on red blood cells transport in arteries: considerations on oxygen transport.

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Spazzini, Pier Giorgio; Hedin, Ulf; Gasser, T Christian

    2014-08-01

    Shear-induced migration of red blood cells (RBCs) is a well-known phenomenon characterizing blood flow in the small vessels (micrometre to millimetre size) of the cardiovascular system. In large vessels, like the abdominal aorta and the carotid artery (millimetre to centimetre size), the extent of this migration and its interaction with secondary flows has not been fully elucidated. RBC migration exerts its influence primarily on platelet concentration, oxygen transport and oxygen availability at the luminal surface, which could influence vessel wall disease processes in and adjacent to the intima. Phillips' shear-induced particle migration model, coupled to the Quemada viscosity model, was employed to simulate the macroscopic behaviour of RBCs in four patient-specific geometries: a normal abdominal aorta, an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a normal carotid bifurcation and a stenotic carotid bifurcation. Simulations show a migration of RBCs from the near-wall region with a lowering of wall haematocrit (volume fraction of RBCs) on the posterior side of the normal aorta and on the lateral-external side of the iliac arteries. A marked migration is observed on the outer wall of the carotid sinus, along the common carotid artery and in the carotid stenosis. No significant migration is observed in the AAA. The spatial and temporal patterns of wall haematocrit are correlated with the near-wall shear layer and with the secondary flows induced by the vessel curvature. In particular, secondary flows accentuate the initial lowering in RBC near-wall concentration by convecting RBCs from the inner curvature side to the outer curvature side. The results reinforce data in literature showing a decrease in oxygen partial pressure on the inner curvature wall of the carotid sinus induced by the presence of secondary flows. The lowering of wall haematocrit is postulated to induce a decrease in oxygen availability at the luminal surface through a diminished concentration of

  7. Novel Approach for Evaluating Secondary Organic Aerosol from Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Unified Method for Predicting Aerosol Composition and Formation.

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Kacarab, Mary; Cocker, David R

    2016-06-21

    Innovative secondary organic aerosol (SOA) composition analysis methods normalizing aerosol yield and chemical composition on an aromatic ring basis are developed and utilized to explore aerosol formation from oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. SOA yield and chemical composition are revisited using 15 years of University of California, Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber data on 17 aromatic hydrocarbons with HC:NO ranging from 11.1 to 171 ppbC:ppb. SOA yield is redefined in this work by normalizing the molecular weight of all aromatic precursors to the molecular weight of the aromatic ring [Formula: see text], where i is the aromatic hydrocarbon precursor. The yield normalization process demonstrates that the amount of aromatic rings present is a more significant driver of aerosol formation than the vapor pressure of the precursor aromatic. Yield normalization also provided a basis to evaluate isomer impacts on SOA formation. Further, SOA elemental composition is explored relative to the aromatic ring rather than on a classical mole basis. Generally, four oxygens per aromatic ring are observed in SOA, regardless of the alkyl substitutes attached to the ring. Besides the observed SOA oxygen to ring ratio (O/R ∼ 4), a hydrogen to ring ratio (H/R) of 6 + 2n is observed, where n is the number of nonaromatic carbons. Normalization of yield and composition to the aromatic ring clearly demonstrates the greater significance of aromatic ring carbons compared with alkyl carbon substituents in determining SOA formation and composition. PMID:27177154

  8. An experimental investigation of geochromatography during secondary migration of petroleum performed under subsurface conditions with a real rock

    Larter Steve

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the size of petroleum secondary migration systems is vital for successful exploration for petroleum reserves. Geochemists have suggested that compositional fractionation of petroleum accompanying the migration process (geochromatography can potentially be used to infer distances petroleum may have travelled and the ratio of oil in the reservoir to that lost in the carrier. To date, this has been attempted by measuring concentrations and distributions of specific steranes, and aromatic oxygen and nitrogen compounds in reservoired oils which have been proposed to respond to migration rather than to source maturity or other effects. We report here an experiment involving oil migration through an initially water wet siltstone under realistic subsurface carrier bed or reservoir conditions (48 MPa, 70°C where source facies and maturity effects are eliminated. We show that geochromatography does indeed occur even for initially water-saturated rocks and that the migration fractionations observed for alkylcarbazoles, benzocarbazoles and alkylphenols are very similar to those seen in field data sets. In contrast, sterane based migration parameters show no compositional fractionation under these conditions.

  9. A novel approach for apportionment between primary and secondary sources of airborne nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs)

    Lin, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Ma, Yiqiu; Wang, Junxia; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-08-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are strong environmental mutagens and carcinogens originating from both primary emissions and secondary reactions in the atmosphere. The sources and the toxicity of different NPAH species could vary greatly; therefore a specie-specific source apportionment is essential to evaluate their health risks and to formulate controlling regulations. However, few studies have reported source apportionment of NPAHs species to date. In this study, we developed an easy-to-perform method for the apportionment of primary versus secondary sources of airborne NPAHs based on the relationship between NPAHs and NO2. After log-transformation of both NPAHs and NO2 concentrations, a slope of β between these two variables was obtained by the linear regression. When β is significantly smaller than 1, it indicates primary emissions while β significantly greater than 1 suggests secondary formation. We have validated this method with data previously collected in Beijing. A good correlation, with R value of 0.57, was observed between results produced by this new method and by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The correlation could be further improved (R = 0.71) if the gas/particle partition of NPAHs is taken into consideration. This developed method enables the source apportionment for individual NPAHs species and could be used to validate the results of other receptor models.

  10. Evidence of subsurface anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons and potential secondary methanogenesis in terrestrial mud volcanoes

    Etiope, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Feyzullayev, A.; Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; Milkov, A. V.; BP, Russia Offshore SPU, Moscow, Russia; Waseda, A.; Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., JAPEX Research Center, Chiba, Japan; Mizobe, K.; Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., JAPEX Research Center, Chiba, Japan; Sun, C. H.; Exploration and Development Research Institute, CPC Taiwan, Taiwan, ROC

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of gas origin in mud volcanoes and related petroleum systems must consider postgenetic processes which may alter the original molecular and isotopic composition of reservoir gas. Beyond eventual molecular and isotopic fractionation due to gas migration and microbial oxidation, investigated in previous studies, we now demonstrate that mud volcanoes can show signals of anaerobic biodegradation of natural gas and oil in the subsurface. A large set of gas geochemical data fro...

  11. Long-Distance Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation Models and Key Controls in Petroliferous Basin%含油气盆地远距离成藏模式与主控因素

    刘卫民; 陶柯宇; 高秀伟; 王明; 阿不都外里·热西提; 曹剑

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance (>100km) hydrocarbon migration and accumulation is an important type of petroleum geological phenomenon,which has changed the traditional thought that hydrocarbon accumulation is often source-controlled and thus can only be sited near the source areas.It expands the petroleum exploration areas,but such cases are rare,implying the complexity of this phenomenon.To better understand this phenomenon,here we conduct a review on the basic features of this special petroleum geological phenomenon,with the focus on the accumulation model and main controls,and suggest the scientific issues which need to be further studied.The results show that the long-distance hydrocarbon migration and accumulation model can be classified to two main types in terms of conduits,including carrier bed—unconformity and carrier bed—fault—unconformity.The long-distance hydrocarbon migration and accumulation needs several necessary fundamental conditions and is controlled by many factors,e.g.,a steady development of paleo-uplift or slope being the background,a sufficient petroleum source being the foundation,a high-quality migration pathway network being the condition,and a good preservation being the key.If a petroliferous basin has these necessary conditions,long-distance hydrocarbon migration and accumulation can take place,and favorable traps even with relatively long distance from the source kitchens can not be neglected with the possibility of forming commercial accumulations.The scientific issues to be solved include the application of oil-source correlation in verifying the migration distance and the identification of long-distance,the impacts of fault,the primary and secondary hydrocarbon migration and accumulation,and the migration driving force.The long-distance hydrocarbon migration and accumulation deserves enough exploration and research attention.%含油气盆地油气远距离(>100 km)运移成藏是一种重要的石油地质现象,改变了关于油

  12. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  13. Secondary Glaucoma Associated with Encircling Scleral Buckle Migration into the Cornea

    Şengül Özdek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmuscular migration of the encircling band through rectus muscles and straddling of the cornea has only been reported in a few cases previously in the literature. This rare condition has never been associated with glaucoma. In this report, we aimed to describe a unique case with transmuscular migration of encircling buckle as a probable cause of glaucoma. A 17-year-old female presented with transmuscular migration of buckle and high intraocular pressure (IOP. Limbal/corneal migration of the silicone band was thought to be the main reason for the IOP rise; therefore, scleral band removal was performed. One month after removal, the patient was free of glaucoma medications and IOP was within normal limits. The retina remained attached during all postoperative visits. Transmuscular migration of the encircling band through rectus muscles and straddling of the cornea may act as a trigger for glaucoma.

  14. Generation of secondary waves arising from nonlinear interaction between the quasi 2 day wave and the migrating diurnal tide

    Nguyen, Vu A.; Palo, Scott E.; Lieberman, Ruth S.; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Ortland, David A.; Siskind, David E.

    2016-07-01

    Theory and past observations have provided evidence that atmospheric tides and other global-scale waves interact nonlinearly to produce additional secondary waves throughout the space-atmosphere interaction region. However, few studies have investigated the generation region of nonlinearly generated secondary waves, and as a result, the manifestation and impacts of these waves are still poorly understood. This study focuses on the nonlinear interaction between the quasi 2 day wave (2dayW3) and the migrating diurnal tide (DW1), two of the largest global-scale waves in the atmosphere. The fundamental goals of this effort are to characterize the forcing region of the secondary waves and to understand how it relates to their manifestation on a global scale. First, the Fast Fourier Synoptic Mapping method is applied to Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics-Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry satellite observations to provide new evidence of secondary waves. These results show that secondary waves are only significant above 80 km. The nonlinear forcing for each secondary wave is then computed by extracting short-term primary wave information from a reanalysis model. The estimated nonlinear forcing quantities are used to force a linearized tidal model in order to calculate numerical secondary wave responses. Model results show that the secondary waves are significant from the upper mesosphere to the middle thermosphere, highlighting the implications for the atmosphere-space weather coupling. The study also concludes that the secondary wave response is most sensitive to the nonlinear forcing occurring in the lower and middle mesosphere and not coincident with the regions of strongest nonlinear forcing.

  15. Evaluation des bassins par modélisation intégrée en deux dimensions des transferts techniques, de l'écoulement des fluides, de la genèse et de la migration des hydrocarbures Basin Evaluation by Integrated Two-Dimensional Modeling of Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow, Hydrocarbon Generation, and Migration

    Chenet P. Y.

    2006-11-01

    transfer, compaction and water flow, hydrocarbon generation, and two-phase migration of fluids. The model reproduces the influence of conductivity variations and of transient heat transfer on paleotemperatures. Quantitative verification of the paleotemperature reconstruction and of the kinetic model of hydrocarbon generation may be obtained from present temperatures and geochemical data. Compaction-driven flows and overpressures are described by coupling a compaction law with Darcy's law for water flow and a criterion for natural hydraulic fracturing. This formulation allows modeling of overpressures in young deltalic sequences (e. g. , the Mahakam delta, Indonesia as well as in old rift basins (e. g. , the North Sea. An adapted two-phase Darcy's law reproduces primary and secondary migration. In particular, the model helps investigate the role of overpressures and fault behavior on hydrocarbon migration and entrapment. Our results confirm that basin models contribute to the synthesis of geological, geophysical, and geochemical data consistently. By defining parameters for petroleum evaluations, these models increase exploration efficiency.

  16. A 4D Synchrotron X-Ray-Tomography Study of the Formation of Hydrocarbon- Migration Pathways in Heated Organic-Rich Shale

    Hamed Panahi; Paul Meakin; Francois Renard; Maya Kobchenko; Julien Scheibert; Adriano Mazzini; Bjorn Jamtveit; Anders Malthe-Sorenssen; Dag Kristian Dysthe

    2013-04-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interest in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low-permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing, and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms have been proposed for the transport of hydrocarbons from the rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes, it is imperative to use the latest technological advances. In this study, it is shown how insights into hydrocarbon migration in source rocks can be obtained by using sequential high-resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. Three-dimensional images of several immature "shale" samples were constructed at resolutions close to 5 um. This is sufficient to resolve the source-rock structure down to the grain level, but very-fine-grained silt particles, clay particles, and colloids cannot be resolved. Samples used in this investigation came from the R-8 unit in the upper part of the Green River shale, which is organic rich, varved, lacustrine marl formed in Eocene Lake Uinta, USA. One Green River shale sample was heated in situ up to 400 degrees C as X-ray-tomography images were recorded. The other samples were scanned before and after heating at 400 degrees C. During the heating phase, the organic matter was decomposed, and gas was released. Gas expulsion from the low-permeability shales was coupled

  17. Migration of Bakri balloon through an unsuspected uterine perforation during the treatment of secondary postpartum hemorrhage.

    Leparco, Soizic; Viot, Alexandre; Benachi, Alexandra; Deffieux, Xavier

    2013-06-01

    The current case describes an unreported complication of Bakri balloon placement: the migration of the Bakri balloon to the broad ligament through an unsuspected uterine rupture. Finally, a hysterectomy had been required. The Bakri balloon may be involuntary introduced in an unexpected uterine rupture, even if the balloon is placed with ultrasound guidance. PMID:23470856

  18. Oxidative potential of secondary organic aerosols produced from photooxidation of different hydrocarbons using outdoor chamber under ambient sunlight

    Jiang, Huanhuan; Jang, Myoseon; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Robinson, Sarah E.

    2016-04-01

    The oxidative potential of various secondary organic aerosols (SOA) was measured using dithiothreitol (DTT) assay to understand how organic aerosols react with cellular materials. SOA was produced via the photooxidation of four different hydrocarbons (toluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene and α-pinene) in the presence of NOx using a large outdoor photochemical smog chamber. The DTT consumption rate was normalized by the aerosol mass, which is expressed as DTTmass. Toluene SOA and isoprene SOA yielded higher DTTmass than 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA or α-pinene SOA. In order to discover the correlation between the molecular structure and oxidative potential, the DTT responses of selected model compounds were also measured. Among them, conjugated aldehydes, quinones, and H2O2 showed considerable DTT response. To investigate the correlation between DTT response and cell responses in vitro, the expression of biological markers, i.e. IL-6, IL-8, and HMOX-1 were studied using small airway epithelial cells. Higher cellular expression of IL-8 was observed with toluene SOA exposure compared to 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA exposure, which aligned with the results from DTT assay. Our study also suggests that within the urban atmosphere, the contribution of toluene SOA and isoprene SOA to the oxidative potential of ambient SOA will be more significant than that of α-pinene SOA.

  19. Hepatic abscess secondary to a rosemary twig migrating from the stomach into the liver

    2007-01-01

    The ingestion of a foreign body that penetrates the gastric wall and migrates to the liver, where it causes an abscess is uncommon. A case of an ingested rosemary twig perforating the gastric antrum, then migrating to the liver, complicated by hepatic abscess and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis is reported. A 59-year-old man without a history of foreign body ingestion was admitted to our hospital because of sepsis and epigastralgia, which had progressively worsened. No foreign body was identified at preoperative imaging, but a rosemary twig was discovered during laparotomy. The liver abscess and sepsis were controlled successfully with surgery and antibiotics. This unusual condition should be kept in mind when dealing with cases of hepatic abscess, or even sepsis of unknown origin. Despite the improvement of non-surgical techniques such as percutaneous drainage and interventional endoscopy, surgery still remains important in the treatment of hepatic abscess caused by an ingested foreign body.

  20. Primary migration and secondary alteration of the Upper Paleozoic gas reservoir in Ordos Basin,China―Application of fluid inclusion gases

    2008-01-01

    The composition of fluid inclusions(FI)often represents the initial geochemical characteristics of palaeo-fluid in reservoir rock.Influence on composition and carbon isotopic composition of gas during primary migration,reservoir-forming and subsequent secondary alterations are discussed through comparing fluid inclusion gas with coal-formed gas and natural gas in present gas reservoirs in the Ordos Basin.The results show that primary migration of gas has significant effect on the molecular but not on the carbon isotopic composition of methane.Migration and diffusion fractionation took place during the secondary migration of gas in Upper Paleozoic gas reservoir according to carbon isotopic composition of methane in FIs.Composition and carbon isotopic composition of natural gas were nearly unchanged after the gas reservoir forming through comparing the FI gases with the natural gas in present gas reservoir.

  1. Modeling of corrosion product migration in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants with WWER-1200

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Gavrilov, A. V.; Motkova, E. A.; Zelenina, E. V.; Prokhorov, N. A.; Gorbatenko, S. P.; Tsitser, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Models of corrosion and mass transfer of corrosion products in the pipes of the condensate-feeding and steam paths of the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 are presented. The mass transfer and distribution of corrosion products over the currents of the working medium of the secondary circuit were calculated using the physicochemical model of mass transfer of corrosion products in which the secondary circuit is regarded as a cyclic system consisting of a number of interrelated elements. The circuit was divided into calculated regions in which the change in the parameters (flow rate, temperature, and pressure) was traced and the rates of corrosion and corrosion products entrainment, high-temperature pH, and iron concentration were calculated. The models were verified according to the results of chemical analyses at Kalinin NPP and iron corrosion product concentrations in the feed water at different NPPs depending on pH at 25°C (pH25) for service times τ ≥ 5000 h. The calculated pH values at a coolant temperature t (pH t ) in the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 were presented. The calculation of the distribution of pH t and ethanolamine and ammonia concentrations over the condensate feed (CFC) and steam circuits is given. The models are designed for developing the calculation codes. The project solutions of ATOMPROEKT satisfy the safety and reliability requirements for power plants with WWER-1200. The calculated corrosion and corrosion product mass transfer parameters showed that the model allows the designer to choose between the increase of the correcting reagent concentration, the use of steel with higher chromium contents, and intermittent washing of the steam generator from sediments as the best solution for definite regions of the circuit.

  2. Radiocesium distribution along the slope in the Iput river basin as a tracer of the contaminant secondary migration

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Beriozkin, Victor; Dogadkin, Nikolay

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of the study performed in 2014-2015 at the test site located in the abandoned zone of the Iput river basin was to study detailed patterns of Cs-137 redistribution along the terrace slope and the adjacent floodplain depression almost 30 years after the Chernobyl accident. Cs-137 surface activity was measured with the help of modified field gamma-spectrometer Violinist III (USA) in a grid 2 m x 2 m within the test plot sized 10 m x 24 m. Gamma-spectrometry was accompanied by topographical survey. Cs-137 depth distribution was studied by soil core sampling in increments of 2 cm and 5 cm down to 40 cm depth. Cs-137 activity in soil samples was measured in laboratory conditions by Nokia gamma-spectrometer. The results showed distinct natural dissimilarity of Cs-137 surface activity within the undisturbed soil of slope. Cs-137 depth migration in successive soil cores marked different patterns correlated with the position in relief. In particular cores Cs-137 depth variation correlated with water regime that shows that the processes of secondary distribution of Cs-137 along the slope obviously depend upon water migration. The finding is important for understanding of regularities in patterns of radiocesium spatial distribution.

  3. Paraparesis secondary to erratic migration of Dioctophyma renale in a dog

    Fernando Swiech Bach

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A 4 years old mongrel stray bitch, weighing 16kg was submitted to physical examination to demonstrated inability of locomotion with the pelvic limbs. Extradural spinal cord compression was observed in myelotomography of the thoracolumbar segment. The patient was submitted to exploratory hemilaminectomy of T13-L1 and L1-L2, in an attempt to decompress the medullar segments. During the surgery was observed one adult parasite, identified as Dioctophyma renale , located in the extradural space and causing spinal cord compression. The patient was submitted to postoperative physical therapy, presenting clinical improvement 15 days after surgery, remaining on prone position and able to move the pelvic limbs, but not yet able to walk unassisted. It started walking naturally 60 days after the surgery. With the present clinical report, the erratic migration of the parasite Dioctophyma renale should be added to the list of differential diagnoses for patients with paraparesis and extramedullary lesion pattern, especially in endemic areas.

  4. Geological and hydrogeological features affecting migration, multi-phase partitioning and degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons through unconsolidated porous media.

    Filippini, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents are the most ubiquitous organic contaminants found in groundwater since the last five decades. They generally reach groundwater as Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL). This phase can migrate through aquifers, and also through aquitards, in ways that aqueous contaminants cannot. The complex phase partitioning to which chlorinated solvent DNAPLs can undergo (i.e. to the dissolved, vapor or sorbed phase), as well as their transformations (e.g. degradation), depend on the...

  5. Hydrologic and microbiological factors affecting persistence and migration of petroleum hydrocarbons spilled in a continuous-permafrost region

    Braddock, J.F.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel spills, totaling about 1300 m3, occurred between 1976 and 1978 adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking water source near Barrow, AK. Substantial contamination of soils and groundwater near the lake persists. We examined the magnitude and direction of groundwater flux and the microbial activity at this site to understand the persistence of contamination and its effect on the lake. We found that groundwater flux is small due to shallow permafrost, which restricts the cross-sectional area available for flow, and to the short annual thaw season (ca. 90 days). The small flux and limited depth also constrain contaminant transport and dispersion, resulting in persistent, shallow contamination. The numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and their laboratory mineralization potentials for benzene (at 10 ??C) were higher in samples from contaminated areas than in reference samples. Benzene mineralization potentials in groundwater samples were comparable to more temperate systems (0.1-0.5 mg of benzene mineralized L-1 day-1) and were stimulated by nutrient additions. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, ferrous iron, and sulfide in groundwater provided evidence that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is occurring in situ. Despite evidence of an active microbial population, microbial processes, like contaminant transport, are likely limited at this site by the short annual thaw season.

  6. Secondary uranium mineralization in Southern Fennoscandia - Migration and retention in granitic rock

    The geochemical cycling of natural radioactive elements in the Fennoscandian Shield is of great relevance to the Finnish nuclear waste disposal programme. It indicates the likely fate of nuclides released from a repository and provides essential information on the palaeohydrogeological evolution of the region in response to climate change. For these and other reasons, comparison of predicted releases with natural radioactive fluxes is enshrined in the legislation. Glacial advance and retreat are thought to constitute the greatest natural threats to the integrity of a repository situated in the Finnish bedrock. Several major glaciations have affected northern Europe in the last million years; post-glacial uplift following the most recent ice retreat is still significant. Studies of fracture mineralogy furnish important data regarding the timing of climatic events and, among these, secondary uranium minerals play a key role. New results obtained from the natural uranium deposits at Palmottu and Hyrkkoelae are described in this report and used to supplement existing data on the geochemical and hydrogeological evolution of the region. In parallel with the above, the Finnish regulator, STUK, is assessing the feasibility of applying a coupled chemical transport model in simulations of radionuclide transport from the proposed repository. Sufficient evidence has now been gained to allow a credible test of such a model at either Olkiluoto or a surrogate study site. (orig.)

  7. The Feminisation of Migration and the Migrants VET Policy Neglects: The Case of Skilled Women Secondary Migrants in Australia

    Webb, Sue

    2015-01-01

    There is increasingly scholarship on gender and migration, yet the international migration of highly skilled women is still somewhat under-researched. This article focuses on this neglected area in the context of Australia's discretionary inward migration policies to solve skills shortages. The article draws on empirical research using a…

  8. Investigation of the utility of laser-secondary neutral mass spectrometry for the detection of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in individual atmospheric aerosol particles.

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Dambach, Steffen; Galla, Sebastian; Peterson, Richard E; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient aerosol particles is of importance to both human health and climate forcing. Although time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has proven useful for studying the distribution of organic compounds in individual aerosol particles, it is difficult to detect PAHs at relevant concentrations in individual aerosol particles because of their low ion yield. In this study, we explore the potential of using laser secondary neutral mass spectrometry (Laser-SNMS) to study three PAHs: pyrene, anthracene, and naphthalene. Because of the high volatility of PAHs, a cryostage was required for the analysis to prevent sublimation of the molecules into the vacuum chamber. We studied two laser systems, a 157 nm excimer laser, which is capable of single-photon ionization of the PAHs, and a 193 nm laser, which requires multiphoton ionization. Under optimized conditions for laser power density and primary ion pulse length, 193 nm postionization resulted in a 2-50-fold increase in ion yield over ToF-SIMS. Using the 157 nm laser, the yield was increased by more than 3 orders of magnitude for all 3 PAHs studied. The single-photon postionization process proved superior in terms of both yield enhancement and reduced fragmentation. By using the optimized 157 nm laser system and a cryostage, we were able to detect PAHs on the surface of 2 μm diameter ambient aerosol particles. PMID:21823569

  9. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  10. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon and particulate emissions from two-stage combustion of polystyrene: the effects of the secondary furnace (afterburner) temperature and soot filtration.

    Wang, Jun; Richter, Henning; Howard, Jack B; Levendis, Yiannis A; Carlson, Joel

    2002-02-15

    Laboratory experiments were conducted in a two-stage horizontal muffle furnace in order to monitor emissions from batch combustion of polystyrene (PS) and identify conditions that minimize them. PS is a dominant component of municipal and hospital waste streams. Bench-scale combustion of small samples (0.5 g) of shredded styrofoam cups was conducted in air, using an electrically heated horizontal muffle furnace, kept at Tgas = 1000 degrees C. Upon devolatilization, combustion of the polymer took place in a diffusion flame over the sample. The gaseous combustion products were mixed with additional air in a venturi and were channeled to a secondary muffle furnace (afterburner) kept at Tgas = 900-1100 degrees C; residence time therein varied between 0.6 and 0.8 s. At the exits of the primary and the secondary furnace the emissions of CO, CO2, O2, NOx, particulates as well as volatile and semivolatile hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), were monitored. Online analyzers, gravimetric techniques, and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Experiments were also conducted with a high-temperature barrier filter, placed just before the exit of the primary furnace to prevent the particulates from entering into the secondary furnace. Results demonstrated the beneficial effect of the afterburner in reducing PAH concentrations, including those of mutagenic species such as benzo[a]pyrene. Concentrations of individual PAH exhibited a pronounced after burner temperature dependence, typically ranging from a small decrease at 900 degrees C to a larger degree of consumption at 1100 degrees C. Consumption of PAH was observed to be the dominant feature at 900 degrees C, while significant quantities of benzene and some of its derivatives, captured by means of carbosieve/Carbotrap adsorbents, were formed in the afterburner at a temperature of 1000 degrees C. In the primary furnace, about 30% of the mass of the initial polystyrene was

  11. Oil-bearing inclusions in vein quartz and kalcite and, bitumens in veins: Testament to multiple phases of hydrocarbon migration in the Barrandian basin (lower Palaeozoic), Czech Republic

    Suchý, V.; Dobeš, P.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír; Stejskal, M.; Kroužek, J.; Chudoba, J.; Matějovský, L.; Havelcová, Martina; Matysová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2010), s. 285-297. ISSN 0264-8172 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3012703; GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrocarbon * fluid inclusion * bitumen Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.130, year: 2010

  12. Effects of Molecular Structure of the Oxidation Products of Reactive Atmospheric Hydrocarbons on the Formation of Secondary Organic Particular Matter, Including the Effects of Water

    Niakan, Negar

    Organic aerosols have significant effects on human health, air quality and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are produced by the oxidation of primary-volatile organic compounds (VOC). For example, α-pinene reacts with oxidants such as hydroxyl radical (OH), ozone (O3), and nitrate radical (NO3), accounting for a significant portion of total organic aerosol in the atmosphere. Experimental studies have shown that the oxidation process between α-pinene and ozone has the most significant impact in the formation of SOA (Hoffmann et al., 1997). Most of the models used to predict SOA formation, however, are limited in that they neglect the role of water due to uncertainty about the structure and nature of organic compounds, in addition to uncertainty about the effect of varying relative humidity (RH) on atmospheric organic particulate matter (OPM) (Kanakidou et al., 2005). For this study, structures of organic compounds involved in the formation of SOA are estimated, and the role of water uptake is incorporated in the process. The Combinatorial Aerosol Formation Model (CAFM) is a deterministic model used to determine the amount of organic mass (M o µg m-3) formation based on the predicted structures. Results show that the amount of SOA that is formed is almost negligible when the amount of parent hydrocarbon involved in the reaction is low ( i.e. around 5 µg m-3), especially at lower RH. Observing compounds with a greater number of polar groups (alcohol and carboxylic acid) indicates that structure has a significant effect on organic mass formation. This observation is in agreement with the fact that the more hydrophilic the compound is, the higher RH, leading to more condensation into the PM phase.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-mediated upregulation of hepatic microRNA-181 family promotes cancer cell migration by targeting MAPK phosphatase-5, regulating the activation of p38 MAPK

    Song, Mi-Kyung [Center for Integrated Risk Research, Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong-Keun [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae-Chun, E-mail: ryujc@kist.re.kr [Center for Integrated Risk Research, Cellular and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Growing evidence indicates that changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression in cancer induced by chemical carcinogens play an important role in cancer development and progression by regulating related genes. However, the mechanisms underlying miRNA involvement in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remain unclear. Thus, the identification of aberrant miRNA expression during PAH-induced cancer cell migration will lead to a better understanding of the substantial role of miRNAs in cancer progression. In the present study, miRNA expression profiling showed significant upregulation of miR-181a, -181b, and -181d in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 line) exposed to benzo[a]anthracene (BA) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BF). MAPK phosphatase-5 (MKP-5), a validated miR-181 target that deactivates MAPKs, was markedly suppressed while phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was increased after BA and BF exposure. The migration of HepG2 cells, observed using the scratch wound-healing assay, also increased in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of miR-181 family members by miRNA inhibitors enhanced the expression of MKP-5 and suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Furthermore, the depletion of the miR-181 family inhibited cancer cell migration. Based on these results, we conclude that the miR-181 family plays a critical role in PAH-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by targeting MKP-5, resulting in the regulation of p38 MAPK activation. - Highlights: • We found significant upregulation of miR-181 family in HCC exposed to BA and BF. • We identified the MKP-5 as a putative target of miR-181 family. • MKP-5 was suppressed while p-P38 was increased after BA and BF exposure. • The migration of HepG2 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. The evolution of Devonian hydrocarbon gases in shallow aquifers of the northern Appalachian Basin: Insights from integrating noble gas and hydrocarbon geochemistry

    Darrah, Thomas H.; Jackson, Robert B.; Vengosh, Avner; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Whyte, Colin J.; Walsh, Talor B.; Kondash, Andrew J.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2015-12-01

    groundwater (P(CH4) = ∼1 atmosphere) and elevated [Cl] and [Ba]. These data suggest that 4He is dominated by an exogenous (i.e., migrated) crustal source for these hydrocarbon gas- and salt-rich fluids. In combination with published inorganic geochemistry (e.g., 87Sr/86Sr, Sr/Ba, Br-/Cl-), new noble gas and hydrocarbon isotopic data (e.g., 20Ne/36Ar, C2+/C1, δ13C-CH4) suggest that a hydrocarbon-rich brine likely migrated from the Marcellus Formation (via primary hydrocarbon migration) as a dual-phase fluid (gas + liquid) and was fractionated by solubility partitioning during fluid migration and emplacement into conventional UD traps (via secondary hydrocarbon migration). Based on the highly fractionated 4He/CH4 data relative to Marcellus and UD production gases, we propose an additional phase of hydrocarbon gas migration where natural gas previously emplaced in UD hydrocarbon traps actively diffuses out into and equilibrates with modern shallow groundwater (via tertiary hydrocarbon migration) following uplift, denudation, and neotectonic fracturing. These data suggest that by integrating noble gas geochemistry with hydrocarbon and dissolved ion chemistry, one can better determine the source and migration processes of natural gas in the Earth's crust, which are two critical factors for understanding the presence of hydrocarbon gases in shallow aquifers.

  15. Influence of organic matter and clay minerals in migration of derivative compounds of hydrocarbons; Influencia da materia organica e argilominerais na migracao de compostos derivados de hidrocarbonetos

    Ramos, Denize Gloria Barcellos; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano de; Polivanov, Helena [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: denize@geologia.ufrj.br; graciano@geologia.ufrj.br; helena@acd.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    Soil samples from the Guanabara Bay in Duque de Caxias city (RJ) were submitted to mineralogical and organic geochemistry analyses. This proceeding was used mainly to determine a possible interaction of hydrocarbons contaminants with the organic matter and the clay minerals presents in this mangrove. The sampling was carried out using Direct Push techniques. Thus, the mainly clay minerals characterizes were: gibbsite, illite, caulinite and smectite. The compositional analysis of organic constituents showed a predominance of amorphous material (degraded cuticles), followed of wood material and sporomorphs constituents, suggesting that the biological degradation occurred in situ. (author)

  16. 均匀电场下多环芳烃在土壤中的迁移%Migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under uniform electric field

    王翠苹; 许伟; 孙红文

    2013-01-01

    When the experiments were carried out at electrolyte circulation velocity of 800 mL/h and electrolyte using sterile water, the amount of electroosmotic flow and migration mass of phenanthrene and pyrene at the voltage gradient of 1 V/cm was greater than those at the voltage gradient of 0. 5 V/cm, respectively. Surfactants such as Tween80 and HPCD, can improve the total migration mass of phenanthrene and pyrene. And, the migration of the phenanthrene was elevated by 5. 8 and 11.7 by electrokinetic injection of Tween 80 and HPCD at the concentrations of 500 and 1 000 mg/kg, respectively, while pyrene was 2 and 3.4 times. However, the total migration of benzo[ a] pyrene was very small due to its solubility, even under the conditions of electric field and electrokinetic injection of surfactants. This study provides technological basis for the set-up of electrokinetic remediation for sites contaminated by organic pollutants.%当循环电解液流速为800 mL/h,电解液为无菌水时,电渗流流量、菲和芘在土壤中迁移量在电压梯度为1 V/cm作用下比电压梯度为0.5 V/cm时要多;电动注入表面活性剂Tween80和HPCD均可以提高菲和芘在土壤中的迁移,注入Tween80和HPCD浓度分别为500和1 000 mg/L时,相应地Phe提高5.8倍和11.7倍、芘提高2倍和3.4倍;而BaP在水中的溶解度太小,电场作用和电动注入表面活性剂对BaP在土壤中的迁移量影响很小.为建立电动修复有机污染物污染提供了技术基础.

  17. International Migration of Couples

    Munk, Martin D.; Junge, Martin; Poutvaara, Panu

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it in the context of international migration. Our model predicts that the probability that a couple emigrates increases with the income of the primary earner, whereas the income of the secondary earner may affect...

  18. An open-water electrical geophysical tool for mapping sub-seafloor heavy placer minerals in 3D and migrating hydrocarbon plumes in 4D

    Wynn, J.; Williamson, M.; Urquhart, S.; Fleming, J.

    2011-01-01

    A towed-streamer technology has been developed for mapping placer heavy minerals and dispersed hydrocarbon plumes in the open ocean. The approach uses induced polarization (IP), an electrical measurement that encompasses several different surface-reactive capacitive and electrochemical phenomena, and thus is ideally suited for mapping dispersed or disseminated targets. The application is operated at sea by towing active electrical geophysical streamers behind a ship; a wide area can be covered in three dimensions by folding tow-paths over each other in lawn-mower fashion. This technology has already been proven in laboratory and ocean settings to detect IP-reactive titanium-and rare-earth (REE) minerals such as ilmenite and monazite. By extension, minerals that weather and accumulate/concentrate by a similar mechanism, including gold, platinum, and diamonds, may be rapidly detected and mapped indirectly even when dispersed and covered with thick, inert sediment. IP is also highly reactive to metal structures such as pipelines and cables. ?? 2011 MTS.

  19. Synergetic catalysis in hydrocarbon generation

    Sabate, R.W. [San`Doil Exploration L.C., New Orleans, LA (United States); Baker, C.C. [Consulting Petroleum Geologist, Metairie, LA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Thermogenesis as the sole origin of hydrocarbons has been questioned by Gulf Coast geologists for two reasons: (1) lack of thermally mature source beds except on the basin`s Mesozoic rim and (2) persuasive empirical evidence of shallow, early generation, migration, and emplacement. Enigmatically, even subsequent deeper burial of the reservoirs has not resulted in thermal maturity. However, recent laboratory research has identified several natural catalysts that significantly lower temperatures needed for conversion of organic materials into hydrocarbons. Perhaps synergism among these or as-yet-undiscovered catalysts, together with geologic reaction times, is capable of producing hydrocarbons at temperatures low enough for early emplacement.

  20. Synergetic catalysis in hydrocarbon generation

    Sabate, R.W. [San`Doil Exploration L.C., New Orleans, LA (United States); Baker, C.C. [NAC of FINDING, Slidell, LA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Thermogenesis as the sole origin of hydrocarbons has been questioned by Gulf Coast petroleum geologists for two reasons: (1) lack of thermally mature source beds except on the basin`s Mesozoic rim and (2) persuasive empirical evidence of shallow, early migration and emplacement. Enigmatically, even subsequent deeper burial of the reservoirs has not resulted in thermal maturity. However, recent laboratory research has identified several natural catalysts that significantly lower temperatures needed for conversion of organic materials into hydrocarbons. Perhaps synergism among these or as yet undiscovered catalysts, together with geologic reaction times, is capable of producing hydrocarbons at temperatures low enough for early emplacement.

  1. Discussion on Petroleum Migration in Bamianhe Oilfield of Dongying Depression, East China

    2002-01-01

    Petroleum migration process of Bamianhe oilfield of Dongying depression, East China is evaluated on the basis of our detailed work on geochemistry of the crude oil and the source. Molecular tracers, especially nitrogen compounds, are employed in assessing style of oil migration and accumulation. Additionally, absolute quantitative results of heteroaromatics including dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene and fluorene with similar basic frames to pyrrolic nitrogenic compounds are also used to evaluate the quantity of petroleum migration. According to apparent migration effects of the pyrrolic nitrogen compounds, it is indicated that most of Bamianhe oil was derived from potential source kitchen-Niu-zhuang sag, migrated and accumulated at Bamianhe fault belt through selective paths according to a main filling point displayed. Generally, upward migration trend from the main point along the south slope is noted. There are observable migration effects from Guangli subsag to the north Bamianhe and Yangjiaogou oilfields showing Guangli subsag was a secondary kitchen accounting for the oils in the north portion. Significant vertical migration effects shown in several cross sections demonstrate that faults well developed in the area play an important role in oil migration and accumulation. Unformality, sandstone reservoirs distributed locally also suggest important fairways in connecting sources with traps. The tectonic and a combination of tectonic and lithological mechanism are identified as the critical mechanisms in entrapping hydrocarbons. Migration trend suggested by nitrogenic compounds agrees well with analysis of lateral compositional variety and thermal maturity gradient. This study also confirms well with our previous studies. It is the location of source rocks, tectonic and stratigraphic characteristics that have a comprehensive control on the model of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in Bamianhe oilfield. Results also show that the oils are mostly derived from

  2. Control and assessment of the hydrocarbon contamination of Ukrainian soils

    Miroshnichenko, N. N.

    2008-05-01

    Regularities governing the self-purification of soils from oil hydrocarbons, as well as migration of hydrocarbons, and the effect on the water-physical properties and fertility of soils were revealed in a series of experiments. A system of ecological, economic, and reclamation standards was proposed for regulating economic activities in the case of soil contamination with hydrocarbons.

  3. UNDERGROUND CONGESTIONS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN RIVER BELAYA BOTTOMLAND OF REPUBLIC BASHKORTOSTAN

    Galinurov, I.; Safarov, A.; Shajdulina, G.; Magasumova, A.; Khatmullina, R.; Smirnova, T.

    2011-01-01

    In article the results of oil hydrocarbons underground congestions negative influence researches are considered. The oil hydrocarbons which have accumulated in alluvial soils migrate in river waters, polluting bottom sediments and influence on water biocenose. There is a decrease of volatile hydrocarbons content during stream migration from the laminar water environment (underwaters) to the turbulent river environment.

  4. Benzo[b]naphthothiophenes and alkyl dibenzothiophenes: molecular tracers for oil migration distances

    Li, Meijun; Wang, T.-G.; Shi, Shengbao; Liu, Keyu; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The secondary migration of petroleum is one of the most critical geological processes responsible for the accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin. Pyrrolic nitrogen compounds such as carbazoles and benzocarbazoles are thought to be practical molecular indicators for estimating relative migration distances of oil. In light oils or condensates, however, considerable analytical errors are usually caused by low concentrations of NSO-compounds. Here we show that polycyclic sulfur aromatic hydrocarbons such as dibenzothiophene, C1∼C3 alkylated dibenzothiophenes and benzo[b]naphthothiophenes, which are present in relatively higher concentrations than the pyrrolic nitrogen compounds, exhibit changes in both absolute and relative concentrations that correlate with migration distances. The polycyclic sulfur aromatic hydrocarbons related parameters — benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]thiophene/{benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]thiophene + benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]thiophene} (abbreviated as [2,1]BNT/([2,1]BNT+[1,2]BNT) and the concentration of total dibenzothiophenes plus benzo[b]naphthothiophenes — are proposed by this paper to trace the oil migration distances.

  5. Hydrocarbons in soils: Origin, composition, and behavior (Review)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Tsibart, A. S.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    It has been shown that a large body of evidence on the sources, transformation, and migration of hydrocarbons in soils has been acquired by different researchers. Available data about the origin and behavior of hydrocarbon gases, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, and other compounds have been considered successively. A wide range of natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the transformation and migration of hydrocarbons in soils have been analyzed. The indicative value of these compounds has been explained. At the same time, many problems related to hydrocarbons in soils are still insufficiently understood. Sparse and fragmentary data are available in the literature on the interaction of different hydrocarbon groups in the soil. Few data refer to the features of hydrocarbons in background zonal soils; there are almost no interzonal comparisons. The behavior of hydrocarbons in soils of different landscape-geographical positions is characterized in isolated publications. The hydrocarbon status of soils as an integral complex of interrelated hydrocarbons is almost not analyzed. Hydrocarbons of a single class (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon gases, n-alkanes, etc.) are usually characterized in each publication.

  6. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    Poston, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  7. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  8. Transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in permafrost soils

    A sampling program was conducted to determine the presence and extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in permafrost soils at an abandoned arctic weather station. Core samples were taken of frozen silty clay at two known contaminated sites and analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbon content. Contamination was observed at depths of 0.5 m into the permafrost. The most influential transport mechanism is likely to be migration of hydrocarbons through cracks, fissures and filled voids in the permafrost soil due to gravity drainage and capillary action. Another possible transport mechanism is by diffusion in unfrozen water within the permafrost. 19 refs., 4 figs

  9. 多手段综合分析在塔河油田石炭系薄储集层预测中的应用%Modes of Es2/Es3 unconformity and feature of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in Bonan Sag

    刘桂珍; 杜伟维; 范琪

    2013-01-01

    Taking Es2/Es3 class II unconformity in Paleogene of the south slope zone of Bonan Sag in Jiyang Depression as an example, the modes of class II unconformity and the feature of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation are analyzed based on mineralogy, drilling and logging data and seismic information. The results show that Es2/Es3 class II unconformity structure is a no-clay structure. There are four types of unconformity combination modes according to the occurrence and the lithology superposition relation of the strata above and below the unconformity surface. The plane distribution of the unconformity combination modes controls the hydrocarbon migration and accumulation feature of linear migration and local enrichment.%针对塔河油田石炭系卡拉沙依组砂岩储集层埋藏深、砂层薄、横向变化快、非均质性严重、地震识别困难等问题,通过对地震资料提频,利用地震切片、曲线重构下的测井约束反演和相控储层预测等多手段技术综合分析,将地震属性和反演波阻抗有机结合,指导储集层砂体相控解释,确定了含油砂体的空间展布与描述.实践表明,该方法能有效地利用地震数据体进行薄层储集体预测.

  10. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  11. 非洲中小学教师流动:主要特征与影响因素%On Migration of Primary and Secondary School Teachers in Africa:MainFeatures and Influencing Factors

    杨茂庆; 严文宜

    2015-01-01

    随着非洲经济社会的发展,非洲教育也逐步完善。非洲基础教育发展不均衡严重影响中小学教师的职业选择,导致大量教师频繁流动。非洲中小学教师流动表现出教师选择流动地域为邻国、教师身份为男性多于女性、年龄层活跃于30至50岁等特征。自我实现的物质与精神需求、全球化浪潮、政治局面不稳定或国家教师流动政策出台等是非洲中小学教师流动的影响因素。%With the development of economic and social conditions in Africa, African education is constantly improving.However,the imbalance of education development in Africa has seriously affected primary and secondary teachers ’ career choice, resulting in the large number of teachers ’ frequent migration.This migrating trend reveals some characteristics,such as teachers’choice of a neighboring country,more males than females,and most of them at the age of thirty to fifty.And there are also some factors that influence this trend among which are material and spiritual needs of self-realization, globalization,and unstable political situation,national policies for teacher mobility and so on.

  12. On Migration of Primary and Secondary School Teachers in Africa:MainFeatures and Influencing Factors%非洲中小学教师流动:主要特征与影响因素

    杨茂庆; 严文宜

    2015-01-01

    随着非洲经济社会的发展,非洲教育也逐步完善。非洲基础教育发展不均衡严重影响中小学教师的职业选择,导致大量教师频繁流动。非洲中小学教师流动表现出教师选择流动地域为邻国、教师身份为男性多于女性、年龄层活跃于30至50岁等特征。自我实现的物质与精神需求、全球化浪潮、政治局面不稳定或国家教师流动政策出台等是非洲中小学教师流动的影响因素。%With the development of economic and social conditions in Africa, African education is constantly improving.However,the imbalance of education development in Africa has seriously affected primary and secondary teachers ’ career choice, resulting in the large number of teachers ’ frequent migration.This migrating trend reveals some characteristics,such as teachers’choice of a neighboring country,more males than females,and most of them at the age of thirty to fifty.And there are also some factors that influence this trend among which are material and spiritual needs of self-realization, globalization,and unstable political situation,national policies for teacher mobility and so on.

  13. Hydrocarbon accumulation in network and its application in the continental rift basin

    2008-01-01

    The concept of hydrocarbon accumulation in network was presented on basis of the overall analysis of the formation and evolution characteristics of the continental faulted basin and of the systemic re-search on the major controlling factors on the hydrocarbon accumulation. The hydrocarbon accumu-lation in network can be defined as hydrocarbon accumulation in a three-dimensional network system which is constituted by the hydrocarbon migration passages under multiple dynamics,following the hydrocarbon generation from source rocks. The research shows that the hydrocarbon accumulation in network is composed of four elements,i.e.,hydrocarbon source (source rock kitchen),hydrocarbon accumulation terminal (trap),network pathway connecting source and terminal (transporting system),and network potential driving hydrocarbon migration in the network pathway (migration dynamics). Compared with other networks,hydrocarbon accumulation in network has three basic characteristics: the irreversible geological process of material and information flow in the network; the loss of material and information in the flow process in the network; the multiple dynamics in the flow process. Interac-tion of all the elements in the geological process can be called hydrocarbon accumulation in network. There are three basic models for hydrocarbon accumulation in network,that is,hydrocarbon accumu-lation in the network source area,hydrocarbon accumulation in the network pathway,and hydrocarbon accumulation in the network terminal. The key in the application of the hydrocarbon accumulation models in network in practice is to confirm the major accumulation stage and the function range of the four elements controlling the hydrocarbon firstly,to predict the profitable accumulation region by su-perposition of the favorable areas confirmed by four elements consequently,and to evaluate the oil-bearing property of the trap as well as confirm drilling targets. This paper takes the Dongying De-pression in the

  14. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  15. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  16. Medical migration.

    Loefler, I J

    2001-10-01

    The issue of professional migration, however emotional it may have become, ought not to be regarded in moralizing terms. The history of western medicine is the history of migrating physicians. A doctor who moves from a locality to another to take up a new assignment there cannot be said to have "abandoned his patients". This emotional bond has become the victim of specialization and of depersonalization of medical services and not of medical migration, brain drain or otherwise. The primary reason for medical migration is not financial; the desire to migrate usually begins with the desire to learn. Professionals crave in the first line for professional satisfaction. The migration of medical manpower cannot be stopped with administrative measures and will not be stopped by exhortations and appeals, moralization and condemnations. Brain drain is a global phenomenon and has always been so. A country which loses its professionals, its doctors, should examine the social relationships within the profession and should investigate whether the opportunities for deriving professional satisfaction from everyday work exist or whether these have been thwarted by the hierarchy, conservatism, cronyism and the general lack of comprehension of what good medical care is about. PMID:11593497

  17. Migration chemistry

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional KD concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  18. Monarch Migration.

    Williamson, Brad; Taylor, Orley

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Monarch Watch program that tracks the migration of the monarch butterfly. Presents activities that introduce students to research and international collaboration between students and researchers. Familiarizes students with monarchs, stimulates their interest, and helps them generate questions that can lead to good research projects.…

  19. Exact solutions in a model of vertical gas migration

    Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.; Benson, Sally M.

    2006-06-27

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injectingcarbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoidingatmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide and consequent global warming.One of the key questions regarding the feasibility of this technology isthe potential rate of leakage out of the primary storage formation. Weseek exact solutions in a model of gas flow driven by a combination ofbuoyancy, viscous and capillary forces. Different combinations of theseforces and characteristic length scales of the processes lead todifferent time scaling and different types of solutions. In the case of athin, tight seal, where the impact of gravity is negligible relative tocapillary and viscous forces, a Ryzhik-type solution implies square-rootof time scaling of plume propagation velocity. In the general case, a gasplume has two stable zones, which can be described by travelling-wavesolutions. The theoretical maximum of the velocity of plume migrationprovides a conservative estimate for the time of vertical migration.Although the top of the plume has low gas saturation, it propagates witha velocity close to the theoretical maximum. The bottom of the plumeflows significantly more slowly at a higher gas saturation. Due to localheterogeneities, the plume can break into parts. Individual plumes alsocan coalesce and from larger plumes. The analytical results are appliedto studying carbon dioxide flow caused by leaks from deep geologicalformations used for CO2 storage. The results are also applicable formodeling flow of natural gas leaking from seasonal gas storage, or formodeling of secondary hydrocarbon migration.

  20. Process for producing hydrocarbons

    Doi, K.; Komatsu, A.; Moroe, M.; Moroe, T.

    1980-07-22

    A process is described for producing a hydrocarbon product consisting essentially of hydrocarbons having about 10 to 50 carbon atoms with 60% or more of said product consisting of hydrocarbons containing 25 to 32 carbon atoms which comprises subjecting a synthetic polyisoprene rubber having 92 to 97% cis-type double bods to a thermally destructive distillation at about 300 to 400/sup 0/ C for about 30 minutes under a reduced pressure of about 0.1 to 5 mm. Hg to obtain said hydrocarbon product consisting essentially of hydrocarbons having about 10 to 50 carbon atoms with 60% or more of said product consisting of hydrocarbons containing 25 to 35 carbon atoms, said hydrocarbon product not having a bad odor and containing scarcely any resinous material.

  1. The Culture of Mexican Migration: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis.

    Kandel, William; Massey, Douglas S.

    2002-01-01

    Examines a Mexican "culture of migration," in which U.S. migration becomes an expectation for young people. Among approximately 7,000 secondary students surveyed in Zacatecas (Mexico), adolescents from families involved in U.S. migration were more likely to aspire to live and work in the United States, increasing the likelihood they would drop out…

  2. Gideon's Migration

    Eagly, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    For the past fifty years, immigration law has resisted integration of Gideon v.Wainwright’s legacy of appointed counsel for the poor. Today, however, this resistance has given way to Gideon’s migration. At the level of everyday practice, criminal defense attorneys appointed pursuant to Gideon now advise clients on the immigration consequences of convictions, negotiate “immigration safe” plea bargains, defend clients charged with immigration crimes, and, in some model programs, even represent ...

  3. A preference for migration

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  4. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    impact on the growth of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  5. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  6. Identification and numerical modelling of hydrocarbon leakage in the Lower Congo Basin: Implications on the genesis of km-wide seafloor mounded structures

    Anka, Zahie; Ondrak, Robert; Kowitz, Astrid; Schødt, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We present a combined approach of interpretation of 2D seismic-reflection data and numerical modelling of hydrocarbon generation and migration across the southern slope of the Lower Congo Basin, in order to investigate the factors controlling timing and distribution of hydrocarbon leakage in this area. We identified three main families of past and present-day leakage features: (1) Mid-Upper Miocene seismic chimneys concentrated basinwards and ending up on buried pockmarks, (2) Plio-Pleistocene chimneys, rather clustered to the east of the study area and ending up in seafloor pockmarks, and (3) fewer scattered chimneys identified within the Miocene sequences ending up in shallow enhanced reflectors ("Flat spots"). Stratigraphic and structural elements seem to control the distribution of these features. At least two major events of leakage occurred during the Middle-Late Miocene and intermittently during the Pliocene-Present. External factors as sediment supply are associated to the Miocene leakage event, whilst internal structural elements probably triggered the Pliocene to present-day leakage. A major seabed morphological feature, represented by a margin-paralleled belt of more than 1-km-wide mounds, was identified above growth faults to the east of the study area. Data-constrained 2D HC generation and migration modelling suggests a genetic link between these structures and vertical migration/leakage of thermogenic methane sourced from either currently mature Oligo-Miocene source rocks or secondary cracking and further expulsion from over-mature Upper-Cretaceous source rocks. Hence, the mounds are likely to represent a lineation of methane-derived carbonate build-ups. Despite the natural limitations of a 2D migration model, when combined and calibrated with observations from seismic data, it can be used as a valid tool to assess petroleum migration routes in sedimentary basins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first integrated approach combining both

  7. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  8. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  9. EU Migration Policy

    Kleinschmidt, Harald

    2004-01-01

    I shall confine myself in this paper to international migration as migration across international borders.I do so despite the fact that,still today,international migration accounts only for a small share of migration at large.Likewise,I shall deal widh voluntary migration and shall thus exclude,deportation ...

  10. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper;

    pyrobitumen occurs as a jet-black, brittle, amorphous, non-fluorescent substance with a specific gravity of about 1.3 g/cm3 and a conchoidal fracture. Earlier analyses have shown great similarities with regard to the stable isotopes d13C in Alum Shale (Middle Cambrian to Lower Ordovician) and pyrobitumen......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  11. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neuronal Migration Disorders Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Neuronal Migration Disorders? Neuronal migration disorders (NMDs) are a group ...

  12. Migration of birds

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  13. Research on Protocol Migration

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  14. HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN BREAST MILK: PRELIMINARY STUDY

    R. Mercogliano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, mainly formed by anthropogenic activities, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Due to environmental contamination and their chemical properties they migrate through the human food chain, and can be transferred from mother to infant via breastfeeding. The presence of PAHs in breast milk collected from 16 lactating women living in urban and rural areas of Campania (Italy was investigated. Results showed the presence of 14 hydrocabons. Carcinogenic benzo(apyrene and potential carcinogenic dibenzo(ahanthracene were found at concentrations rancing from 0.3 to 37.6 μg/kg and from 0.5 to 47.0, respectively.

  15. Chemical contamination and transformation of soils in hydrocarbon production regions

    Zamotaev, I. V.; Ivanov, I. V.; Mikheev, P. V.; Nikonova, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    The current concepts of soil pollution and transformation in the regions of hydrocarbon production have been reviewed. The development of an oil field creates extreme conditions for pedogenesis. Tendencies in the radial migration, spatial distribution, metabolism, and accumulation of pollutants (oil, oil products, and attendant heavy metals) in soils of different bioclimatic zones have been analyzed. The radial and lateral mobility of pollution halos is a universal tendency in the technogenic transformation of soils and soil cover in the regions of hydrocarbon production. The biodegradation time of different hydrocarbon compounds strongly varies under different landscape conditions, from several months to several tens of years. The transformation of original (mineral and organic) soils to their technogenic modifications (mechanically disturbed, chemically contaminated, and chemo soils and chemozems) occurs in the impact zone of technogenic hydrocarbon fluxes under any physiographical conditions. The integrated use of the existing methods for the determination of the total content and qualitative composition of bituminous substances and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in combination with the chromatographic determination of normal alkanes and hydrocarbon gases, as well as innovative methods of studies, allows revealing new processes and genetic relationships in soils and studying the functioning of soils and soil cover. The study of the hydrocarbon contamination of soils is important for development of restoration measures and lays the groundwork for the ecological and hygienic regulation based on the zonation of soil and landscape resistance to different pollutants.

  16. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  17. Immunoassay for petroleum hydrocarbons

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and ground water has become a serious environmental problem. Since the 1940s, it has been a common practice to bury fuel tanks underground to guard against fire and explosions. The leakage of petroleum fuel from these aging tanks creates a long term threat to human health. In order to location and identify these sources of contamination, an on-site screening test is very desirable. A simple, inexpensive petroleum hydrocarbon immunoassay has been developed for this purpose. The EnviroGard Petroleum Hydrocarbon test kit is designed for qualitative or semiquantitative analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon fuel in soil and ground water. The assay can be easily used on-site and takes 15 minutes to perform. Following a 2 minute methanol extraction, the test is performed in polystyrene tubes and can detect gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, home heating oil and other major fuels at ppm levels in soil and sub-ppm levels in water samples

  18. Secondary parkinsonism

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. ...

  19. Chemical characteristics of Jurassic formation water and its relationship with hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in middle part of Western Sichuan Depression%川西坳陷中段侏罗系次生气藏地层水化学特征及与油气运聚关系

    叶素娟; 李嵘; 张世华

    2014-01-01

    is mainly controlled by elevation and faults. In regions of high elevation and fault zones, formation water dilution can occur by meteoric invasion and diagenetic dehydration reactions of lacustrine facies clay minerals in the 5th section of the Xujiahe Formation within the main hydrocarbon source rocks. The Jurassic secondary gas pools in the Western Sichuan Depression correspond generally to the regions with TDS lower than 30 g/L and bicarbonate concentration higher than 300 mg/L, which is different from most oil and gas fields in China. The low-salinity water released from the transformation of smectite to illite and the hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide generated by kerogen-cracking reac-tion and sulfate-reducing reaction can flow upward through permeable fault zones and therefore cause the coincidence between the distributions of hydrocarbon and formation water with low TDS and high bicarbonate concentration. In re-gions without faults, it is unlikely to form hydrocarbon accumulation and the formation waters are often characterized by high TDS and low bicarbonate concentration due to poor vertical connectivity.

  20. Migration and trade

    Peter H. Egger; Ehrlich, Maximilian von; Nelson, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research in economics suggests that bilateral migration triggers bilateral trade through a number of channels. This paper assesses the functional form of the impact of migration on trade flows in a quasi-experimental setting. We provide evidence that the relationship is not log-linear. In particular, at small levels of migration (stocks) the elasticity of trade to migration is quite high, and it declines to zero at about 4,000 immigrants. If migration stocks exceed s...

  1. Structure and Hydrocarbons in Junggar Basin

    张庆春; 田在艺

    2002-01-01

    Having undergone four basin-forming tectonic cycles--Hercynian, Indosinian, Yanshanian, and Himalayan, the Junggar basin becomes a multi-cyclic superposed basin of old and hard mediun block pattern. Its multi-cyclic tectonic and sedimentary evolution results in five series of hydrocarbon source rock formations--Carboniferous, Permian, Upper Triassic, Middle-lower Jurassic, and Lower Tertiary, correspondingly forming five petroleum generation systems, of which the Permian and Middle-lower Jurassic petroleum generation systems are the most important with the highest exploration degree. Hydrocarbons are controlled by basin structure as follows: 1) Hydrocarbon accumulations are controlled by the structural styles of paleo-uplifts, paleo-overthrust belts and contorted anticline belts formed in multi-cyclic tectonic movements; 2) Important pathways for long distance lateral and vertical migration are provided respectively by unconformities and faults; 3) The pool-forming characteristics of the Permian petroleum system are controlled by paleo-structure; 4) The pool-forming characteristics of Jurassic and Tertiary petroleum system are controlled by recent structures.

  2. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (Kxpicene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (Tc’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting Kxpicene phase with a Tc as high as 14 K, so we now know that Kxpicene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides Kxpicene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rbxpicene and Caxpicene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for Kxpicene and Rbxpicene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of Tc that is clearly observed in some phases of aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors

  3. [Secondary hypertension].

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  4. Heuristical Strategies on the Study Theme "The Unsaturated Hydrocarbons -- Alkenes"

    Naumescu, Adrienne Kozan; Pasca, Roxana-Diana

    2011-01-01

    The influence of heuristical strategies upon the level of two experimental classes is studied in this paper. The didactic experiment took place at secondary school in Cluj-Napoca, in 2008-2009 school year. The study theme "The Unsaturated Hydrocarbons--Alkenes" has been efficiently learned by using the most active methods: laboratory…

  5. Using Geochemical Method to Distinguish Lateral Migration and Vertical Migration in Rifted Basin: A Case Study from Eastern Lujiapu Depression in the Kailu Basin, NE China

    ZHOU Shuqing; HUANG Haiping; LIU Yuming

    2008-01-01

    Migration fractionation diagnosis is complicated in rifted basins where migration distance is generally short and lateral migration in sandy beds and vertical migration along faults are co-existed. Quantitative data from GC-MS analysis makes it possible to distinguish lateral and vertical migration effects. Oils discovered from the Jiaolige oilfield, eastern Lujiapu Depression are derived from single source rock with similar maturity, which is an ideal case to study the migration fractionation effects. Compositional differences among oils are largely caused by the migration fractionation either laterally in sand beds or vertically along the faults. Subtle maturity differences are assessed by the classic saturated hydrocarbon parameters which have certain influence on nitrogen compounds. In a certain maturity range, the ratios of shield and semi-shield isomers to the exposed isomers of alkylcarbazoles change with maturity in an opposite direction with migration fractionation, which may conceal the migration influence. However, migration and maturation have the same effects on absolute concentrations of aikylated carbazoles and benzocarhazole [a]/([a]+[c]) ratios, which provides an ideal tool for migration direction assessment. Continuous variations among different samples reflect increased migration distance in sandy beds, while abrupt changes may indicate the change of migration conduit systems. Integrated both geochemical interpretation and geological constrains, not only migration direction can be determined, but also the conduit systems through the sandy beds or the. faults can be recognized.

  6. Dominant geological element of migration and accumulation about Silurian oil reservoirs in central Tarim

    2007-01-01

    Based on the migration track of the Silurian oil pools along the faults in central Tarim by the nitrogen compounds and the maturity parameters of saturated hydrocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon, the formation of the Silurian oil pools was totally concerned with vertical migration that faults were the dominant migration channels. The comprehensive analysis shows that the dominant geological element, which contributed to the migration and accumulation of the Silurian oil pools in central Tarim,was the strike-slip fault, which developed from Ordovician to Permian. The future work will focus on conducting a more intensive study of the formation, evolution and distribution of the strike-slip faults for making sure of favorable hydrocarbon accumulation and favorable exploration targets.

  7. HYDROCARBONS DIAGNOSTIC OF POLLUTED SOILS

    Mohamed Arad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are known as carcinogenic and may contaminate the environment (water, air and soil. In this study, a diagnostic of polluted soils by petroleum hydrocarbons is carried out in order to know the effect of their accumulation as well as their behavior in time. The aging factor, a source of significant changing in hydrocarbon behavior, is integrated on two sites of an industrial refinery as experimental samples. The first site is recently polluted by hydrocarbons while the second is a previously polluted site.The results indicate that the concentration of hydrocarbons on the surface of the first site is greater and remains stable in time, as for the second site, hydrocarbons concentration on the surface is also important and undergoes a weak reduction. At a depth of one meter hydrocarbons exist at a greater concentration. This shows that obstinate hydrocarbons are an environmental danger for fauna and flora.

  8. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near-surface soils of Kutch–Saurashtra: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects

    P Lakshmi Srinivasa Rao; T Madhavi; D Srinu; M S Kalpana; D J Patil; A M Dayal

    2013-02-01

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil gases, methane and heavier homologues were recorded in the near-surface soil samples collected from Kutch–Saurashtra, India. Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic matter. Gas chromatographic analyses of hydrocarbons desorbed from soil samples through acid extraction technique showed the presence of methane through -butane and the observed concentrations (in ppb) vary from: methane (C1) from 4–291, ethane (C2) from 0–84, propane (C3) from 0–37, i-butane (iC4) from 0–5 and -butane (nC4) from 0–4. Carbon isotopes measured for methane and ethane by GC-C-IRMS, range between −42.9‰ to −13.3‰ (Pee Dee Belemnite – PDB) and −21.2‰ to −12.4‰ (PDB), respectively. The increased occurrence of hydrocarbons in the areas near Anjar of Kutch and the area south to Rajkot of Saurashtra signifies the area potential for oil and gas.

  9. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near-surface soils of Kutch-Saurashtra: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects

    Rao, P. Lakshmi Srinivasa; Madhavi, T.; Srinu, D.; Kalpana, M. S.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil gases, methane and heavier homologues were recorded in the near-surface soil samples collected from Kutch-Saurashtra, India. Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic matter. Gas chromatographic analyses of hydrocarbons desorbed from soil samples through acid extraction technique showed the presence of methane through n-butane and the observed concentrations (in ppb) vary from: methane (C1) from 4-291, ethane (C2) from 0-84, propane (C3) from 0-37, i-butane (iC4) from 0-5 and n-butane (nC4) from 0-4. Carbon isotopes measured for methane and ethane by GC-C-IRMS, range between -42.9‰ to -13.3‰ (Pee Dee Belemnite - PDB) and -21.2‰ to -12.4‰ (PDB), respectively. The increased occurrence of hydrocarbons in the areas near Anjar of Kutch and the area south to Rajkot of Saurashtra signifies the area potential for oil and gas.

  10. Selecting hydrocarbon rocket propulsion technology

    Martin, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the dry weight of future earth-to-orbit vehicles can be reduced by the combined use of hydrogen and hydrocarbon propulsion compared to all-hydrogen propulsion. This paper shows that the use of certain hydrocarbon engines with hydrogen engines produces the lowest vehicle dry mass. These hydrocarbon engines use propane or RP-1 fuel, hydrogen cooling, and hydrogen-rich gas generators. Integration of the hydrogen and hydrocarbon nozzles is also beneficial.

  11. HYDROCARBONS DIAGNOSTIC OF POLLUTED SOILS

    Mohamed Arad; Abdelkader Anouzla; Mohamed Safi; Salah Souabi; Hicham Rhbal

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are known as carcinogenic and may contaminate the environment (water, air and soil). In this study, a diagnostic of polluted soils by petroleum hydrocarbons is carried out in order to know the effect of their accumulation as well as their behavior in time. The aging factor, a source of significant changing in hydrocarbon behavior, is integrated on two sites of an industrial refinery as experimental samples. The first site is recently polluted by hydrocarbons while the s...

  12. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  13. NNDC database migration project

    NNDC Database Migration was necessary to replace obsolete hardware and software, to be compatible with the industry standard in relational databases (mature software, large base of supporting software for administration and dissemination and replication and synchronization tools) and to improve the user access in terms of interface and speed. The Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) consists of a Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE), which is relatively easy to move between different RDB systems (e.g., MySQL, MS SQL-Server, or MS Access), the Structured Query Language (SQL) and administrative tools written in Java. Linux or UNIX platforms can be used. The existing ENSDF datasets are often VERY large and will need to be reworked and both the CRP (adopted) and CRP (Budapest) datasets give elemental cross sections (not relative Iγ) in the RI field (so it is not immediately obvious which of the old values has been changed). But primary and secondary intensities are now available on the same scale. The intensity normalization has been done for us. We will gain access to a large volume of data from Budapest and some of those gamma-ray intensity and energy data will be superior to what we already have

  14. Migration and revolution

    Nando Sigona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring has not radically transformed migration patterns in the Mediterranean, and the label ‘migration crisis’ does not do justice to the composite and stratified reality.

  15. Method and apparatus for pyrolytically cracking hydrocarbons

    Skraba, F.W.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a method for pyrolytically cracking a hydrocarbon vapor feedstock in a hydrocarbon pyrolysis unit to produce an olefinic hydrocarbon product. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon vapor feedstock, then, cracking the hydrocarbon vapor feedstock in the presence of the vaporized water in a pyrolysis furnace to produce a furnace effluent stream comprised of an olefinic hydrocarbon product gas and the vaporized water.

  16. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  17. Migration, Remittances and Growth

    Nurgul Ukueva

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of migration and remittances on a small, open, migrant-sending country in the context of an endogenous growth model with technology transfers. The paper demonstrates that, due to a dynamic feedback effect from economic conditions to migration and from migration to economic development in an economy exposed to migration, initial conditions can determine its long-run steady state, leading to the rise of vicious or virtues circles of development. Countries with a l...

  18. International Migration and Remittances

    Dattatray Sitaram Bagade

    2012-01-01

    Human migration is a physical movement by human beings from one geographical areato another geographical area. Migration is internal as well as external. At theinternational level, no universally accepted definition for “Migrant” exists. The UniteNations defines “migration as an individual who has resided in a foreign country formore than one year irrespective of the causes, voluntary or involuntary, and the means,regular or irregular, used migrate”. Key terms of migrations is documented migr...

  19. Essays on temporary migration

    Mestres Domenech, J.

    2012-01-01

    My thesis dissertation focuses on the temporariness of migration, its diverse effects as well as on migration selection. The first paper, A Dynamic Model of Return Migration analyzes the decision process underlying return migration using a dynamic model. We explain how migrants decide whether to stay or to go back to their home country together with their savings and consumption decisions. We simulate our model with return intentions and perform policy simulations. The se...

  20. Ejected Sedimentary Rocks of Mud Volcanoes as Indicators of Depositional Environments and of Hydrocarbon Generation within the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J.; Köthe, A.; Movsumova, U.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen indices indicate that the organic matter of the sediments consist mostly of mixtures of aquatic and terrestrial organic matter. The hydrocarbons of the sediments were extracted and subsequently fractionated into aliphatic, aromatic and hetero-compound groups. The amounts of extractable hydrocarbons in relation to organic carbon contents indicate that most of the ejected sedimentary rocks contain migrated hydrocarbons. All extracted hydrocarbons have been affected by secondary alterations which most likely involved biodegradation the chromatographic analyses of the aliphatic fraction indicate elevated ratios of pristane/n-C17 and phytane/n-C18 and the chromatograms generally show that the normal alkanes have been removed to a large extend. Despite of biodegardation, environmental and maturity indicative biomarkers could be identified, and C27- to C29-sterane isomers suggest a dominant imprint of aquatic organic matter on the extracted hydrocarbons. An influence of diatoms on the sterane distribution seems plausible, but an admixture of land plant material is highly likely. Homohopane isomerization ratios as well as the ratio of trisnorneohopane over trisnorhopane suggest that the extracted hydrocarbons come from a coalification range which spreads from immature to mature although, maximum maturity does not reach the peak of oil generation. C29-sterane isomerisation ratios support this finding. Vitrinite reflectance measurements on the ejected rocks indicate a similar range of maturities as suggested from biomarker analyses. However, the data indicate again that most of the investigated rocks have been impregnated by allochthonous hydrocarbons as biomarker maturities may slightly depart from the measured reflectance values. We estimated from maturity/depth conversion that the mud volcanoes along a SSW-NNE transect from the Kura Basin to the Apsheron Peninsula produce their mud from a depth range between 4000 and 5500 m corresponding to a maturity range of

  1. On Marriage and Migration

    Stark, Oded

    1988-01-01

    Marriage, migration and related phenomena such as marital stability, fertility and investment in human capital may be better explained by studying marriage and migration jointly. We thus proceed in this paper to explore the role of migration in obtaining joint labour-market and marriage-market equilibrium. This facilitates identification of several novel and testable hypotheses.

  2. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  3. Lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments are major factors for the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Zecheng; LI Xiaoqing; WANG Hongjun; WANG Zhaoyun

    2005-01-01

    The formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs is controlled by three major factors: lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments. Among the three major factors, lithological architecture provides the storing medium for hydrocarbon; geological processes include hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and modification; and energy-field environments refer to the various geothermal and geodynamic forces that affect the lithological architecture and drive the geological processes.In this study, we take Kela-2 and Sulige gas reservoirs as two examples to study relationships among the three major factors, and explain how these factors influence the scale and quality of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  4. Patterns of migration in Tanzania.

    Bernstein, H

    1981-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper identifying internal migration patterns and employment implications in Tanzania - discusses reasons for migration, types (seasonal workers, permanent, etc.), Migration within rural areas or urban areas, rural migration, land settlement trends, etc. References.)

  5. Peritonitis - secondary

    ... of the abdominal organs. It is called the peritoneum. Secondary means it is due to another condition. ... has several major causes. Bacteria may enter the peritoneum through a hole (perforation) in the gastrointestinal tract. ...

  6. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  7. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  8. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  9. Sulfonate to hydrocarbon ratio influencing thermostability of micellar dispersions

    Davis, J.A.; Kunzman, W.J.

    1970-02-03

    The thermostability of micellar dispersions can be shifted to higher temperatures by increasing the ratio of surfactant to hydrocarbon within the dispersion, by increasing the amount of electrolyte, and by varying the particular type of components within the micellar solution. The oil recovery solution is composed of soft water, hydrocarbon (crude oil), surfactant (sodium or ammonium petroleum sulfonates with an average molecular weight of 420 to 470), cosurfactant (primary butanols, primary pentanols, primary and secondary hexanols), and electrolyte (inorganic bases, inorganic acids, or inorganic salts).

  10. Role of methyl group number on SOA formation from monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons photooxidation under low-NOx conditions

    Li, L.; Tang, P.; Nakao, S.; Chen, C.-L.; Cocker III, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Substitution of methyl groups onto the aromatic ring determines the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon precursor (SOA yield and chemical composition). This study links the number of methyl groups on the aromatic ring to SOA formation from monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons photooxidation under low-NOx conditions (HC/NO  >  10 ppbC : ppb). Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with increasing numbers of methyl groups are systemat...

  11. Radon depth migration

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  12. TYPES OF MODERN MIGRATION

    KAITMAZOVA KARINA RUSLANOVNA; CABERTI ALINA NODAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    The detailed classification of migration is analyzed, also a conclusion is drawn according to the fact that migration contributes to the development of the population of countries and regions, appearing to be a driving force and an important factor of globalization in the XXI century. Russia, also as other countries, strongly depends on migration: future of the Russian Federation depends on the fact how socially-spiritual community of Russian people will change, and also culture and values of...

  13. Malaysia and forced migration

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysi...

  14. Unemployment, migration, and growth

    Valerie R. Bencivenga; Bruce D. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Economic development is typically accompanied by a very pronounced migration of labor from rural to urban employment. This migration, in turn, is often associated with large scale urban underemployment. Both factors appear to play a very prominent role in the process of development. We consider a model in which rural-urban migration and urban underemployment are integrated into an otherwise conventional neoclassical growth model. Unemployment arises not from any exogenous rigidities, but from...

  15. Many Faces of Migrations

    Milica Antić Gaber; Marko Krevs

    2013-01-01

    Temporary or permanent, local or international, voluntary or forced, legal or illegal, registered or unregistered migrations of individuals, whole communities or individual groups are an important factor in constructing and modifying (modern) societies. The extent of international migrations is truly immense. At the time of the preparation of this publication more than 200 million people have been involved in migrations in a single year according to the United Nations. Furthermore, three time...

  16. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out to be...... equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  17. From Immigration to Migration Systems: New Concepts in Migration History.

    Hoerder, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of migration systems where two or more societies are connected through migration patterns. Identifies the four major migration systems that populated North America. Reviews the literature in relation to migration systems and discusses autobiographical accounts of migration. Provides an extensive bibliography. (CMK)

  18. Hydrocarbon Distribution in Sediments from the Southeast Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Biplob Das

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with the study of the nature of hydrocarbons occurring at the coastal region of Bangladesh to assess the extent of hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment. Accordingly, five sediment samples were analyzed for extraction of soluble organic matter, fractionation of extract into aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polar compounds, molecular composition analysis of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons� fractions and integration of results for the study of the nature and origin of hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Hydrocarbons present in the sediment samples might have originated from three main sources: a biosynthesis of aquatic organisms and/or diagenesis of alteration of bacteria, zooplankton, phytoplankton and higher plant derived organic matters; b migration of immature oil seep from deeper sources and c direct incorporation of fossil hydrocarbons discharged into the sea water by various sea-going vessels. The total hydrocarbons in five sediment samples from the study area ranged from 71.73 to 359.21ppm. Recommendations are made to take appropriate measure for the protection of the marine environment from further pollution.

  19. Estimation of rates of aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation by simulation of gas transport in the unsaturated zone

    Lahvis, M.A.; Baehr, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the unsaturated zone provides a geochemical signature of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation at petroleum product spill sites. The fluxes of these gases are proportional to the rate of aerobic biodegradation and are quantified by calibrating a mathematical transport model to the oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data. Reaction stoichiometry is assumed to convert the gas fluxes to a corresponding rate of hydrocarbon degradation. The method is applied at a gasoline spill site in Galloway Township, New Jersey, to determine the rate of aerobic degradation of hydrocarbons associated with passive and bioventing remediation field experiments. At the site, microbial degradation of hydrocarbons near the water table limits the migration of hydrocarbon solutes in groundwater and prevents hydrocarbon volatilization into the unsaturated zone. In the passive remediation experiment a site-wide degradation rate estimate of 34,400 g yr-1 (11.7 gal. yr-1) of hydrocarbon was obtained by model calibration to carbon dioxide gas concentration data collected in December 1989. In the bioventing experiment, degradation rate estimates of 46.0 and 47.9 g m-2 yr-1 (1.45 x 10-3 and 1.51 x 10-3 gal. ft.-2 yr-1) of hydrocarbon were obtained by model calibration to oxygen and carbon dioxide gas concentration data, respectively. Method application was successful in quantifying the significance of a naturally occurring process that can effectively contribute to plume stabilization.

  20. Migration, klima og sundhed

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which...

  1. Migration to Windows NT.

    Doles, Daniel T.

    In the constantly changing world of technology, migration is not only inevitable but many times necessary for survival, especially when the end result is simplicity for both users and IT support staff. This paper describes the migration at Franklin College (Indiana). It discusses the reasons for selecting Windows NT, the steps taken to complete…

  2. Migration, Narration, Identity

    Leese, Peter

    (co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...

  3. Migrating Art History

    Ørum, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  4. Migrating for a Profession

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2015-01-01

    Youths from the Global South migrating for further education often face various forms of discrimination. This Caribbean case study discusses how conditions in the home country can provide a foundation for educational migration that helps the migrants overcome such obstacles and even develop a...

  5. Samtidskunst og migration

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    "Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...

  6. Environmental change and migration

    Stojanov, Robert

    Santa Barbara, Calif : Praeger, 2012 - (Segal, U.; Elliot, D.), s. 55-89 ISBN 978-0-313-37807-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : migration processes * environmental change * climate change * environmental migrants * human migration Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  7. Migration and Rural Development

    Robert E. B. Lucas

    2007-01-01

    The paper summarizes the key routes through which internal and international migration impact rural development and some of the evidence pertaining to these effects in low income countries. It concludes that, although the study of migration impacts on rural economies has come a long way from the early dual theories of development, some of the potentially more important aspects remain to be investigated systematically.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  9. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  10. World Migration Degree Global migration flows in directed networks

    Porat, Idan

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyze the global flow of migrants from 206 source countries to 145 destination countries (2006-2010) and focus on the differences in the migration network pattern between destination and source counters as represented by its degree and weight distribution. Degree represents the connectivity of a country to the global migration network, and plays an important role in defining migration processes and characteristics. Global analysis of migration degree distribution offers a strong potential contribution to understanding of migration as a global phenomenon. In regard to immigration, we found that it is possible to classify destination countries into three classes: global migration hubs with high connectivity and high migration rate; local migration hubs with low connectivity and high migration rate; and local migration hubs with opposite strategy of high connectivity and low migration rate. The different migration strategies of destination countries are emerging from similar and homogenies p...

  11. A dengue model incorporating saturation incidence and human migration

    Gakkhar, S.; Mishra, A.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a non-linear model has been proposed to investigate the effects of human migration on dengue dynamics. Human migration has been considered between two patches having different dengue strains. Due to migration secondary infection is possible. Further, the secondary infection is considered in patch-2 only as strain-2 in patch-2 is considered to be more severe than that of strain-1 in patch-1. The saturation incidence rate has been considered to incorporate the behavioral changes towards epidemic in human population. The basic reproduction number has been computed. Four Equilibrium states have been found and analyzed. Increasing saturation rate decreases the threshold thereby enhancing the stability of disease-free state in both the patches. Control on migration may lead to change in infection level of patches.

  12. Migration of health workers.

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695

  13. Malaysia and forced migration

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  14. Material erosion and migration in tokamaks

    /deposition balance in the divertor itself is now recognised, even though the use of carbon in many tokamaks adds significant complexity to the problem through the requirement to account for hydrocarbon chemistry. This contribution aims both to review our current understanding of erosion and migration by compiling current experimental and modelling results, and to discuss key areas of uncertainty preventing the accurate prediction of migration rates in ITER and future reactors. Plans for a large scale investigation of migration and T-retention at JET with the hitherto untested ITER first wall material mix will also be discussed. (Author)

  15. Formation Dynamics and Quantitative Prediction of Hydrocarbons of the Superpressure System in the Dongying Sag

    SUI Fenggui; HAO Xuefeng; LIU Qing; ZHUO Qingong; ZHANG Shouchun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of formation dynamics of oil/gas pools, the Dongying sag can be divided into three dynamic systems regarding the accumulation of oil and gas: the superpressure closed system,the semi-closed system and the normal pressure open system. Based on the analysis of genesis of superpressure in the superpressure closed system and the rule of hydrocarbon expulsion,it is found that hydrocarbon generation is related to superpressure, which is the main driving factor of hydrocarbon migration. Micro fractures formed by superpressure are the main channels for hydrocarbon migration. There are three dynamic patterns for hydrocarbon expulsion: free water drainage, hydrocarbon accumulation and drainage through micro fissures. In the superpressure closed system, the oil-driving-water process and oil/gas accumulation were completed in lithologic traps by way of such two dynamic patterns as episodic evolution of superpressure systems and episodic pressure release of faults. The oil-bearing capacity of lithologic traps is intimately related to reservoir-forming dynamic force. Quantitative evaluation of dynamic conditions for pool formation can effectively predict the oil-bearing capability of traps.

  16. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  17. Diterpenoid tetracyclic hydrocarbons of petroleum

    Vorob' eva, N.S.; Zemskova, Z.K.; Pekh, T.I.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-08-01

    Diterpenoid hydrocarbons are fairly widespread in various caustobioliths. However, if petroleums contain mainly acyclic diterpenoids (phytane, pristane and norpristane), cyclic diterpaenes such as fichtelite, pimarane, iosene (kaurane) and hibbane are often found in hydrocarbons isolated from coal and shale. Recent advances in the chemistry of diterpenoids isolated from caustobioliths, are described in a separate paper. Much less is known about petroleum polycyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons, particularly those with four saturated rings. A series of tetracyclic hydrocarbons C/sub 19/H/sub 32/ (molar mass 260), found in a number of light petroleums and gas condensates from the Jura deposits of Central Kara-Kum (Turkmen S.S.R.), are examined here. These hydrocarbons are present in petroleums and condensates from the Davaly, Erden, Ortakak, Southern Beuideshik deposits, they are always identical and occur in the same ratios. The composition of the tretracyclanes isolated from the Ortakak gas condensates (well 17) will be examined in detail.

  18. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    migrated from more mature parts of the Siljan structure into the marginally mature sediments. Likely sources could have been the Upper Ordovician Fjaecka Shale deposited in a brackish to lacustrine environment or the Lower Silurian Kallholm Fm. of similar environments which both have an excellent hydrocarbon potential for oil and gas. Marine source rocks of the Siljan region may be compatible to unconventional shale targets of the German region of the Baltic Sea provided appropriate thermal maturities are not exceeded.

  19. Hydrocarbon potential of Middle Eocene carbonates, Sirt Basin, Libya

    Swei, Giuma H.; Tucker, Maurice E.

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of Middle Eocene carbonates in the Sirt Basin in Libya has been the subject of considerable study in recent years because of the importance of sediments of this age as hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Gialo Formation is an important gas-producing reservoir in the Assumood, Sahl and other nearby fields. The gas which is generated from the gas-prone Sirt Shale source rock of the northern Ajdabiya Trough probably migrated in to the Assumood Ridge from the northeast through late Cretaceous, Paleocene and early Eocene carbonates, before being trapped beneath the Augila Shale (Upper Eocene) which is the principal regional seal in the area. This integrated study has enhanced our understanding of reservoir heterogeneity and hydrocarbon potential of the Gialo carbonates and should lead to improved exploration in the future. Reservoir quality in the Gialo Formation is a function of grain types, pore types, grain size, sorting, cementation and compaction, and predicting areas of high reservoir quality has proved difficult; exploration should be oriented to positioning wells into the main trend of the mid-ramp, nummulite accumulation. Different nummulite facies can be reservoirs depending on their diagenetic history. A diagenetic reduction in porosity must be distinguished from a lack of porosity resulting from an unfavourable depositional environment, so that exploration alternatives can be assessed. This integrated study has demonstrated the presence of suitable reservoir rocks, hydrocarbon traps and the close proximity of potential source rocks. These features should encourage further hydrocarbon exploration in the area.

  20. Tectonic control in source rock maturation and oil migration in Trinidad

    Persad, K.M.; Talukdar, S.C.; Dow, W.G. (DGSI, The Woodlands, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Oil accumulation in Trinidad were sourced by the Upper Cretaceous calcareous shales deposited along the Cretaceous passive margin of northern South America. Maturation of these source rocks, oil generation, migration and re-migration occurred in a foreland basin setting that resulted from interaction between Caribbean and South American plates during Late Oligocene to recent times. During Middle Miocene-Recent times, the foreland basin experienced strong compressional events, which controlled generation, migration, and accumulation of oil in Trinidad. A series of mature source rock kitchens formed in Late Miocene-Recent times in the Southern and Colombus Basins to the east-southeast of the Central Range Thrust. This thrust and associated fratured developed around 12 m.y.b.p. and served as vertical migration paths for the oil generated in Late Miocene time. This oil migrated into submarine fans deposited in the foreland basin axis and older reservoirs deformed into structural traps. Further generation and migration of oil, and re-migration of earlier oil took place during Pliocene-Holocene times, when later thrusting and wrench faulting served as vertical migration paths. Extremely high sedimentation rates in Pliocene-Pleistocene time, concurrent with active faulting, was responsible for very rapid generation of oil and gas. Vertically migrating gas often mixed with earlier migrated oil in overlying reservoirs. This caused depletion of oil in light hydrocarbons with accompanied fractionation among hydrocarbon types resulting in heavier oil in lower reservoirs, enrichment of light hydrocarbons and accumulation of gas-condensates in upper reservoirs. This process led to an oil-gravity stratification within about 10,000 ft of section.

  1. Migration, Skills and Productivity

    Robert Hierländer; Peter Huber; Anna Iara; Michael Landesmann; Klaus Nowotny; Mary O'Mahony; Fei Peng; Catherine Robinson; Robert Stehrer

    2010-01-01

    The literature on international migration has repeatedly emphasized that the extent and structure of migration has an important impact on the competitiveness of regions and countries. This report provides an overview of the extent and the potential effects of high-skill migration to the EU27. It shows how many high-skilled migrants live in the EU, where these migrants come from, and how the European Union is positioned in the international competition for talent. Second, we examine how high-s...

  2. ENVIROMENTAL HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN RICOTTA AND MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA CHEESE

    M.L. Cortesi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, mainly formed by anthropogenic activities, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Due to environmental contamination and their chemical properties they migrate through the human food chain. Aim of this study was the evaluation of PAHs in ricotta and mozzarella di bufala cheese, produced by milk of buffalo collected in three farms, located in a high contaminated area in Campania because of a waste treatment plant and illegal waste incineration. 11 PAHs were identified both in milk and dairy products. Carcinogenic hydrocarbon benzo(apyrene were found in a range including 0.42- 12.96 μg/kg and dibenzo(ahanthracene 0.21-10.08 μg/kg. Anthracene showed higher concentrations than the other PAHs (45.23-436.85 μg/kg.

  3. Hydrocarbon generation conditions and exploration potential of the Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania

    Gang Wenzhe

    2009-01-01

    The Taoudeni Basin is a typical and steady intracratonic basin in Mauritania, northwest Africa. There are six sets of potential source rocks and five regional unconformable surfaces of the Infracambrian and Paleozoic developed in the basin. We used seismic stratigraphic correlation to recover the denudation thickness of formations at a particular well location. Studies of the hydrocarbon generation history of the basin illustrate that hydrocarbon migration and accumulation occurred in the end of the Carboniferous, and after that, the whole basin suffered denudation for a long period of time. Because there is no thick Mesozoic overburden in the basin, the Silurian source rocks could not generate hydrocarbon in the Mesozoic era for the second time. Consequently, the prospects for successful hydrocarbon exploration in the basin are not good.

  4. Migration og etnicitet

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    2004-01-01

    Migration og etnicitet er aktuelle og forbundne fænomener, idet migration øger berøringsfladerne mellem befolkningsgrupper. Etniciteter formes i takt med at grænser drages imellem disse grupper. Imod moderniserings-teoriernes forventning forsvandt etnicitet ikke som en traditionel eller oprindelig...... måde at skabe tilhørsforhold på; globalt set fremstår vor tid istedet som en "migrationens tidsalder", der tilsyneladende også er en tidsalder, hvor kulturelle særtræk, i form af etnicitet, udgør vigtige linjer, hvorefter grupper skilller sig ud fra hinanden. Både migration og etnicitet bringer fokus...... den finder sted i modtagerlandet, men nyere perspektiver på migration, som begreber om medborgerskab, transnationalisme og diaspora er eksponenter for, søger udover den nationalstatslige ramme og inddrager konsekvenserne af migrationen for afsenderlande....

  5. Indonesia's migration transition.

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration. PMID:12347370

  6. Labour Migration in Europe

    Menz, Georg; Caviedes, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Economic migration has been rediscovered by governments across Europe. Highly skilled migrants are actively solicited, irregular migrants are being offered amnesties, and East-West migration is welcomed by business and employer associations. However, this is a highly politicized and contested policy domain. This timely collection of cutting-edge research explores and examines the new realities of economic immigration to Europe. The thematic focus rests on new trends and developments, includin...

  7. Remittances and Return Migration

    Collier, William J.; Piracha, Matloob E; Randozza, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper utilises survey data of return migrants to analyse the determinants of remittances sent while the migrants were abroad. We approach our research question from the perspective of three sending countries in the Maghreb, namely Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. We investigate the remittance behaviour using the migrants’ conditions before migration as well as during the migration experience. Using a two-part model, we show that the decision to remit and the amount remitted depend on a comb...

  8. Migration of Interplanetary Dust

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.; Taylor, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    We numerically investigate the migration of dust particles with initial orbits close to those of the numbered asteroids, observed trans-Neptunian objects, and Comet Encke. The fraction of silicate asteroidal particles that collided with the Earth during their lifetime varied from 1.1% for 100 micron particles to 0.008% for 1 micron particles. Almost all asteroidal particles with diameter d>4 microns collided with the Sun. The peaks in the migrating asteroidal dust particles' semi-major axis d...

  9. Migration and Culture

    Epstein, Gil S.; Ira N. Gang

    2010-01-01

    Culture is not new to the study of migration. It has lurked beneath the surface for some time, occasionally protruding openly into the discussion, usually under some pseudonym. The authors bring culture into the open. They are concerned with how culture manifests itself in the migration process for three groups of actors: the migrants, those remaining in the sending areas, and people already living in the recipient locations. The topics vary widely. What unites the authors is an understanding...

  10. Proceedings of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater

    This book reports on hydrogen contaminated soils and groundwater. Topics covered include: perspectives on hydrocarbon contamination; emerging hydrocarbon contamination issues; analytical methodologies and site assessment for hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater; environmental fate and modeling; remedial technologies for hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater; and risk assessment and risk management

  11. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  12. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  13. Return Migration, Wage Differentials, and the Optimal Migration Duration

    Dustmann, Christian

    2001-01-01

    In simple static models, migration increases with the wage differential between host and home country. In a dynamic framework, and if migrations are temporary, the size of the migrant population in the host country depends also on the migration duration. This paper analyses optimal migration durations in a model which rationalises the decision of the migrant to return to his home country, despite persistently higher wages in the host country. The analysis shows that, if migrations are tempora...

  14. Maritime hydrocarbon pollution: Intervention

    The possibility of oil spills is of great concern to Canada because of the large quantities of petroleum that are shipped along its long coastline, the economic importance of fishing and other industries that could be affected by an oil spill, and the severity of climatic conditions in Canadian waters. Measures implemented to handle oil spill emergencies include relevant provisions in the merchant marine laws, establishment of a compensation fund for oil spill cleanup and damage, and provision of oil spill-related services by the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG), whose activities in this regard are summarized. The CCG has a fleet of 119 ships, 4 hydrofoils, 35 helicopters, and various small craft as well as oil spill pollution cleanup equipment worth $35 million stationed at 55 locations across Canada and staff specialists in oil spill emergencies. The CCG is responsible for enforcing the merchant marine law and has created a service for intervening in maritime emergencies. The CCG's equipment includes units for pumping out tankers in an emergency situation, shoreline cleanup devices, skimmers, containment booms, and facilities for adding dispersants to spills. A description of the behavior of hydrocarbons in an oil spill at sea is also included. 26 figs

  15. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  16. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  17. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  18. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  19. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  20. MODERN MIGRATION POLICY OF RUSSIA

    Kobylinsky S. V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several peculiarities of the implementation of migration policy in the Russian Federation were considered in this article. We have shown main provisions on refugees and forced migrants from the Ukraine and labor migration. On the basis of the study we have suggested an improvement of migration legislation, in particular, creation of a single codex and migration police

  1. Sandstone geometry, porosity and permeability distribution, and fluid migration in eolian system reservoirs

    Lupe, Robert; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    1975-01-01

    Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic eolian blanket sandstones of the Colorado Plateau and the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and southern Wyoming are texturally complex. As petroleum reservoirs they commonly have poor performance histories. They contain the sediments of a depositional system comprised of three closely associated depositional subenvironments: dune, interdune, and extradune. Sediments of each subenvironment have different textural properties which resulted from different depositional processes. Dune sediments are usually more porous and permeable than interdune or extradune sediments and may be better quality reservoirs than interdune or extradune sediments. Interdune sediments are here restricted to those nondune sediments deposited in the relatively flat areas between dunes. Extradune sediments (a new term) include all deposits adjacent to a dune field and are mainly subaqueous deposits. Dune sediments may be enveloped by extradune sediments as the depositional system evolves resulting in a texturally inhomogeneous reservoir having poor fluid migration properties. This model of textural inhomogeneity in eolian blanket sandstones. was applied to the Weber (Tensleep) Sandstone in Brady, Wertz, and Lost Soldier fields, Sweetwater County, Wyoming. Data were obtained from both outcrop and subsurface and included environmental interpretation, textural analysis, and plotting of the distribution of depositional subenvironments. As predicted from the model, the texture of dune sediments in Brady field differed markedly from interdune and extradune sediments. The predicted geometric distribution of subenvironments was confirmed in Lost Soldier and Wertz fields. However, secondary cementation and fracturing there has obscured the original porosity and permeability contrasts. The porosity and permeability distribution, a characteristic depending partly on depositional processes, could impede fluid migration in the reservoir and significantly reduce recovery of

  2. Subsurface fate of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons in continuous permafrost

    McCarthy, K.; Walker, L.; Vigoren, L.

    2004-01-01

    Accidental releases of approximately 2000 m3 of fuel have resulted in subsurface contamination adjacent to Imikpuk Lake, a drinking-water source near Barrow, AK. This paper presents a conceptual model of the distribution and transport of subsurface free-phase hydrocarbons at this site. The mean annual temperature in Barrow is -13 ??C, and average monthly temperatures exceed 0 ??C only during the months of June, July, and August. As a result, the region is underlain by areally continuous permafrost that extends to depths of up to 300 m and constrains subsurface hydrologic processes to a shallow zone that temporarily thaws each summer. During the 1993 and 1994 thaw seasons, the measured depth of thaw varied across the site from approximately 0.5 to 2 m. However, exploratory borings in 1995 showed that free-phase hydrocarbons were present at depths greater than 3 m, indicating that permafrost at this site is not a barrier to the vertical migration of nonaqueous-phase liquids. In 1996, a subsurface containment barrier was installed to prevent lateral movement of contaminated water to Imikpuk Lake, and a recovery trench was excavated upgradient of the barrier to facilitate removal of free-phase hydrocarbons. Free-phase hydrocarbons were recovered from the trench during 1996, 1997, and 1998. Recovery rates diminished over this time, and in 1999, no further product was recovered and the recovery operation was halted. Subsequent exploratory borings in 2001 and 2002 have revealed that some product remains in the subsurface. Data indicate that this remaining product exists in small discrete pockets or very thin layers of hydrocarbon floating on brine. These small reservoirs appear to be isolated from one another by relatively impermeable permafrost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. TOWARD MIGRATION TRANSITION IN ROMANIA

    Cristian Incaltarau

    2012-01-01

    Most studies regarding the contribution of migration to development are limited to an isolated analysis of the economic effects of migration. But the migration process is in turn influenced by other processes. So a wider framework including migration and other processes of development would be more appropriate. The experience of South European and East Asian countries have shown us that, during development, countries can change their migration profile from emigration to immigration. The prese...

  4. Prestack depth migration

    Two lines form the southern North Sea, with known velocity inhomogeneities in the overburden, have been pre-stack depth migrated. The pre-stack depth migrations are compared with conventional processing, one with severe distortions and one with subtle distortions on the conventionally processed sections. The line with subtle distortions is also compared with post-stack depth migration. The results on both lines were very successful. Both have already influenced drilling decisions, and have caused a modification of structural interpretation in the respective areas. Wells have been drilled on each of the lines, and well tops confirm the results. In fact, conventional processing led to incorrect locations for the wells, both of which were dry holes. The depth migrated sections indicate the incorrect placement, and on one line reveals a much better drilling location. This paper reports that even though processing costs are high for pre-stack depth migration, appropriate use can save millions of dollars in dry-hole expense

  5. Biometrics and international migration.

    Redpath, Jillyanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper will focus on the impact of the rapid expansion in the use of biometric systems in migration management on the rights of individuals; it seeks to highlight legal issues for consideration in implementing such systems, taking as the starting point that the security interests of the state and the rights of the individual are not, and should not be, mutually exclusive. The first part of this paper briefly describes the type of biometric applications available, how biometric systems function, and those used in migration management. The second part examines the potential offered by biometrics for greater security in migration management, and focuses on developments in the use of biometrics as a result of September 11. The third part discusses the impact of the use of biometrics in the management of migration on the individual's right to privacy and ability to move freely and lawfully. The paper highlights the increasing need for domestic and international frameworks to govern the use of biometric applications in the migration/security context, and proposes a number of issues that such frameworks could address. PMID:17536151

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  7. En fornemmelse for migration

    Schütze, Laura Maria

    Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan sted, museets rolle som aktør og religion er relevante for produktionen af migration på Immigrantmuseet (2012) og i Københavns Museums udstilling At blive københavner (2010). Afhandlingen er baseret på udstillingsanalyse samt interview med relevant museumsfagligt......, anvendes som virkemidler til at nuancere migration og distancere udstillingen fra den offentlige debat om indvandring. Afhandlingen peger på, at produktionen af den nyere danske historie på museum er præget af et fravær af religion. Det skyldes, at de museumsfaglige praksisser og traditioner afspejler en...... identiteter, som vi tager for givet: nationer, byer, kvinder - såvel som migration og religion. Afhandlingen argumenterer følgelig for, at museernes produktion af (materiel) religion er et særdeles relevant, men kun ringe udforsket, genstandsfelt for religionssociologien....

  8. Reconstructing Teacher Identities: Shock, Turbulence, Resistance and Adaptation in Caribbean Teacher Migration to England

    Washington-Miller, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The findings reported and discussed in this article extend existing research in the fields of education, migration and identity which focuses on the impact of overseas trained teachers (OTTs) in London's secondary schools. In recent years, researchers have examined the issue of international teacher migration from the perspective of a "brain…

  9. Hydrocarbons and Au Deposits (and Their Pyrite) - Is There a Link?

    Stein, H. J.; Bingen, B.; Yang, G.; Ihlen, P.

    2008-12-01

    Non-economic and isolated occurrences of hydrocarbon are known in the rock record. Among these is the somewhat common association of hydrocarbon veins and breccia fillings observed at Au deposits. This association begs investigation of the genetic association between hydrocarbon and Au deposition. To address this question we obtained a suite of Au-associated pyrites and cross-cutting hydrocarbon occurrences (referred to as coalblende in the vernacular) that are typical of the ore at the Eidsvoll Au deposit in SE Norway. The Au mineralization at Eidsvoll has long been attributed to a Late Sveconorwegian continental-scale terrane boundary along the SW margin of Fennoscandia, known as the Mylonite Zone (1000-970 Ma). Eidsvoll is located in the MZ but ore-hosting structures clearly crosscut the MZ fabric. Re- Os dating of euhedral cubic pyrites provides a well-constrained 8-point isochron with a corresponding age of c. 870 Ma. Further, a second generation of fine-grained cataclastic pyrite with 187Re/188Os ratios of greater than 4000 yields early Caledonian ages of c. 440 Ma. We attribute the c. 870 Ma age to extensional reactivation of the Kristiansand-Porsgrunn shear zone separating the Bamble and Telemarkia terranes SW of the intervening Permian Oslo rift. The younger c. 440 Ma pyrite may represent cataclasis of earlier cubic pyrite leading to liberation of Au and creation of associated chalcopyrite. The c. 440 Ma age may reflect lithospheric deformation in response to loading by the encroaching Caledonian thrust sheets to the west. Late hydrocarbon fracture coatings, veins, and breccia cements are markedly present at the Eidsvoll Brustad mine where we obtained our samples. Surprisingly, Re-Os model ages for simple fracture coatings of coalblende yield Miocene ages, indicating that Au and hydrocarbon deposition are neither temporally nor genetically related. We interpret the Miocene ages as recording hydrocarbon migration into Eidsvoll rocks, likely expelled from

  10. Migration Outflows and Optimal Migration Policy: Rules versus Discretion

    Ismaël Issifou; Francesco Magris

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of more open borders on return migration and show that migrants are more likely to return to the origin country when migration rules are softer, because this implies that they could more easily re-migrate if return migration is unsuccessful. As a result, softening migration rules leads to lower net inflows than generally acknowledged. We show that if government follows rules to shape the optimal migration policy, it will chose more open borders than in the case its behavi...

  11. Experimental investigation of hydrocarbon formation and transformation under Earth´s upper mantle conditions

    Kolesnikov, Anton

    2010-01-01

    The theory of the abyssal abiotic petroleum origin considers oil and natural gas to begenerated in the Earth’s upper mantle. Hydrocarbons migrate further through the deep faults into the Earth’s crust, where they can form oil and gas deposits in any kind of rock in any kind of structural position. Until recently one of the main obstacles for further development of this theory has been the lack of the data covering processes of generation and transformations of hydrocarbons. Experimental data,...

  12. Unix Application Migration Guide

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  13. [Migration and diabetes].

    Aydinkoc-Tuzcu, Kadriye; Schindler, Karin; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Ludvik, Bernhard; Fasching, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the demographic data of migration in Austria and with therapeutic advice concerning drug therapy and diabetes education for patients with migration background. In this context socio-cultural specifics are discussed. These suggestions are seen complementary to the general treatment guidelines of the Austrian Diabetes Association.Especially for the fast months Ramadan there are a lot of informations. The most important point is that the patient care must be highly individualized and the management plan may differ for each patient. PMID:27052237

  14. Migration of seismic data

    Prospecting for oil and gas resources poses the problem of determining the geological structure of the earth's crust from indirect measurements. Seismic migration is an acoustic image reconstruction technique based on the inversion of the scalar wave equation. Extensive computation is necessary before reliable information can be extracted form large sets of recorded data. In this paper a collection of open-quotes industrialclose quotes migration techniques, each giving rise to a data parallel algorithm, is outlined. Computer simulations on synthetic seismic data illustrate the problem and the approach

  15. Making Migration Meaningful

    Benwell, Ann Fenger

    2013-01-01

    . The article focuses on changing patterns of mobility in the Mongolian ‘age of the market’ and its effects on population groups. Internal and international migration has continually risen as individuals and families have moved to places of opportunity. Connections are believed to be maintained during...... periods of absence by migrant family members, as both men and women are culturally permitted to be separate from their families. Migration is understood to contribute to prosperity, and separations contribute to generate growth and hishig (good fortune) for the good of the family. However, such mobility...

  16. Migration = cloning; aliasiing

    Hüttel, Hans; Kleist, Josva; Nestmann, Uwe;

    1999-01-01

    In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider the creat......In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider...

  17. Is Migration Feminized?

    Toksöz, Gülay

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Turkey’s accession to the EU, the issue of potential migration from Turkey and its impact upon European labor markets became one of the concerns of the EU, considering Turkey’s growing population and young labor force. In 2011, half a century after the bi-lateral agreement between Turkey and Germany on labor recruitment in 1961, migration plays a key role in relations of Turkey with the EU and will even increase its significance – not necessarily for the next fifty years bu...

  18. [Migration, climate and health].

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel; Calballo, Manuel

    2009-10-26

    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which environmental refugees find themselves and the consequences this may have. Finally, it points to the urgent need to reform health systems in both developing and developed countries to adapt to rapidly changing disease patterns and to become more responsive to them. PMID:19857400

  19. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Ravnskov Uffe

    2005-12-01

    models a causal role of glomerular immune complex formation was unlikely, but may rather have been a secondary phenomenon. As most glomerulonephritis subgroups were seen and as some of the hydrocarbons produced more than one subgroup, the microscopic findings in a patient cannot be used as a clue to the causation of his disease. By the same reason, the lack of a specific histological pattern in patients with glomerulonephritis assumed to have been caused by hydrocarbon exposure is not contradictive.

  20. [Migration and health].

    Litvinjenko, S

    1997-01-01

    In the last decades of this century we are witnesses of frequent crises in different parts of the world produced by internal disturbance and wars. These crises, together with natural disasters, poverty and hunger, follow the history of mankind often forcing huge population groups to leave their homes. The harmful health consequences are among negative effects of migrations. While stable populations have well-tried routines for maintaining health, migrations mean abandoning such support systems. The increased exposure to harmful factors contributes more to the bad health condition of the migrant population. Setting of newcomers and local people together in the same homes, reduction in food and heating resources, drug shortage as well as importation of new infectious agents, may also endanger health of the native population. These observations have also been confirmed by Yugoslav experience. Depending on the fact whether a migration is elemental or organized i.e. dependent on its place in the large scale between these two extreme endpoints, the size of risk is also dependent on the consequences and degree of their difficulty. Mass health disturbances occur during migrations of the population from war regions, migrations from areas of natural disasters, mass pilgrimage, migrations of seasonal workers and migrations of armies during wars. However, even in these difficult times and conditions, a good organization can contribute to the mitigation of harmful consequences caused by these migrations. For instance, in 1942 there was an epidemic of typhus fever in Bosnia when many refugees crossed the Drina river on the way to Serbia escaping from Ustasha terrorism. At the Serbian side there were checkpoints where the refugees could taka a bath and where their laundry and clothing were depediculated with dry air, and after a two-week quarantine they could continue to Serbian provinces without making new foci of typhus fever. The most vulnerable and numerous group of refugees

  1. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Dunmore, R. E.; Hopkins, J. R.; Lidster, R. T.; Lee, J. D.; Evans, M. J.; Rickard, A. R.; Lewis, A. C.; Hamilton, J. F.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London), which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20-30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  2. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  3. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30% of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50% of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that, 60% of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50% of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for but, very significant under-reporting of diesel related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~ 4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  4. Hydrocarbons as markers for identifying postirradiated peanuts

    Hydrocarbons produced by γ-radiation of peanuts were analyzed to determine the relationship between irradiation and production of hydrocarbons, and the use of hydrocarbons as markers for identifying postirradiated peanuts. Hydrocarbons in peanuts were determined by a sequential procedure of lipid extraction by hexane, Florisil column chromatography, and gas chromatography. Hydrocarbons C17:1, C16:2, C17:2, and C16:3 were easily detected in peanuts irradiated at 0.5 kGy or higher, but not in unirradiated ones. The hydrocarbons were minimally changed by roasting the irradiated peanuts and were not detected in unirradiated roasted peanuts

  5. Migration mechanisms of radionuclides from a clay repository toward adjacent aquifers and the surface

    This article is a critical review of the current understanding of migration processes of solutes in clay. The major migration mechanisms are examined: advection through compaction, thermal convection, migration by hydrocarbon expulsion, gravitational flow, osmosis, molecular diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion. Examples are taken from the Callovo-Oxfordian clays of the Paris basin in the Meuse/Haute Marne area, near Bure, where France is studying the feasibility of a potential nuclear waste disposal facility. Recent work on the helium distribution in the aquifers of the Paris Basin confirms the importance of molecular diffusion for solute transport in clays. Migration in aquifers is also described, and the major causes of uncertainties for solute migration are discussed. (authors)

  6. Migration scenarii in extrasolar systems

    Crida A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review talk, I present the theory of type I migration of small mass planets, and its latest developments that open the possibility of outward migration in the inner part of a protoplanetary disk. I also review the type II migration of giant planets, and mention the runaway, type III. Then, we focus on the migration of pairs of planets in resonance. The eccentricity of the planets raise, and possibly their mutual inclination as well. Also, the migration rate can be changed, and directed outward if the outer planet is the lighter. Last, we present a synthetic scenario of migration for the giant planets of our Solar System.

  7. Lithologic Hydrocarbon Deposits in Rift Lake Basins in Eastern China

    ZHENG Herong; HE Zongquan

    2004-01-01

    The rift lake basins in the eastern China have abundant hydrocarbon resources of lithologic deposits, which resulted from excellent source rocks and multi-type sandbodies developed during strong rifting. Vertically, the lithologic deposits are mainly distributed in the lowstand, lacustrine invasion and early highstand systems of third-order sequence corresponding to a secondary tectonic episode of strong rifting, and laterally they are closely related to various fans and turbidite sandbodies controlled by syn-sedimentary faults. A variety of lithologic traps have been developed in the rift lake basins, and they generally have favorable conditions of source-reservoir-seal assemblage and hydrocarbon accumulation dynamics, indicating that there is a great exploration potential of lithologic deposits in the rift lake basins.In order to obtain satisfactory effects of lithologic deposit exploration, it is required to combine new theories with advanced technical methods.

  8. Environmental Behavior, Sources, and Effects of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Takeshi Ohura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sources and behaviors of chlorinated 2- to 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs. ClPAHs are ubiquitous contaminants found in urban air, vehicle exhaust gas, snow, tap water, and sediments. The concentrations of ClPAHs in each of these environments are generally higher than those of dioxins but markedly lower than the concentrations of the parent compounds, PAHs. Environmental data and emission sources analysis for ClPAHs reveal that the dominant process of generation is by reaction of PAHs with chlorine in pyrosynthesis. This secondary reaction process also occurs in aquatic environments. Certain ClPAHs show greater toxicity, such as mutagenicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, than their corresponding parent PAHs. Investigation of the sources and environmental behavior of ClPAHs is of great importance in the assessment of human health risks.

  9. Migration pathways in soils

    This study looked at diffusive migration through three types of deformation; the projectile pathways, hydraulic fractures of the sediments and faults, and was divided into three experimental areas: autoradiography, the determination of diffusion coefficients and electron microscopy of model projectile pathways in clay. For the autoradiography, unstressed samples were exposed to two separate isotopes, Pm-147 (a possible model for Am behaviour) and the poorly sorbed iodide-125. The results indicated that there was no enhanced migration through deformed kaolin samples nor through fractured Great Meteor East (GME) sediment, although some was evident through the projectile pathways in GME and possibly through the GME sheared samples. The scanning electron microscopy of projectile pathways in clay showed that emplacement of a projectile appeared to have no effect on the orientation of particles at distances greater than two projectile radii from the centre of a projectile pathway. It showed that the particles were not simply aligned with the direction of motion of the projectile but that, the closer to the surface of a particular pathway, the closer the particles lay to their original orientation. This finding was of interest from two points of view: i) the ease of migration of a pollutant along the pathway, and ii) possible mechanisms of hole closure. It was concluded that, provided that there is no advective migration, the transport of radionuclides through sediments containing these defects would not be significantly more rapid than in undeformed sediments. (author)

  10. Fall armyworm migration patterns.

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Cytochrome Oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup tha...

  11. Practical Data Migration

    Morris, Johny

    2012-01-01

    This book is for executives and practitioners tasked with the movement of data from old systems to a new repository. It uses a series of steps guaranteed to get the reader from an empty new system to one that is working and backed by the user population. Using this proven methodology will vastly increase the chances of a successful migration.

  12. Migrating the Light

    Sørensen, Bent

    The migration of Blaga’s universalist, even centralist poems from Romanian of the first third of the 20th C. into American of the first fifth of the 21st C. illustrates the uses of Pierre Joris’s nomadic methods. My translations of Blaga read well for a teenage audience whose only exposure to lit...

  13. MEXICAN MIGRATION PROJECT

    The Mexican Migration Project is designed to make timely, high-quality data on documented and undocumented Mexican migrants available to researchers and policy analysts. Each year since 1987 the project has administered a semi-structured interview schedule to representative sampl...

  14. Brain Migration Revisited

    Vinokur, Annie

    2006-01-01

    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  15. Migration and Africa

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace to the...

  16. Migration as Adventure

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2016-01-01

    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  17. Dispersal and migration

    Schwarz, C.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ringing of birds unveiled many aspects of avian migration and dispersal movements. However, there is even much more to be explored by the use of ringing and other marks. Dispersal is crucial in understanding the initial phase of migration in migrating birds as it is to understand patterns and processes of distribution and gene flow. So far, the analysis of migration was largely based on analysing spatial and temporal patters of recoveries of ringed birds. However, there are considerable biases and pitfalls in using recoveries due to spatial and temporal variation in reporting probabilities. Novel methods are required for future studies separating the confounding effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of recovery data and heterogeneity of the landscape as well. These novel approaches should aim a more intensive and novel use of the existing recovery data by taking advantage of, for instance, dynamic and multistate modeling, should elaborate schemes for future studies, and should also include other marks that allow a more rapid data collection, like telemetry, geolocation and global positioning systems, and chemical and molecular markers. The latter appear to be very useful in the delineating origin of birds and connectivity between breeding and non–breeding grounds. Many studies of migration are purely descriptive. However, King and Brooks (King & Brooks, 2004 examine if movement patterns of dolphins change after the introduction of a gillnet ban. Bayesian methods are an interesting approach to this problem as they provide a meaningful measure of the probability that such a change occurred rather than simple yes/no response that is often the result of classical statistical methods. However, the key difficulty of a general implementation of Bayesian methods is the complexity of the modelling —there is no general userfriendly package that is easily accessible to most scientists. Drake and Alisauskas (Drake & Alisauskas, 2004 examine the

  18. Hydrocarbon habitat in rifted basins

    Ziegler, P.A. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    Tectonically active rifts, palaeo-rifts and passive margin basins contain major hydrocarbon provinces. Their hydrocarbon charge can rely exclusively on pre-rift, syn-rift sedimentary sequences or a combination thereof. Maturation of source-rocks can be achieved during the syn-and/or post-rift stage of basin evolution. During rifting, conductive and convective heat transfer accounts for elevated geothermal gradients; these play an important role in the maturation of pre- and syn-rift source-rocks; as geothermal gradients decrease asymptotically during the post-rift stage, maturation of late syn- and post-rift source-rocks depends on massif overburden thicknesses. In most rift structuration and trap-formation predate or are contemporaneous with peak oil and gas generation. Post-rift subsidence and stress-induced basin tilting or inversion can cause modification of trap configurations, causing loss of hydrocarbons. (author). 58 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Yang, Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  20. Migration and Narration

    Brigitte Boenisch-Brednich

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The following article aims to work out the main narrative techniques of “telling migration”. The conclusions drawn on the subject of migration and narration are based on a one-year field work study, combining participant observation with interviewing. This study took place in New Zealand concentrating on German immigrants between 1936 and 1996. The main source for my analysis given in this paper is provided by 102 people I interviewed. The texts of these biographically-focussed interviews allowed me to work not only on an ethnographical history of migration but also to gain insights into peoples’ experiences, and over and above that, to learn what kind of stories and techniques of storytelling emigration creates. The book focuses on a comparatively wide time frame of sixty years (Boenisch- Brednich 2001. This makes it possible to analyse very different periods of migration and groups of migrants, contrasting social categories as well as exploring differences in education, milieu, age and gender. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that although all migrants were leaving Germany and arriving in New Zealand, they experienced what were in effect very different countries through time – different Germanys, different New Zealands. To work out the changing reasons for migrating (work migration, refuge, global lifestyle, etc. inside western societies is a major theme the book is aiming for. A second approach is to investigate migration from the perspective of focussing on everyday life, an investigation on the basis of personal experiences, such as “work, housing, food, celebrations, social life”. A special focus is set on the analysing of “mental narratives” as key stories, examples, comparatives etc. The central questions of this project were: What kind of strategies do people use to cope with a major changes in their biography, as constituted by emigration? What does integration really mean and how does it work for different groups? What

  1. Hydrocarbon exploration risk evaluation through uncertainty and sensitivity analyses techniques

    The evaluation of the exploration risk in the oil industry is a fundamental component of the decision process related to the exploratory phase. In this paper the two basic components of the exploratory risk: trap geometry and trapped hydrocarbon quantities (fluid), are compounded in a single coherent uncertainty and sensitivity approach. The results clarify that the model geometry influences each Petroleum System Modeling step and that the geometric uncertainty is correlated with the fluid uncertainty. The geometric uncertainty evaluation makes use of geostatistical techniques that produce a number of possible realizations of the trap geometry, all compatible with available data. The evaluation of the fluid uncertainty, through a Monte Carlo methodology, allows us to compute the possible quantities of oil and gas, generated in a basin and migrated from the hydrocarbon source location to each single trap. The final result is the probability distribution of oil and gas for each trap in the basin, together with other useful indicators like: the hydrocarbon filling probability map, the closure probability map, the drainage area probability map, the spilling paths probabilities, the trap-filling scenarios

  2. Seasonal Survival Probabilities Suggest Low Migration Mortality in Migrating Bats

    Giavi, Simone; Moretti, Marco; Bontadina, Fabio; Zambelli, Nicola; Schaub, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Migration is adaptive if survival benefits are larger than costs of residency. Many aspects of bat migration ecology such as migratory costs, stopover site use and fidelity are largely unknown. Since many migrating bats are endangered, such information is urgently needed to promote conservation. We selected the migrating Leisler's bat (Nyctalus leisleri) as model species and collected capture-recapture data in southern Switzerland year round during 6 years. We estimated seasonal survival and ...

  3. Migration Turnover Rates in Mountain States Counties

    Israelsen, William J.; Israelsen, L. Dwight; Israelsen, Ryan D.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of migration typically examine migration between countries, or, in the United States, migration between states. Recently, there have been several studies done on the determinants of migration at the county level. The current study introduces a new concept into the migration literature: the migration turnover rate (MTR). The migration turnover rate is similar to an employee turnover rate in that it measures the turnover through in-migration and out-migration of the population of an are...

  4. Migration Turnover Rates in United States Counties

    Israelsen, L. Dwight; Israelsen, Ryan D.; Israelsen, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of migration typically examine migration between countries, or, in the United States, migration between states. Recently, there have been several studies done on the determinants of migration at the county level. The current study introduces a new concept into the migration literature: the migration turnover rate (MTR). The migration turnover rate is similar to an employee turnover rate in that it measures the turnover through in-migration and out-migration of the population of an are...

  5. Globalization, Migration and Development

    George, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMigration may become the most important branch of demography in the earlydecades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costsand benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of commonconcern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume,direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate ofpopulation growth and the proportion of youth in the population, their education and training,employment opportunities, income differentials in society, communication and transportationfacilities, political freedom and human rights and level of urbanization. Migration benefits the Souththrough remittances of migrants, improves the economic welfare of the population (particularly womenof South countries generally, increases investment, and leads to structural changes in the economy.However, emigration from the South has costs too, be they social or caused by factors such as braindrain. The North also benefits by migration through enhancement of economic growth, development ofnatural resources, improved employment prospects, social development and through exposure toimmigrants' new cultures and lifestyles. Migration also has costs to the North such as of immigrantintegration, a certain amount of destabilization of the economy, illegal immigration, and socialproblems of discrimination and exploitation. Issues common to both North and South include impact onprivate investment, trade, international cooperation, and sustainable development. Both North andSouth face a dilemma in seeking an appropriate balance between importing South's labour or itsproducts and exporting capital and technology from the North.FrenchLa migration est sans doute devenue la partie la plus importante de la démographie des premières décennies du nouveau millénaire dans un monde qui change rapidement. Ce

  6. Conceptual design of air sparge/soil vent systems for in situ remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    A conceptual design for a sparge and vent system is presented. A sparge and vent system consists of air sparging or in situ aeration in combination with soil vapor extraction. With air sparging, a compressed air source provides sparging of the ground water through aeration points, volatizes dissolved hydrocarbons, and elevates dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the ground water. Volatile hydrocarbon vapors migrate more readily than liquid in soil, and are extracted to atmosphere with the vapor extraction system. Increased oxygen levels in the ground water and unsaturated soil promotes natural, aerobic biodegradation of the hydrocarbons without nutrient addition. Design considerations for sparge systems include spacing and depth of installation of the sparging points, air injection rates and pressures and the air source. The design techniques for the soil vapor extraction system have been discussed extensively in the literature but generally involve spacing of the extraction wells to capture all the hydrocarbons stripped from the ground water. The soil vapor extraction system can also be modified to enhance oxygen (air) delivery to the unsaturated zone and thus promote natural biodegradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. Techniques for monitoring the progress of remediation include measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the soil, DO levels in the ground water, subsurface air pressures and petroleum hydrocarbon levels in the discharged air, soil and ground water

  7. The International Organization for Migration in Global Migration Governance

    Poulsen, Sofie Havn; Andersen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    This project focuses on the IOM, the notion of global governance of migration and the interaction between these two. The point of departure has been an attempt to grasp the current global approach to migration and comprehend whether, or to what degree, there is governance of migration issues taking place at a global level.

  8. The Analysis of International Migration towards Economic Growth

    Ferdous Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discusses the analysis of international migration towards economic growth in Bangladesh. International migration refers to the cross-border movement of people from a mother country to a location outside that mother country, with the purpose of taking up higher income employment, better living conditions, higher education get access to civic amenities and conducting a daily existence there for an extended period of time. The exports of labor, human capital, play a major role to minimize the poverty level in Bangladesh. In the last four decades, Bangladesh exports the huge number of labors abroad for economic growth through remittances. Remittances affect poverty eradication most directly by increasing the income of households which have a family member working abroad. Because income from remittances is usually larger than that which could have been earned by migrants they stayed at home. Approach: The aim of this study is to highlight the policy implications for the maximization of international migration and the analysis of economic growth in Bangladesh. The data for analysis is perceived from the secondary sources. The significant manipulations for acquired data are migration of employment and remittances for economic growth in Bangladesh. Results: Migration contributed for the development of macro and micro level in Bangladesh. Conclusion: There would be potential benefits to world's poor if more international attention were focused on integrating migration policy to within the larger global dialogue economic development and poverty reduction. Strong institutions and good policies will enhance the benefits of human capital migration for Bangladesh.

  9. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author)

  10. International Migration and Real Wages

    Reza Oladi; Hamid Beladi

    2007-01-01

    We provide an analysis of the impact of migration on the skilled- unskilled wage gap. In particular, we show the possibility of a rise in the wage gap following the migration of skilled (unskilled ) labor.