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Sample records for sclerotic bone rim

  1. Cystinosis with sclerotic bone lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirrs, S; Munk, P; Mallinson, P I; Ouellette, H; Horvath, G; Cooper, S; Da Roza, G; Rosenbaum, D; O'Riley, M; Nussbaumer, G; Hoang, L N; Lee, C H

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old male with nephropathic cystinosis treated with cysteamine and renal transplantation presented for evaluation of multiple sclerotic bone lesions, which were an incidental finding on chest computerized tomography. These lesions were in a pattern consistent with osteoblastic metastases. He did not have a history of clinically significant hyperparathyroidism or cytopenias either preceding or following his transplant. Bone and tumor markers (including alkaline phosphatase and calcium) were all normal. A percutaneous bone biopsy of the lesions showed changes compatible with cystine deposition. Our case demonstrates that sclerotic bone lesions can be a feature of cystinosis in patients with normal parathyroid function and that significant bone marrow infiltration with cystine can be present even in the absence of cytopenias. PMID:24097416

  2. Cystinosis with Sclerotic Bone Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Sirrs, S.; Munk, P.; Mallinson, P. I.; Ouellette, H.; Horvath, G.; Cooper, S.; Da Roza, G.; Rosenbaum, D.; O’riley, M.; Nussbaumer, G.; Hoang, L. N.; Lee, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old male with nephropathic cystinosis treated with cysteamine and renal transplantation presented for evaluation of multiple sclerotic bone lesions, which were an incidental finding on chest computerized tomography. These lesions were in a pattern consistent with osteoblastic metastases. He did not have a history of clinically significant hyperparathyroidism or cytopenias either preceding or following his transplant. Bone and tumor markers (including alkaline phosphatase and calcium...

  3. Localized sclerotic bone response demonstrated reduced nanomechanical creep properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuli; Goh, James Cho Hong; Teoh, Swee Hin; De, Shamal Das; Soong, Richie; Lee, Taeyong

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosis (tissue hardening) development is a common occurrence in slow growing or benign osteolytic lesions. However, there is lack of knowledge on the mechanical and material property changes associated with sclerotic bone response. The immune system is postulated to play a relevant role in evoking sclerotic bone responses. In this study, localized sclerotic response in an immunocompetent model of Walker 256 breast carcinoma in SD rats showed an apparent increase in new reactive bone formation. Sclerotic rat femurs had significant increases in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone surface density (BS/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and structural model index (SMI) as compared to control rat femurs. Significantly reduced creep responses (increased ?) were observed for both trabecular and cortical bone in sclerotic bones while no significant difference was observed in elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) values. Therefore, we conclude that viscoelastic creep property using nanoindentation would serve as a more sensitive indicator of localized bone modeling than elastic properties. Moreover, reduced viscoelasticity can contribute towards increased microcrack propagation and therefore reduced toughness. Since significant positive correlations between elastic properties (E) and (H) with viscosity (?) were also observed, our results indicate that sclerotic response of bone metastasis would cause reduced toughness (increased ?) with stiffening of material (increased E and H). PMID:23127639

  4. Attenuation artifact from sclerotic bone can mimic active bone metastasis on PET-CT.

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    Ho, Linh; Seto, John

    2006-11-01

    We report the PET-CT appearance of sclerotic bone mimicking active bone metastasis in a 57-year-old woman with right breast cancer and bone and hepatic metastases. Hybrid PET-CT was performed 1 month after completion of surgery and chemoradiation treatment. PET-CT demonstrated hypermetabolic foci in the right pulmonary hilum and liver. Increased hypermetabolic activity in L1 and L3 vertebral bodies was also seen corresponding to sclerotic vertebral bodies on CT study. The activity in L1 and L3 vertebral bodies was not visualized on nonattenuation-corrected images, consistent with an attenuation correction artifact resulting from extensive sclerosis in these regions. PMID:17053397

  5. Quantifying sclerotic bone metastases with 2D ultra short TE MRI: a feasibility study.

    OpenAIRE

    Messiou, C.; Collins, Dj; Morgan, Va; Robson, Md; Debono, Js; Bydder, Gm; Desouza, Nm

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ultra Short TE MRI allows signal to be detected from tissues with a very short T2.The aims of this study were to optimize a 2D UTE MRI sequence for imaging and quantification of sclerotic bone metastases, establish T2* values of sclerotic components and investigate the feasibility of using the method to assess changes in T2* of sclerotic metastases and their relation to attenuation values in patients on treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two subjects were recruited in 3 cohorts. Cohort ...

  6. Sclerotic variant of lymphangiomatosis of bone: imaging findings at diagnosis and long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphangiomatosis is an extremely rare congenital disorder affecting visceral organs and/or the skeletal system. In bone is is usually characterized by multiple lytic lesions with a lacelike pattern and sclerotic margins of various thickness. In this case report we demonstrate the rare sclerotic variant of lymphangiomatosis. We report the development of predominantly sclerotic lesions at different sites by serial radiographs with a long-term follow-up, and show the MRI findings of lymphangiomatosis of the spine. (orig.)

  7. Bone marrow lesions from osteoarthritis knees are characterized by sclerotic bone that is less well mineralized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David J; Gerstenfeld, Lou; Bishop, Gavin; Davis, A David; Mason, Zach D; Einhorn, Tom A; Maciewicz, Rose A; Newham, Pete; Foster, Martyn; Jackson, Sonya; Morgan, Elise F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Although the presence of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) on magnetic resonance images is strongly associated with osteoarthritis progression and pain, the underlying pathology is not well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the architecture of subchondral bone in regions with and without BMLs from the same individual using bone histomorphometry. Methods Postmenopausal female subjects (n = 6, age 48 to 90 years) with predominantly medial compartment osteoarthritis and on a waiting list for total knee replacement were recruited. To identify the location of the BMLs, subjects had a magnetic resonance imaging scan performed on their study knee prior to total knee replacement using a GE 1.5 T scanner with a dedicated extremity coil. An axial map of the tibial plateau was made, delineating the precise location of the BML. After surgical removal of the tibial plateau, the BML was localized using the axial map from the magnetic resonance image and the lesion excised along with a comparably sized bone specimen adjacent to the BML and from the contralateral compartment without a BML. Cores were imaged via microcomputed tomography, and the bone volume fraction and tissue mineral density were calculated for each core. In addition, the thickness of the subchondral plate was measured, and the following quantitative metrics of trabecular structure were calculated for the subchondral trabecular bone in each core: trabecular number, thickness, and spacing, structure model index, connectivity density, and degree of anisotropy. We computed the mean and standard deviation for each parameter, and the unaffected bone from the medial tibial plateau and the bone from the lateral tibial plateau were compared with the affected BML region in the medial tibial plateau. Results Cores from the lesion area displayed increased bone volume fraction but reduced tissue mineral density. The samples from the subchondral trabecular lesion area exhibited increased trabecular thickness and were also markedly more plate-like than the bone in the other three locations, as evidenced by the lower value of the structural model index. Other differences in structure that were noted were increased trabecular spacing and a trend towards decreased trabecular number in the cores from the medial location as compared with the contralateral location. Conclusions Our preliminary data localize specific changes in bone mineralization, remodeling and defects within BMLs features that are adjacent to the subchondral plate. These BMLs appear to be sclerotic compared with unaffected regions from the same individual based on the increased bone volume fraction and increased trabecular thickness. The mineral density in these lesions, however, is reduced and may render this area to be mechanically compromised, and thus susceptible to attrition. PMID:19171047

  8. Sclerotic variant of lymphangiomatosis of bone: imaging findings at diagnosis and long-term follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forstner, R. [Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Datz, C. [Department of Medicine, Landeskrankenanstalten Salzburg (Austria); Dietze, O. [Department of Pathology, Landeskrankenanstalten Salzburg (Austria); Rettenbacher, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Landeskrankenanstalten Salzburg (Austria)

    1998-08-01

    Lymphangiomatosis is an extremely rare congenital disorder affecting visceral organs and/or the skeletal system. In bone is is usually characterized by multiple lytic lesions with a lacelike pattern and sclerotic margins of various thickness. In this case report we demonstrate the rare sclerotic variant of lymphangiomatosis. We report the development of predominantly sclerotic lesions at different sites by serial radiographs with a long-term follow-up, and show the MRI findings of lymphangiomatosis of the spine. (orig.) With 4 figs., 12 refs.

  9. Detection of sclerotic bone metastases in the spine using watershed algorithm and graph cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Tatjana; Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-03-01

    The early detection of bone metastases is important for determining the prognosis and treatment of a patient. We developed a CAD system which detects sclerotic bone metastases in the spine on CT images. After the spine is segmented from the image, a watershed algorithm detects lesion candidates. The over-segmentation problem of the watershed algorithm is addressed by the novel incorporation of a graph-cuts driven merger. 30 quantitative features for each detection are computed to train a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The classifier was trained on 12 clinical cases and tested on 10 independent clinical cases. Ground truth lesions were manually segmented by an expert. The system prior to classification detected 87% (72/83) of the manually segmented lesions with volume greater than 300 mm3. On the independent test set, the sensitivity was 71.2% (95% confidence interval (63.1%, 77.3%)) with 8.8 false positives per case.

  10. An Inflammatory Dentigerous Cyst Shows Rim Uptake on Bone Scan: A Case Report

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    Son, Hye Joo; Jeong, Young Jin; Jeong, Jin Sook; Kang, Doyoung [Dong-A Univ. Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Dentigerous cysts are developmental odontogenic jaw cysts, commonly manifesting in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life. This article presents an extremely rare case of dentigerous cyst showing increased uptake in the peripheral rim on bone scan. Herein, we discuss the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of dentigerous cysts as well as the pathological mechanism underlying their activities on the bone scan. Bone scan was a sensitive tool for detecting the biologic activity of dentigerous cyst in our case.

  11. An Inflammatory Dentigerous Cyst Shows Rim Uptake on Bone Scan: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dentigerous cysts are developmental odontogenic jaw cysts, commonly manifesting in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life. This article presents an extremely rare case of dentigerous cyst showing increased uptake in the peripheral rim on bone scan. Herein, we discuss the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of dentigerous cysts as well as the pathological mechanism underlying their activities on the bone scan. Bone scan was a sensitive tool for detecting the biologic activity of dentigerous cyst in our case

  12. Solitary Sclerotic Fibroma

    OpenAIRE

    Bhambri, Avani; Del Rosso, James Q.

    2009-01-01

    Sclerotic fibroma is a rare skin neoplasm that can be seen sporadically or in association with disorders such as Cowden’s disease. We present a case of solitary sclerotic fibroma that presented as an asymptomatic nodule in a 40-year-old man with no evidence of Cowden’s disease. Histopathologically, the lesion was consistent with a sclerotic fibroma displaying hypocellular collagen bundles with clefts.

  13. Phenotypic Characterization of Osteoarthritic Osteocytes from the Sclerotic Zones: A Possible Pathological Role in Subchondral Bone Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali Jaiprakash, Indira Prasadam

    2012-01-01

    Subchondral bone sclerosis is a well-recognised manifestation of osteoarthritis (OA). The osteocyte cell network is now considered to be central to the regulation of bone homeostasis; however, it is not known whether the integrity of the osteocyte cell network is altered in OA patients. The aim of this study was to investigate OA osteocyte phenotypic changes and its potential role in OA subchondral bone pathogenesis. The morphological and phenotypic changes of osteocytes in OA samples were in...

  14. Phenotypic characterization of osteoarthritic osteocytes from the sclerotic zones: a possible pathological role in subchondral bone sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash, Anjali; Prasadam, Indira; Feng, Jian Q; Liu, Ying; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2012-01-01

    Subchondral bone sclerosis is a well-recognised manifestation of osteoarthritis (OA). The osteocyte cell network is now considered to be central to the regulation of bone homeostasis; however, it is not known whether the integrity of the osteocyte cell network is altered in OA patients. The aim of this study was to investigate OA osteocyte phenotypic changes and its potential role in OA subchondral bone pathogenesis. The morphological and phenotypic changes of osteocytes in OA samples were investigated by micro-CT, SEM, histology, immunohistochemistry, TRAP staining, apoptosis assay and real-time PCR studies. We demonstrated that in OA subchondral bone, the osteocyte morphology was altered showing rough and rounded cell body with fewer and disorganized dendrites compared with the osteocytes in control samples. OA osteocyte also showed dysregulated expression of osteocyte markers, apoptosis, and degradative enzymes, indicating that the phenotypical changes in OA osteocytes were accompanied with OA subchondral bone remodelling (increased osteoblast and osteoclast activity) and increased bone volume with altered mineral content. Significant alteration of osteocytes identified in OA samples indicates a potential regulatory role of osteocytes in subchondral bone remodelling and mineral metabolism during OA pathogenesis. PMID:22419886

  15. Phenotypic Characterization of Osteoarthritic Osteocytes from the Sclerotic Zones: A Possible Pathological Role in Subchondral Bone Sclerosis

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    Anjali Jaiprakash, Indira Prasadam, Jian Q. Feng, Ying Liu, Ross Crawford, Yin Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subchondral bone sclerosis is a well-recognised manifestation of osteoarthritis (OA. The osteocyte cell network is now considered to be central to the regulation of bone homeostasis; however, it is not known whether the integrity of the osteocyte cell network is altered in OA patients. The aim of this study was to investigate OA osteocyte phenotypic changes and its potential role in OA subchondral bone pathogenesis. The morphological and phenotypic changes of osteocytes in OA samples were investigated by micro-CT, SEM, histology, immunohistochemistry, TRAP staining, apoptosis assay and real-time PCR studies. We demonstrated that in OA subchondral bone, the osteocyte morphology was altered showing rough and rounded cell body with fewer and disorganized dendrites compared with the osteocytes in control samples. OA osteocyte also showed dysregulated expression of osteocyte markers, apoptosis, and degradative enzymes, indicating that the phenotypical changes in OA osteocytes were accompanied with OA subchondral bone remodelling (increased osteoblast and osteoclast activity and increased bone volume with altered mineral content. Significant alteration of osteocytes identified in OA samples indicates a potential regulatory role of osteocytes in subchondral bone remodelling and mineral metabolism during OA pathogenesis.

  16. Sclerotization of mosquito cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, M; Semensi, V

    1987-02-15

    The mode of sclerotization of Aedes aegypti pupal and adult cuticle was examined by employing biochemical and radioactive techniques. During larval-pupal metamorphosis, tyrosine is converted to tanning precursors and is incorporated into aryl-amino adducts and beta-crosslinks. The major hydrolysis product of beta-crosslinks in pupal cases is identified to be arterenone. Examination of tanning modes in five different mosquito species shows that the ratio of quinone to beta-sclerotization not only differs within the life stages of the insects, but also differs between species. PMID:3817100

  17. Sclerotic changes of the manubrium sterni

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    Jurik, A.G.; Graudal, H.; De Carvalho, A.

    1985-03-01

    Six females with nearly identical sclerotic and hyperostotic changes of the manubrium sterni are reported. Malignancies, bacterial inflammatory processes, and Paget disease, which were first suspected, could be excluded. The youngest patients also had sclerotic changes of other bones, including the lumbar spine, the pubic bone, and the clavicle, and may be classified as having ''chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis'' (CRMO). The two oldest patients had ossification of the costoclavicular ligament(s) and may be classified as having ''inter-sterno-costo-clavicular ossification'' (ISCCO). One had only hyperostotic and sclerotic changes as seen in ''sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis'' (SCCH). The pathogenesis of these uncommon diseases is unknown, but they are all frequently associated with pustulosis palmoplantaris and have similar clinical courses and laboratory abnormalities. None of the present patients had HLA-B/sub 27/. The similarity of the radiological abnormalities of the manubrium sterni suggests that the diseases themselves may be similar, but with different courses depending on age, CRMO being present in children and young adults and ISCCO or SCCH in older adults.

  18. Sclerotic changes of the manubrium sterni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six females with nearly identical sclerotic and hyperostotic changes of the manubrium sterni are reported. Malignancies, bacterial inflammatory processes, and Paget disease, which were first suspected, could be excluded. The youngest patients also had sclerotic changes of other bones, including the lumbar spine, the pubic bone, and the clavicle, and may be classified as having ''chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis'' (CRMO). The two oldest patients had ossification of the costoclavicular ligament(s) and may be classified as having ''inter-sterno-costo-clavicular ossification'' (ISCCO). One had only hyperostotic and sclerotic changes as seen in ''sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis'' (SCCH). The pathogenesis of these uncommon diseases is unknown, but they are all frequently associated with pustulosis palmoplantaris and have similar clinical courses and laboratory abnormalities. None of the present patients had HLA-B27. The similarity of the radiological abnormalities of the manubrium sterni suggests that the diseases themselves may be similar, but with different courses depending on age, CRMO being present in children and young adults and ISCCO or SCCH in older adults. (orig.)

  19. Insect cuticular sclerotization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2010-03-01

    Different regions of an insect cuticle have different mechanical properties, partly due to different degrees of stabilization and hardening occurring during the process of sclerotization, whereby phenolic material is incorporated into the cuticular proteins. Our understanding of the chemistry of cuticular sclerotization has increased considerably since Mark Pryor in 1940 suggested that enzymatically generated ortho-quinones react with free amino groups, thereby crosslinking the cuticular proteins. The results obtained since then have confirmed the essential features of Pryor's suggestion, and the many observations and experiments, which have been obtained, have led to a detailed and rather complex picture of the sclerotization process, as described in this review. However, many important questions still remain unanswered, especially regarding the precise regional and temporal regulation of the various steps in the process. PMID:19932179

  20. Bone changes in tuberous sclerosis mimicking metastases

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    Pui, M.H.; Kong Hwai Loong; Choo Hui Fen [National University Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology

    1996-02-01

    Sclerotic and lytic bone changes of tuberous sclerosis (TS) can mimic bone metastases. A case is reported of a patient with concomitant sclerotic bone metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma and TS bone changes, diagnosed by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The increased bone uptake and abnormal magnetic resonance signal allowed distinction of TS bone lesions from bone metastases. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Sclerotic bodies beyond nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

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    Bhawan, Jag; Perez-Chua, Tanya A; Goldberg, Lynne

    2013-09-01

    Sclerotic bodies are round to oval structures made up of collagen with entrapped elastic fibers, which may be sometimes ossified. These bodies may be found in skin biopsies from patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a disease linked to the use of gadolinium in radiologic procedures and chronic renal failure. Sclerotic bodies have not been reported in other diseases. Herein, we report sclerotic bodies as an incidental finding in a re-excision specimen of a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from the forearm of an 85-year-old man with chronic renal failure. The patient had had multiple SCC removed over time. Additional clinical history revealed patient having received gadolinium in 2003 and 2004, preceding his dialysis that began in 2009. All of his excision specimens revealed sclerotic bodies in 20 of 30 specimens from 2008. None of the 26 re-excision specimens prior to gadolinium exposure had these bodies. Our findings suggest that sclerotic bodies are the result of gadolinium exposure in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Because the bodies were found near the re-excision scar, it may be that gadolinium or its metabolites activate fibroblasts in the setting of wound healing. The reasons why this patient did not develop NSF are unclear. PMID:23808625

  2. Sclerotic multiple myeloma with an unusual sunburst periosteal reaction occurring in the sternum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqing; Wu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Zekun; Ding, Yang; Latif, Mahrukh

    2015-05-01

    Multiple myeloma is a disseminated neoplastic monoclonal gammopathy that usually affects the skull, clavicle, rib, pelvis, spinal column, and proximal portions of the humerus and femur. The initial manifestation of multiple myeloma in the sternum is rare. The classic radiological presentations of multiple myeloma are multiple "punched-out" areas of bone destruction, expansile lytic lesions, and generalized osteoporosis. Primary sclerotic presentation is rare and occurs in only 3 % of cases. A sclerotic multiple myeloma with a sunburst periosteal reaction occurring in the sternum has not been reported in the English literature. We report a case of sclerotic multiple myeloma of a 49-year-old woman. In the sternum, the lesion displayed extensive sclerosis mixed with mottled lytic areas with a sunburst periosteal reaction occurring in the periphery, which radiologically mimicked an osteosarcoma. Multiple focal areas of sclerosis were also found in the right clavicle, pelvis, multiple ribs, and vertebrae. PMID:25351419

  3. CT findings in diffuse skeletal sclerotic hemangiomatosis: a difficult diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT findings in an unusual case of diffuse skeletal nonvisceral hemangiomatosis with radiologic appearance of purely sclerotic lesions are described. To our knowledge, only two cases of diffuse skeletal nonvisceral hemangiomatosis with purely sclerotic lesions and splenic involvement have been reported in the radiologic literature. Our case is the first description of this benign form of skeletal hemangiomatosis with purely sclerotic lesions and without splenic involvement. (orig.)

  4. Peritumoral bone marrow edema accompanying benign giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the frequency of peritumoral bone marrow(BM) edema accompanying benign giant cell tumor(GCT) of the appendicular bone by magnetic resonance(MR) imaging and to correlate MRI findings with those of plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Eighteen cases of pathologically proven benign GCT of the appendicular bone were retrospectively analyzed using MR images, plain radiographs and bone scintigrams. A plain radiography was available in 15 cases, and a scintigram in six. Marrow edema was defined as peritumoral signal changes which were of homogeneous intermediate or low signal intensity(SI) onT1WI and high SI on T2WI, relative to the SI of normal BM, and homogeneous enhancement on Gd-DTPA -enhanced T1WI. The transition zone, sclerotic margin and aggressiveness of the lesion were assessed on the basis of plain radiographs. BM edema seen on MR images was correlated with plain radiographic and scintigraphic findings. 1. Peritumoral BM edema was seen on MR images in 10 of 18 cases (55.5%). 2. In 8 of 15 cases for which plain radiographs were available, MR imaging revealed BM edema. In six of these eight, transition zone was wide, while in two it was narrow. Six of seven patients without marrow edema showed a wide transition zone, and in one this was narrow. There was significant correlation between BM edema shown by MR imaging and the transition zone seen on plain radiographs (x2, p<0.05). But the aggressiveness shown by plain radiographs correlated onl shown by plain radiographs correlated only marginally while the presence of sclerotic rim did not correlate. 3. All six cases for which a bone scintigram was available showed an extended uptake pattern. In five of the six, MR imaging revealed edema. Peritumoral BM edema was frequently seen (55.5%) in the GCTs of appendicular bone; it was more often shown in association with a wide transition zone by plain radiographs.=20

  5. Peritumoral bone marrow edema accompanying benign giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Ji Yong; Gi, Won Hee; Sung, Mi Suk; Lee, Jae Mun; Shin, Kyung Sub [The Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate the frequency of peritumoral bone marrow(BM) edema accompanying benign giant cell tumor(GCT) of the appendicular bone by magnetic resonance(MR) imaging and to correlate MRI findings with those of plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Eighteen cases of pathologically proven benign GCT of the appendicular bone were retrospectively analyzed using MR images, plain radiographs and bone scintigrams. A plain radiography was available in 15 cases, and a scintigram in six. Marrow edema was defined as peritumoral signal changes which were of homogeneous intermediate or low signal intensity(SI) onT1WI and high SI on T2WI, relative to the SI of normal BM, and homogeneous enhancement on Gd-DTPA -enhanced T1WI. The transition zone, sclerotic margin and aggressiveness of the lesion were assessed on the basis of plain radiographs. BM edema seen on MR images was correlated with plain radiographic and scintigraphic findings. 1. Peritumoral BM edema was seen on MR images in 10 of 18 cases (55.5%). 2. In 8 of 15 cases for which plain radiographs were available, MR imaging revealed BM edema. In six of these eight, transition zone was wide, while in two it was narrow. Six of seven patients without marrow edema showed a wide transition zone, and in one this was narrow. There was significant correlation between BM edema shown by MR imaging and the transition zone seen on plain radiographs (x{sup 2}, p<0.05). But the aggressiveness shown by plain radiographs correlated only marginally while the presence of sclerotic rim did not correlate. 3. All six cases for which a bone scintigram was available showed an extended uptake pattern. In five of the six, MR imaging revealed edema. Peritumoral BM edema was frequently seen (55.5%) in the GCTs of appendicular bone; it was more often shown in association with a wide transition zone by plain radiographs.=20.

  6. Imaging features and diagnostic value of bone lipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the imaging manifestations of bone lipoma and their diagnostic value. Methods: Ten cases with pathologically proved lipoma of bone were analyzed, and the literature was reviewed. Results: Eight of 10 cases were intraosseous lipomas which were located in the femoral neck (1 case), the femoral neck-intertrochanter area (1 case), the acetabulum (4 cases) and the calcaneus (2 cases), respectively. All foci showed oval or irregular radiolucent area on X-ray film and adipose tissue area with thin or thick sclerotic rim on CT images. The fat attenuation values within the lesion were in the range of -22 to - 120 Hounsfield units. Focal intralesional calcifications in the center or margin within the intraosseous lipoma were present in 6 foci. The other 2 cases were juxtacortical lipomas, which showed the irregular adipose tissue area beside bone with reactive bony proliferation. Conclusion: The lipoma of bone has common imaging features, that is, mainly composed of fatty tissue. However, the imaging manifestations of bone lipoma in different locations are somewhat different, and they could be diagnosed correctly before operation by using CT. (authors)

  7. RIMS: Resource Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is given of the capabilities and functions of the resource management system (RIMS). It is a simple interactive DMS tool which allows users to build, modify, and maintain data management applications. The RIMS minimizes programmer support required to develop/maintain small data base applications. The RIMS also assists in bringing the United Information Services (UIS) budget system work inhouse. Information is also given on the relationship between the RIMS and the user community.

  8. Sclerotic Rings in Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae): Structures and Taxonomic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Momo; Konishi, Takuya; Sato, Tamaki

    2015-01-01

    Mosasaurs (Squamata: Mosasauridae) were a highly diverse, globally distributed group of aquatic lizards in the Late Cretaceous (98–66 million years ago) that exhibited a high degree of adaptation to life in water. To date, despite their rich fossil record, the anatomy of complete mosasaur sclerotic rings, embedded in the sclera of the eyeball, has not been thoroughly investigated. We here describe and compare sclerotic rings of four mosasaur genera, Tylosaurus, Platecarpus, Clidastes, and Mosasaurus, for the first time. Two specimens of Tylosaurus and Platecarpus share an exact scleral ossicle arrangement, excepting the missing portion in the specimen of Platecarpus. Furthermore, the exact arrangement and the total count of 14 ossicles per ring are shared between Tylosaurus and numerous living terrestrial lizard taxa, pertaining to both Iguania and Scleroglossa. In contrast, two species of Mosasaurus share the identical count of 12 ossicles and the arrangement with each other, while no living lizard taxa share exactly the same arrangement. Such a mosaic distribution of these traits both among squamates globally and among obligatorily aquatic mosasaurs specifically suggests that neither the ossicle count nor their arrangement played major roles in the aquatic adaptation in mosasaur eyes. All the mosasaur sclerotic rings examined consistently exhibit aperture eccentricity and the scleral ossicles with gently convex outer side. Hitherto unknown to any squamate taxa, one specimen of Platecarpus unexpectedly shows a raised, concentric band of roughened surface on the inner surface of the sclerotic ring. It is possible that one or both of these latter features may have related to adaptation towards aquatic vision in mosasaurs, but further quantitative study of extant reptilian clades containing both terrestrial and aquatic taxa is critical and necessary in order to understand possible adaptive significances of such osteological features. PMID:25692667

  9. Tyrosine hydroxylase is required for cuticle sclerotization and pigmentation in Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Maureen J.; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Newly synthesized insect cuticle is soft and pale but becomes stronger (sclerotized) and often darker (pigmented) over several hours or days. The first step in the sclerotization and pigmentation pathways is the hydroxylation of tyrosine to produce 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is known to catalyze this reaction during pigmentation, but a role for TH in sclerotization has not been documented. The goal of this study was to determine whether TH is required for cut...

  10. Dopamine-Mediated Sclerotization of Regenerated Chitin in Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyeop X. Oh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is a promising structural material for biomedical applications, due to its many advantageous properties and abundance in nature. However, its usage and development in the biomedical field have been stagnant, because of chitin’s poor mechanical properties in wet conditions and the difficulties in transforming it into an applicable form. To overcome these challenges, we created a novel biomimetic chitin composite. This regenerated chitin, prepared with ionic liquid, showed improved mechanical properties in wet conditions by mimicking insect cuticle and squid beak sclerotization, i.e., catechol-meditated cross-linking. By ionic liquid-based heat treatment, dopamine oxidation produced melanin-like compounds and dopamine-meditated cross-links without any solvent evaporation and oxidant utilization. The dopamine-meditated sclerotization increased the ultimate tensile strength (UTS of the regenerated chitin by 2.52-fold, measured after six weeks of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS submersion. In addition, the linear swelling ratio (LSR of the chitin film was reduced by about 22%. This strategy raises a possibility of using regenerated chitin as an artificial hard tissue in wet conditions.

  11. Vertebral sarcoidosis: demonstration of bone involvement by computerized axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given of a rare case of vertebral sarcoidosis with negative conventional spinal x-ray films, yet with typical cystic lesions of the spine found incidentally during abdominal computerized axial tomography (CAT). The patient was a 28-year-old black man, who was admitted for evaluation of a 1 1/2-year history of diffuse myalgias, intermittent fever to 102 F orally, bilateral hilar adenopathy, and leukopenia. A technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed diffuse areas of increased uptake over the sternum, entire vertebral column, and pelvis. Conventional x-ray films of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, and an AP view of the pelvis were all normal. Chest x-ray film revealed only bilateral hilar adenopathy. During the course of an extensive negative evaluation for infection, an abdominal CAT scan was done, showing multiple, small, sclerotic-rimmed cysts at multiple levels of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine. Bone marrow biopsy revealed only changes consistent with anemia of chronic disease. Mediastinal lymph node biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. A tentative diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made, and treatment with prednisone, isoniazid and rifampin was begun. Within two weeks of initiation of prednisone therapy, the patient was symptom-free. A repeat technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed only a small residual area of mildly increased uptake over the upper thoracic vertebrae

  12. Multifocal sclerotic BCG spondylitis in a 13-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case is reported of multifocal BCG osteomyelitis in a 13-year-old girl. The lesions in the skull, ribs and in several vertebrae were mainly sclerotic and healed with antituberculotic therapy. The case is unusual because of the late onset, sclerotic changes, and involvement of the spine. (orig.)

  13. Solitary sclerotic fibroma of the skin: morphological characterization of the 'plywood-like pattern'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Keiko; Yamada, Nanako; Adachi, Koji; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2008-10-01

    Sclerotic fibroma is an uncommon skin tumor. Rapini and Golitz reported 11 cases of solitary sclerotic fibromas in patients without Cowden's disease in 1989. We report a case of sclerotic fibroma that presented as an asymptomatic nodule in a 34-year-old Japanese man. Histopathological examination revealed typical features of sclerotic fibroma of the skin. Ultrastructural examination showed that spindle cells with myoid features had proliferated around the vasculature. They had segregated from the perivascular area by leaving the surrounding basal lamina, resulting in their phenotypical change to produce collagen accumulating in a concentrically lamellar fashion. We suggest a possible role of abnormal blood vessels and surrounding specific cells in the development of sclerotic fibroma. PMID:18544068

  14. The use of qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reactions for diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infections in bone marrow and kidney transplant recipients / Desenvolvimento e aplicação de PCRs quali-quantitativas para diagnóstico de citomegalovirose em transplantados de rim e medula óssea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lauro Juliano, Marin; Aldo Albuquerque, Cunha; Victor Hugo, Aquino; Luiz Tadeu Moraes, Figueiredo.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar uma PCR qualitativa e uma PCR semiquantitativa para CMV para determinar a carga de CMV nos leucócitos de pacientes transplantados de medula óssea e transplantados de rim. Trinta e três pacientes TMO e 35 TR participaram deste estudo. O DNA foi testado pela PCR qu [...] alitativa utilizando primers que amplificam parte do gene gB de CMV. As cargas de CMV das amostras positivas foram determinadas pela PCR semi-quantitativa utilizando como controle plasmídios quantificáveis inseridos com parte do gene gB de CMV. A sensibilidade do teste foi de 867 plamídios/µg DNA. Cargas de CMV entre 2.118 e 72.443 copias/µg DNA foram observadas em 12,1% dos TMO entre 1,246 e 58,613 cópias/µg DNA foram observadas em 22,9% dos TR. Futuros estudos, com maiores casuísticas são necessários para confirmar a utilidade desta PCR semiquantitativa para CMV em pacientes transplantados. Abstract in english The purpose of this work was to test a cytomegalovirus qualitative PCR and a semi-quantitative PCR on the determination of CMV load in leukocytes of bone marrow and kidney transplanted (RT) patients. Thirty three BMT and 35 RT patients participated of the study. The DNA was subjected to a qualitativ [...] e PCR using primers that amplify part of CMV gB gene. CMV load of positive samples was determined by a semi-quantitative PCR using quantified plasmids inserted with part of the gB gene of CMV as controls. The sensitivity of the test was determined to be 867 plasmid copies/µg DNA. CMV loads between 2,118 and 72,443 copies/µg DNA were observed in 12.1% BMT recipients and between 1,246 and 58,613 copies/µg DNA in 22.9% RT recipients. Further studies are necessary to confirm the usefulness of this CMV semi-quantitative PCR in transplanted patients.

  15. 1,2-dehydro-N-beta-alanyldopamine as a new intermediate in insect cuticular sclerotization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, D; Sugumaran, M

    1994-09-01

    Sclerotization of insect cuticle is an extremely important biochemical process for the successful survival of most insects. N-Acetyldopamine and N-beta-alanyldopamine are two widely used sclerotizing precursors. N-Acetyldopamine is converted by phenoloxidase, quinone isomerase, and quinone methide isomerase to generate the reactive intermediates quinone, quinone methide, and quinone methide imine amide for use in quinone tanning, quinone methide sclerotization, and alpha,beta-sclerotization, respectively. N-beta-Alanyldopamine has been claimed to be used only by phenoloxidase and quinone isomerase for quinone tanning and quinone methide sclerotization thereby attributing biochemical diversity to the coloration and strength of different cuticles. However, we demonstrate here that cuticular enzymes isolated from the larvae of Calliphora possess the capacity to generate 1,2-dehydro-N-beta-alanyldopamine from N-beta-alanyldopamine. Chemical synthesis of 1,2-dehydro-N-beta-alanyldopamine and its further oxidation are reported for the first time. Comparative biochemical studies confirm that both the sclerotizing precursors, N-acetyldopamine and N-beta-alanyldopamine, are used by all three different mechanisms of the unified theory of sclerotization. PMID:8071347

  16. Reduced Antigenicity of Type I Collagen and Proteoglycans in Sclerotic Dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Suppa, P.; Ruggeri, A.; Tay, F. R.; Prati, C.; Biasotto, M.; Falconi, M.; Pashley, D. H.; Breschi, L.

    2006-01-01

    Antigenic alterations to the dentin organic matrix may be detected by an immunohistochemical approach. We hypothesized that alterations in the antigenicity of type I collagen and proteoglycans occur in sclerotic dentin under caries lesions. Transverse sections were prepared from carious teeth in the sclerotic zone and normal hard dentin. A double-immunolabeling technique was performed on these sections, with anti-type I collagen and anti-chondroitin 4/6 sulfate monoclonal primary antibodies. ...

  17. Portable basketball rim testing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W. Bruce (610 Clover St., Cheney, WA 99004); Davis, Karl C. (Box 722, Richland, WA 99352)

    1993-01-01

    A portable basketball rim rebound testing device 10 is illustrated in two preferred embodiments for testing the rebound or energy absorption characteristics of a basketball rim 12 and its accompanying support to determine likely rebound or energy absorption charcteristics of the system. The apparatus 10 includes a depending frame 28 having a C-clamp 36 for releasably rigidly connecting the frame to the basketball rim 12. A glide weight 60 is mounted on a guide rod 52 permitting the weight 60 to be dropped against a calibrated spring 56 held on an abutment surface on the rod to generate for deflecting the basketball rim and then rebounding the weight upwardly. A photosensor 66 is mounted on the depending frame 28 to sense passage of reflective surfaces 75 on the weight to thereby obtain sufficient data to enable a processing means 26 to calculate the rebound velocity and relate it to an energy absorption percentage rate of the rim system 12. A readout is provided to display the energy absorption percentage.

  18. Tyrosine hydroxylase is required for cuticle sclerotization and pigmentation in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Maureen J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2010-03-01

    Newly synthesized insect cuticle is soft and pale but becomes stronger (sclerotized) and often darker (pigmented) over several hours or days. The first step in the sclerotization and pigmentation pathways is the hydroxylation of tyrosine to produce 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is known to catalyze this reaction during pigmentation, but a role for TH in sclerotization has not been documented. The goal of this study was to determine whether TH is required for cuticle sclerotization in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We used quantitative RT-PCR to verify that TH expression occurs at the time of cuticle tanning and immunohistochemistry to confirm that TH is expressed in the epithelial cells underlying sclerotized cuticle. In addition, we found that a reduction in TH function (mediated by RNA interference) resulted in a decrease in cuticle pigmentation and a decrease in the hardness of both pigmented and colorless cuticle. These results demonstrate a requirement for TH in sclerotization as well as brown pigmentation of insect cuticle. PMID:20080183

  19. The painful bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Siegfried

    2005-02-01

    In this issue of the WKW, Aigner et al have published that, for the first time, a conservative approach with iloprost has shown to be equally successful as the well-documented core decompression surgical approach in patients with BMES of the hip joint. The BME pattern on MR-imaging of the hip joint represents a common but unspecific finding, which may be associated with several diseases requiring different therapeutic strategies (Table 1). It is still controversial, whether BMES of the hip represents a distinct self-limiting disease also known as transient osteoporosis, transient marrow edema, or algodystrophy, or merely reflects a subtype of ON. Since prognosis and therapeutic consequences vary significantly, differential diagnosis between BMES, CRPS and ON is of clinical interest (Table 2). Both, BMES and ON show similar ON risk factors and a male prevalence, while classical CRPS has a history of trauma and a prevalence among females. Clinical presentation of BMES and ON is similar with typical mechanical pain and prevalence of the hip joint. In contrast, classical CRPS shows a diffuse and burning pain in combination with trophic and vasomotor signs, mainly in the hands and feet. Imaging patterns of BMES are more diffuse, across the entire femoral head, while focal and subchondral in ON. In both, the patterns are limited to the femoral head. In contrast to classical CRPS, the imaging changes are located in all periarticular bones, and the soft tissues are always affected. The histological bone marrow changes are similar in all three diseases, but with abundant new bone formation in BMES and CRPS, whereas in ON only limited new bone formation surrounds the focal necrosis with a sclerotic rim. Protected weight-bearing and treatment with iloprost for BMES, but operative treatment for ON, and a sophisticated physiotherapy for CRPS in combination with iloprost are the preferred treatment strategies in our institution. PMID:15847189

  20. Quantitative determination of catecholic degradation products from insect sclerotized cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2008-09-01

    Acid hydrolysates of cuticle from various insect species were quantitatively analyzed for five catecholic amino acid adducts. Four of the adducts are ketocatechols; in three of them the amino acid moiety, either lysine, glycine or beta-alanine, is connected via its amino group to the alpha-carbon atom of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, in the fourth a tyrosine residue is connected to the same position via its phenolic group. The fifth adduct contains histidine linked via its imidazole-ring to the beta-position of the dopamine sidechain. The three ketocatecholic adducts containing alpha-amino acids were obtained in significant yields from adult cuticles of the locust Schistocerca gregaria, the cockroaches Blaberus craniifer and Periplaneta americana, and the beetles Pachynoda sinuata and Tenebrio molitor, but only in trace amounts from larval and pupal cuticles of T. molitor, pupal cuticles of the moths Manduca sexta and Hyalophora cecropia, and puparia of the blowfly Calliphora vicina. The beta-alanine-containing ketocatechol was not obtained from cuticle of locusts and T. molitor larvae and pupae, but it was present in the hydrolysates of the other cuticles. The beta-histidine-dopamine adduct was obtained from all the cuticles, the highest yield was obtained from adult P. sinuata and the lowest yield was from adult S. gregaria. The beta-histidine-dopamine adduct is derived from the product formed by reaction of p-quinone methides of N-acetyldopamine (NADA) or N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD) with histidine residues in the cuticular proteins. The ketocatecholic adducts are assumed to be degradation products of crosslinks formed when oxidized dehydro-NADA reacts with the cuticular proteins. The insect species investigated appear to use both pathways for sclerotization, but to widely differing extents; the dehydro-NADA pathway dominates in cuticles which are exposed to strong deforming forces, such as those of adult locusts and cockroaches, and the p-quinone methide pathway dominates in cuticle of lepidopteran pupae and blowfly puparia, which are not exposed to strong mechanical forces but have to be effectively protected against microbial and fungal attacks. PMID:18675913

  1. CUTANEOUS MYXOID CYST ON THE SCLEROTIC FINGER IN A PATIENT WITH DIFFUSE SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeko Nakamura-Wakatsuki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin tumors occurring on the scleroderma fingers are rarely seen. Swollen fingers are hallmarks of systemic sclerosis, and mucin deposition in the lesional skin is a constant feature in systemic sclerosis. Here we describe a case of cutaneous myxoid cyst on the flexor aspect of the sclerotic fingers in a patient with severe diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Cutaneous myxoid cyst is a relatively common benign tumor; however, cases of cutaneous myxoid cysts developing on the scleroderma fingers have not been reported to date. Mucin deposition in the sclerotic skin may be a predisposing factor in the induction of myxoid cyst on the scleroderma finger in our patient.

  2. Imaging features of hemangioma in the long bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the imaging features of hemangioma in the long bone and improve the diagnostic level of this disease. Methods: The X-ray (14 cases), CT (9 cases) and MRI (6 cases) findings of 18 patients with histologically proven hemangioma in the long bone after surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Ten tumors occurred in medullary cavity or bone end (medullary type), 6 on the surface of bone (periosteal type) and 3 in cortex (intracortical type). X-ray findings: among 8 cases of medullary type, 3 showed honeycomb appearance, 3 lytic areas with sclerotic borders, one purely osteolytic changes, and 1 frosted glass; 3 cases of periosteal type showed sclerosis and thickening of the underlying cortex; 3 cases of intracortical type showed well defined osteolytic foci. CT findings: among 6 cases of medullary type, 5 appeared as expansile lytic lesion with uneven selerotic rim (3 cases) orhoneycomb appearance (2 cases), 1 cribriform appearance in the cortical bone, 2 periostealnew bone formation in vertical radiation pattern; 1 ground-glass appearance; among 2 cases of periosteal type-one showed regular cortical thickening, and the other irregular periosteal proliferation with marrowing of medullarycavity; 1 case of intracortical type showed density similar to that of soft tissue, with cortical thickening and expansion. MRI findings: 2 appeared as well-defined lesions with low signal intensity on T1WI and high signal intensity on T2WI; 1 appeared as ill-defined lesion with low to intermediate signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI. One showed breakthrough of cortex and formation of soft, tissue mass with low signal intensity on T1WI and high signal on T2WI. Two showed thickening of periosteum with intermediate signal intensity in one of them and very low signal intensity in the other. Two showed abnormal signal intensity in surrounding muscles, which was high on T2WI and intermediate on T1WI. Conclusions: The soap-bubble or honeycomb appearance is the typical radiographic finding of hemangioma in long bone. CT and MRI can provide useful information for the diagnosis of hemangioma in long bone. (authors)

  3. Pupal cuticle proteins of Manduca sexta: characterization and profiles during sclerotization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, T L; Krchma, L J; Ahmad, S A; Kramer, K J

    2000-01-01

    Proteins in pupal abdominal cuticle of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, were characterized during the pre-ecdysial and post-ecdysial periods of sclerotization and endocuticle formation. Protein extractability decreased dramatically as the cuticle became sclerotized through 6 h post-ecdysis, but increased rapidly from 9 to 48 h as endocuticular layers were secreted. Nearly 100 proteins that were extracted from pre-ecdysial cuticle became largely insoluble during sclerotization. Three major proteins in this group destined to become exocuticle had apparent molecular masses (Mapp) of 20, 27 and 36 kDa, and were designated MS-PCP20, MS-PCP27, and MS-PCP36. Amino acid analysis revealed glycine to predominate in all three proteins, and alanine, aspartate, glutamate, proline and serine were also relatively abundant. Histidine residues, which provide sites for adduct and cross-link formation with quinone metabolites of N-beta-alanyldopamine during sclerotization of pupal cuticle, ranged from 2 to 3 mol %. N-Terminal amino acid analysis of MSPC-20 and MSPC-36 also revealed some sequence similarities indicating they may be related. An almost entirely new group of proteins appeared by 9 h as endocuticule secretion began, and these increased in abundance through 48 h post-ecdysis. Two of these were major proteins with Mapps of 33 and 34 kDa, and they also had close similarities in their N-terminal amino acid sequences. This study showed that the large number of proteins secreted into the presumptive exocuticle of the pupa before ecdysis are involved in sclerotization reactions and as a consequence become largely insoluble. The epidermis then switches to the secretion of an entirely new group of proteins that are involved in formation of the endocuticle. PMID:10646967

  4. Imaging appearance of bone tumors of the maxillofacial region

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the imaging appearance of benign and malignant bone tumors of the maxillofacial region. A benign bone tumor commonly appears as a well circumscribed lesion. The matrix of the tumor may be calcified or sclerotic. Malignancies often display aggressive characteristics such as cortical breakthrough, bone destruction, a permeative pattern and associated soft-tissue masses. Computed tomography scan is an excellent imaging modality for accurate localization of the lesion, characte...

  5. Cerebral abscess with multiple rims on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a patient with multiple brain abscesses caused by Nocardia asteroides. On T2-weighted MRI, multiple concentric rims were seen in the abscess, which could be a finding specific for infection. The rims may be due to organization of the necrotic debris and phagocytoses by macrophages in the capsule. (orig.)

  6. The effects of hydroxyapatite coating and bone allograft on fixation of loaded experimental primary and revision implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØballe, Kjeld; Mouzin, Olivier R G

    2003-01-01

    We used our established experimental model of revision joint replacement to examine the roles of hydroxyapatite coating and bone graft in improving the fixation of revision implants. The revision protocol uses the Søballe micromotion device in a preliminary 8-week period of implant instability for the presence of particulate polyethylene. During this procedure, a sclerotic endosteal bone rim forms, and a dense fibrous membrane is engendered, having macrophages with ingested polyethylene and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. At the time of revision after 8 weeks, the cavity is revised with either a titanium alloy (Ti) or a hydroxyapatite (HA) 6.0 mm plasma-sprayed implant, in the presence or absence of allograft packed into the initial 0.75 mm peri-implant gap. The contralateral limb is subjected to primary surgery with the same implant configuration, and serves as control. 8 implants were included in each of the 8 treatment groups (total 64 implants in 32 dogs). The observation period was 4 weeks after revision. Outcome measures are based on histomorphometry and mechanical pushout properties. The revision setting was always inferior to its primary counterpart. Bone graft improved the revision fixation in all treatment groups, as also did the HA coating. The sole exception was revision-grafted HA implants, which reached the same fixation as primary Ti and HA grafted implants. The revision, which was less active in general, seems to need the dual stimulation of bone graft and HA implant surface, to obtain the same level of fixation associated with primary implants. Our findings suggest that the combination of HA implant and bone graft may be of benefit in the clinical revision implant setting.

  7. RIMS [Records Inventory Management System] Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Records Inventory Management System (RIMS) is a computer library of abstracted documents relating to low-level radioactive waste. The documents are of interest to state governments, regional compacts, and the Department of Energy, especially as they relate to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act requiring states or compacts of states to establish and operate waste disposal facilities. RIMS documents are primarily regulatory, policy, or technical documents, published by the various states and compacts of the United States; however, RIMS contains key international publications as well. The system has two sections: a document retrieval section and a document update section. The RIMS mainframe can be accessed through a PC or modem. Also, each state and compact may request a PC version of RIMS, which allows a user to enter documents off line and then upload the documents to the mainframe data base

  8. Effects of Altered Catecholamine Metabolism on Pigmentation and Physical Properties of Sclerotized Regions in the Silkworm Melanism Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Liang; Li, Yuanhao; Xiong, Gao; Liu, Xiaofan; He, Songzhen; Tong, Xiaoling; Wu, Songyuan; Hu, Hai; Wang, Rixin; Hu, Hongwei; Chen, Lushi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Jie; Dai, Fangyin; Lu, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Catecholamine metabolism plays an important role in the determination of insect body color and cuticle sclerotization. To date, limited research has focused on these processes in silkworm. In the current study, we analyzed the interactions between catecholamines and melanin genes and their effects on the pigmentation patterns and physical properties of sclerotized regions in silkworm, using the melanic mutant melanism (mln) silkworm strain as a model. Injection of ?-alanine into mln mutant s...

  9. Model sclerotization studies. 3. Cuticular enzyme catalyzed oxidation of peptidyl model tyrosine and dopa derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, M; Ricketts, D

    1995-01-01

    Incubation of N-acetyltyrosine methyl ester with cuticular enzymes, isolated from the wandering stages of Calliphora sp larvae, resulted in the generation of N-acetyldopa methyl ester when the reaction was carried out in the presence of ascorbate which prevented further oxidation of the o-diphenolic product. Enzymatic oxidation of N-acetyldopa methyl ester ultimately generated dehydro N-acetyldopa methyl ester. The identity of enzymatically produced N-acetyldopa methyl ester and dehydro N-acetyldopa methyl ester has been confirmed by comparison of the ultraviolet and infrared spectral and chromatographic properties with those of authentic samples as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Since N-acetyldopaquinone methyl ester was also converted to dehydro N-acetyldopa methyl ester and tyrosinase was responsible for the oxidation of N-acetyldopa methyl ester, a scheme for the cuticular phenoloxidase catalyzed conversion of N-acetyltyrosine methyl ester to dehydro N-acetyldopa methyl ester involving the intermediary formation of the quinone and the quinone methide is proposed to account for the observed results. The conversion of N-acetyldopa methyl ester to dehydro derivative remarkably resembles the conversion of the sclerotizing precursor, N-acetyldopamine, to dehydro-N-acetyldopamine observed in the insect cuticle. Based on these comparative studies, it is proposed that peptidyl dopa derivatives could also serve as the sclerotizing precursors for the sclerotization of the insect cuticle. PMID:7803812

  10. Identification of the gene encoding bursicon, an insect neuropeptide responsible for cuticle sclerotization and wing spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Elizabeth M; McNabb, Susan L; Ewer, John; Kuo, Gloria R; Takanishi, Christina L; Truman, James W; Honegger, Hans-Willi

    2004-07-13

    To accommodate growth, insects must periodically replace their exoskeletons. After shedding the old cuticle, the new soft cuticle must sclerotize. Sclerotization has long been known to be controlled by the neuropeptide hormone bursicon, but its large size of 30 kDa has frustrated attempts to determine its sequence and structure. Using partial sequences obtained from purified cockroach bursicon, we identified the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG13419 as a candidate bursicon gene. CG13419 encodes a peptide with a predicted final molecular weight of 15 kDa, which likely functions as a dimer. This predicted bursicon protein belongs to the cystine knot family, which includes vertebrate transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and glycoprotein hormones. Point mutations in the bursicon gene cause defects in cuticle sclerotization and wing expansion behavior. Bioassays show that these mutants have decreased bursicon bioactivity. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry revealed that bursicon is co-expressed with crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). Transgenic flies that lack CCAP neurons also lacked bursicon bioactivity. Our results indicate that CG13419 encodes bursicon, the last of the classic set of insect developmental hormones. It is the first member of the cystine knot family to have a defined function in invertebrates. Mutants show that the spectrum of bursicon actions is broader than formerly demonstrated. PMID:15242619

  11. Linhas escleróticas metafisárias em crianças e adolescentes em uso de alendronato / Sclerotic metaphyseal lines in children and adolescents treated with alendronate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érika C.C., Silva; Maria Teresa R.A., Terreri; Tania C.M. de, Castro; Cássia P.L., Barbosa; Artur R.C., Fernandes; Maria Odete E., Hilário.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Os bisfosfonatos inibem a reabsorção óssea pela interferência na ação dos osteoclastos. Dentre os efeitos adversos, as linhas escleróticas em metáfise de ossos longos são descritas como principal alteração radiográfica na faixa etária pediátrica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência de alteraç [...] ões radiográficas causadas pelo alendronato utilizado em crianças e adolescentes com baixa densidade óssea ou calcinose. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo do tipo coorte retrospectiva analisando-se prontuários de 21 pacientes que fizeram uso de alendronato semanal por no mínimo 10 meses. Os pacientes realizaram radiografias de ossos longos antes do início do alendronato e aproximadamente um ano após o seu uso. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes (52,3%) apresentaram linhas escleróticas em metáfise dos ossos longos. A localização mais frequente foi em tíbia (8/11 pacientes), seguida de fêmur (7/11), úmero (6/11), rádio (4/11), ulna (3/11) e fíbula (2/11). Nenhum paciente apresentou regressão das alterações radiográficas durante o tempo de evolução (até 1,1 ano após a suspensão do alendronato). CONCLUSÃO: Se usado com critério, o alendronato é seguro e as alterações radiográficas não mostraram ter um significado mais importante. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by interfering with the action of osteoclasts. Among the adverse effects, sclerotic lines observed in the metaphysis of long bones have been described as the main imaging finding in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of radi [...] ographic changes caused by alendronate in children and adolescents with low bone density or calcinosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 21 patients who were treated with once-weekly alendronate for at least 10 months. Patients underwent x-rays of long bones before the start of alendronate and approximately one year after its use. RESULTS: Eleven patients (52.3%) had sclerotic lines in the metaphysis of long bones. The most frequent site was the tibia (8/11 patients), followed by the femur (7/11), humerus (6/11), radius (4/11), ulna (3/11), and fibula (2/11). Regression of radiographic changes during the study period (up to 1.1 years after discontinuation of alendronate) was not observed. CONCLUSION: If used carefully, alendronate is safe and radiographic changes have not been shown to be clinically relevant.

  12. Metabolic effects of single-dose pamidronate administration in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases.

    OpenAIRE

    Angeli, Alberto; Dogliotti, Luigi; Scarpa, Roberto Mario; Tampellini, Marco; Berruti, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased osteolysis usually accompanies sclerotic bone metastases from prostate cancer. This provides a rationale for the use of bisphosphonates to treat bone pain and prevent skeletal complications. METHODS: The fasting urinary levels of calcium, hydroxyproline (OHPRO), pyridinolines (PYD), deoxypyridinolines (DPYD), collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTX) and the serum values of calcium, total alkaline phosphatase and relevant bone isoenzyme, bone gla protein (BGP), carboxy-t...

  13. Asymptotic analysis of the dewetting rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijer, Jacco H; Eggers, Jens

    2010-11-01

    Consider a film of viscous liquid covering a solid surface, which it does not wet. If there is an initial hole in the film, the film will retract further, forming a rim of fluid at the receding front. We calculate the shape of the rim as well as the speed of the front using lubrication theory. We employ asymptotic matching between the contact line region, the rim, and the film. Our results are consistent with simple ideas involving dynamic contact angles and permit us to calculate all free parameters of this description, previously unknown. PMID:21230583

  14. High-precision thorium RIMS for geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our latest results in the development of resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) using cw lasers to measure isotope ratios of importance in geochemistry and geochronology. The RIMS method provides a higher ionization efficiency than thermal ionization allowing analysis of smaller sample sizes, while maintaining equivalent internal precision. The bias introduced in 230/232Th ratio measurements by the RIMS method when using narrow-band and broad-band lasers is discussed. Spectra of 239Th, which can be used as an internal standard, are also presented

  15. Aspects of cuticular sclerotization in the locust, Scistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-03-01

    The number of reactive amino groups in cuticular proteins decreases during the early period of insect cuticular sclerotization, presumably due to reaction with oxidation products of N-acetyldopamine (NADA) and N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD). We have quantitated the decrease in cuticular N-terminal amino groups and lysine epsilon-amino groups during the first 24h of sclerotization in adult locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, and in larval and adult beetles, Tenebrio molitor, as well as the increase in beta-alanine amino groups in Tenebrio cuticle. The results indicate that nearly all glycine N-terminal groups and a significant part of the epsilon-amino groups from lysine residues are involved in the sclerotization process in both locusts and Tenebrio. A pronounced increase in the amount of free beta-alanine amino groups was observed in cuticle from adult Tenebrio and to a lesser extent also in Tenebrio larval cuticle, but from locust cuticle no beta-alanine was obtained. Hydrolysis of sclerotized cuticles from locusts and Tenebrio by dilute hydrochloric acid released a large number of compounds containing amino acids linked to catecholic moieties. Products have been identified which contain histidine residues linked via their imidazole group to the beta-position of various catechols, such as dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-ethanol (DOPET), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-acetaldehyde (DOPALD), and a ketocatecholic compound has also been identified composed of lysine linked via its epsilon-amino group to the alpha-carbon atom of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone. Some of the hydrolysis products have previously been obtained from sclerotized pupal cuticle of Manduca sexta [Xu, R., Huang, X., Hopkins, T.L., Kramer, K.J., 1997. Catecholamine and histidyl protein cross-linked structures in sclerotized insect cuticle. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 27, 101-108; Kerwin, J.L., Turecek, F., Xu, R., Kramer, K.J., Hopkins, T.L., Gatlin, C.L., Yates, J.R., 1999. Mass spectrometric analysis of catechol-histidine adducts from insect cuticle. Analytical Biochemistry 268, 229-237; Kramer, K.J., Kanost, M.R., Hopkins, T.L., Jiang, H., Zhu, Y.C., Xu, R., Kerwin, J.L., Turecek, F., 2001. Oxidative conjugation of catechols with proteins in insect skeletal systems. Tetrahedron 57, 385-392], but the lysine-dihydroxyacetophenone compound and the histidine-DOPALD adduct have not been reported before. It is suggested that the compounds are derived from NADA and NBAD residues which were incorporated into the cuticle during sclerotization, and that the lysine-dihydroxyacetophenone as well as the DOPET and DOPALD containing adducts are degradation products derived from cross-links between the cuticular proteins, whereas the dopamine-containing adducts are derived from a non-crosslinking reaction product. PMID:17296497

  16. Three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture of the lumbar spine in bone metastasis from prostate cancer: comparison with degenerative sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, inducing osteosclerotic lesions. The objective of this study was to clarify the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular bone microstructure in bone metastasis from prostate cancer by comparison with normal and degenerative sclerotic bone lesions, using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). A total of 32 cancellous bone samples were excised from the lumbar spine of six autopsy patients: 15 metastatic samples (one patient), eight degenerative sclerotic samples (four patients) and the rest from normal sites (three patients). The samples were serially scanned cross-sectionally by micro-CT with a pixel size of 23.20 ?m, slice thickness of 18.56 ?m, and image matrix of 512 x 512. Each image data set consisted of 250 consecutive slices. The volumes of interest (96 x 96 x 120 voxels) were defined in the original image sets and 3D indices of the trabecular microstructure were determined. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in degenerative sclerotic lesions was significantly higher than that in normal sites, whereas no significant difference was observed in trabecular number (Tb.N). By contrast, in metastatic lesions, the Tb.N was significantly higher with increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV) than in normal sites, and no significant difference was found in Tb.Th. The characteristics of the trabecular surface in the metastatic samples showed concave structural elements with an increase in BV/TV, indicating osteolysis of the trabecular bndicating osteolysis of the trabecular bone. In 3D reconstructed images, increased trabecular bone with an irregular surface was observed in samples from metastatic sites, which were uniformly sclerotic on soft X-ray radiographs. These results support, through 3D morphological features, the strong bone resorption effect in bone metastasis from prostate cancer. (orig.)

  17. Ossicular bone modeling in acute otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Rasmus Lysholdt; Hermansson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    A number of middle ear diseases are associated with pathologic bone modeling, either formative or resorptive. As such, the pathogenesis of a sclerotic mastoid has been controversial for decades. Experimental studies on acute middle ear infection have shown progressive osteoneogenesis in the bone structures surrounding the middle ear cavity, and a few studies have reported acute changes of the ossicular chain. However, detailed qualitative and quantitative information on ossicular bone modeling dynamics has not been accounted for and is thus the purpose of this study.

  18. Studies on the enzymes involved in puparial cuticle sclerotization in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, M; Giglio, L; Kundzicz, H; Saul, S; Semensi, V

    1992-01-01

    The properties of cuticular enzymes involved in sclerotization of Drosophila melanogaster puparium were examined. The cuticle-bound phenoloxidase from the white puparium exhibited a pH optimum of 6.5 in phosphate buffer and oxidized a variety of catecholic substrates such as 4-methylcatechol, N-beta-alanyldopamine, dopa, dopamine, N-acetyldopamine, catechol, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Phenoloxidase inhibitors such as potassium cyanide and sodium fluoride inhibited the enzyme activity drastically, but phenylthiourea showed marginal inhibition only. This result, coupled with the fact that syringaldazine served as the substrate for the insoluble enzyme, confirmed that cuticular phenoloxidase is of the "laccase" type. In addition, we also examined the mode of synthesis of the sclerotizing precursor, 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine. Our results indicate that this catecholamine derivative is biosynthesized from N-acetyldopamine through the intermediate formation of N-acetyldopamine quinone and N-acetyldopamine quinone methide as established for Sarcophaga bullata [Saul, S. and Sugumaran, M., F.E.B.S. Letters 251, 69-73 (1989)]. Accordingly, successful solubilization and fractionation of cuticular enzymes involved in the introduction of a double bond in the side chain of N-acetyldopamine indicated that they included o-diphenoloxidase, 4-alkyl-o-quinone:p-quinone methide isomerase, and N-acetyldopamine quinone methide:dehydro N-acetyldopamine isomerase and not any side chain desaturase. PMID:1600191

  19. Laccase2 is required for sclerotization and pigmentation of Aedes albopictus eggshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiansheng; Zhan, Ximei; Gan, Ming; Zhang, Dongjing; Zhang, Meichun; Zheng, Xiaoying; Wu, Yu; Li, Zhuoya; He, Ai

    2013-05-01

    Laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) is a member of multicopper oxidases that have been found in higher plants, fungus, bacterium, and insects. Two types of laccase genes have been detected in many species of insects: laccase1 and laccase2. It has been identified that laccase2 enzyme may play a key role in sclerotization and pigmentation of insect cuticle. But few attentions were given to the biological role of laccase2 in the synthesizing of similar structures, such as oothecae, eggshell, or silk cocoons. We cloned laccase2 gene from Aedes albopictus, one main mosquito vector of dengue virus in China. An upregulation of laccase2 gene was observed after a blood meal in female adult mosquitoes, suggesting that laccase2 gene may have an involvement in the development of ovary. RNA interference experiment was performed by using adult female mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes were injected with 20 ng of double-strain RNA into the thorax. Pigmentation of mosquito eggshell was blocked that these eggs never became dark. And the incomplete sclerotization of eggshell weakened the stability and flexibility of the eggs. These eggs without enough protection were deformed and died in water. These results demonstrate that laccase2 plays a critical role in the development of eggs of A. albopictus. Laccase2 may provide a novel target for mosquito control and management. PMID:23455937

  20. North Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A northern portion of the rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon of this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 7, 2009, during the 1,820st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  1. East Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A high point on the distant eastern rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon in this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 8, 2009, during the 1,821st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 34 kilometers (21 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  2. Effects of rim thickness on spur gear bending stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibel, G. D.; Reddy, S. K.; Savage, M.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    Thin rim gears find application in high-power, light-weight aircraft transmissions. Bending stresses in thin rim spur gear tooth fillets and root areas differ from the stresses in solid gears due to rim deformations. Rim thickness is a significant design parameter for these gears. To study this parameter, a finite element analysis was conducted on a segment of a thin rim gear. The rim thickness was varied and the location and magnitude of the maximum bending stresses reported. Design limits are discussed and compared with the results of other researchers.

  3. Echogenic rim of hepatic hemangioma on abdominal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the association between the size of the hepatic hemangioma and the shape and thickness of the echogenic rim of hepatic hemangioma on abdominal ultrasound. We examined 47 cases (M:F=24:23, mean age 47.1) of hepatic hemangiomas with echogenic rim on abdominal ultrasound during the past 2 years. Radiologic findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of completeness and thickness of echogenic rim. If echogenic rim showed even thickness, it was measured. But if not, the maximum and minimum thickness of the rim was measured. The association between the size of hemangioma and the completeness and thickness of the echogenic rim were analyzed statistically. Of the 47 cases, complete echogenic rim and incomplete echogenic rim were obtained in 29 (62%) and 18 (38%) cases, respectively. Twenty-two cases of hemangioma were less than 2 cm in diameter, and their distribution according to echogenic rim were as follows: complete echogenic rim (17/20, 91% mean thickness 2.2 cm) and uneven thickness with complete echogenic rim (3/20, 15%, range:2.0-6.1 mm). Twenty-five hemangiomas were larger than 2 cm in diameter and their distribution according to echogenic rim were as follows: complete echogenic rim (n=9, 34%), incomplete echogenic rim (n=16, 64%0,even thickness with complete echogenic rim (3/9, 33%, mean thickness 2.2 mm) and uneven thickness with complete echogenic rim (6/9,67%, range: 2.0-7.6 mm). In statistical analysis, hemangiomas more than 2 cm in diameter w, hemangiomas more than 2 cm in diameter were more likely to have incomplete echogenic rim (p<0.05) than those of less than 2 cm; hemangiomas more than with more than 2 cm in diameter and complete echogenic rim showed uneven thickness of echogenic rim (p<0.05), more often than those of less than 2 cm diameter. Hemangiomas with more than 2 cm in diameter showed more frequent incomplete echogenic rim than those of less than 2 cm in diameter, which had more frequent complete echogenic rim. Hemangiomas with complete echogenic rim and even rim thickness were more prevalent in those with less than 2 cm in diameter. Uneven rim thickness was present more often in those with more than 2 cm in diameter.

  4. Reaction kinetics of dolomite rim growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Abart, R.; Morales, L. F. G.; Rhede, D.; Je?ábek, P.; Dresen, G.

    2014-04-01

    Reaction rims of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) were produced by solid-state reactions at the contacts of oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals at 400 MPa pressure, 750-850 °C temperature, and 3-146 h annealing time to determine the reaction kinetics. The dolomite reaction rims show two different microstructural domains. Elongated palisades of dolomite grew perpendicular into the MgCO3 interface with length ranging from about 6 to 41 µm. At the same time, a 5-71 µm wide rim of equiaxed granular dolomite grew at the contact with CaCO3. Platinum markers showed that the original interface is located at the boundary between the granular and palisade-forming dolomite. In addition to dolomite, a 12-80 µm thick magnesio-calcite layer formed between the dolomite reaction rims and the calcite single crystals. All reaction products show at least an axiotactic crystallographic relationship with respect to calcite reactant, while full topotaxy to calcite prevails within the granular dolomite and magnesio-calcite. Dolomite grains frequently exhibit growth twins characterized by a rotation of 180° around one of the equivalent axis. From mass balance considerations, it is inferred that the reaction rim of dolomite grew by counter diffusion of MgO and CaO. Assuming an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence, activation energies for diffusion of CaO and MgO are E a (CaO) = 192 ± 54 kJ/mol and E a (MgO) = 198 ± 44 kJ/mol, respectively.

  5. Reexamination of the mechanisms of oxidative transformation of the insect cuticular sclerotizing precursor, 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Adal; Zheng, Dong; Evans, Jason; Sugumaran, Manickam

    2010-09-01

    1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine (dehydro NADA) is an important catecholamine derivative formed during the sclerotization of insect cuticle. Earlier we have reported that tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of dehydro NADA produces a reactive quinone methide imine amide that forms adducts and cross-links through its side chain, thereby accounting for sclerotization reactions. Recently, laccase has also been identified as a key enzyme associated with sclerotization. Hence, we re-examined oxidation of dehydro NADA by tyrosinase and laccase using high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of dehydro NADA not only generated dimers as reported earlier, but also generated significant amounts of oligomers. The course of laccase-catalyzed oxidation of dehydro NADA significantly differed from the tyrosinase reaction kinetically and mechanistically. Laccase failed to produce any detectable quinone or quinone methide as the primary two-electron oxidation product. Since laccases are known to generate primarily semiquinones as the initial products, lack of accumulation of two-electron oxidation products indicated that laccase reaction is primarily occurring via free radical coupling mechanism. Consistent with this proposal, laccase-catalyzed oxidation of dehydro NADA, resulted in the production of largely dimeric products and failed to produce any significant amount of oligomeric materials. These studies call for radical coupling as yet another major mechanism for sclerotization of insect cuticle. PMID:20600898

  6. CT-guided once-through bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing sclerotic therapy for bilateral multiple renal cysts: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT-guided once-through bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing, aspiration and injection of sclerotic agents (ethanol) in treating bilateral multiple renal cysts. Methods: CT-guided once-through bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing sclerotic therapy was performed in 19 patients with bilateral multiple renal cysts. First, under CT guidance the puncture points and puncture routs were decided, then, puncturing, aspiration, rinsing and ethanol injection of the cysts were taken place by turn. The clinical results were analyzed. Results: bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing sclerotic therapy was successfully completed in all 19 cases. The whole procedure was well tolerated by all patients. The mean operative time was 23 minutes with a range of 20-35 minutes. No severe complications occurred. Conclusion: With proficient manipulation, CT-guided bilateral percutaneous needle puncturing sclerotic therapy for bilateral multiple renal cysts can be smoothly carried out. The technique can reduced the number of sclerotherapy times, cut down the medical expenses and, therefore, get twofold results with half the effort. (authors)

  7. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  8. Crater Rim Path, Sol 1,215

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The route followed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during its exploration partway around the rim of Victoria Crater is marked on this map. The rover first reached the edge of the crater on it's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). This map shows travels through sol 1,215 (June 24, 2007). The underlying image is from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  9. Managing oil logistics around the Baltic Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland's Neste Group is a major player in the oil business in the Baltic area. Neste tankers and petroleum product logistics services comprehensively serve the region. Neste's main Baltic Rim terminal outside Finland is located at Muuga close to the Estonian capital, Tallinn. This will be joined by one in Riga in Latvia at the end of this year. A terminal for St. Petersburg is in the planning stage

  10. Improved nuclear fuel pellet design to eliminate the RIM effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Florida has proposed a new Pellet design which will eliminate the rim effect for light water reactor (LWR) fuel for both present and anticipated future burnup targets. The design implements a 200 micron rim of natural uranium in place of the normal enriched uranium. This rim is very similar to the Integral Fuel Burnable concept of Westinghouse. An analysis based on the Monteburn Monte-Carlo burnup code shows that the rim region of the new design is 116% of the average burnup compared to 151% for the current pellet designs. The proposed design can increase the burnup by 33% over current designs without encountering the rim effect phenomenon. (authors)

  11. Autosomal dominant type of endosteal hyperostosis with unusual manifestations of sclerosis of the jaw bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report three cases of autosomal dominant type endosteal hyperostosis which occurred in one Japanese family. A new pattern of sclerotic changes in the jaw bones is evident. In all members of the family there was a symmetrical thickening of the diaphyseal cortices of the long bones. The affected bones were only minimally widened and the epiphyses and metaphyses were spared. Endosteal sclerosis of the neurocranium was present with loss of the diploe. The sclerotic changes included enlargement and mottled sclerosis of both the maxilla and mandible, with multiple embedded teeth and odontomas. The ramus of the mandible was spared. Severe sclerosis of the jaw bones was present only in a 28-year-old women. The 2-year-son showed only focal sclerosis in the mandible, and his grandmother had minimal changes in the skeleton. (orig.)

  12. Antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yinghua, Song; Lubing, Zhu; Ming, Li.

    1350-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in sclerotic mice. METHODS: Skin fibroblasts that were isolated from three systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients and three healthy subjects were treated with crocetin (0.1, 1 or 10 ?M). Cell proliferation [...] was measured with an MTT assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected via an immunohistochemical method. Alpha 1 (I) procollagen (COL1A1), alpha 1 (III) procollagen (COL3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. SSc mice were established by the subcutaneous injection of bleomycin. Crocetin (50 mg/kg/d) was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. Dermal thickness and lung fibrosis were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Plasma ET-1 was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin and lung ET-1 and COL1A1 mRNA levels were measured via real-time PCR. RESULTS: Crocetin inhibited the proliferation of SSc and normal fibroblasts, an effect that increased with crocetin concentration and incubation time. Crocetin decreased the expression of ?-SMA and the levels of mRNA for COL1A1, COL3A1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1, while crocetin increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels in both SSc and normal fibroblasts. Skin and lung fibrosis was induced, and the levels of ET-1 in the plasma, skin and lungs were elevated in bleomycin-injected mice. Crocetin alleviated the thickening of the dermis and lung fibrosis; decreased COL1A1 mRNA levels in the skin and lung; and simultaneously decreased ET-1 concentrations in the plasma and ET-1 mRNA levels in the skin and lungs of the bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice, especially during the early phase (weeks 1-3). CONCLUSION: Crocetin inhibits cell proliferation, differentiation and collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. Crocetin alleviates skin and lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, in part due to a reduction in ET-1.

  13. Detrimental influences of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on surrounding tissues and peripheral nerves: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiki, Masahide; Kurita, Masakazu; Ozaki, Mine; Kawakami, Hayato; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    The minimally-invasive nature of sclerotherapy makes it one of the first treatment options for venous malformations, although treatment-related complications, such as peripheral nerve paralysis, have been reported in some clinical cases. However, no studies of the aetiology of the detrimental effects of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on the surrounding tissues, including the peripheral nerves, have yet been published. This study therefore investigated the influences of intralumi...

  14. Stable free radicals in insect cuticles: electron spin resonance spectroscopy reveals differences between melanization and sclerotization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Hartmut; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2006-09-15

    Insect cuticles (exuviae; cast skins) were examined for the first time by ESR spectroscopy for the presence of stable free radicals, as found in melanins. All cuticles, except those from a locust albino strain, irrespective of the presence of melanin, provided single-line signals of varied g-values and linewidths. The ESR signals of melanins, isolated or in cuticles, were characterized by g-values sclerotized cuticles, lacking melanin, showed g-values >2.004 and broad linewidths of 5-11 G. The melanin spectra were comparable to those reported for eumelanins with indol-based monomers. Minor signals ascribed to pheomelanins were found in several probes. The 'sclerotin' spectra were broader and displayed unresolved hyperfine structure in some cases. As for melanins, the location and environment of the radicals in cuticles giving rise to the two types of ESR spectra could not be assigned. Changes in the radical environment due to insecticide or solvent treatment can be detected by ESR spectroscopy. PMID:16901457

  15. Involvement of tyrosine residues, N-terminal amino acids, and beta-alanine in insect cuticular sclerotization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2007-09-01

    During sclerotization of insect cuticle the acyldopamines, N-acetyldopamine (NADA) and N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD), are oxidatively incorporated into the cuticular matrix, thereby hardening and stabilizing the material by forming crosslinks between the proteins in the cuticular matrix and by forming polymers filling the intermolecular spaces in the cuticle. Sclerotized cuticle from the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid, and from the hydrolysates some components presumably degradation products of cuticular crosslinks were isolated. In two of the components, the sidechain of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone was linked to the amino groups of glycine and beta-alanine, respectively, and in the third component to the phenolic group of tyrosine. These three compounds, glycino-dihydroxyacetophenone, beta-alanino-dihydroxyacetophenone, and O-tyrosino-dihydroxyacetophenone, as well as the previously reported compound, lysino-dihydroxyacetophenone [Andersen, S.O., Roepstorff, P., 2007. Aspects of cuticular sclerotization in the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37, 223-234], are suggested to be degradation products of cuticular crosslinks, in which amino acid residues formed linkages to both the alpha- and beta-positions of the sidechain of acyldopamines. PMID:17681236

  16. West Rim of Endeavour and a Farther Crater's Rim on Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] In the left half of this view from the panoramic camera (Pancam) of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, a western portion of the rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon. In the right half, the rim of a smaller crater, farther away, appears faintly on the horizon. Opportunity's Pancam took this image on March 8, 2009, during the 1,821st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon. The part of Endeavour's rim visible here is about 16 kilometers (10 miles) from where Opportunity was when the image was taken. The rover was at the same location as when its Pancam took images after a drive on Sol 1820. Opportunity remained at that location until a drive on Sol 1823. The more-distant rim to the right, part of Iazu Crater, is about 38 kilometers (24 miles) away. Iazu is south of Endeavour and about 7 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter.

  17. Measurement of wheel rim wear on railway wheels using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotopic measuring method developed for studying the wear process of wheel rims of railway vehicles is described. The wear process may be monitored by the measurement of activity of a thin galvanic layer deposited onto the rim and labelled by iron 59. The high sensitivity of the method allows the determination of the wear rate distribution even within a few days. The results of measurements on three different rim profiles are analysed. (R.J.)

  18. [Bone Reconstruction of Autolyzed Antigen-free Allogenic /AAA/ Bone in Children and Adolescents with Benign Bone Tumours.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovec, M; Crha, B; Okác, I; Sommernitz, M; Straka, M; Bajerová, J

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe in detail the preparation of six batches of human AAA/autolyzed antigen-free allogenic bone/ prepared in 1985 to 1988. This bone was administered to a total of 48 children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years. It was used to fill cavities after metaphyseal connective tissue bone defects /31 x/, solitary bone cysts /10 x/, enchondromas /5 x/ and fibrous dysplasia /2 x/. The observation period was 2 years and 2 months to 5 years and 9 months. The mean volume of the cavities was 21 ml. In all patients the X-ray pictures were evaluated in a chronological sequence and changes on the host s bones in the cavity and the inserted AAA bones were described, and finally also changes of the entire bone complex with incorporated AAA implants. The results were arranged in tables. On the host's bones a periosteal reaction was observed in the area surrounding the focus, the entire cavity was covered with a soft shadow, there was sclerosis of the margins and bottom of the bone bed and gradual diminution of the bone defect from the sides and bottom of the bed. On the AAA bones the following observations were of interest: the connection of AAA bone with the surrounding newly formed bone, less clearly defined outlines of the AAA bone, loss of identity of the AAA bone. Sclerosis or elimination of the AAA bone were not observed. In three patients with batch 5 a "halo" effect was observed. On the entire complex with incorporated AAA bones the following were investigated: sclerosis of the entire portion of the bone, then regression and diminution of sclerosis, differentiation of the corticalis and medullary cavity and formation of a normal bone structure without signs of previous treatment. Preparation of six different batches of AA bone revealed that: 1.The spongious parts are more readily and more rapidly incorporated than the cortical part which is only partly demineralized. 2.Gelatinization with LiCI had a favourable effect on the incorporation of thus prepared implants. X-ray investigation revealed that the course of incorporation and reconstruction of these bones has the following specific features: 1.Reconstruction begins as a rule by the periosteal reaction of the host and its shift above the gap has a favourable effect on healing of the defect. 2.Two months after operation the cavity is covered by a soft shadow when the newly formed vessels and mesenchymal cells of the host infiltrate into the focus. 3.Activation of the bed is manifested by its greater density, sclerotization and by gradual diminution of the volume of the cavity. The greater density is not necessarily associated with diminution of the size of the cavity. 4.Bone implants are connected to the newly formed bone without passing through the stage of densi fication and sclerotization. The newly formed bone infiltrates them, absorbs and replaces the bone proper without signs of the previous stage of scle rosis, as observed in patients with frozen allogenic bones. 5.After incorporation of AAA implants further bone reconstruction takes place, as known from the healing of fractures or bone gaps. Key words: demineralized bone, AAA bone, benign bone tumors, reconstruction of bone transplant. PMID:20483076

  19. Modulation of renin angiotensin system predominantly alters sclerotic phenotype of glomeruli in HIVAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagov, Andrei; Lan, Xiqian; Rai, Partab; Kumar, Dileep; Lederman, Rivka; Rehman, Shabina; Malhotra, Ashwani; Ding, Guohua; Chander, Praveen N; Singhal, Pravin C

    2014-12-01

    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a common complication of HIV-1 infection in patients with African ancestry in general and with APOL1 gene risk variants in particular. Although collapsing glomerulopathy is considered a hallmark of HIVAN, significant numbers of glomeruli in patients with HIVAN also display other variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We propose that collapsed glomeruli as well as glomeruli with other variants of FSGS are manifestations of HIVAN and their prevalence depends on associated host factors. We explored the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the manifestation of any specific glomerular phenotype in HIVAN. To evaluate the role of the RAS we have used a genetically engineered mouse model of HIVAN (Tg26) with two and four copies of angiotensinogen (Agt) gene (Tg26/Agt2 and Tg26/Agt4). In Tg26/Agt2, 1 out of 6 glomeruli exhibited sclerosed phenotype, whereas 1 out of 25 glomeruli displayed collapsed phenotype; on the other hand, in Tg26/Agt4, 1 out of 3 glomeruli exhibited sclerotic phenotype and only 1 out of 7 glomeruli showed collapsed phenotype. To inhibit the effect of RAS, Tg26/Agt2 were administered captopril, aliskiren, aliskiren plus captopril or aliskiren plus telmisartan by miniosmotic pumps for 4 weeks. In all experimental groups there was a significant reduction in percentage of sclerosed glomeruli and only minimal reduction in collapsed glomeruli compared to normal saline receiving Tg26/Agt2. These findings suggest that the manifestation of the sclerosed phenotype in HIVAN is predominantly dependent on activation of the RAS. PMID:24892944

  20. ‘Sutureless’ transconjunctival approach for infraorbital rim fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Vaibhav; Ghosh, Abhishek; Nanjappa, Madan; Ramesh, Keerthi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the ease and surgical outcome of using sutureless transconjunctival approach for repair of infra-orbital fractures. Design: Prospective clinical case series. Materials and Methods: Totally 5 patients with infra-orbital rim or orbital floor fractures were selected and the fractures were accessed through a pre-septal transconjunctival incision. After reduction and fixation, the conjunctiva was just re-approximated and re-draped into position. Incidence of post-operative complications such as diplopia, lid retraction, eyelid dystopia, foreign body granuloma and poor conjunctival healing was assessed at intervals of 1 week, 15 days and a month post-operatively. Results: No complications were observed in any of the 5 patients. Healing was satisfactory in all patients. Conclusion: The sutureless technique appears to be a time saving and technically simpler viable alternative to multilayered suturing in orbital trauma with minimal post-operative complications. PMID:25821377

  1. 29 CFR 1910.177 - Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...piece rim wheel. Rim manual means a publication...installing, removing, and handling. Service area ...understand the charts or rim manual, the employer shall...of the charts and rim manual in a manner which the...this section; (v) Handling of rim wheels;...

  2. Business Strategy Analysis of RIM in China's Smartphone Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lei

    2011-01-01

    China, the biggest mobile phone market in the world, is crucial for the future of Research In Motion (RIM). While RIM entered China’s market in 2006, its market share is still very small in China. The launch of 3G amid the restructuring of China’s telecom industry proved crucial to the company’s development. RIM has partnered with all mobile operators in China to provide BlackBerry Enterprise Service and BlackBerry Internet Service to both business and individual users. It has gained a ...

  3. Analysis of pore interconnection in rim structure by percolation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of rim pore interconnection to the outer surface of high burnup LWR UO2 fuel pellet in rim structure, which could affect fission gas release behavior, was analyzed by percolation method. Because most pores were analyzed not to be interconnected to the surface in the range of porosity observed, the fission gas release would not be affected by pore interconnection in the rim structure. Only some pores near the surface of fuel pellet could make open paths to the surface of fuel pellet

  4. Learning from California and the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy oils are found in 10 of the 14 largest oilfields in Alaska and California. In the US west coast region, petroleum demand is dominated by light transport fuels, and there is a lack of a discrete and conspicuous heavy oil market. The structure and behavior of west coast petroleum markets, and their interactions with crude-oil and petroleum product markets elsewhere on the Pacific Rim are discussed with regard to how the market for growing volumes of western Canadian heavy oils might evolve. An analysis of crude oil prices versus API gravity demonstrates the price penalties on oil of low gravity, high sulfur, and high transport cost. Prices at the high gravity end tend to correlate closely with Asian light crude and unfinished gasoline prices. The heaviest crudes are priced in competition with other chemically similar residual oils for direct fuel use, blending, or refinery feedstock. The biggest component of the west coast heavy oil market is bunker fuel. The market value of heavy crudes in the west coast is thus determined by regional supply and demand for heavy hydrocarbon molecules, whatever the source. The west coast is not a promising market for Canadian heavy crudes, and exports to Asia would have to compete both with residual oils from Asia and the US west coast and with California heavy crudes. US west coast production peaked in 1989 and regional production can be expected to decline further in average gravity. New production from known but undeveloped hea production from known but undeveloped heavy oil pools near Prudhoe Bay or in the California offshore could be expected to postpone the need for imports to the west coast and to depress prices. A removal of the Alaska crude oil export ban could improve the west coast heavy oil market. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. RIM as an implementation tool for a distributed heterogeneous database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Y. J.; Hartweg, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The another distributed database system (ADDS) prototype supports interactive, d hoc retrieval from several of the Amoco/Standard DHDBMS. The ADDS conceptual design, the usage of RIM in several components of ADDS, and some enhancements ot RIM that were used by the developers of the ADDS prototype are outlined. Topics covered include: (1) ADDS Overview; (2) composite database dictionary/directory; (3) user interface and user profiles; (4) subrequest execution; (5) merger/formatter; and (6) a transportable implamentation.

  6. Rim region growth and its composition in reaction bonded boron carbide composites with core-rim structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum was detected in reaction-bonded boron carbide that had been prepared by pressureless infiltration of boron carbide preforms with molten silicon in a graphite furnace under vacuum. The presence of Al2O3 in the heated zone, even though not in contact with the boron carbide preform, stands behind the presence of aluminium in the rim region that interconnects the initial boron carbide particles. The composition of the rim corresponds to the Bx(C,Si,Al)y quaternary carbide phase. The reaction of alumina with graphite and the formation of a gaseous aluminum suboxide (Al2O) accounts for the transfer of aluminum in the melt and, subsequently in the rim regions. The presence of Al increases the solubility of boron in liquid silicon, but with increasing aluminum content the activity of boron decreases. These features dominate the structural evolution of the rim-core in the presence of aluminum in the melt.

  7. Schiaparelli Crater Rim and Interior Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A portion of the rim and interior of the large impact crater Schiaparelli is seen at different resolutions in images acquired October 18, 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC) and by the Viking Orbiter 1 twenty years earlier. The left image is a MOC wide angle camera 'context' image showing much of the eastern portion of the crater at roughly 1 km (0.6 mi) per picture element. The image is about 390 by 730 km (240 X 450 miles). Shown within the wide angle image is the outline of a portion of the best Viking image (center, 371S53), acquired at a resolution of about 240 m/pixel (790 feet). The area covered is 144 X 144 km (89 X 89 miles). The right image is the high resolution narrow angle camera view. The area covered is very small--3.9 X 10.2 km (2.4 X 6.33 mi)--but is seen at 63 times higher resolution than the Viking image. The subdued relief and bright surface are attributed to blanketing by dust; many small craters have been completely filled in, and only the most recent (and very small) craters appear sharp and bowl-shaped. Some of the small craters are only 10-12 m (30-35 feet) across. Occasional dark streaks on steeper slopes are small debris slides that have probably occurred in the past few decades. The two prominent, narrow ridges in the center of the image may be related to the adjustment of the crater floor to age or the weight of the material filling the basin.Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. The natural history of disappearing bone tumours and tumour-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Hideomi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Shirakura, Kenji; Takagishi, Kenji

    2001-11-01

    We describe 27 cases of bone tumours or tumour-like lesions where there was spontaneous regression. The follow-up period was 2.8-16.7 years (average, 7.0 years). Fourteen of these cases were no longer visible on plain radiographs. Histological diagnosis included exostosis, eosinophilic granuloma, fibrous dysplasia, fibrous cortical defect, non-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma and bone island. Most cases began to reduce in adolescence or earlier, although sclerotic type lesions showed their regression in older patients. All lesions thought to be eosinophilic granuloma began to regress after periods of less than 3 months, while the duration of the other lesions showed wide variation (1-74 months). As resolution of the lesions took between 2 and 79 months (mean, 25.0 {+-} 20.3 months) we consider that the most likely mechanism was recovery of normal skeletal growth control. In exostosis with fracture, alteration of vascular supply may contribute to growth arrest, but not to subsequent remodelling stage. In inflammatory-related lesions such as eosinophilic granuloma, cessation of inflammation may be the mechanism of growth arrest, whilst temporary inflammation may stimulate osteogenic cells engaged in remodeling. In the sclerotic type, growth arrest is a less probable mechanism. Necrosis within the tumour and/or local changes in hormonal control, plus remodelling of the sclerotic area takes longer. Knowledge of the potential for spontaneous resolution may help in management of these tumour and tumour-like lesions of bone. Yanagawa, T. et al. (2001)

  9. Effects of altered catecholamine metabolism on pigmentation and physical properties of sclerotized regions in the silkworm melanism mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Li, Yuanhao; Xiong, Gao; Liu, Xiaofan; He, Songzhen; Tong, Xiaoling; Wu, Songyuan; Hu, Hai; Wang, Rixin; Hu, Hongwei; Chen, Lushi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Jie; Dai, Fangyin; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2012-01-01

    Catecholamine metabolism plays an important role in the determination of insect body color and cuticle sclerotization. To date, limited research has focused on these processes in silkworm. In the current study, we analyzed the interactions between catecholamines and melanin genes and their effects on the pigmentation patterns and physical properties of sclerotized regions in silkworm, using the melanic mutant melanism (mln) silkworm strain as a model. Injection of ?-alanine into mln mutant silkworm induced a change in catecholamine metabolism and turned its body color yellow. Further investigation of the catecholamine content and expression levels of the corresponding melanin genes from different developmental stages of Dazao-mln (mutant) and Dazao (wild-type) silkworm revealed that at the larval and adult stages, the expression patterns of melanin genes precipitated dopamine accumulation corresponding to functional loss of Bm-iAANAT, a repressive effect of excess NBAD on ebony, and upregulation of tan in the Dazao-mln strain. During the early pupal stage, dopamine did not accumulate in Dazao-mln, since upregulation of ebony and black genes led to conversion of high amounts of dopamine into NBAD, resulting in deep yellow cuticles. Scanning electron microscope analysis of a cross-section of adult dorsal plates from both wild-type and mutant silkworm disclosed the formation of different layers in Dazao-mln owing to lack of NADA, compared to even and dense layers in Dazao. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the anterior wings revealed higher storage modulus and lower loss tangent in Dazao-mln, which was closely associated with the altered catecholamine metabolism in the mutant strain. Based on these findings, we conclude that catecholamine metabolism is crucial for the color pattern and physical properties of cuticles in silkworm. Our results should provide a significant contribution to Lepidoptera cuticle tanning research. PMID:22937004

  10. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  11. Aqueous Alteration of Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Clark, Benton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Yen, Albert S.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Farrand, William H.; Grant, John A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Parker, Timothy J.; Peretyazhko, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring Noachian age rocks of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Overlying the pre-impact lithologies and rim breccias is a thin apron of fine-grained sediments, the Grasberg fm, forming annuli on the lower slopes of rim segments. Hesperian Burns fm sandstones overly the Grasberg fm. Grasberg rocks have major element compositions that are distinct from Burns fm sandstones, especially when comparing interior compositions exposed by the Rock Abrasion Tool. Grasberg rocks are also different from Endeavour rim breccias, but have general compositional similarities to them. Grasberg sediments are plausibly fine-grained materials derived from the impact breccias. Veins of CaSO4 transect Grasberg fm rocks demonstrating post-formation aqueous alteration. Minor/trace elements show variations consistent with mobilization by aqueous fluids. Grasberg fm rocks have low Mn and high Fe/Mn ratios compared to the other lithologies. Manganese likely was mobilized and removed from the Grasberg host rock by redox reactions. We posit that Fe2+ from acidic solutions associated with formation of the Burns sulfate-rich sandstones acted as an electron donor to reduce more oxidized Mn to Mn2+. The Fe contents of Grasberg rocks are slightly higher than in other rocks suggesting precipitation of Fe phases in Grasberg materials. Pancam spectra show that Grasberg rocks have a higher fraction of ferric oxide minerals than other Endeavour rim rocks. Solutions transported Mn2+ into the Endeavour rim materials and oxidized and/or precipitated it in them. Grasberg has higher contents of the mobile elements K, Zn, Cl, and Br compared to the rim materials. Similar enrichments of mobile elements were measured by the Spirit APXS on West Spur and around Home Plate in Gusev crater. Enhancements in these elements are attributed to interactions of hydrothermal acidic fluids with the host rocks. Interactions of fluids with the Grasberg fm postdate the genesis of the Endeavour rim phyllosilicates. The aqueous alteration history of Endeavour rim rocks is complicated by different styles of alteration that have spanned the Noachian and Hesperian. Late stage acidic aqueous alteration of Grasberg fm materials is likely penecontemporaneous with the diagenesis of the sulfate-rich sediments of Meridiani Planum.

  12. Posterior glenoid rim deficiency in recurrent (atraumatic) posterior shoulder instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To assess the shape of the posterior glenoid rim in patients with recurrent (atraumatic) posterior instability.Design and patients. CT examinations of 15 shoulders with recurrent (atraumatic) posterior instability were reviewed in masked fashion with regard to abnormalities of the glenoid shape, specifically of its posterior rim. The glenoid version was also assessed. The findings were compared with the findings in 15 shoulders with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and 15 shoulders without instability. For all patients, surgical correlation was available.Results. Fourteen of the 15 (93%) shoulders with recurrent (atraumatic) posterior shoulder instability had a deficiency of the posteroinferior glenoid rim. In patients with recurrent anterior instability or stable shoulders such deficiencies were less common (60% and 73%, respectively). The craniocaudal length of the deficiencies was largest in patients with posterior instability. When a posteroinferior deficiency with a craniocaudal length of 12 mm or more was defined as abnormal, sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing recurrent (atraumatic) posterior instability were 86.7% and 83.3%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in glenoid version between shoulders with posterior instability and stable shoulders (P=0.01).Conclusion. Recurrent (atraumatic) posterior shoulder instability should be considered in patients with a bony deficiency of the posteroinferior glenoid rim wiency of the posteroinferior glenoid rim with a craniocaudal length of more than 12 mm. (orig.)

  13. Histologia e ultraestrutura do rim e rim cefálico do pacu Histology and ultrastructure of kidney and cephalic kidney in Pacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlane M. Costa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, é um teleósteo da Família Characidae, intensivamente cultivado no Brasil devido sua rusticidade, crescimento rápido e fácil adaptação. O conhecimento morfológico dos sistemas corpóreos, incluído órgãos linfóide, se faz necessário, para uma melhor produção no cultivo de peixes, fornecendo subsídios na manutenção dos estoques. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever morfologicamente o rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus, analisando os perfis celulares de cada órgão com o uso de microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O resultado da análise macroscópica mostrou que a localização do rim e rim cefálico são as mesmas encontradas na maioria dos teleósteos. O rim apresentou uma forma em "H", onde a região média se expandia sobre a bexiga natatória. O rim cefálico se apresentou como uma dilatação na região cranial do rim, mostrando-se bem visível. Na microscopia eletrônica de transmissão também foram observadas similaridades ultraestruturais com outros teleósteos. Observando nossos resultados concluímos que histologicamente e ultraestruturalmente, os órgãos linfóides rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus são similares aos de outros teleósteos.The Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is a teleostei of the Characidae family, intensively cultivated in Brazil due to its rusticity, fast growth and easy adaptation. Morphological knowledge of the body systems including the lymphoid organs is necessary to improve fish production and supply subsidies for the maintenance of stocks. This study aimed to describe morphologically kidney and head kidney of Piaractus mesopotamicus, analyzing the cellular profile of each organ with the use of light microscopy and electronic transmission microscopy. The result of the macroscopic analysis showed that the localization of the kidney and head kidney is the same as found in the majority of the teleostei. The kidney presented a form in "H", where the medium region is expanded on the natatorium bladder. The head kidney presented a dilatation in the cranial region of the kidney. In the transmission electronic microscopy we found ultrastructural similarities with other teleostei fish. It can be concluded that the lymphoid organs (kidney and head kidney of Piaractus mesopotamicus are histologically and ultra-structurally similar to the other teleostei.

  14. Observations of neutral carbon in the NGC 1977 bright rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong neutral carbon emission at 610 ?m (429 GHz) has been detected from a bright-rimmed cloud abutting and H II region NGC 1977. The similarity of velocity and width between 13CO and C I lines suggests both lines originate in the same region. A model for the density and temperature structure of the cloud, based on 13CO and 12CO observations, has been used to estimate the carbon abundance. the abundances of both C I and 13CO increase with depth into the cloud away from the rim. The carbon abundance reaches its peak value nearer the rim than does the 13CO abundance. This variation in the relative abundance distributions of CO and C I confirms the importance of photodissociation in the chemistry of molecular clouds, and the C I line to studies of the interaction of hot stars with clouds

  15. Experimental study of THGEM detector with mini-rim

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ai-Wu; Xie, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Bang; An, Zheng-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Xi-Lei; Shi, Feng; Fang, Jian; Xue, Zhen; Lu, Qi-Wen; Sun, Li-Jun; Ge, Yong-Shuai; Liu, Ying-Biao; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Li; Lu, Jun-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The gas gain and energy resolution of single and double THGEM detectors (5{\\times}5cm2 effective area) with mini-rims (rim is less than 10{\\mu}m) were studied. The maximum gain can reach 5{\\times}103 and 2{\\times}105 for single and double THGEM respectively, while the energy resolution of 5.9 keV X-ray varied from 18% to 28% for both single and double THGEM detectors of different hole sizes and thicknesses.All the experiments were investigated in mixture of noble gases(argon,neon) and small content of other gases(iso-butane,methane) at atmospheric pressure.

  16. The effect of water on bimineralic reaction rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, B.; Gardés, E.; Abart, R.; Heinrich, W.

    2011-12-01

    At 900°C and 1.2 GPa monticellite (CaMgSiO4) and wollastonite (CaSiO3) react to form a bimineralic reaction rim of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) and merwinite (Ca3MgSi2O8) according to the reaction: 1 monticellite + 1 wollastonite = 0.5 merwinite + 0.5 diopside Experiments were performed in a piston cylinder apparatus. Dry Al2O3, and natural, water-containing CaF2 were used as pressure media. After runs using CaF2 as pressure medium, IR-spectra of a periclase crystal, which was also loaded into the Pt-capsule, show peaks that may safely be related to OH-defects in the MgO-structure. This indicates that water, stemming from the natural CaF2 diffused into the capsule during the course of the experiment. The amount of water in the capsule increased with increasing run duration. Absence of reaction products in completely dry charges implies that presence of small amounts of water is required to promote nucleation and growth. In wet charges, time series revealed that overall rim growth is parabolic, indicating diffusion control. Textural arguments indicate that the original interface is always located in the center of the rim. This and mass balance considerations let us conclude that overall rim growth is solely controlled by MgO-diffusion. The effective bulk diffusion DMgO is calculated to 10-16.3 +/- 0.2 m2s-1. Further water uptake during the course of the experiment does not affect MgO-diffusivity. During the first stage of rim growth, the reaction products form a lamellar microstructure with alternating, pallisade shaped merwinite and diopside crystals, whereby the long axes of the grains are oriented normal to the original monticellite-wollastonite interface (lamellar type). At longer run durations, diopside and merwinite start to segregate into monomineralic layers with diopside accumulating in the center and merwinite at both sides of the reaction rim (multilayer type). After a run duration of 65 h segregation is almost complete and a triple layer rim forms showing the sequence mtc | mer | di | mer | wo. Increasing water availability significantly increases the mobility of either CaO or SiO2 or both relative to the mobility of MgO. As a consequence, the availability of water affects the structure and organization of the reaction rim. If only very small amounts are present, CaO- and SiO2-mobilities are small compared to the MgO-mobility (LCaO/LMgO 1), and the product phases segregate into distinct monomineralic layers. Consequently, the availability of water does not only affect overall rim growth kinetics (e.g. Yund 1997), but also relative component mobilities and as a consequence the microstructure of reaction rims. Yund RA (1997), Rates of grain boundary diffusion through enstatite and forsterite reaction rims: Contrib Min and Petrol 126: 224-236.

  17. Bone metastases in stomach cancer patients: comparison of Tc-99m HDP scintigraphy and FDG PET/CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the values of FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m HDP bone scan in the detection of bone metastases in stomach cancer patients. PET/CT and bone scan images obtained within a month of each other from patients with confirmed stomach cancer, from November 2003 to November 2006, were evaluated. The number and location of the bone lesions were noted. On PET ICT, discrete focal FDG uptake distinguishable from the background cortex or marrow activity was considered a positive finding. The CT portion of the PET/CT was also reviewed for osteoblastic or osteolytic lesions. Confirmation was made by further follow up images with PET/CT, bone scan, CT, and/or MRI. Images of 203 patients were included (69 female, 134 male, average age 60.5 yrs), of which 187 cases were concluded as free from bone metastasis and 16 cases positive for bone metastases. On patient basis, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET/CT were 99.5%, 87.5%, and 98.5%, and of bone scan were 96.8%, 75.0%, and 95.1 %, respectively. On lesion basis, PET/CT detected more lesions in the cervical vertebrae, while bone scan detected more lesions in the rib cage and skull. There were 5 cases where PET/CT missed lesions seen on bone scan, and the CT portion of the PET/CT demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 cases, mixed osteolytic and sclerotic lesion in 1 case, and equivocal finding in 1 other case. In the diagnosis of bone metastasis in stomach cancer patients, PET/CT showed higher accuracy than bone scaET/CT showed higher accuracy than bone scan. However, bone scan detected more lesions in the ribs and skull. The CT portion of the PET/CT should be carefully examined for osteoblastic metastases

  18. Rim region growth and its composition in reaction bonded boron carbide composites with core-rim structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayun, S; Weizmann, A; Dilman, H; Dariel, M P; Frage, N [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P. O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: hayuns@bgu.ac.il

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum was detected in reaction-bonded boron carbide that had been prepared by pressureless infiltration of boron carbide preforms with molten silicon in a graphite furnace under vacuum. The presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the heated zone, even though not in contact with the boron carbide preform, stands behind the presence of aluminium in the rim region that interconnects the initial boron carbide particles. The composition of the rim corresponds to the B{sub x}(C,Si,Al){sub y} quaternary carbide phase. The reaction of alumina with graphite and the formation of a gaseous aluminum suboxide (Al{sub 2}O) accounts for the transfer of aluminum in the melt and, subsequently in the rim regions. The presence of Al increases the solubility of boron in liquid silicon, but with increasing aluminum content the activity of boron decreases. These features dominate the structural evolution of the rim-core in the presence of aluminum in the melt.

  19. Esclerosis inflamatoria orbitaria y síndrome de fibrosis multifocal / Sclerotic inflammation of the orbit and multifocal fibrosclerosis syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Mataix; E., López-Navarrete; M., López-Domínguez; R., Ángeles.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Caso clínico: Mujer de 52 años que consulta en nuestro Servicio por proptosis bilateral. La aparición de sintomatología aguda digestiva durante el ingreso para el estudio de la proptosis, condujo al diagnóstico de un cuadro de fibroesclerosis multifocal, con afectación simultánea de los tejidos orbi [...] tarios, grasa mesentérica y tronco de encéfalo. Discusión: El pseudotumor esclerosante orbitario es una rara entidad clinicopatológica, cuyas características en la clínica y en las pruebas de imagen pueden ser similares a las del pseudotumor inflamatorio idiopático. El diagnóstico diferencial es importante porque ambos difieren tanto en su tratamiento como en su pronóstico. Abstract in english Clinical case: A fifty-two-year-old woman consulted our department because of a bilateral proptosis. The appearance of acute symptoms suggestive of a digestive disorder during her admission to hospital for the study of the proptosis, led to a diagnosis of multifocal fibrosclerosis with simultaneous [...] affliction of orbital tissue, mesenteric fat and the brain stem. Discussion: Idiopathic Sclerotic Inflammation of the orbit is a rare pathological entity, with similar clinical and radiological characteristics to orbital pseudo-tumour. The differential diagnosis is important because both these conditions differ in treatment and prognosis.

  20. Cellular localization of bursicon using antisera against partial peptide sequences of this insect cuticle-sclerotizing neurohormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, Hans-Willi; Market, Daniel; Pierce, Larry A; Dewey, Elizabeth M; Kostron, Barbara; Wilson, Melanie; Choi, Dennis; Klukas, Kathleen A; Mesce, Karen A

    2002-10-14

    Bursicon is the final neurohormone released at the end of the molting cycle. It triggers the sclerotization (tanning) of the insect cuticle. Until now, its existence has been verified only by bioassays. In an attempt to identify this important neurohormone, bursicon was purified from homogenates of 2,850 nerve cords of the cockroach Periplaneta americana by using high performance liquid chromatography technology and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Bursicon bioactivity was found in four distinct protein spots at approximately 30 kDa between pH 5.3 and 5.9. The protein of one of these spots at pH 5.7 was subsequently microsequenced, and five partial amino acid sequences were retrieved. Evidence is presented that two of these sequences are derived from bursicon. Antibodies raised against the two sequences labeled bursicon-containing neurons in the central nervous systems of P. americana. One of these antisera labeled bursicon-containing neurons in the crickets Teleogryllus commodus and Gryllus bimaculatus, and the moth Manduca sexta. A cluster of four bilaterally paired neurons in the brain of Drososphila melanogaster was also labeled. In addition, this antiserum detected three spots corresponding to bursicon in Western blots of two-dimensional gels. The 12-amino acid sequence detected by this antiserum, thus, seems to be conserved even among species that are distantly related. PMID:12271490

  1. Effect of the application time of phosphoric acid and self-etch adhesive systems to sclerotic dentin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandra Patricia, Mena-Serrano; Eugenio Jose, Garcia; Miguel Munoz, Perez; Gislaine Cristine, Martins; Rosa Helena Miranda, Grande; Alessandro Dourado, Loguercio; Alessandra, Reis.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the effect of application time on the resin-dentin bond strength (µTBS) and etching pattern of adhesive systems applied on sclerotic dentine. Material and Methods: A total of forty-two bovine incisors had their roots removed. The 1-step self-etch GO (SDI), the 2-step self- [...] etch Adper SE Bond (3MESPE) and the 35% phosphoric acid (3MESPE) from the 2-step etch-and-rinse Adper Single Bond 2 (3MESPE) were applied on the bovine incisal surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions or duplicating the recommended conditioning time. After adhesive application, thirty teeth were restored with composite resin, stored for 24 h in distilled water at 37°C, and sectioned into resin-dentin bonded sticks (0.8 mm 2 ) and tested according to the µTBS at 0.5 mm/min. The etching pattern of the remaining twelve teeth (n=4 for each material) was examined under scanning electron microscopy. Each tooth was divided into a buccal-to-lingual direction into three thirds, and each third randomly assigned to the groups: control (no treatment), according to the manufacturers' instructions and duplicating the recommended application time. The µTBS and the relative percentage of the tubule area opening were evaluated by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's tests (?=0.05). Results: The duplication of the conditioning time favored only the GO adhesive (p

  2. Esclerosis inflamatoria orbitaria y síndrome de fibrosis multifocal Sclerotic inflammation of the orbit and multifocal fibrosclerosis syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mataix

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico: Mujer de 52 años que consulta en nuestro Servicio por proptosis bilateral. La aparición de sintomatología aguda digestiva durante el ingreso para el estudio de la proptosis, condujo al diagnóstico de un cuadro de fibroesclerosis multifocal, con afectación simultánea de los tejidos orbitarios, grasa mesentérica y tronco de encéfalo. Discusión: El pseudotumor esclerosante orbitario es una rara entidad clinicopatológica, cuyas características en la clínica y en las pruebas de imagen pueden ser similares a las del pseudotumor inflamatorio idiopático. El diagnóstico diferencial es importante porque ambos difieren tanto en su tratamiento como en su pronóstico.Clinical case: A fifty-two-year-old woman consulted our department because of a bilateral proptosis. The appearance of acute symptoms suggestive of a digestive disorder during her admission to hospital for the study of the proptosis, led to a diagnosis of multifocal fibrosclerosis with simultaneous affliction of orbital tissue, mesenteric fat and the brain stem. Discussion: Idiopathic Sclerotic Inflammation of the orbit is a rare pathological entity, with similar clinical and radiological characteristics to orbital pseudo-tumour. The differential diagnosis is important because both these conditions differ in treatment and prognosis.

  3. Radiography, Bone Scan, and F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging Findings in a Patient with Paget's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background A 52-year-old female patient sought evaluation at our hospital for an incidental abnormal finding on an abdominal radiograph. The initial radiograph showed irregular sclerotic changes involving the right pelvic bone. At the same time, bone scintigraphy showed intense hot uptake in the right iliac and pubic bones. CT images showed characteristic thickening of the pelvic brim, suggesting the mixed phase of Paget's disease. The level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was 266 IU/I. 18F-FDG PET/CT images also showed diffusely increased 18F-FDG uptake in the right pelvic bone. However, the findings of 18F-FDG PET/CT were less notable than those of bone scintigraphy. We report the imaging findings of a patient with Paget's disease evaluated by radiography, bone scintigraphy, and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

  4. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectroscopy of Composite Rims for Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for utilization in the International Space Station. These composite material systems were investigated with a recently developed ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy technique. The ultrasonic system employs a continuous swept-sine waveform and performs a fast Fourier transform (FFT) on the frequency response spectrum. In addition, the system is capable of equalizing the amount of energy at each frequency. Equalization of the frequency spectrum, along with interpretation of the second FFT, aids in the evaluation of the fundamental frequency. The frequency responses from multilayered material samples, with and without known defects, were analyzed to assess the capabilities and limitations of this nondestructive evaluation technique for material characterization and defect detection. Amplitude and frequency changes were studied from ultrasonic responses of thick composite rings and a multiring composite rim. A composite ring varying in thickness was evaluated to investigate the full thickness resonance. The frequency response characteristics from naturally occurring voids in a composite ring were investigated. Ultrasonic responses were compared from regions with and without machined voids in a composite ring and a multiring composite rim. Finally, ultrasonic responses from the multiring composite rim were compared before and after proof spin testing to 63,000 rpm.

  5. Constraints on chondrule agglomeration from fine-grained chondrule rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, K.; Bischoff, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fine-grained rims around chondrules, Ca,Al-rich inclusions, and other coarse-grained components occur in most types of unequilibrated chondrites, most prominently in carbonaceous chondrites of the CM group. Based on mineralogical and petrographic investigations, it was suggested that rim structures in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites could have formed in the solar nebula by accretion of dust on the surfaces of the chondrules. Dust mantles in CM chondrites seem to have formed by accretion of dust on the surfaces of chondrules and other components during their passage through dust-rich regions in the solar nebula. Concentric mantles with compositionally different layers prove the existence of various distinct dust reservoirs in the vicinity of the accreting parent body. Despite mineralogical and chemical differences, fine-grained rims from other chondrite groups principally show striking similarities to dust mantle textures in CM chondrite. This implies that the formation of dust mantles was a cosmically significant event like the chondrule formation itself. Dust mantles seem to have formed chronologically between chondrule-producing transient heating events and the agglomeration of chondritic parent bodies. For this reason the investigation of dust mantle structures may help to answer the question of how a dusty solar nebula was transformed into a planetary system.

  6. Dasatinib as salvage therapy for steroid refractory and imatinib resistant or intolerant sclerotic chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortega, Isabel; Servitje, Octavio; Arnan, Montserrat; Ortí, Guillermo; Peralta, Teresa; Manresa, Federico; Duarte, Rafael F

    2012-02-01

    Sclerotic chronic graft-versus-host disease (scGVHD) is a severe form of this disease that resembles systemic sclerosis and has limited and disappointing treatment options. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeting up-regulated profibrotic pathways, such as imatinib mesylate, have been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach for patients with scGVHD. Dasatinib, a second-generation TKI with a well-established safety and efficacy profile in chronic myeloid leukemia patients, who are refractory or intolerant to imatinib, has also shown potent antifibrotic effects. We present here the first direct clinical evidence, from 3 patients treated in a small single-center series, suggesting that dasatinib can be a therapeutic option for patients with severe scGVHD resistant or intolerant to imatinib. All patients achieved partial response, with improvement in scGHVD target organs severity, joint mobility, lung impairment, and deep fibrotic lesions. This clinical response has remained stable or continued to improve after a median of 22 months (20-25) on dasatinib treatment, with very good tolerance. In addition, corticosteroids could be discontinued or significantly reduced in all patients. This clinical evidence suggests that dasatinib could be a safe and effective alternative for scGVHD patients refractory to corticosteroids and resistant or intolerant to imatinib. Based on these preliminary findings, and in order to address appropriate patient selection, time of intervention, and choice of drug, future larger studies should more formally establish the efficacy and safety of second-generation TKI for the treatment of scGVHD. PMID:22068151

  7. Effect of the application time of phosphoric acid and self-etch adhesive systems to sclerotic dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Patricia Mena-Serrano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of application time on the resin-dentin bond strength (µTBS and etching pattern of adhesive systems applied on sclerotic dentine. Material and Methods: A total of forty-two bovine incisors had their roots removed. The 1-step self-etch GO (SDI, the 2-step self-etch Adper SE Bond (3MESPE and the 35% phosphoric acid (3MESPE from the 2-step etch-and-rinse Adper Single Bond 2 (3MESPE were applied on the bovine incisal surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions or duplicating the recommended conditioning time. After adhesive application, thirty teeth were restored with composite resin, stored for 24 h in distilled water at 37°C, and sectioned into resin-dentin bonded sticks (0.8 mm 2 and tested according to the µTBS at 0.5 mm/min. The etching pattern of the remaining twelve teeth (n=4 for each material was examined under scanning electron microscopy. Each tooth was divided into a buccal-to-lingual direction into three thirds, and each third randomly assigned to the groups: control (no treatment, according to the manufacturers' instructions and duplicating the recommended application time. The µTBS and the relative percentage of the tubule area opening were evaluated by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's tests (?=0.05. Results: The duplication of the conditioning time favored only the GO adhesive (p<0.05. Both application methods significantly increased the tubule area opening (p<0.05 compared to the controls. Conclusions: The efficacy of duplicating the conditioning time was only effective for the 1-step self-etch adhesive system tested.

  8. Rim formation and fission gas behaviour: some structure remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In high burn-up LWR nuclear fuel an increase of the Xe-mobility is observed in the rim region according to EPMA. This often coincides with an increase of the local porosity and the grain subdivision of the material in regions around the pores. The restructuring does not always imply disappearance of the prior grain boundaries. This seems to occur in a final step. Micro-XRD studies also show a contraction of the fuel lattice in the rim zone, reflecting mainly the release of accumulated stresses during irradiation, via reordering of defects and defect complexes, including sub-grain formation and displacement of Xe traps. The lattice contraction is not measurable when the fraction of restructured areas is low and the prior grain structure still remains. Nevertheless, in such a case, even the Xe signal by EPMA is observed to decrease, anticipating the displacement of Xe inside the grains, probably towards cavities. However, the quantitative proportion of Xe in matrix and pores can not be given by EPMA. This is confirmed by TEM examinations, showing still plenty of gas bubbles inside restructured grains, in spite of the low Xe signal detected by EPMA. An alternative determination therefore appears necessary. The fission gas release (FGR) behaviour of the rim zone seems then to depend basically on the efficiency of gas retention in its porosity. The closed character of these pores and the low percolation probability derived from the high pore to grain size ratio anticipate high pore to grain size ratio anticipate a low incidence of open porosity. Also, mechanical tests suggest a low pore interconnection probability by microcracking. However, at very high local burn-ups (>150 GWd/tM), too high porosity values are determined compared to the values derived from immersion density and solid swelling, suggesting the potential existence of open channels. Also, abnormally high porosity values by quantitative metallography might arise from grain pullout during sample preparation. Here, a rough estimation of the release fraction from the rim zone is made, considering the persistence of all prior grain boundaries and the interconnection of all pores near these boundaries in a range of one pore radius. In this mostly improbable case, a maximum release of about 15% is estimated. For a precise FGR characterisation of the rim zone, quantitative determinations of the pore connectivity and of the real ratio: Xe in matrix/Xe in pores still seem to be lacking. (authors)

  9. Free energy landscape of rim-pore expansion in membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risselada, Herre Jelger; Smirnova, Yuliya; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2014-11-18

    The productive fusion pore in membrane fusion is generally thought to be toroidally shaped. Theoretical studies and recent experiments suggest that its formation, in some scenarios, may be preceded by an initial pore formed near the rim of the extended hemifusion diaphragm (HD), a rim-pore. This rim-pore is characterized by a nontoroidal shape that changes with size. To determine this shape as well as the free energy along the pathway of rim-pore expansion, we derived a simple analytical free energy model. We argue that dilation of HD material via expansion of a rim-pore is favored over a regular, circular pore. Further, the expanding rim-pore faces a free energy barrier that linearly increases with HD size. In contrast, the tension required to expand the rim-pore decreases with HD size. Pore flickering, followed by sudden opening, occurs when the tension in the HD competes with the line energy of the rim-pore, and the rim-pore reaches its equilibrium size before reaching the critical pore size. The experimental observation of flickering and closing fusion pores (kiss-and-run) is very well explained by the observed behavior of rim-pores. Finally, the free energy landscape of rim-pore expansion/HD dilation may very well explain why some cellular fusion reactions, in their attempt to minimize energetic costs, progress via alternative formation and dilation of microscopic hemifusion intermediates. PMID:25418297

  10. Adaptation of subchondral bone in osteoarthritis : Day JS, Van Der Linden JC, Bank RA, Ding M, Hvid I, Sumner DR, Weinans H.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic joint disease with pathological changes in the articulating cartilage and all other tissues that occupy the joint. Radin and coworkers have suggested the involvement of subchondral bone in the disease process. However, evidence for an essential role in the etiology has never been proven. Recent studies showing reduced chemical and mechanical properties of subchondral bone in various stages of the disease have invigorated interest in the role of subchondral bone in the development and progression of the disease. The current study showed that the concept of bone adaptation might explain subchondral stiffening, a process where subchondral bone becomes typically sclerotic in osteoarthritis. In addition, we report reduced mechanical matrix tissue properties as well as an increase in denatured collagen content. In conclusion, although osteoarthritic bone tissue contains increased denatured collagen and has reduced matrix mechanical properties, the widely accepted concept of subchondral stiffening is compatible with the process of normal bone adaptation. Udgivelsesdato: 2004

  11. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to break Bones can also develop cancer and infections Other bone diseases are caused by poor nutrition, genetic factors or problems with the rate of bone growth or rebuilding NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  12. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  13. Model reactions for insect cuticle sclerotization: participation of amino groups in the cross-linking of Manduca sexta cuticle protein MsCP36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, Richard J; Dittmer, Neal T; Kramer, Karl J; Kanost, Michael R

    2010-03-01

    Current theories of sclerotization center on protein cross-linking and dehydration as major factors in the hardening and stability of the insect cuticle. Several studies have reported the identification of catechol-amino acid adducts from sclerotizing cuticle involving histidine, lysine, and tyrosine, though there have been no reports of a catechol linked between two amino acid residues. Previously, we reported an in vitro model system for sclerotization and observed that stable protein oligomers were formed, presumably through cross-links with oxidized catecholamines [Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2006) 36, 353-365]. Using site-directed mutagenesis we created a mutant lacking histidine, rMsCP36(H65A/H178A), to investigate the possible involvement of the two histidine residues of MsCP36 in cross-linking. Surprisingly, this alteration had little or no effect on the formation of protein oligomers as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. Blocking of the free amino groups in lysyl side chains and the amino-terminus by succinylation diminished, but did not eliminate, cross-linking of either rMsCP36 or rMsCP36(H65A/H178A). We also examined the possibility that cross-linking was due to intermolecular dityrosine linkages. Immunoblot analysis utilizing a monoclonal antibody known to recognize peptidyl dityrosine indicated that dityrosyl cross-links were present. Taken together, these results indicate that lysyl residues are important for the cross-linking of the cuticle protein rMsCP36, but that additional residues other than histidine can also contribute. PMID:20219676

  14. Model reactions for insect cuticle sclerotization: cross-linking of recombinant cuticular proteins upon their laccase-catalyzed oxidative conjugation with catechols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, Richard J; Dittmer, Neal T; Kanost, Michael R; Kramer, Karl J

    2006-04-01

    The quinone-tanning hypothesis for insect cuticle sclerotization proposes that N-acylcatecholamines are oxidized by a phenoloxidase to quinones and quinone methides, which serve as electrophilic cross-linking agents to form covalent cross-links between cuticular proteins. We investigated model reactions for protein cross-linking that occurs during insect cuticle sclerotization using recombinant pupal cuticular proteins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, fungal or recombinant hornworm laccase-type phenoloxidase, and the cross-linking agent precursor N-acylcatecholamines, N-beta-alanydopamine (NBAD) or N-acetyldopamine (NADA). Recombinant M. sexta pupal cuticular proteins MsCP36, MsCP20, and MsCP27 were expressed and purified to near homogeneity. Polyclonal antisera to these recombinant proteins recognized the native proteins in crude pharate brown-colored pupal cuticle homogenates. Furthermore, antisera to MsCP36, which contains a type-1 Rebers and Riddiford (RR-1) consensus sequence, also recognized an immunoreactive protein in homogenates of larval head capsule exuviae, indicating the presence of an RR-1 cuticular protein in a very hard, sclerotized and nonpigmented cuticle. All three of the proteins formed small and large oligomers stable to boiling SDS treatment under reducing conditions after reaction with laccase and the N-acylcatecholamines. The optimal reaction conditions for MsCP36 polymerization were 0.3mM MsCP36, 7.4mM NBAD and 1.0U/mul fungal laccase. Approximately 5-10% of the monomer reacted to yield insoluble oligomers and polymers during the reaction, and the monomer also became increasingly insoluble in SDS solution after reaction with the oxidized NBAD. When NADA was used instead of NBAD, less oligomer formation occurred, and most of the protein remained soluble. Radiolabeled NADA became covalently bound to the MsCP36 monomer and oligomers during cross-linking. Recombinant Manduca laccase (MsLac2) also catalyzed the polymerization of MsCP36. These results support the hypothesis that during sclerotization, insect cuticular proteins are oxidatively conjugated with catechols, a posttranslational process termed catecholation, and then become cross-linked, forming oligomers and subsequently polymers. PMID:16551549

  15. High mobility of landslides on the Mercury crater rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, H.; Kadota, N.; Kiritoshi, I.; Sugiyama, H.; Uragami, H.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA's MESSENGER mercury spacecraft was launched by NASA in 2004, and orbital insertion was successfully completed in 2011. Among its scientific instruments, the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) are used to extract the mercury terrain topography. This mission revealed various features of the mercury topography with horizontal resolution of 1 km. Up to July 2013, elevation of the north hemisphere terrain had been released on the net (Quickmap: http://messenger-act.actgate.com/msgr_public_released/react_quickmap.html). As reported by previous studies on landslides found on the lunar crater rims (Fukuoka et al., 2011), they showed extremely small H/V = tan (apparent friction) of the movement, even though almost no groundwater could have been expected ever. Authors examined the crater rims in the northern hemisphere of latitude higher than 65 degrees, because the precision of the altitude is higher in the polar and equatorial regions. We found as many similar landslides along the crater rims. Then, in order to compare the mobility of landslides with lunar ones, we have examined the apparent friction (H/T). In most cases, the H/T values of those landslides are between 0.1 and 0.2, like long-runout landslides on the Moon, Mars and Earth. If the rocks on the mercury show the similar friction as rocks on the earth, those values should be higher than 0.5. Possible mechanism of the small H/L could be cumulated shear displacement induced by repeated quakes by meteor impact over billions of years and / or exotic mechanism including tectonic function.

  16. Investigation about crack propagation paths in thin rim gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Curà

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack propagation in gears is a problem related not only to the life of the components, but also to the concept of failsafe design. Fail safe design means to design a component in order that, if a failure occurs, this may cause a “safe failure”. This aspect is very important above all in aerospace industry. As a matter of fact, in aerospace application, the need of reducing weight brings to produce gears with very thick rim and web. Considering thin rim gears, when a crack is nucleated near the tooth root, it may propagate through the tooth (causing the loss of the entire tooth or a portion of it or the propagation may follow a path across the wheel diameter (causing the projection of big parts of the gear that may break the gearbox and may cause serious damage to the aircraft. The first failure mode is define as “failsafe failure” and the second one as “catastrophic failure” and of course has to be avoided. Designers need to have robust design criteria in order to predict crack propagation paths and to avoid catastrophic failures. In literature, few works are present concerning this topic, in particular related to the effect of geometrical parameters that may affect the crack propagation. In this work a numerical analysis about crack propagation in gears with respect to the backup ratio (ratio between tooth height and rim thickness, initial crack position and shape has been done by means of the Extended FEM (XFEM technique, realizing 3D models. XFEM 3D is a relatively new technique consisting in enriching traditional finite elements with more complex shape functions; in this way it is possible to propagate crack also between mesh nodes and to have mesh independent results. Aim of this paper is to highlight the crack propagation path in order to give to designers an high confident design criterion, related to the gear geometry. In particular, the effect of both rim thickness and orientation of the initial crack have been considered in order to enrich the literature knowledge. Numerical results obtained in this work have been compared with those found in the literature, showing a very good correlation.

  17. A prospective analysis of CT density measurements of bone metastases after treatment with zoledronic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to prospectively determine CT density changes in bone metastases, before and after intravenous zoledronic acid for a maximum period of 12 months. Twenty-three consecutive patients presented with bone metastases and underwent therapy with zoledronic acid from December 2004. All patients underwent CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Bone density, measured in Hounsfield units (HU), was determined by segmenting lesions in the same anatomical area of the metastasis sites on the axial images of the sequential series of CT examinations. The effects of zoledronic acid were evaluated by calculating absolute and relative increases in bone density. The patients presented with multiple metastases in 65% of the cases. When compared with the baseline, all groups demonstrated a significant increase in bone density, which significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with the number of zoledronic acid administrations. There was increased bone density of at least 100% in 57%, and an increase of at least 50% in 87% of the patients. This increase was significant in both lytic and sclerotic metastases after 3 months of therapy. No significant bone density difference was found in normal-appearing bone. Bone density measured by CT increases at metastatic sites after zoledronic acid treatment, regardless of the type of metastasis, in contrast to apparently normal bone. (orig.)

  18. A prospective analysis of CT density measurements of bone metastases after treatment with zoledronic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quattrocchi, Carlo C.; Dell' Aia, Paola; Piciucchi, Sara; Grasso, Rosario F.; Zobel, Bruno B. [Centro Interdisciplinare per la Ricerca Bio-Medica, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Santini, Daniele; Vincenzi, Bruno; Tonini, Giuseppe [University Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Department of Oncology, Rome (Italy); Leoncini, Emanuele [Statistica Sanitaria, University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    The objective was to prospectively determine CT density changes in bone metastases, before and after intravenous zoledronic acid for a maximum period of 12 months. Twenty-three consecutive patients presented with bone metastases and underwent therapy with zoledronic acid from December 2004. All patients underwent CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Bone density, measured in Hounsfield units (HU), was determined by segmenting lesions in the same anatomical area of the metastasis sites on the axial images of the sequential series of CT examinations. The effects of zoledronic acid were evaluated by calculating absolute and relative increases in bone density. The patients presented with multiple metastases in 65% of the cases. When compared with the baseline, all groups demonstrated a significant increase in bone density, which significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with the number of zoledronic acid administrations. There was increased bone density of at least 100% in 57%, and an increase of at least 50% in 87% of the patients. This increase was significant in both lytic and sclerotic metastases after 3 months of therapy. No significant bone density difference was found in normal-appearing bone. Bone density measured by CT increases at metastatic sites after zoledronic acid treatment, regardless of the type of metastasis, in contrast to apparently normal bone. (orig.)

  19. Chandra Observations of the Northeastern Rim of the Cygnus Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuda, Satoru; Kimura, Masashi; Mori, Koji

    2008-01-01

    We present results from spatially resolved spectral analyses of the northeastern (NE) rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant (SNR) based on two Chandra observations. One pointing includes northern outermost abundance-enhanced regions discovered by recent Suzaku observations, while the other pointing is located on regions with "normal" abundances in the NE rim of the Cygnus Loop. The superior spatial resolving power of Chandra allows us to reveal that the abundance-enhanced region is concentrated in an about 200"-thickness region behind the shock front. We confirm absolute metal abundances (i.e., relative to H) as well as abundance ratios between metals are consistent with those of the solar values within a factor of about 2. Also, we find that the emission measure in the region gradually decreases toward the shock front. These features are in contrast with those of the ejecta fragments around the Vela SNR, which leads us to believe that the abundance enhancements are not likely due to metal-rich ejecta. We ...

  20. New technique for reconstructing the affected cranium and orbital rim in unicoronal craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lisa R; Fisher, David; Argenta, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Of the single-suture craniosynostoses, unicoronal synostosis (UCS) is widely acknowledged to represent the most varied and complex set of craniofacial deformities. This is attributed to the endocranial base being affected along with the coronal suture. This deformity may present with both coronal and frontosphenoidal synostosis and has been associated with elevated intracranial pressure; brain morphological abnormalities; vertical dystopia; ambylopia; malformations of the forehead, orbit, midface, and mandible; and behavioral, cognitive, and speech abnormalities. It is the variable structural presentation coupled with the long-term stability of the reconstruction that forms a complex reconstructive challenge. Our surgical technique concordantly addresses these associated structures beyond the isolated coronal suture. Although several surgical techniques have previously been described, there remains no consensus toward a preferred surgical approach to this dynamic and three-dimensional problem. We describe our technique of coronal and frontosphenoidal synostosis release as part of a frontotemporoparietal bone flap, release of the entire fronto-orbital rim, and use of the unaffected skull to reconstruct the affected half of the skull. The purpose of our study was to describe our surgical approach to UCS. It has been our experience that optimal correction of UCS must address the associated anomalies beyond the affected coronal suture and must be stable over time. PMID:19165025

  1. Radiography, Bone Scan, and F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging Findings in a Patient with Paget's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Tae; Kim, Sung Eun [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Background A 52-year-old female patient sought evaluation at our hospital for an incidental abnormal finding on an abdominal radiograph. The initial radiograph showed irregular sclerotic changes involving the right pelvic bone. At the same time, bone scintigraphy showed intense hot uptake in the right iliac and pubic bones. CT images showed characteristic thickening of the pelvic brim, suggesting the mixed phase of Paget's disease. The level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was 266 IU/I. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images also showed diffusely increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the right pelvic bone. However, the findings of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were less notable than those of bone scintigraphy. We report the imaging findings of a patient with Paget's disease evaluated by radiography, bone scintigraphy, and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT.

  2. RIM, Munc13, and Rab3A interplay in acrosomal exocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exocytosis is a highly regulated, multistage process consisting of multiple functionally definable stages, including recruitment, targeting, tethering, priming, and docking of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, followed by calcium-triggered membrane fusion. The acrosome reaction of spermatozoa is a complex, calcium-dependent regulated exocytosis. Fusion at multiple sites between the outer acrosomal membrane and the cell membrane causes the release of the acrosomal contents and the loss of the membranes surrounding the acrosome. Not much is known about the molecules that mediate membrane docking in this particular fusion model. In neurons, the formation of the ternary RIM/Munc13/Rab3A complex has been suggested as a critical component of synaptic vesicles docking. Previously, we demonstrated that Rab3A localizes to the acrosomal region in human sperm, stimulates acrosomal exocytosis, and participates in an early stage during membrane fusion. Here, we report that RIM and Munc13 are also present in human sperm and localize to the acrosomal region. Like Rab3A, RIM and Munc13 participate in a prefusion step before the efflux of intra-acrosomal calcium. By means of a functional assay using antibodies and recombinant proteins, we show that RIM, Munc13 and Rab3A interplay during acrosomal exocytosis. Finally, we report by electron transmission microscopy that sequestering RIM and Rab3A alters the docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane during calcium-activated acrosomal exocytosis. Our results suggest that the RIM/Munc13/Rab3 A complex participates in acrosomal exocytosis and that RIM and Rab3A have central roles in membrane docking. -- Highlights: ? RIM and Munc13 are present in human sperm and localize to the acrosomal region. ? RIM and Munc13 are necessary for acrosomal exocytosis. ? RIM and Munc13 participate before the acrosomal calcium efflux. ? RIM, Munc13 and Rab3A interplay in human sperm acrosomal exocytosis. ? RIM and Rab3A have critical roles in membrane docking.

  3. Measurement of the wear of railway wheel-rims by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relative measuring method based on the ratio of the activities of prepared railway wheel-rim surfaces before and after the wear test was developed and tested. In a 5 ?m thick plated layer 59Fe isotope was electrolitically deposited onto the rim surface. The relative decrease of the recorded intensities and the application of the Wickers-track technique provide a rapid and reliable method to measure the wear of railway wheel-rim under operation conditions. (Sz.J.)

  4. Local phagocytic responses after murine infection with different forms of Fonsecaea pedrosoi and sclerotic bodies originating from an inoculum of conidiogenous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre Paulo; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Fischman, Olga

    2011-05-01

    Fonsecaea pedrosoi is an important causative agent of chromoblastomycosis (CBM) especially in humid areas of the world; however, little is known about the infective forms of this agent that cause CBM. The aim of this study was to investigate the murine tissue response to inoculation with different forms of F. pedrosoi and the morphological changes of the fungal cells in vivo. BALB/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hyphae, conidia or conidiogenous cells and conidia (CCC) at a single site. In addition, the abdomen and footpads were infected subcutaneously with CCC. Fungal forms were inoculated at a final concentration of 1 × 10(6) cells. Hyphae and ungerminated conidia inocula could not be transformed into parasitic forms. In tissue, a great number of conidiogenous cells underwent transformation into sclerotic bodies, which were more resistant to phagocytes in vivo than conidia and hyphae. Clinical and mycological cure of animals infected with CCC was observed from the fourth to the sixth week of infection, while conidia and hyphae infections were faster and generally lasted 2 to 3 weeks. A high number of destructed conidia was observed intracellularly in macrophages. The migration of neutrophils to the inflammatory site seems important for microbicidal activity, particularly against hyphae. Our observations suggest that inocula with conidiogenous cells are associated with in vivo transformation into sclerotic bodies and that local immune response involved with host resistance to experimental F. pedrosoi-infection is primarily mediated by neutrophils as observed in histological sections. PMID:19925569

  5. Two chondrule groups each with distinctive rims in Murchison recognized by cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul H.; Jie, LU

    1993-01-01

    Two groups of chondrules in the Murchison CM chondrite, which have previously been identified on the basis of FeO in the chondrule grains, are readily identified from cathodoluminescence (CL) and belong to those of the ordinary chondrite group A and B chondrules of Sears et al. (1992a). All chondrules are surrounded by fine-grained rims containing forsterite with bright red CL, but on group A chondrules an outer thin rim grades into a much thicker rim, with a lower density of forsterite grains, which in turn grades into the central chondrule. Group B chondrules have only the thin outer rim with a high density of small forsterite grains. This is the first time an unequivocal correlation has been observed between chondrule rim thickness and the composition of the object on which the rim is located. We suggest that while all objects in the meteorite (group B chondrules, refractory inclusions, mineral and chondrule fragments, clasts) acquired a very thin rim during processing in a wet regolith, the thick rims on group A chondrules were formed by aqueous alteration of precursor metal- and sulfide-rich rims which are a characteristic of group A chondrules in ordinary chondrites.

  6. Non-destructive examination technique for steam turbine rotor disk rim cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbine disk rim cracking in thermal and nuclear power plants has been a major reliability issue in recent years. This problem which includes both circumferential and radial direction cracking on the hidden face of rim fixation behind the blade hook has become very important in periodic non-destructive examination. To detect these defects, the UT inspection techniques using a conventional single angle probe and a phased array probe without removing blades from wheel rim are developed. This paper summarizes and discusses non-destructive examination methods for turbine rim cracking using phased array technique and other technique and these results. (author)

  7. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limitations of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray ... ultrasound are sometimes used to screen for low bone mass. In some communities, a CT scan with special software can also be used to ...

  8. Communities of constructional lips and cup reef rims in Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Martin L. H.; Stevens, Jo-Anne

    1991-01-01

    Constructional lips and cup reef rims are little studied reef features typical of very turbulent conditions. The relatively low diversity community of these structures consists of three components, and algal mat dominated by Herposiphonia secunda, an encrusting calcareous biota characterised by crustose coralline algae and the vermetid gastropod Dendropoma corrodens, which together are the main hermatypic components, and an endolithic component with very abundant boring sponges, polychaetes, crustaceans and sipunculids. In northerly areas of Bermuda, the hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis is a prominent member of the community while to the south the urchin Echinometra lucunter is abundant. On the south side of Bermuda the community traps sediment which is deposited in the void spaces. The environment shows reduced grazing and this may account for the presence of several relict and rare species.

  9. "Repair of cranial bone defects using endochondral bone matrix gelatin in rat "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Sobhani A

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone matrix gelatin (BMG has been used for bone induction intramuscularly and subcutaneously by many investigators since 1965. More recently, some of the researchers have used BMG particles for bone repair and reported various results. In present study for evaluation of bone induction and new bone formation in parital defects, BMG particles were used in five groups of rats. The BMG was prepared as previously described using urist method. The defects wee produced with 5 –mm diameter in pariteal bones and filled by BMG particles. No BMG was used in control group.For evaluation of new bone formation and repair, the specimens were harvested on days 7 , 14 , 21 and 28 after operation. The samples were processed histologically, stained by H& E, alizarin red S staining, and Alcian blue, and studied by a light microscope.The results are as follows:In control group: Twenty-eight days after operation a narrow rim of new bone was detectable attached to the edge of defect.In BMG groups: At day 7 after operation young chondroblast cells appeared in whole area of defect. At 14th day after operation hypertrophic chondrocytes showed by Alcian blue staining and calcified cartilage were detectable by Alizarin red S staining. The numerous trabeculae spicules, early adult osteocytes and highly proliferated red bone marrow well developed on dayd 21 . finally typic bone trabeculae with regulated osteoblast cells and some osteoclast cells were detectable at day 28 after operation. In conclusion,BMG could stimulate bone induction and new bone formation in bony defects. So, it seems that BMG could be a godd biomaterial substance for new bone inducation in bone defects

  10. Out of the Blue: The Pacific Rim as a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Santa-Cruz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1993, in advance of what was to be the first Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC leader’s summit, US president Bill Clinton gave a lecture at Waseda University in Japan. In his speech, Clinton called for the creation of a “community of the Pacific.” The idea of a Pacific community is neither Clinton’s nor the Democratic Party’s invention, however. In the previous decade Ronald Reagan had already used it, going even beyond later conceptualizations, by referring to the 21st century as the Pacific’s century. But Reagan's prophecy concerning the Great Ocean was not new back in the 1980s either. In 1900 then US Secretary of State John Hay wrote: “the Mediterranean is the ocean of the past, the Atlantic the ocean of the present and the Pacific is the ocean of the future.” In a more general manner, as Christopher Coker has observed, the notion of the “Century of the Pacific” is plausible because it is consistent with the idea, popularized by Hegel, that the spirit of civilization is moving toward that part of the globe. Thus, the century of the Pacific has become a kind of zeitgeist. In this paper I undertake a conceptual, historical, and theoretical journey through the “Pacific Rim” or “Asia-Pacific,” as it has been called more recently. Although I will question the utility of the term, I want to make clear that my purpose is only to undertake a critical survey of “the Pacific.” As in any trip, however, one needs a starting point. But, What is the starting point of the Pacific Rim, that geographic zone that has been compared to Pascal’s sphere: “with periphery indeterminable and a center that may be anywhere”?

  11. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alan S.; Haselschwardt, Sally; Bogatko, Alex; Humphrey, Brian; Patel, Amit

    2013-01-01

    On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry equipment around within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, Moon, Mars, etc.). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand-off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. The overhead system consists of two concentric circle tracks that have a movable beam between them. The beam has a hoist carriage that can move back and forth on the beam. Therefore, the entire system acts like a bridge crane curved around to meet itself in a circle. The novelty of the system is in its configuration, and how it interfaces with the volume of the HDU habitat. Similar to how a bridge crane allows coverage for an entire rectangular volume, the RIMS system covers a circular volume. The RIMS system is the first generation of what may be applied to future planetary surface vertical cylinder habitats on the Moon or on Mars.

  12. La Niña diversity and Northwest Indian Ocean Rim teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Barlow, Mathew

    2014-11-01

    The differences in tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) expressions of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events of the same phase have been linked with different global atmospheric circulation patterns. This study examines the dynamical forcing of precipitation during October-December (OND) and March-May (MAM) over East Africa and during December-March (DJFM) over Central-Southwest Asia for 1950-2010 associated with four tropical Pacific SST patterns characteristic of La Niña events, the cold phase of ENSO. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate La Niña events, and seasonal precipitation forcing was investigated in terms of the tropical overturning circulation and thermodynamic and moisture budgets. Recent La Niña events with strong opposing SST anomalies between the central and western Pacific Ocean (phases 3 and 4), force the strongest global circulation modifications and drought over the Northwest Indian Ocean Rim. Over East Africa during MAM and OND, subsidence is forced by an enhanced tropical overturning circulation and precipitation reductions are exacerbated by increases in moisture flux divergence. Over Central-Southwest Asia during DJFM, the thermodynamic forcing of subsidence is primarily responsible for precipitation reductions, with moisture flux divergence acting as a secondary mechanism to reduce precipitation. Eastern Pacific La Niña events in the absence of west Pacific SST anomalies (phases 1 and 2), are associated with weaker global teleconnections, particularly over the Indian Ocean Rim. The weak regional teleconnections result in statistically insignificant precipitation modifications over East Africa and Central-Southwest Asia.

  13. Enchondroma on bone scan in a patient with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 45-year-old postmenopausal woman with breast cancer was treated with modified radical mastectomy and radiotherapy. She remained clinically well for two years but then complained of pain in the left upper arm during a routine follow-up visit with her physician. A roentgenogram of the left proximal humerus showed a densely sclerotic, nonhomogeneous, 2 x 6 cm lesion with stippled calcification, the appearance of which was most consistent with a mature enchondroma or bone infarct. Because metastatic breast cancer was also a possibility, a technetium Tc 99m methyldiphosphonate (MDP) bone scan was done, revealing diffuse uptake in the left proximal humeral lesion, without any other area of involvement. Although radiologically the lesion appeared benign and stable, the history of breast cancer, abnormal bone scan, and pain could not be ignored, and open surgical bone biopsy was done. From deep within the lesion at the core of the metaphysis of the proximal left humerus, the surgeon removed an enchondroma, but found no evidence of metastatic disease. Follow-up MDP bone scans after six months and four years were unchanged

  14. Evidence for the formation of a quinone methide during the oxidation of the insect cuticular sclerotizing precursor 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, M; Semensi, V; Kalyanaraman, B; Bruce, J M; Land, E J

    1992-05-25

    1,2-Dehydro-N-acetyldopamine (dehydro-NADA) is an important catecholamine derivative involved in the cross-linking of insect cuticular components during sclerotization. Since sclerotization is a vital process for the survival of insects, and is closely related to melanogenesis, it is of interest to unravel the chemical mechanisms participating in this process. The present paper reports on the mechanism by which dehydro-NADA is oxidatively activated to form reactive intermediate(s) as revealed by pulse radiolysis, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic analysis. Pulse radiolytic one-electron oxidation of dehydro-NADA by N3. (k = 5.3 x 10(9) M-1 s-1) or Br2.- (k = 7.5 x 10(8) M-1 s-1) at pH6 resulted in the rapid generation of the corresponding semiquinone radical, lambda max 400 nm, epsilon = 20,700 M-1 cm-1. This semiquinone decayed to form a second transient intermediate, lambda max 485 nm, epsilon = 8000 M-1 cm-1, via a second order disproportionation process, k = 6.2 x 10(8) M-1 s-1. At pH 6 in the presence of azide, the first order decay of this second intermediate occurred over milliseconds; the rate decreases at higher pH. At pH 6 in the presence of bromide, the intermediate decayed much more slowly over seconds, k = 0.15 s-1. Under such conditions, the dependence of the first order decay constant upon parent dehydro-NADA concentration led to a second order rate constant of 8.5 x 10(2) M-1 s-1 for reaction of the intermediate with the parent, probably to form benzodioxan "dimers." (The term dimer is used for convenience; the products are strictly bisdehydrodimers of dehydro-NADA (see "Discussion" and Fig. 11)) Rate constants of 5.9 x 10(5), 4.5 x 10(5), 2.8 x 10(4) and 3.5 x 10(4) M-1 s-1 were also obtained for decay of the second intermediate in the presence of cysteine, cysteamine, o-phenylenediamine, and p-aminophenol, respectively. By comparison with the UV-visible spectroscopic properties of the two-electron oxidized species derived from dehydro-NADA and from 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopa methyl ester, it is concluded that the transient intermediate exhibiting absorbance at 485 nm is the quinone methide tautomer of the o-quinone of dehydro-NADA. Sclerotization of insect cuticle is discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:1316899

  15. Analysis of bubble pressure in the rim region of high burnup PWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Yang Hyun; Lee, Byung Ho; Sohn, Dong Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    Bubble pressure in the rim region of high burnup PWR UO{sub 2} fuel has been modeled based on measured rim width, porosity and bubble density. Using the assumption that excessive bubble pressure in the rim is inversely proportional to its radius, proportionality constant is derived as a function of average pellet burnup and bubble radius. This approach is possible because the integration of the number of Xe atoms retained in the rim bubbles, which can be calculated as a function of bubble radius, over the bubble radius gives the total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles. Here the total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles can be derived from the measured Xe depletion fraction in the matrix and the calculated rim thickness. Then the rim bubble pressure is obtained as a function of fuel burnup and bubble size from the proportionality constant. Therefore, the present model can provide some useful information that would be required to analyze the behavior of high burnup PWR UO{sub 2} fuel under both normal and transient operating conditions. 28 refs., 9 figs. (Author)

  16. Dense bone - too much bone: Radiological considerations and differential diagnosis. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conclusion, the attempt has been made to demonstrate that three major forms of new bone formation exist: reactive, neoplastic, and the newborn or relative skeletal sclerosis in congenital (developmental) disorders. A classification of skeletal disorders has been presented and four major groups have been selected from the nine categories in this classification. These are: congenital-developmental, metabolic and endocrine, benign neoplasms and malignant neoplasms. In all four categories a large group of entities which may present with new bone (sclerosis) are listed and are discussed in some, but limited, detail. A number of these entities in each of the four categories are illustrated. Some difficulty is encountered in considering the mechanisms for the production of bony sclerosis in the group of congenital-developmental disorders. In such entities as osteopetrosis, the overproduction of cartilage cords and subsequent excessive mineralization is known to be responsible for the dense bone. However, in various skeletal dysplasias (e.g. pyknodysostosis, van Bucherm disease), the exact mechanism for the development of the diffuse sclerotic process is not clearly understood. In the metabolic and endocrine category, the situation as to mechanism is less unclear in considering the reason for the development of bony sclerosis. Yet even in evaluating disorders such as renal osteodystrophy, the reactive bony sclerosis in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and oste of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia is a source of speculation with no definite proof, as yet. (orig.)

  17. Pre-transplantation risk factors to develop sclerotic chronic GvHD after allogeneic HSCT: a multicenter retrospective study from the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrait, M Y; Morisset, S; Peffault de Latour, R; Yakoub-Agha, I; Crocchiolo, R; Tabrizi, R; Bay, J-O; Chevalier, P; Barraco, F; Raus, N; Vigouroux, S; Magro, L; Mohty, M; Milpied, N; Blaise, D; Socié, G; Michallet, M

    2015-02-01

    Sclerotic chronic GvHD (cGvHD) is one of the most severe complications after allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Risk factors associated with this complication remain not very well defined. With the aim to define a pre-transplantation risk profile, we have conducted a French retrospective analysis in 705 consecutive patients between 2005 and 2010. Analyses to determine pre-transplantation risk factors included as variables: patient and donor age, kind of donor, HLA matching, ABO matching, sex-matching, diagnosis, stem cell source, gender, GvHD prophylaxis and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in the conditioning regimen. The cumulative incidence of sclerotic cGvHD was 18% (95% CI, 16.6-19.6) 3 years after onset of cGvHD. In univariate analysis, we found a significantly lower number of sclerotic cGvHD form in patients transplanted from cord blood cells (P=0.0021), in patients with a one mismatched donor (P=0.041) and in patients who had received ATG in the conditioning regimen (P=0.002). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with an increased risk of sclerotic cGvHD were young patient age, multiple myeloma and PBSC as the stem cell source. ATG in conditioning regimen and cord blood unit as the stem cell source were associated with a lower risk. PMID:25365068

  18. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormal area, or lesion , seen on x-ray , bone scan, CT or MRI distinguish bone tumor from other conditions, such an infection distinguish ... so that the physician can easily reach the bone that is to be sampled. A belt ... procedure. A limited CT scan will be performed to confirm the location to ...

  19. Anion recognition properties of new upper-rim bis[rhenium(I) bipyridyl, ruthenium(II) bis(bipyridyl), cobaltocenium]calix[4]arene receptors dictated by lower-rim substituents

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Pd; Drew, Mgb; Hesek, D.; Shade, M.; Szemes, F.

    1996-01-01

    New upper-rim bis[rhenium(I) bipyridyl, ruthenium(II) bis(bipyridyl), cobaltocenium]calix[4]arene receptors exhibit remarkable dihydrogen phosphate selective anion recognition properties dictated by the relative positions of lower-rim tosyl substituents.

  20. N-acetyldopamine quinone methide/1,2-dehydro-N-acetyl dopamine tautomerase. A new enzyme involved in sclerotization of insect cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, S J; Sugumaran, M

    1989-09-25

    The enzyme system causing the side chain desaturation of the sclerotizing precursor, N-acetyldopamine (NADA), was solubilized from the larval cuticle of Sarcophaga bullata and resolved into three components. The first enzyme, phenoloxidase, catalyzed conversion of NADA to NADA quinone and provided it for the second enzyme (NADA quinone isomerase), which makes the highly unstable NADA quinone methide. Quinone methide was hydrated rapidly and nonenzymatically to form N-acetylnorepinephrine. In addition, it also served as the substrate for the last enzyme, quinone methide tautomerase, which converted it to 1,2-dehydro-NADA. Reconstitution of NADA side chain desaturase activity was achieved by mixing the last enzyme fraction with NADA quinone isomerase, obtained from the hemolymph of the same organism, and mushroom tyrosinase. Therefore, NADA side chain desaturation observed in insects is caused by the combined action of three enzymes rather than the action of a single specific NADA desaturase, as previously thought. PMID:2507358

  1. Imaging features of low-grade central osteosarcoma of the long bones and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Kelli J.; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States); Unni, K. Krishnan [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States); Sim, Franklin H. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    To determine the age and gender distribution and imaging features of low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS) of the long bones and pelvis and to discuss our findings in the context of lesions for which LGCOS has been mistaken. We reviewed 99 cases of LGCOS collected between 1919 and 2002 from our institution and pathology consultation files. Adequate imaging was available in 70 cases (36 radiographs only, 17 radiographs/CT, 12 radiographs/MRI, 2 radiographs/CT/MRI, 2 CT only, 1 MRI only, 5 bone scans). Patient average age was 30.1{+-}14.2 years, with a slight female predominance. The femur and tibia were the most common long bones involved (29 and 20 each) with the majority of these tumors arising around the knee, followed by the fibula, radius, humerus and ulna (four, three, two and one case each). Flat bones were involved in six cases (three pelvis, one rib, two scapulae). Short tubular bones were involved in five cases (two metatarsal, two phalanges, one clavicle). The lesion extended to the end of the affected long bone in 22 of 59 cases. Lesions were large at presentation (mean 7.9{+-}4.6 cm, range 2-24). Four radiographic patterns were identified: lytic with varying amounts of thick and coarse trabeculation (n=22), predominantly lytic with few thin, incomplete trabecula (n=21), densely sclerotic (n=17) and mixed lytic and sclerotic (n=10). Lesions were benign-appearing overall with focally aggressive features. CT or MRI demonstrated cortical breech or extension into the soft tissues in all cases. LGCOS has a variable appearance on radiographs. A frequent pattern is a slow-growing large intracompartmental fibro-osseous lesion with varying amounts of septal ossification associated with focal areas of aggression. A homogeneously sclerotic pattern was also noted. Imaging with CT or MRI was helpful in every instance in our series in identifying areas of soft tissue extension or cortical disruption suggestive of a low-grade malignancy. (orig.)

  2. Schiaparelli Crater Rim and Interior Deposits - High Resolution Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A portion of the rim and interior of the large impact crater Schiaparelli is seen at high resolution in this image acquired October 18, 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera (MOC). The area covered is very small--3.9 X 10.2 km (2.4 X 6.33 mi)--but is seen at 63 times higher resolution than the Viking image. The subdued relief and bright surface are attributed to blanketing by dust; many small craters have been completely filled in, and only the most recent (and very small) craters appear sharp and bowl-shaped. Some of the small craters are only 10-12 m (30-35 feet) across. Occasional dark streaks on steeper slopes are small debris slides that have probably occurred in the past few decades. The two prominent, narrow ridges in the center of the image may be related to the adjustment of the crater floor to age or the weight of the material filling the basin.Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  3. Human Rights in the Countries of the Southern Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Feliu i Martínez

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available After practically all of the southern-rim countries of the Mediterranean gained their independence, the process of national construction has been predicated on authoritarian regimes. These regimes justified both the use of force against political opposition and the limits on rights and liberties on the need for maintaining the unanimity of the people which had manifested itself during the struggles for liberation from the colonial yoke. Towards the end of the 1980s, the regional and international context seemed to presage a very much longed for opening-up of the political scene after some of these countries (Tunisia, Algeria and Jordan initiated a series of movements that pointed to their democratisation. The posterior evolution of events has crushed those hopes in every case, and only Morocco and Jordan (each with their respective limitations appear to have evolved towards a softening of repression. The excuse put forth from the collection of states in the region to justify the step backwards is the existence of two threats they must act with forcefulness before: the threat of Islamic “fundamentalism” and the desire of certain groups to boycott the on-going Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process.

  4. CO observations of a molecular cloud complex associated with the bright rim near VY Canis Majoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive CO observations of a large molecular cloud complex (approx. 15 pc) associated with a bright rim near the peculiar star VY CMa are presented. CO emission peaks in a region along and adjacent to the bright rim which forms the western border of the cloud complex. This emission abruptly decreases across the bright rim, and this decrease suggests a physical association of the rim with the cloud. The molecular complex is found to consist of two clouds which have different radial velocities and physical properties. The possibility that these two clouds may be in near-collision is discussed. The physical association of the bright rim with the cloud complex indicates that the clouds are at the same distance, 1.5 kpc, as the stars which excite the rim. Since VY CMa appears to be located at the tip of the bright rim and has a velocity similar to that of the molecular cloud complex and the stars of the cluster NGC 2362, it is concluded that VY CMa is also at the same distance. The resulting luminosity of VY CMa (5 x 105 L sub solar) indicates that the star is very massive, and places constraints on interpretation of its evolutionary state. 5 figures, 2 tables

  5. The significance of echogenic rim of atypical hepatic hemangioma on ultrasonogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether the presence of a peripheral echogenic rim surrounding internal low echogenicity is helpful in the diagnosis of atypical hepatic hemangioma. Within a two-year period, a retrospective review of the sonographic appearances of 24 atypical hemangiomas in 21 patients was performed. Diagnosis was made by dynamic and delayed enhanced CT, MR imaging or clinical follow up for one year, including follow-up sonogram. The sonographic appearances of these hemangiomas were analyzed for pattern and thickness of the echogenic rim, internal echo pattern, shape, and size. Additionally, forty six lesions of hepatoma, metastasis, abscess and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma confirmed by pathology within the same period were also evaluated for the presence of echogenic rim. Twenty-three of 24 lesions showed an echogenic rim;these were thick in nine cases, and thin in 14 cases. The thickness of the rim was either uniform(n=10) or eccentric(n=13). The average maximum diameter of atypical hemangioma was 4.4cm(range of diameters, 1.5-12cm). The internal echo pattern was partially or entirely hypoechoic in 15 lesions, homogeneously isoechoic in three, and mixed in six cases. Twenty-one lesions were round, and the shape of three was irregular. The other forty six masses including hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases, cholangiocarcinoma and hepatic abscesses did not show an echogenic rim. The presence of a sonographic echogenic rim in a hepatic mass may help in the diagnosis oa hepatic mass may help in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma

  6. Near-IR Imaging Polarimetry toward a Bright-Rimmed Cloud: Magnetic Field in SFO 74

    CERN Document Server

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Miao, Jingqi; Tamura, Motohide; Sato, Yaeko; Kwon, Jungmi; Watanabe, Makoto; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagayama, Takahiro; Sato, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We have made near-infrared (JHKs) imaging polarimetry of a bright-rimmed cloud (SFO 74). The polarization vector maps clearly show that the magnetic field in the layer just behind the bright rim is running along the rim, quite different from its ambient magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field just behind the tip rim is almost perpendicular to that of the incident UV radiation, and the magnetic field configuration appears to be symmetric as a whole with respect to the cloud symmetry axis. We estimated the column and number densities in the two regions (just inside and far inside the tip rim), and then derived the magnetic field strength, applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The estimated magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim, ~90 uG, is stronger than that far inside, ~30 uG. This suggests that the magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim is enhanced by the UV radiation induced shock. The shock increases the density within the top layer around the tip, and thus increases the str...

  7. A new constraint for chondrule formation: condition for the rim formation of barred-olivine textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, H.; Yokoyama, E.; Nagashima, K.; Tsukamoto, K.; Srivastava, A.

    2011-10-01

    A barred-olivine (BO) chondrule usually has an olivine rim that covers the chondrule surface. Numerous experiments have been carried out to reproduce the BO texture. However, the rim structure could be reproduced only in a few studies reported in the literature. The difficulty in reproducing the rim structure lies in the fact that its formation condition has not been constrained experimentally or theoretically. In the present paper, we have carried out numerical simulations of crystal growth of a highly-supercooled melt droplet of pure forsteritic composition (Mg2SiO4), and succeeded in reproducing the double structure, i.e. the rim and the dendrite. The droplet cools from the surface, the temperature of which should be cooler than the center of the droplet. Since a crystal grows faster along the cooler surface than across the hotter center, the rim was found to be formed when the temperature difference between the center of the droplet and its surface is large enough. From our results, both from numerical simulations and analytical consideration, we found that the double structure of rim and the dendrite could be formed only when the cooling rate is within a narrow range, which depends upon the degree of supercooling. Our results, for the first time, could explain why the formation of rim of BO texture was hardly reproduced in the previous experiments reported in the literature to date.

  8. The Cryptococcus neoformans Rim101 transcription factor directly regulates genes required for adaptation to the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Teresa R; Xu, Wenjie; Selvig, Kyla M; O'Meara, Matthew J; Mitchell, Aaron P; Alspaugh, J Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The Rim101 protein is a conserved pH-responsive transcription factor that mediates important interactions between several fungal pathogens and the infected host. In the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, the Rim101 protein retains conserved functions to allow the microorganism to respond to changes in pH and other host stresses. This coordinated cellular response enables this fungus to effectively evade the host immune response. Preliminary studies suggest that this conserved transcription factor is uniquely regulated in C. neoformans both by the canonical pH-sensing pathway and by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Here we present comparative transcriptional data that demonstrate a strong concordance between the downstream effectors of PKA and Rim101. To define Rim101-dependent gene expression during a murine lung infection, we used nanoString profiling of lung tissue infected with a wild-type or rim101? mutant strain. In this setting, we demonstrated that Rim101 controls the expression of multiple cell wall-biosynthetic genes, likely explaining the enhanced immunogenicity of the rim101? mutant. Despite its divergent upstream regulation, the C. neoformans Rim101 protein recognizes a conserved DNA binding motif. Using these data, we identified direct targets of this transcription factor, including genes involved in cell wall regulation. Therefore, the Rim101 protein directly controls cell wall changes required for the adaptation of C. neoformans to its host environment. Moreover, we propose that integration of the cAMP/PKA and pH-sensing pathways allows C. neoformans to respond to a broad range of host-specific signals. PMID:24324006

  9. RIM, Munc13, and Rab3A interplay in acrosomal exocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Oscar D.; Zanetti, M. Natalia [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia, IHEM (CONICET-UNCuyo), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (Argentina); Laboratorio de Biologia Reproductiva, Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia, IHEM (CONICET-UNCuyo), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (Argentina); Mayorga, Luis S. [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia, IHEM (CONICET-UNCuyo), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (Argentina); Michaut, Marcela A., E-mail: mmichaut@fcm.uncu.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Biologia Reproductiva, Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia, IHEM (CONICET-UNCuyo), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (5500) (Argentina)

    2012-03-10

    Exocytosis is a highly regulated, multistage process consisting of multiple functionally definable stages, including recruitment, targeting, tethering, priming, and docking of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, followed by calcium-triggered membrane fusion. The acrosome reaction of spermatozoa is a complex, calcium-dependent regulated exocytosis. Fusion at multiple sites between the outer acrosomal membrane and the cell membrane causes the release of the acrosomal contents and the loss of the membranes surrounding the acrosome. Not much is known about the molecules that mediate membrane docking in this particular fusion model. In neurons, the formation of the ternary RIM/Munc13/Rab3A complex has been suggested as a critical component of synaptic vesicles docking. Previously, we demonstrated that Rab3A localizes to the acrosomal region in human sperm, stimulates acrosomal exocytosis, and participates in an early stage during membrane fusion. Here, we report that RIM and Munc13 are also present in human sperm and localize to the acrosomal region. Like Rab3A, RIM and Munc13 participate in a prefusion step before the efflux of intra-acrosomal calcium. By means of a functional assay using antibodies and recombinant proteins, we show that RIM, Munc13 and Rab3A interplay during acrosomal exocytosis. Finally, we report by electron transmission microscopy that sequestering RIM and Rab3A alters the docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane during calcium-activated acrosomal exocytosis. Our results suggest that the RIM/Munc13/Rab3 A complex participates in acrosomal exocytosis and that RIM and Rab3A have central roles in membrane docking. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Munc13 are present in human sperm and localize to the acrosomal region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Munc13 are necessary for acrosomal exocytosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Munc13 participate before the acrosomal calcium efflux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM, Munc13 and Rab3A interplay in human sperm acrosomal exocytosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Rab3A have critical roles in membrane docking.

  10. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 2; Effectiveness of Rim Cooling of Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenstein, Lincoln; Meyer, Gene L.; McCarthy, John S.

    1945-01-01

    An analysis of rim cooling, which cools the blade by condition alone, was conducted. Gas temperatures ranged from 1300 degrees to 1900 degrees F and rim temperatures from 0 degrees to 1000 degrees F below gas temperatures. Results show that gas temperature increases up to 200 degrees F are permissible provided that the blades are cooled by 400 degrees to 500 degrees F below the gas temperature. Relatively small amounts of blade cooling, at constant gas temperature, give large increases in blade life. Dependence of rim cooling on heat-transfer coefficient, blade dimensions, and thermal conductivity is determined by a single parameter.

  11. CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnapauff, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.schnapauff@charite.de; Marnitz, Tim, E-mail: tim.marnitz@charite.de; Freyhardt, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.freyhardt@charite.de; Collettini, Federico, E-mail: Federico.collettini@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany); Hartwig, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.hartwig@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Haematology and Oncology (Germany); Joehrens, Korinna, E-mail: korinna.joehrens@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Pathology (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.hamm@charite.de; Kroencke, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.kroencke@charite.de; Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: Bernhard.gebauer@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 {+-} 6 to 6 {+-} 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 {+-} 87 to 111 {+-} 54 mGy Multiplication-Sign cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure.

  12. CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 ± 6 to 6 ± 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 ± 87 to 111 ± 54 mGy × cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure

  13. Development and characteristics of the rim region in high burnup UO2 fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research to define the behavior of Zircaloy-clad light-water reactor fuel irradiated to high burnup levels was conducted as part of the High Burnup Effects Program. One observed microstructural change related to irradiation to high burnup levels (up to 83 MWd/kg M pellet-average) is the development of a well-defined, unique microstructural region at the fuel pellet edge (rim). This rim region is characterized by the loss of optically-definable grain structure, increased porosity, and the depletion of matrix fission gas. The rim region holds the potential for significant localized increases in the athermal release of fission gases at high burnup levels, but the contribution of the rim release to the fractional release of the total fission gas produced in the rod is small. (orig.)

  14. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...109 that, among other things, updated the listing of industry tire and rim standards in FMVSS No. 109 to match...comments received on the Internet. To read the comments...a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under...

  15. A Compact Array imaging survey of southern bright-rimmed clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; White, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out a radio-wavelength imaging survey of 45 bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs), using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to characterise the physical properties in their ionised boundary layers. We detected radio emission from a total of 25 clouds and using a combination of Digitised Sky Survey and mid-infrared MSX micron images classified the emission into that associated with the ionised cloud rims, that associated with embedded possible massive YSOs and that u...

  16. Ruthenium concentrations in geological boundary deposits and their correlation with Iridium by RIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reason the biological mass extinctions in the earth history is a great concern of geologists. A method using RIMS to determine the concentration of Ru has been developed. The Ru/Ir concentration ratios favour the impact model of extraterrestrial material on the earth to explain the dinosaur extinction at the end of the Cretaceous. This is the first data on Ru abundances in geological boundary deposits analyzed by RIMS

  17. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, John P.; Ishii, Hope A.; Gillis-davis, Jeffrey J.; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Whether water is produced by solar wind (SW) radiolysis has been debated for more than four decades. In this paper, we exploit the high spatial resolution of electron microscopy and sensitivity of valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy to detect water (liquid or vapor) in vesicles within (SW-produced) space-weathered rims on interplanetary dust particle (IDP) surfaces. Water in the rims has implications for the origin of water on airless bodies like the Moon and asteroids, the delivery of ...

  18. Metallurgical analysis of rim cracking in an lp steam turbine disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the nature of in-service cracking in LP turbine rotors encountered in a PWR nuclear power plant was performed. The investigation was based on a metallurgical evaluation of disc rim samples from one of the two rotors involved. The program included a detailed magnetic particle inspection of the rim samples, in-depth metallographic and fractographic examinations of cracked blade attachment steeples and chemical analyses of the disc material

  19. Systemic mastocytosis (SM) and associated malignant bone marrow histiocytosis - a hitherto undescribed form of SM-AHNMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzki, Zbigniew; Sotlar, Karl; Kudela, Andrzej; Starzak-Gwó?d?, Jolanta; Horny, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    An elderly woman presented with anaemia, thrombocytopenia and multifocal lytic and sclerotic bone lesions. Trephine bone marrow biopsy demonstrated widespread involvement by systemic mastocytosis (SM). The neoplastic mast cells expressed mast cell tryptase, CD117, CD25 and CD9, and were accompanied by compact sheets of atypical large histiocytic cells, expressing CD68, CD4, S-100 protein and CD14, in keeping with a concomitant histiocytosis (SM-AHNMD). Mutation analysis revealed the activating point mutation D816V of the c-kit proto-oncogene in microdissected pooled bone marrow mast cells. Partial remission was achieved using interferon alpha. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of SM-AHNMD with histiocytosis as the non-mast cell component. PMID:21866466

  20. Experimental investigation of the nebular formation of chondrule rims and the formation of chondrite parent bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Beitz, Eike; Mathieu, Romain; Pack, Andreas; Hezel, Dominik C

    2011-01-01

    We developed an experimental setup to test the hypothesis that accretionary dust rims around chondrules formed in the solar nebula at elevated temperatures. Our experimental method allows us to form dust rims around chondrule-analogs while being levitated in an inert-gas flow. We used micrometer-sized powdered San Carlos olivine to accrete individual dust particles onto the chondrule-analog at a temperature of 1100{\\deg}C. The resulting dust-rims were analyzed by means of two different techniques: one sample was investigated with non-destructive micro computer tomography, the other with a scanning electron microscope. Both methods give very similar results for the dust-rim structure and a mean dust-rim porosity of 60 percent, demonstrating that both methods are equally well suited for sample analysis. The chondrule-analog's bulk composition has no measurable effect on the accretion efficiency of the dust. We measured the chemical composition of chondrule-analog and dust-rim to check whether elemental exchange...

  1. Magnetic-Field Amplification in the Thin X-ray Rims of SN1006

    CERN Document Server

    Ressler, Sean M; Reynolds, Stephen P; Long, Knox S; Petre, Robert; Williams, Brian J; Winkler, P Frank

    2014-01-01

    Several young supernova remnants (SNRs), including SN1006, emit synchrotron X-rays in narrow filaments, hereafter thin rims, along their periphery. The widths of these rims imply 50 to $100 \\mu$G fields in the region immediately behind the shock, far larger than expected for the interstellar medium compressed by unmodified shocks, assuming electron radiative losses limit rim widths. However, magnetic-field damping could also produce thin rims. Here we review the literature on rim width calculations, summarizing the case for magnetic-field amplification. We extend these calculations to include an arbitrary power-law dependence of the diffusion coefficient on energy, $D \\propto E^{\\mu}$. Loss-limited rim widths should shrink with increasing photon energy, while magnetic-damping models predict widths almost independent of photon energy. We use these results to analyze Chandra observations of SN 1006, in particular the southwest limb. We parameterize the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) in terms of energy as FW...

  2. Magnetic Field Amplification in the Thin X-Ray Rims of SN 1006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Sean M.; Katsuda, Satoru; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Long, Knox S.; Petre, Robert; Williams, Brian J.; Winkler, P. Frank

    2014-08-01

    Several young supernova remnants, including SN 1006, emit synchrotron X-rays in narrow filaments, hereafter thin rims, along their periphery. The widths of these rims imply 50-100 ?G fields in the region immediately behind the shock, far larger than expected for the interstellar medium compressed by unmodified shocks, assuming electron radiative losses limit rim widths. However, magnetic field damping could also produce thin rims. Here we review the literature on rim width calculations, summarizing the case for magnetic field amplification. We extend these calculations to include an arbitrary power-law dependence of the diffusion coefficient on energy, DvpropE ?. Loss-limited rim widths should shrink with increasing photon energy, while magnetic-damping models predict widths almost independent of photon energy. We use these results to analyze Chandra observations of SN 1006, in particular the southwest limb. We parameterize the FWHM in terms of energy as FWHM \\propto E^{m_E}_{\\gamma }. Filament widths in SN 1006 decrease with energy; mE ~ -0.3 to -0.8, implying magnetic field amplification by factors of 10-50, above the factor of four expected in strong unmodified shocks. For SN 1006, the rapid shrinkage rules out magnetic damping models. It also favors short mean free paths (small diffusion coefficients) and strong dependence of D on energy (? >= 1).

  3. PET/MR imaging of bone lesions - implications for PET quantification from imperfect attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate attenuation correction (AC) is essential for quantitative analysis of PET tracer distribution. In MR, the lack of cortical bone signal makes bone segmentation difficult and may require implementation of special sequences. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for accurate bone segmentation in MR-based AC for whole-body PET/MR imaging. In 22 patients undergoing sequential PET/CT and 3-T MR imaging, modified CT AC maps were produced by replacing pixels with values of >100 HU, representing mostly bone structures, by pixels with a constant value of 36 HU corresponding to soft tissue, thereby simulating current MR-derived AC maps. A total of 141 FDG-positive osseous lesions and 50 soft-tissue lesions adjacent to bones were evaluated. The mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) was measured in each lesion in PET images reconstructed once using the standard AC maps and once using the modified AC maps. Subsequently, the errors in lesion tracer uptake for the modified PET images were calculated using the standard PET image as a reference. Substitution of bone by soft tissue values in AC maps resulted in an underestimation of tracer uptake in osseous and soft tissue lesions adjacent to bones of 11.2 ± 5.4 % (range 1.5-30.8 %) and 3.2 ± 1.7 % (range 0.2-4 %), respectively. Analysis of the spine and pelvic osseous lesions revealed a substantial dependence of the error on lesion composition. For predominantly sclerotic spine lesions, the mean underestimatiic spine lesions, the mean underestimation was 15.9 ± 3.4 % (range 9.9-23.5 %) and for osteolytic spine lesions, 7.2 ± 1.7 % (range 4.9-9.3 %), respectively. CT data simulating treating bone as soft tissue as is currently done in MR maps for PET AC leads to a substantial underestimation of tracer uptake in bone lesions and depends on lesion composition, the largest error being seen in sclerotic lesions. Therefore, depiction of cortical bone and other calcified areas in MR AC maps is necessary for accurate quantification of tracer uptake values in PET/MR imaging. (orig.)

  4. 99mTc MDP bone scan in evaluation of painful scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 18-year-old male presented with low back ache. The patient was investigated and was diagnosed to have painful scoliosis. X-ray and other examinations could not reveal any diagnosis. The patient was referred to undergo bone scan on clinical suspicion of osteoid osteoma and to rule out stress fracture if any. Planar bone scan was performed, which showed a lesion in L3 vertebra and was further evaluated with SPECT (Single photon emission computed tomography) study to characterize the lesion. On SPECT examination, the classical features of osteoid osteoma, the double density sign (11), was noted in the pars interarticularis region. These findings were confirmed by a CT scan, which showed a sclerotic lesion in pars interarticularis of L3 vertebra. The patient was posted for operation and was relieved of symptoms in the postoperative follow-up. (author)

  5. A simplified procedure for preparation of undecalcified human bone sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, J A; Tkocz, I

    1985-01-01

    A new type of apparatus for sectioning samples of hard, undecalcified bone is described. Slices of fresh or archeological human bone 4-5 mm thick are dehydrated and then embedded in epoxy resin. The apparatus used to prepare sections from the resulting blocks consists of a low-speed rim-type diamond cut-off wheel and a slowly advancing table carrying the specimen held in a rotating mount. Sections may be cut at a thickness of 80 micron +/- 1%. After cleaning in an ultrasonic bath, these can be mounted on slides for quantitative microscopic examination with transmitted light. Grinding and polishing are not necessary. The results obtained are illustrated.

  6. Outline of norbornene resin-application to RIM (reaction injection molding); Shinki noborunen jushi no tokusei to RIM seikei eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M. [Nippon Zeon Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    The reaction injection molding (RIM) is the molding system that two kinds of monomers each of which is low viscous and high reactive liquid are mixed and then immediately injected into a mold. Though the RIM has been developed already for urethane, urea resin, nylon, epoxy resin and polyester, this writer explained about the RIM for norbornene resin which has been developed and produced by the firm to which he belongs. Norbornene monomers are cyclopentadiene (CPD) which can be obtained by cracking of naphtha and its dimer, dicyclopentadiene (DCP), and these are possible to form bridging polymer by the ring-opening polymerization with the help of catalyst (WCl6) and its activator (Et2AlCl). The TIM system which is the leading injection molding for thermoplastic resin being suitable for mass production, and on the other hand, the HLU (hand-lay up) system which developed as molding system for large-sized mold goods being handwork-centered system, it can be said that the RIM system is situated in the middle position among these systems from the viewpoint of productivity. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Intraosseous Ganglion Cyst of the Lunate

    OpenAIRE

    Nazerani, Shahram; Ebrahimpour, Adel; Najafi, Arvin; Shams Koushki, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Intraosseous ganglia can affect the carpal bones of the hand and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of wrist pain. A 38-year-old female presented with a 14-month history of left wrist pain and a radiolucent cystic lesion was seen computed tomography (CT) scanning. Characteristic radiographic findings of a cyst in association with a fine sclerotic rim was apparent. We report an unusual presentation of a ganglion cyst in the lunate bone with excellent treatment outcome.

  8. Bone densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kwang J

    2011-05-01

    Conventional radiographic methods allow physicians to visualize bone structure. However, they do not offer information on the bone mineral density (BMD), which can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Bone densitometry, by contrast, helps to detect bone mineral loss at an early stage because it provides accurate quantitative measurement of BMD. With an emphasis on quantification, shorter scanning time and precision, scientists have been developing BMD measurement devices that use absorption technique. They first developed single-energy absorptiometry (single-photon absorptiometry) by using I-125, which could measure BMD of peripheral bones. Single-photon absorptiometry was replaced by dual-energy absorptiometry (dual photon absorptiometry [DPA]) that used gadolinium-153. DPA had greater accuracy in measuring the BMD of central skeletal bones. Single-energy x-ray absorptiometry was also developed but it had limitations in measuring central skeletal BMD. In the mid-1980s, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was introduced and widely accepted for the early detection, treatment, and follow-up study of osteoporosis. There are several reasons for the popularity. DXA can measure BMD of posteroanterior spine and hip in a much shorter time than DPA while being capable of measuring BMD of peripheral bones. Other advantages include very low radiation doses to the patients, high image resolution, precision, and stable calibration of the instruments. In recent years, DXA has also been applied to lateral spine for the density of trabecular bone, to the whole body for the measurement of total body bone density and for the body composition, and to the spine for the vertebral fracture assessment. Still, posteroanterior spine and hip scans remain the most common applications of DXA because data on the normal range of BMD of the skeletal sites for different age, sex, and ethnic groups are compiled and made available with the devices, which gives the physician the advantage of an immediate diagnosis. PMID:21440697

  9. [Computed tomography of the temporal bone in diagnosis of otitis media chronica purulenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikovich, E I

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone has been used to study thirty-eight 5-72-year-old patients with otitis media chronica purulenta (OMCP), in 14 of them the process was bilateral. A scheme of CT assessment of the temporal bone is proposed. The analysis of 52 CTs of the temporal bone with consideration of otoscopic and operative findings helped to distinguish CT signs of non-cholesteatomic OMCP. These signs include sclerotic alterations of the bone tissue of the mastoid process (82.7%), defective pneumaticity of the middle ear cavities (tympanic cavity - 80.7%) due to pathological substrate, destructive changes of the auditory bones (50%), carious alterations of the walls of the middle ear cavities (21%). The study of the temporal bone by the proposed scheme detected such anomalies and structural features as presentation of the sigmoid sinus (36.5%), elevation of the bulb of the jugular vein (3.8%), diverticulum of the jugular vein (3.8%), low fundus of the middle cranial fossa (7.7%). PMID:15496836

  10. Bone Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into fossil hunting and identification. Groups of learners will sift through a commercially prepared owl pellet, looking for bone pieces that they will attempt to match to an identification chart and subsequently arrange into a rough skeleton. Learners use this exercise to consider how animal skeletons help researchers determine what kinds of animals live together in an ecosystem as well compare the bones they find to the bones in their own body. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Dinosaurs.

  11. Bone Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even repeatedly, a er appropriate treatment. Malignant Tumors Limb Salvage Surgery This surgery removes the cancerous section of bone ... This allows better function and durability a er limb salvage surgery. Advancements in the development of prosthetic limbs include ...

  12. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be affected by use of the drug warfarin (Coumadin®). ^ Back to top When is it ordered? ... Osteoporosis Foundation RadiologyInfo.org: Bone density scan Mayo Clinic: Osteomalacia WomensHealth.gov: Osteoporosis Fact Sheet Cleveland Clinic: ...

  13. Modelling of Rim-layer features in frames of START-3 code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Rim-effect' is a conventional term implying a number of microstructure and thermal physical phenomena, oriented from the periphery of a highly irradiated LWR fuel pellet, also called 'rim layer', 'rim', 'high burnup structure' (HBS) etc. One of the rim-effect consequences, important for fuel reliability, is evident intensification of fission gas release (FGR) and increase of rod internal pressure after certain threshold of fuel burnup. Results from post irradiation examinations (PIE) of WWER fuel demonstrate this tendency in a range of rod average burnup from 42-45 MWd/kgU to 60-65 Mwd/kgU. A recently developed dynamic model of FGR behavior based on analysis of a number of interrelated microstructure processes, differing by their rates and magnitudes and depending on external operational conditions, is briefly described in this paper. A verification of the model is performed using experimental data on matrix xenon EPMA and on fuel porosity. The verified model is integrated in the START-3 code and full-scale calculations of FGR are performed with the code. The developed model has demonstrated a good prediction for some important parameter of rim microstructure and for values of integral fission gas release in highly irradiated WWER fuel rods

  14. Hypoechoic rim of chronically inflamed prostate, as seen at TRUS: histopathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to correlate the findings of peripheral hypoechoic rim, seen at transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in chronic prostatitis patients, with the histopthologic findings. Seven patients with pathologically proven chronic prostatitis were involved in this study. The conspicuity of the peripheral hypoechoic prostatic rim, seen at TRUS, was prominent and subtle, and to determine its histopathologic nature, the microscopic findings were reviewed. In five of seven cases (71%), TRUS demonstrated a prominent peripheral hypoechoic rim. Microscopic examination revealed that inflammatory cell infiltration of prostatic glandular tissue was severe in three cases (42.9%), moderate in two (28.6%), and minimal in two (28.6%). In all seven cases, the common histopathologic findings of peripheral hypoechoic rim on TRUS were loose stromal tissues, few prostatic glands, and sparse infiltration by inflammatory cells. The peripheral hypoechoic rim accompanying prostatic inflammation and revealed by TRUS reflects a sparsity of prostate glandular tissue and is thought to be an area in which inflammatory cell infiltration is minimal

  15. Hypoechoic rim of chronically inflamed prostate, as seen at TRUS: histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Ghee Young; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Chang Gyu [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to correlate the findings of peripheral hypoechoic rim, seen at transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in chronic prostatitis patients, with the histopthologic findings. Seven patients with pathologically proven chronic prostatitis were involved in this study. The conspicuity of the peripheral hypoechoic prostatic rim, seen at TRUS, was prominent and subtle, and to determine its histopathologic nature, the microscopic findings were reviewed. In five of seven cases (71%), TRUS demonstrated a prominent peripheral hypoechoic rim. Microscopic examination revealed that inflammatory cell infiltration of prostatic glandular tissue was severe in three cases (42.9%), moderate in two (28.6%), and minimal in two (28.6%). In all seven cases, the common histopathologic findings of peripheral hypoechoic rim on TRUS were loose stromal tissues, few prostatic glands, and sparse infiltration by inflammatory cells. The peripheral hypoechoic rim accompanying prostatic inflammation and revealed by TRUS reflects a sparsity of prostate glandular tissue and is thought to be an area in which inflammatory cell infiltration is minimal.

  16. Study on thd relationship between serum fibrosis markers levels, bone marrow scintigraphy patterns and clinical staging in patients with chronic ldiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of serum fibrosis markers levels and the pattern of bone marrow scintigraphy and their relationship with clinical stages in patients with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF). Methods: Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) (with ELISA), serum typeIII procollagen (PCIII), type IV collagen (C-IV), and laminin (LN) (with RIA) were detected in 46 with patients with chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis and 34 controls. Bone marrow scintigraphy 99m Tc-sulfur colloid was performed in the 46 CIMF patients. Results: Five fibrosis markers in patients with CIMF were significantly higher than those in controls. There were significantly differences among the levels in different stages, especially with sclerotic stage in CIMF patients. The imaging patterns were classified into three types according to the radio-distribution and activity of bone marrow: 13 cases of increased imaging in 14 patients of cellular stage, 17 cases with creased expansion imaging in 19 patients of collagen fiber stage and 13 cases (100%) with totally depressed imaging in patients of sclerotic stage. Conclusion: As the disease progressed, the serum fibrosis markers levels gradually incroased and the scintigraphy patterns corresponded well to the clinical staging. (authors)

  17. Space Plasma Ion Processing of the Lunar Soil: Modeling of Radiation-Damaged Rim Widths on Lunar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, S.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L.

    2007-01-01

    Chemically and microstructurally complex altered rims around grains in the finest size fraction (Amorphized (RA) host grain from overlying amorphous material that represents vapor/sputter deposits. For the portion of rims formed by host grain amorphization (henceforth called RA rims), we have been investigating the feasibility of using Monte Carlo-type ion-atom collision models, combined with experimental ion irradiation data, to derive predictive numerical models linking the width of RA rims to the grain s integrated solar ion radiation exposure time.

  18. Oxygen potential in the rim region of high burnup UO 2 fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Hj.

    1994-01-01

    Small specimens from the rim region (FIMA were analysed in a miniaturized galvanic cell to determine their oxygen potential ? ?(O 2) . These fuel pieces represented the porous rim structure with very small grains known to be formed near the periphery of high burnup UO 2 fuel pellets. The oxygen potential of the rim material was very low, corresponding to that of unirradiated stoichiometric UO 2, or to that of slightly substoichiometric UO 2 containing rare earth fission products. No indication of oxidation due to fission was found, though most fission was that of Pu. Measurements on pieces from the inner, unrestructured fuel showed somewhat higher oxygen potentials corresponding to those of very slightly substoichiometric fuel if allowance is made for the incorporation of rare earths. These results are in contrast to some generally accepted ideas of burnup effects, and the possible reasons and implications are discussed.

  19. Cracking of an Aircraft Wheel Rim Made From Al-Alloy 2014-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kosec

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally failures of different aircraft components and parts are revealed and examined by the use of non-destructive examination methods. In further detailed explanation and interpretation of failures optical and scanning electron microscopy are used. This paper deals with a problem of a crack on aircraft wheel rim made from aluminium alloy 2014-T6.The crack was observed during regular control by the maintenance unit for non-destructive examination of the Slovenian air carrier Adria Airways. The crack on the rim of an aircraft wheel investigated was a typical fatigue crack. At same time a numerous pits were found which served as stress concentrations on the rim surface.

  20. Three-dimensional microstructural analysis of human lumber vertebrae using microcomputed tomography in bone metastasis from prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, inducing osteosclerotic lesions. However, the morphological details of bone metastasis of prostate cancer have not been clarified. The trabecular bone structure of bone metastasis from prostate cancer was investigated in three dimensions using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). A total of 17 cubes of the lumber spine of a 77-year-old man with prostate cancer were excised post mortem: four of them from non-metastatic and the rest from metastatic sites. The samples were measured using micro-CT with a resolution of 23.2 ?m and the standard structural indices and degree of anisotropy were computed. After micro-CT measurement, the samples were tested in a destructive manner for the assessment of mechanical properties. Samples from the metastatic sites showed significantly higher values than those from non-metastatic sites for bone volume (BV), bone surface (BS), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular number (Tb.N) (p<0.005). Bone surface density (BS/BV) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were significantly higher in the samples from non-metastatic sites (p<0.001). Samples from metastatic sites showed a more isotropic arrangement of trabecular bone than those from non-metastatic sites. Three-dimensionally reconstructed images depicted several different patterns of sclerotic bone metastasis, and osteolytic appearance was observed in all of them. Structural parameters such as BV/TV were weluctural parameters such as BV/TV were well correlated with the mechanical properties (r=0.899). The present study clarified the trabecular microstructure of bone metastasis from prostate cancer and suggests that both osteolysis and osteogenesis progress while interacting with each other in all phases of bone metastasis. (author)

  1. Bone densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an x-ray bone densitometer, special calibration techniques are employed to accommodate variations. In one aspect, a bone-like calibration material is interposed and the system determines the calibration data from rays passing only through flesh. In another aspect, a rotating device carries the calibration material through the beam. The specific densitometer shown uses an x-ray tube operated at two different voltages to generate a pencil beam, the energy levels of the x-ray photons being a function of the voltage applied. An integrating detector is timed to integrate the detected signal of the patient-attenuated beam over each pulse, the signals are converted to digital values and a digital computer converts the set of values produced by the raster scan into a representation of the bone density of the patient. Multiple reference detectors with differing absorbers are used by the system to continuously correct for variation in voltage and current of the x-ray tube. Calibration is accomplished by the digital computer on the basis of passing the pencil beam through known bone-representing substance as the densitometer scans portions of the patient having bone and adjacent portions having only flesh. A set of detected signals affected by the calibration substance in regions having only flesh is compared by the computer with a set of detected signals unaffected by the calibration material

  2. Optimisation of flash welding parameters for wheel rim manufacture using continuously cast steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, N.K.; Srinivasan, P.B. [Regional Engineering Coll., Tiruchirappali (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2002-04-01

    Continuously cast steels are nowadays commonly employed for the manufacture of wheel rims, and the flash welding process is generally employed for that purpose. The current work addresses the flash welding of a continuously cast material (carbon steel with carbon segregation in it), in the wheel rim manufacturing process route, with emphasis on the control of process parameters on the quality of weld joints. It has been established in this research work that the controlled post weld heat cycles, during the flash welding process, improve the quality of joints and also eliminate or at least drastically decrease the failure susceptibility of such flash welded joints during subsequent manufacturing operations. (orig.)

  3. RIM as the data base management system for a material properties data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, P. H.; Wilson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Relational Information Management (RIM) was selected as the data base management system for a prototype engineering materials data base. The data base provides a central repository for engineering material properties data, which facilitates their control. Numerous RIM capabilities are exploited to satisfy prototype data base requirements. Numerical, text, tabular, and graphical data and references are being stored for five material types. Data retrieval will be accomplished both interactively and through a FORTRAN interface. The experience gained in creating and exercising the prototype will be used in specifying requirements for a production system.

  4. Spinal metastatic lesion in cancer patients. Investigation based on statistical analysis by bone scintigrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of 2,216 cancer patients undergoing bone scintigraphy after diagnosis of the primary malignant tumor, 558 (25.2%) were found to have abnormal vertebral accumulation of radioactivity during the clinical course. Abnormal radioactivity in the vertebrae was frequently noted in patients with prostatic and renal cancer. The lumbar vertebrae were the most frequent sites but the cervical vertebrae were also affected with prostatic cancer, the thoracic vertebrae with lung and prostatic cancer, the lumbar vertebrae with breast and prostatic cancer and the sacral vertebrae with uterine cervical and prostatic cancer. Of the 558 patients with abnormal spinal radioactivity, 221 were examined by CT scan; the accumulated radioactivity was identified as a metastatic lesion in 170 patients (76.9%). Abnormal radioactivity was identified as a metastatic lesion most often in lung cancer patients. The CT-diagnosed metastases were classified into 3 types: sclerotic (51 patients, 30.0%), osteolytic (112, 65.9%), and mixed (46, 27.1%). The sclerotic type was relatively frequent in uterine cervical cancer, less frequent in lung cancer, and not seen in head and neck or renal cancer patients. The osteolytic type was relatively frequent in lung and renal cancer and less frequent in uterine cervical and prostatic cancer patients. Of the patients with CT-diagnosed vertebral metastasis, 87.3% survived for 3 months and 66.2% for 6 months after the detection of abnormal bone scintigraphy. detection of abnormal bone scintigraphy. Survival was shorter in patients with lung or gastrointestinal cancer than in those with other types of tumors. Since the pathology of vertebral metastasis of malignant tumors differs according to the primary lesion, the metastatic nature must be considered in the choice of treatment. (author)

  5. Crystal structure of the RIM2 C2A-domain at 1.4 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Han; Tomchick, Diana R; García, Jesús; Südhof, Thomas C; Machius, Mischa; Rizo, Josep

    2005-10-18

    RIMs are large proteins that contain two C2-domains and are localized at presynaptic active zones, where neurotransmitters are released. RIMs play key roles in synaptic vesicle priming and regulation of presynaptic plasticity. A mutation in the RIM1 C2A-domain has been implicated in autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy (CORD7). The RIM C2A-domain does not contain the full complement of aspartate residues that commonly mediate Ca2+ binding at the top loops of C2-domains, and has been reported to interact with SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin 1, two proteins from the Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion machinery. Here we have used NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography to analyze the structure and biochemical properties of the RIM2 C2A-domain, which is closely related to the RIM1 C2A-domain. We find that the RIM2 C2A-domain does not bind Ca2+. Moreover, little binding of the RIM2 C2A-domain to SNAP-25 and to the C2-domains of synaptotagmin 1 was detected by NMR experiments, suggesting that as yet unidentified interactions of the RIM C2A-domain mediate its function. The crystal structure of the RIM2 C2A-domain using data to 1.4 A resolution reveals a beta-sandwich that resembles those observed for other C2-domains, but exhibits a unique dipolar distribution of electrostatic charges whereby one edge of the beta-sandwich is highly positive and the other edge is highly negative. The location of the mutation site implicated in CORD7 at the bottom of the domain and the pattern of sequence conservation suggest that, in contrast to most C2-domains, the RIM C2A-domains may function through Ca2+-independent interactions involving their bottom face. PMID:16216076

  6. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  7. Bone Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Exploratorium

    2011-12-07

    In this optics activity, learners examine how polarized light can reveal stress patterns in clear plastic. Learners place a fork between two pieces of polarizing material and induce stress by squeezing the tines together. Learners will observe the colored stress pattern in the image of the plastic that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector. Learners rotate one of the polarizing filters to explore which orientations give the most dramatic color effects. This activity can be related to bones, as bones develop stress patterns from the loads imposed upon them every day.

  8. 49 CFR 571.120 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...WITH 7.50-20(D) TIRES, 20×6.00 RIMS, AT 450 KPA (65 PSI) COLD DUAL GVWR: 13,280 KG...WITH 10.00-20(F) TIRES, 20×2.70 RIMS, AT 550 KPA (80 PSI) COLD DUAL S5.3.3 The non-pneumatic tire identification...

  9. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John P.; Ishii, Hope A.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ?1-keV H+ ions, produces amorphous rims up to ?150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H+ may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (?OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If ?OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system. PMID:24449869

  10. Observation of a high burnup rim-type structure in an advanced plutonium uranium carbide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, I. L. F.; Matzke, Hj

    1997-12-01

    The observation is reported of a `rim-type' structure with small subgrains in an advanced plutonium-uranium carbide (U 0.8Pu 0.2)C fuel pin, which had been irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor to a burnup of 8.3% FIMA.

  11. Study on High Sensitive FFDL Technique for Monju and next generation SFR Using RIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high sensitive Failed Fuel Detection and Location technique for fast reactors has been developed using RIMS. Major achievements: - Tag gas (krypton and Xenon) was successfully identified with no concentration process in Joyo. - Burn-up of the failed fuel subassembly can be assumed. - Prototype FFDL system for Monju was proposed. ? Further enhancement of fast reactor safety

  12. RIMS/sup tm/ - radiological information management system: software package EI-029-S86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIMS/sup tm/ has been developed for health physics record keeping and reporting. It provides for the management needs relating to radiological information control at a nuclear facility. The program is comprised of the following modules: Personnel Radiological Information, Radiological Work Permit, Radiation Survey Records, Access Control, ALARA Reporting, and Respirator and Survey Instrument Inventory Modules

  13. TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE OF RED-RIMMED MELANIA MELANOIDES TUBERCUATA, (GASTROPODA: PROSOBRANCHIA: THIARIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata is an exotic aquatic snail of the family Thiaridae that is spreading across the southern United States and in geothermal waters in several midwestern and northwestern states. In addition to its potential to displace native mollusks it is known to harbor...

  14. Constraints on the height of the inner disk rim in pre-main-sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vinkovi?, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    The structure of inner region of protoplanetary disks around young pre-main-sequence stars is still poorly understood. This part of the disk is shaped by various forces influencing dust and gas dynamics and by dust sublimation, which creates abrupt drops in the dust density. This region also emits a strong near-infrared excess that cannot be explained by classical accretion disk models, which suggests the existence of some unusual dust distribution or disk shape. The most prevalent explanation to date is the puffed-up inner disk rim model, where the disk exhibits an optically thin cavity around the star up to the distance of dust sublimation. The critical parameter in this model is the inner disk rim height $z_{\\rm max}$ relative to the rim's distance from the star $R_{\\rm in}$. Observations often require $z_{\\rm max}/R_{\\rm in}\\gtrsim0.2$ to reproduce the near-infrared excess in the spectra. In this paper we put together a comprehensive list of processes that can shape the inner disk rim and combined them to...

  15. Stress-shielding induced bone remodeling in cementless shoulder resurfacing arthroplasty: a finite element analysis and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidutz, F; Agarwal, Y; Müller, P E; Gueorguiev, B; Richards, R G; Sprecher, C M

    2014-11-01

    Cementless surface replacement arthroplasty (CSRA) of the shoulder was designed to preserve the individual anatomy and humeral bone stock. A matter of concern in resurfacing implants remains the stress shielding and bone remodeling processes. The bone remodeling processes of two different CSRA fixation designs, conical-crown (Epoca RH) and central-stem (Copeland), were studied by three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA) as well as evaluation of contact radiographs from human CSRA retrievals. FEA included one native humerus model with a normal and one with a reduced bone stock quality. Compressive strains were evaluated before and after virtual CSRA implantation and the results were then compared to the bone remodeling and stress-shielding pattern of eight human CSRA retrievals (Epoca RH n=4 and Copeland n=4). FEA revealed for both bone stock models increased compressive strains at the stem and outer implant rim for both CSRA designs indicating an increased bone formation at those locations. Unloading of the bone was seen for both designs under the central implant shell (conical-crown 50-85%, central-stem 31-93%) indicating high bone resorption. Those effects appeared more pronounced for the reduced than for the normal bone stock model. The assumptions of the FEA were confirmed in the CSRA retrieval analysis which showed bone apposition at the outer implant rim and stems with highly reduced bone stock below the central implant shell. Overall, clear signs of stress shielding were observed for both CSRAs designs in the in vitro FEA and human retrieval analysis. Especially in the central part of both implant designs the bone stock was highly resorbed. The impact of these bone remodeling processes on the clinical outcome as well as long-term stability requires further evaluation. PMID:25278045

  16. Calculation of ejecta thickness and structural uplift for Lunar and Martian complex crater rims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Tim; Sturm, Sebastian; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Crater rims of simple and complex craters have an elevation that is formed during the excavation stage of crater formation. For simple crater rims it is believed that the elevation is due to the sum of two equal parts, the thickness of the most proximal impact ejecta blanket (overturned flap) plus the thickness that results from plastic deformation including injection [1, 2, 3]. We intend to measure and quantify the kinematics of mass movements, especially concerning the question why complex impact craters have elevated crater rims like simple craters and precisely constrain the ejecta thickness and structural uplift of Lunar and Martian crater rims to understand what the main contributor to the elevated rim is [4]. We investigated a pristine 16 km-diameter unnamed Martian complex crater (21.52°N, 184.35°) and the lunar complex craters Bessel (21.8°N, 17.9°E) 16 km in diameter and Euler (23.3°N, 29.2°W) 28 km in diameter [5, 6]. In the crater walls of these craters we found columnar lavas on Mars and basaltic layering on the Moon. We used the uppermost layers of these exposed outcrops along the crater wall to determine the dip of the target rocks (Mars) and to distinguish between the bedrock and the overlying ejecta. We precisely measured the structural uplift and ejecta thickness of these complex craters. The unnamed crater on Mars has a mean rim height of 375.75 m, with a structural uplift of 233.88 m (57.44%), exposed as columnar lavas and the superposing ejecta has a height of 141.87 m (43.56%). For the Lunar complex crater Euler the mean total rim height is 790 ± 100 m, with a minimal structural uplift of 475 ± 100 m (60 ± 10 %), exposed as basaltic layers [e.g., 7, 8] and a maximum ejecta thickness of 315 ± 100 m (40 ± 10%). The Lunar complex crater Bessel has a total rim height of 430 ± 15 m , with a minimal structural uplift of 290 ± 15 m (67 ± 3 %), exposed as basaltic layers and a maximum ejecta thickness of 140 ± 115 m (33 ± 3%). For the Martian crater, the calculated structural uplift has a value of 215.83 m [9]. For Euler and Bessel crater calculated values for the structural uplift are 310.76 m and 262.8 m, respectively [10]. The structural uplift of the crater rim only by dike injection and plastic deformation in the underlying target material seems unlikely at distances ~1 km beyond the transient crater cavity. Other mechanisms, like reverse faulting, beginning in the excavation stage of crater formation, could be responsible for additional structural uplift of the crater rim. Nevertheless, our results show that structural uplift is a more dominant effect than ejecta emplacement for complex impact craters. References: [1] Melosh H.J. (1989) Oxford monographs on geology and geophysics, 11, Impact cratering: a geologic process. [2] Poelchau M.H. et al. (2009) JGR, 114, E01006. [3] Shoemaker E. M. (1963) The Solar System, 4, 301-336. [4] Settle M., and Head J.W. (1977) Icarus, v. 31, p. 123. [5] Sturm, S. et al. (2014) LPSC 45, #1801. [6] Krüger T. et al. (2014) LPSC 45, #1834. [7] Hiesinger H. et al. (2002) GRL, 29. [8] Enns A.C. (2013) LPSC XLIV, #2751. [9] Steward S. T. and Valiant G. J. (2006) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 41, 1509-1537. [10] Pike R. J. (1974) EPSL, 23, 265-274. [11]Turtle, E. et al. (2005) GSA-SP. 384, 1.

  17. The kinetics of dolomite reaction rim growth under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. G.; Abart, R.; Dresen, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    During burial and exhumation, rocks are simultaneously exposed to metamorphic reactions and tectonic stresses. Therefore, the reaction rate of newly formed minerals may depend on chemical and mechanical driving forces. Here, we investigate the reaction kinetics of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) rim growth by solid-state reactions experiments on oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions. Cylindrical samples of 3-5 mm length and 7 mm diameter were drilled and polished perpendicular to the rhombohedral cleavage planes of natural clear crystals. The tests were performed using a Paterson-type deformation apparatus at P = 400 MPa confining pressure, temperatures, T, between 750 and 850°C, and reaction durations, t, of 2 - 146 h to calculate the kinetic parameters of dolomite rim growth under isostatic stress conditions. For non-isostatic reaction experiments we applied in addition differential stresses, ?, up to 40 MPa perpendicular to the contact interface at T = 750°C for 4 - 171 h duration, initiating minor inelastic deformation of calcite. The thickness of the resulting dolomite reaction rims increases linearly with the square root of time, indicating a diffusion-controlled reaction. The rims consist of two different textural domains. Granular dolomite grains (? 2 -5 ?m grain size) form next to calcite and elongated palisade-shaped grains (1-6 ?m diameter) grow perpendicular to the magnesite interface. Texture measurements with the electron backscatter diffraction technique indicate that the orientations of dolomite grains are mainly influenced by the orientation of the calcite educt crystal, in particular in the granular rim. To some extent, the texture of dolomite palisades is also influenced by the orientation of magnesite. The thickness of the two individual layers increases with temperature. At 400 MPa isostatic pressure, T = 750°C and t = 29 hours, a 5 ?m thick granular dolomite layer and a 7 ?m thick palisade-shaped layer evolve. At similar conditions and a differential stress of 30 MPa, the rim thickness remains similar; consequently the effect of non-isostatic stress on dolomite rim growth is negligible. Platinum markers show that the initial calcite-magnesite interface is located between granular and palisade-forming dolomite, indicating that rim growth occurs by counter diffusion of MgO and CaO. Diffusion of MgO across the dolomite reaction rim into calcite forms additionally magnesio-calcite grains with diameters of ? 13 - 46 ?m, depending on the experimental conditions and increasing with increasing distance to the dolomite boundary. At T = 750°C, t = 29 hours, the thickness of the magnesio-calcite layer is 32 ?m (isostatic) - 35 ?m (? = 30 MPa). The experiments indicate that solid-state reaction rim growth of dolomite between calcite and magnesite is primarily controlled by diffusion of MgO and CaO, forming layers with different microstructures during growth into the educt phases. The kinetics of the reaction in the carbonate system are not significantly changed by differential stresses up to 40 MPa. We suggest that volume diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, which is presumably less affected by non-isostatic stresses than grain boundary diffusion.

  18. Iron-Manganese Redox Reactions in Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Peretyazhko, T.; Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farrand, W. H.; Grant, J. A., III; Jolliff, B. L.; Parker, T. J.; Schroder, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Noachian age rocks and outcrops on the rim of the 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since August 2011. The Cape York area is a low-lying rim of Endeavour that contains 3 distinct lithologies: 1) the stratigraphically lowest Matijevic fm of pre-impact lithology, 2) Shoemaker fm of impact breccias, and 3) the stratigraphically highest rim lithology Grasberg fm of post-impact sediments that drape the lower slopes of the rim. The sulfate-rich sediment of the Burns fm lies unconformably over the Grasberg fm. Ca-sulfate veins were discovered in Grasberg fm sediments; the sulfates precipitated from aqueous fluids flowing upward through these materials. Opportunity investigated the chemistry and morphology of outcrops in the Matijevic fm that have Fe(sup 3+)-rich smectite detected by orbital signatures returned by CRISM on MRO. Matijevic fm also contains "boxwork" fractures with chemistry consistent with an Al-rich smectite and veins that appear to be rich in Ca-sulfate. More recently on Cape Tribulation, Opportunity has characterized two S-, Mg- and Mn-rich rich rocks overturned and fractured by the rover's wheels on Cook Haven. Those rocks have been dubbed "Pinnacle Island" and "Stuart Island" and will be referred to as the "Island" rocks. The objectives of this study are to characterize the Fe and Mn contents in the Cape York materials, including the two Island rocks, and to provide a model for Mn mobilization and precipitation. Detailed geochemistry of Endeavour rim rocks is presented in a companion paper. Geochemical trends and elemental associations were obtained from data returned by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on Opportunity.

  19. Recent studies on the formation of the rim structure and on polygonization in LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At cross sectional burnups in excess of - 40 MWd/kgUO2, a grain subdivision process occurs at the outer rim of LWR UO2 fuel. A similar phenomenon can be observed in the Pu-rich inclusions in MOX fuel. Three phenomena are usually observed in the resulting 'Rim zone': formation of small grains of sub?m size, formation of pores of about ?m size, and reduction of the signal of fission Xe in EPMA measurements. The mechanisms for rim-structure formation are still not fully understood, and it is not completely obvious, whether the above three processes occur simultaneously or one after the other in sequential steps. Also, two different types of small grains have recently been found at CEA in France.The present state of knowledge on rim structure formation in LWR fuel is reviewed, as well as recent progress in observing and understanding the formation of nanocrystals and of polygonization in other ceramics. Controlled ion irradiation techniques, including fission product ions at fission energy (e.g. 72 MeV iodine ions) have been applied to UO2 and to simulated high burnup UO2, so-called SIMFUEL. The process of polygonization, i.e. the rearrangement of dislocations into dislocation walls forming low energy 'sub-boundaries' and rather perfect, but slightly misoriented subgrains, was studied in these experiments. The same experiments confirmed the extreme radiation stability of UO2 and demonstrated effects of fission spikes: fission-induced bubble formation, re-solution of fission gases from bubbles and fission-enhanced gas diffusion and release. No temperature dependence was found between room temperature and 500 deg. C. The combined results are used to discuss possible mechanisms for polygonization and rim structure formation in UO2. (author)

  20. A Diphenol Oxidase Gene Is Part of a Cluster of Genes Involved in Catecholamine Metabolism and Sclerotization in Drosophila. II. Molecular Localization of the Dox-A2 Coding Region

    OpenAIRE

    Pentz, Ellen Steward; Wright, Theodore R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Mutations at the Dox-A2 (2-53.9) locus alter the A2 component of diphenol oxidase, an enzyme having an important role in cuticle formation. This locus is in the dopa decarboxylase, Df( 2L)TW130 region, which contains a cluster of at least 14 genes involved in catecholamine metabolism and the formation, sclerotization and melanization of cuticle in Drosophila. The region is subdivided by deficiencies, and localization of breakpoints in cloned DNA reveals a dense subcluster of six genes in the ...

  1. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  2. Bone Mass Measurement (Bone Density)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plans Find doctors, hospitals, & facilities Get help paying costs Find suppliers of medical equipment & supplies Forms Publications "Medicare & You" ... have to pay some or all of the costs. It’s important to ask questions so you understand ... resources NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National ...

  3. Bone: From planar imaging to SPECT & PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailovi? Jasna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction into clinical medicine 50 years ago, the radionuclide bone scan has played a key role in diagnosing a variety of osseous disorders; particularly metastatic disease. Using small diagnostic doses of Strontium-85 in the 1960’s, it was rapidly established that the study was much more sensitive than skeletal radiographs. The introduction of Technetium-99m phosphate agents in the early 1970’s, offered greatly improved resolution. Whole body imaging became the standard procedure. Interestingly, the positron-emitter, Fluorine 18-sodium fluoride was used by some investigators with the rectilinear scanner. Very recently, this radiotracer has been re-introduced and is witnessing considerable growth using modern PET/CT instrumentation. The cortical bone tracers, 99mTc-MDP and 18F-Fluoride assess osteoblastic response to the invading lesion. In the study of metastatic disease, it is superb for sclerotic blastic lesions. Although it detects most lytic lesions, many can be missed. This is due to a lack of osteoblastic response. The tumor may be slow growing, such as myeloma or conversely very rapidly growing and destructive, such as lung or kidney metastases. In these lesions, 18F-FDG is superior because it is concentrating in the tumor cells and does not depend on osteoblastic response to the tumor. In their early cause, many lytic lesions may be confined to the medullary portion of bone and not yet involve the cortex. Comparative studies of PET and CT have clearly shown the superior sensitivity of FDG in detecting metastatic bone lesions.

  4. Characterizing Pyroxene Reaction Space in Calcium-Aluminum Rich Inclusions: Oxidation During CAI Rim Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.

    2009-12-01

    We define the reaction space that controls changes in pyroxene composition in CAIs and Wark-Lovering (WL) rims in an oxidizing solar nebula. Ti-rich pyroxenes in CAIs record a sub-solar oxygen fugacity (Ti3+/Ti4+~1.5). WL rim pyroxenes in the CAI Leoville 144A have a distinctly lower oxidation state.This difference supports WL rim condensation in an environment of increasing O2(g) and Mg(g) (Simon et al. 2005). We used the following phase components to identify four linearly independent reactions (Thompson 1982): diopside, CaTs (Al2Mg-1Si-1), T3 (Ti3+AlMg-1Si-1), T4 (Ti4+Al2Mg-1Si-2), En (MgCa-1), perovskite, O(g), Mg(g), SiO(g), and Ca(g). Compositional variation in this system is dominated by two reactions. The first is oxidation of Ti3+ via reaction with O and Mg in the gas phase: 1.5 O(g) + Mg(g) ? ¼ Di + [Ti4+Mg3/4Ti3+-1Ca-1/4Si-1/2] (1). Pyroxene is produced and En is introduced. The second reaction (2) is perovskite formation. It is observed in the WL rim of Leoville 144A, and experiments confirm that an elevated Ti component converts pyroxene to perovskite(Gupta et al. 1973). MgCa-1 is the third linearly independent reaction (3). They combine to give: ½ Di + x Ca(g)? x Mg(g)+ Pv + [Mg1/2-xSiTi4+-1Ca-1/2+x](2,3). Unlike (1), pyroxene is consumed in this reaction. The parameter x defines the extent of Mg-Ca exchange. When x > 0.5, WL rim formation occurs in an environment where Mg is volatile and Ca condenses. The reaction space defined by reactions (1) and (2,3) describes the transition from CAI interior to WL rims. WL rim pyroxene Ti contents, [CaTs], and Ca < 1 pfu are all explained in this space. The fourth linearly independent reaction is SiO(g):1/8 Di + ¼ Mg(g)? ¾ SiO(g) + [Mg3/8Ca1/8Ti4+Ti3+-1Si-1/2](4). Silica reduction forms Ti4+, releasing SiO(g). (4) does not describe the oxidation of Ti3+ in WL rim pyroxene, but (1) - (4) results in En formation directly from the gas phase. This may explain WL rim analyses that have Si contents in excess of those predicted from reactions (1) and (2,3). Simon et al. (2005) EPSL 41, 272-283; Thompson (1982)Rev. Min. 10, 33-52; Gupta et al. (1973) Contr. Mineral. Petrol. 41, 333-344 Reaction space for CAI pyroxene. Pyroxenes plotted using titanium contents.

  5. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the joints: Radiological features of bone involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohndorf, K.; Stoker, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the joints is rare, benign and generally monoarticular tumour-like soft tissue lesion of the synovium. The secondary bone changes, seen in plain films of 25 patients with PVNS are described. The main radiological features were paraarticular erosions, often with a thin sclerotic border. As a late manifestation these erosions tended to coalesce and to form large multicystic areas. These defects were observed particularly in the more tightly encapsulated joints such as the hip, wrist, finger and toe. In 3 cases with involvement of the knee the lesions were monostotic. PVNS may be mistaken radiologically for other lesions such as malignant tumours or inflammatory disorders. The differential diagnosis is discussed.

  6. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the joints: Radiological features of bone involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the joints is rare, benign and generally monoarticular tumour-like soft tissue lesion of the synovium. The secondary bone changes, seen in plain films of 25 patients with PVNS are described. The main radiological features were paraarticular erosions, often with a thin sclerotic border. As a late manifestation these erosions tended to coalesce and to form large multicystic areas. These defects were observed particularly in the more tightly encapsulated joints such as the hip, wrist, finger and toe. In 3 cases with involvement of the knee the lesions were monostotic. PVNS may be mistaken radiologically for other lesions such as malignant tumours or inflammatory disorders. The differential diagnosis is discussed. (orig.)

  7. [Computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone in diagnosis of acquired cholesteatoma of the middle ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikovich, E I

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of 51 CTs of the temporal bone in patients aged from 2 to 74 years with otitis media purulenta chronica, cholesteatoma has established that cholesteatoma of different location and severity has specific CT-symptoms. A reliable diagnostic key to CT-diagnosis of cholesteatoma is attic deformation due to destruction of the lateral wall by a soft tissue lesion, extension of the aditus to the antrum, the presence of the cavity with sclerotic walls in the antromastoid area, carious changes in the auditory ossicles, medial or lateral shift of the ossicles. CT registers carious alterations in the middle ear cavity walls including the roof and labyrinthine wall of the tympanic cavity. This allows diagnosis of a labyrinthine fistula and intracranial complications of cholesteatoma. CT well visualizes spread of cholesteatoma on the top of the pyramid. Age-related features of cholesteatoma are studied. PMID:15602483

  8. Buried Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Museum of Natural History

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, pairs of learners will create two make-believe dig sites by burying chicken bones in plaster of Paris--a powder that hardens when wet. Then, learners try to excavate (dig out) their partner's "fossils." Learners will discover that excavating fossils requires skill, patience, and the right tools. Note: this activity requires adult supervision as working with plaster of Paris can be dangerous if not done properly.

  9. Case report 391: Postradiation necrosis of bone (femur) with no evidence of tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case has been presented of a 21-year-old man who had been treated for Ewing tumor of the femur with local radiation and chemotherapy ten years previously. Significant increased uptake on the angiogram, blood pool studies and delayed imaging phases of the radionuclide scan was observed. This activity had increased dramatically from the bone scan obtained four years previously. Plain roentgenograms showed a mixed sclerotic and lytic lesion in the femur compatible with radionecrosis, recurrent Ewing tumor or radiation-induced osteosarcoma. Based on the findings of the bone scan a tumor was diagnosed and the patient underwent open biopsy. However, radiation osteonecrosis only was present; recurrent Ewing tumor or osteosarcoma was not observed. It may thus be stated that radiation can cause significant increase in uptake on serial bone scans even many years following radiation therapy. These features may simulate recurrent tumor or osteosarcoma. Thus, radionuclide bone scans, even many years after irradiation therapy, will not reliably differentiate between radiation-induced osteosarcoma, recurrent tumor or radiation osteonecrosis in patients who have been treated previously with radiation. (orig.)

  10. Clinical and biologic behavior of bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty (3.8%) of 780 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer seen between 1970 and 1987 had bone metastases. The primary tumor was follicular in 26 patients and papillary in four. Mean age at diagnosis was 61 years. The manifestation of bone metastases was the presenting symptom in 18 patients (60%). Treatment included total thyroidectomy, levothyroxine sodium therapy, and radioactive iodine treatments. Twenty-seven patients had bone metastases from the initial observation, with 44 sites involved. Of the sites, 27 (61%) were shown both on iodine 131 whole-body scan (WBS) and on x-ray film, 11 (25%) only on WBS, and six (14%) only on x-ray film. Multiple involvement was observed in 11 patients. The radiologic appearance was invariably osteolytic. Serum thyroglobulin was elevated in all patients. After radioactive iodine, no WBS+/X-ray+ metastases showed a complete response, although a sclerotic border was noted in several cases, whereas six WBS+/X-ray- lesions were no longer detectable by WBS. Treatment with radioactive iodine and bone surgery resulted in a complete cure in three patients and in a reduction of tumor mass in three. Twenty-one (70%) of the patients died of thyroid cancer after a mean survival of 86 months. Of the nine patients still alive, two are free of disease, three have a good quality of life, and four have severe disability

  11. Clinical and biologic behavior of bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcocci, C.; Pacini, F.; Elisei, R.; Schipani, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Miccoli, P.; Arganini, M.; Pinchera, A. (Univ. of Pisa (Italy))

    1989-12-01

    Thirty (3.8%) of 780 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer seen between 1970 and 1987 had bone metastases. The primary tumor was follicular in 26 patients and papillary in four. Mean age at diagnosis was 61 years. The manifestation of bone metastases was the presenting symptom in 18 patients (60%). Treatment included total thyroidectomy, levothyroxine sodium therapy, and radioactive iodine treatments. Twenty-seven patients had bone metastases from the initial observation, with 44 sites involved. Of the sites, 27 (61%) were shown both on iodine 131 whole-body scan (WBS) and on x-ray film, 11 (25%) only on WBS, and six (14%) only on x-ray film. Multiple involvement was observed in 11 patients. The radiologic appearance was invariably osteolytic. Serum thyroglobulin was elevated in all patients. After radioactive iodine, no WBS+/X-ray+ metastases showed a complete response, although a sclerotic border was noted in several cases, whereas six WBS+/X-ray- lesions were no longer detectable by WBS. Treatment with radioactive iodine and bone surgery resulted in a complete cure in three patients and in a reduction of tumor mass in three. Twenty-one (70%) of the patients died of thyroid cancer after a mean survival of 86 months. Of the nine patients still alive, two are free of disease, three have a good quality of life, and four have severe disability.

  12. Gaucher disease: MR evaluation of bone marrow features during treatment with enzyme replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) arrests and reverses the hematological and visceral symptoms of adult Gaucher disease, the most frequent lysosomal storage disorder. There are only a few studies available evaluating bone disease during ERT. The aim of this study was to investigate the features of bone marrow (bm) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients during ERT. Materials and Methods: MRI was performed prospectively in thirty adult type I Gaucher patients before and during ERT with a mean follow-up of 3 years. Spin-echo sequences (T1/T2) of the lower extremities were obtained and the reconversion (response) or lack of reconversion (non-response) to fatty marrow during treatment was analyzed. The morphological features of bm involvement, a homogeneous or non-homogeneous distribution of bm changes and focal bone lesions surrounded by a rim of reduced signal intensity (SI), were analyzed. Results: Infiltration of bm by Gaucher cells is characterized by a reduction of Sl on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Bone marrow responses were seen in 19 patients (63%) during treatment. Focal bone lesions, surrounded by a rim of reduced Sl, did not respond to ERT and correlated with a non-homogenous distribution of bone involvement and splenectomy. (orig.)

  13. Ditopic receptors based on lower- and upper-rim substituted hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes: cation-controlled hydrogen bonding of anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xin-Long; Tahara, Jun; Rahman, Shofiur; Zeng, Xi; Hughes, David L; Redshaw, Carl; Yamato, Takehiko

    2012-03-01

    Heteroditopic hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arene receptors that are capable of binding an anion and a cation simultaneously in a cooperative fashion were synthesized. The structure of one of the triamide derivatives was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The binding of alkali metals at the lower rim, and the binding of anions (chloride, bromide) at the upper rim, has been investigated by using (1)H NMR titration experiments. Alkali metal binding at the lower rim controls the calix cavity. Li(+)-ion binding to the lower rim can improve the binding ability of anions at the upper rim amide moiety by a factor of 15, thus suggesting a strong positive allosteric effect for anion recognition. However, when a Na(+) cation is bound to the ionophoric site on the lower rim, the calix cavity is changed from a "flattened cone" to a more-upright form, which is favored for intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the neighboring NH and C=O groups; this change can block the inclusion of anions onto the amide moiety at the upper rim, which strongly suggests a negative allosteric effect of Na(+)-ion binding, which controls the cooperative recognition system. PMID:22246650

  14. FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A CAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2010-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as CAIs, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated CAIs or are a byproduct of CAI formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a CAI with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.

  15. To divide or not to divide: a key role of Rim15 in calorie-restricted yeast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschops, Markus M M; Zwartjens, Priscilla; Keuter, Sebastiaan G F; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2014-05-01

    The PAS kinase Rim15 is proposed to integrate signals from different nutrient-sensing pathways and to control transcriptional reprogramming of Saccharomyces cerevisiae upon nutrient depletion. Despite this proposed role, previous transcriptome analyses of rim15 mutants solely focused on growing cultures. In the present work, retentostat cultivation enabled analysis of the role of Rim15 under severely calorie-restricted, virtually non-growing conditions. Under these conditions, deletion of RIM15 affected transcription of over 10-fold more genes than in growing cultures. Transcriptional responses, metabolic rates and cellular morphology indicated a key role of Rim15 in controlled cell-cycle arrest upon nutrient depletion. Moreover, deletion of rim15 reduced heat-shock tolerance in non-growing, but not in growing cultures. The failure of rim15 cells to adapt to calorie restriction by entering a robust post-mitotic state resembles cancer cell physiology and shows that retentostat cultivation of yeast strains can provide relevant models for healthy post-mitotic and transformed human cells. PMID:24487068

  16. Rim versus Non-Rim States in the Arctic Region: Prospects for a Zero-Sum Game or a Win-Win One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ghimi?

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to develop a critical approach on one of the most urgent energy security challenges: the Arctic region. Until recently, it was considered to be a frozen desert, upon which no one raised any legal demands or interests. The global warming, the technological development and the increased need for energy resources had transformed the frozen High North into a very hot spot, where states like US, Canada, Norway, Denmark or Russia started an energy race that threatens to escalate. The Arctic became a strategic area given its opportunities: besides the energy resources, new commercial routes could become available for a longer period of time. But, due to legal uncertainties, the lack of coherent and direct legal procedures of international law, the Arctic game is an open one, in which any state can intervene and ask for a solution that is suitable for its interests. This aspect complicates even further the already unstable region. Some of the actors see the region as an international area, as a common good, where everyone has the right to explore or exploit, while the rim states see the Arctic in sovereign rights terms. Therefore, the game tends to complicate as non-rim players (the EU, China, Japan, NATO and South Korea want to intervene in the region and try to influence its development.

  17. A diphenol oxidase gene is part of a cluster of genes involved in catecholamine metabolism and sclerotization in drosophila. I. Identification of the biochemical defect in Dox-A2 [l(2)37Bf] mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, E S; Black, B C; Wright, T R

    1986-04-01

    Phenol oxidase, a complex enzyme, plays a major role in the processes of sclerotization and melanization of cuticle in insects. Several loci have been reported to affect levels of phenol oxidase activity, but to date only one structural locus has been identified [Dox-3F (2-53.1+)]. Recently isolated Dox-A2 mutations (2-53.9) are recessive, early larval lethals, which as heterozygotes reduce phenol oxidase activity. A homozygous mutant escaper had weak, completely unpigmented cuticle and unpigmented bristles. Enzyme assays show that Dox-A2 heterozygotes have diphenol oxidase activity reduced to 47-79% of wild type, whereas monophenol oxidase activity, at 94-106% of wild type, is normal. Elevated pool sizes of the diphenol oxidase substrates DOPA, dopamine, and N-acetyldopamine are observed in the mutant, confirming the enzyme assay results. Separation of the three phenol oxidase A component activities on polyacrylamide gels shows that Dox-A2 mutations reduce the activity of only the A2 component. Dox-A2 may identify a structural locus for the A2 component of the diphenol oxidase enzyme system. The Dox-A2 locus is one of 18 loci in the dopa decarboxylase, Df (2L)TW130 region of the second chromosome, at least 14 of which affect the formation, melanization or sclerotization of cuticle in some way. These loci form an apparent cluster of functionally related genes. PMID:3082714

  18. Bone Lesions and Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activating factors are known to be released by tumor cells. The bone marrow microenvironment and its role in bone resorption The bone ... less hospitable to myeloma cells. The bone marrow microenvironment plays an important role in the increased bone resorption that occurs in myeloma.

  19. The N-acetyltransferase RimJ responds to environmental stimuli to repress pap fimbrial transcription in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Ziegler, Christine A; Black, Alia M; Eliades, Stacie H; Young, Sarah; Porter, Kimberly

    2002-08-01

    In uropathogenic Escherichia coli, P pili (Pap) facilitate binding to host epithelial cells and subsequent colonization. Whereas P pili can be produced at 37 degrees C, the expression of these fimbriae is suppressed at 23 degrees C. Previously, insertion mutations in rimJ, a gene encoding the N-terminal acetyltransferase of ribosomal protein S5, were shown to disrupt this thermoregulatory response, allowing papBA transcription at low temperature. In this study, we created an in-frame deletion of rimJ. This deletion relieved the repressive effects not only of low temperature but also of rich (Luria-Bertani [LB]) medium and glucose on papBA transcription, indicating that RimJ modulates papBA transcription in response to multiple environmental stimuli. papI transcription was also shown to be regulated by RimJ. papBA transcription is also controlled by a phase variation mechanism. We demonstrated that the regulators necessary to establish a phase ON state--PapI, PapB, Dam, Lrp, and cyclic AMP-CAP-are still required for papBA transcription in a rimJ mutant strain. rimJ mutations increase the rate at which bacteria transition into the phase ON state, indicating that RimJ inhibits the phase OFF-->ON transition. A DeltarimJ hns651 mutant is viable on LB medium but not on minimal medium. This synthetic lethality, along with transcriptional analyses, indicates that RimJ and H-NS work through separate pathways to control papBA transcription. Mutations in rimJ do not greatly influence the transcription of the fan, daa, or fim operon, suggesting that RimJ may be a pap-specific regulator. Overexpression of rimJ under conditions repressive for papBA transcription complements the DeltarimJ mutation but has little effect on transcription under activating conditions, indicating that the ability of RimJ to regulate transcription is environmentally controlled. PMID:12142402

  20. A model for DNA polymerase switching involving a single cleft and the rim of the sliding clamp

    OpenAIRE

    Heltzel, Justin M. H.; Maul, Robert W.; Scouten Ponticelli, Sarah K.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The actions of Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV) in mutagenesis are managed by its interaction with the ? sliding clamp. In the structure reported by Bunting et al. [EMBO J (2003) 22:5883–5892], the C-tail of Pol IV contacts a hydrophobic cleft on the clamp, while residues V303–P305 reach over the dimer interface to contact the rim of the adjacent clamp protomer. Using mutant forms of these proteins impaired for either the rim or the cleft contacts, we determined that the rim c...

  1. Juvenile ossifying fibroma with aneurysamal bone cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Vikram Simha; Reddy, K Rajeev Kumar; Prakash, A Ravi; Rajinikanth; Vidhyadhari, Pavani

    2014-10-01

    The fibro osseous lesions of the jaws represent a diverse group of entities that are characterized by replacement of normal bone by a fibrous connective tissue matrix, with in which varying amounts of osteoid, immature and mature bone and in some instances, cementum like material are deposited. Fibro osseous lesions of the jaws include developmental (hamartomatous) lesions, reactive or dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a unique fibro osseous neoplasm. It has 2 histopathological variants (1) Trabecular juvenile ossifying fibroma (TrJOF) and (2) Psammomatoid juvenile ossifying fibroma (PsJOF) with TrJOF affecting the jaws of children. Only 20% of the patients are over 15 years of age. JOF is more common in maxilla than mandible. Origin in extragnathic locations is extremely rare. It presents as an asymptomatic progressive, rapid expansion of jaws. Radiographically, tumour is well circumscribed, along with lack of continuity with adjacent bone, cortical expansion & perforation. Histopathologically it consists of a cell rich fibrous stroma with bundles of cellular osteoid and bone trabeculae without osteoblastic rimming, and aggregates of giant cells. It has a recurrence rate of 30-58%. Long standing lesions shows cystic changes. Aneurysmal bone cyst is the most common complication. Here we present a case report of 16 yr old female patient with clinical, radiographic & histopathological features of Trabecular JOF with Aneurysmal bone cyst. PMID:25478458

  2. Development of SFR Research and Integration Management System (S-RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to the present, the management of research and development (R and D) for a sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) could be individually performed on each project without an organic relationship. However, a more systemic and effective integrated management of a project is required because the research and development environment is currently changing. Thus, we developed a Research and Integration Management System for SFR (S-RIMS) based on the enterprise project management (EPM) solution. The functional goals of the S-RIMS are as follows: 1. Provide data that show the progress and status of a project 2. Manage the design process and R and D products 3. Share the consistent design data between sub-projects

  3. The hot rim sign on hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HIDA) with CT correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amber, Ian Blake; Leighton, Joshua; Li, Su-Yu; Greene, Gary Stuart

    2012-01-01

    An older male with multiple medical comorbidities presented to the emergency room after 3 days of worsening right upper quadrant pain. The patient had an elevated white blood cell count and mildly elevated liver functions. Initial ultrasound was equivocal and further imaging with CT scan was obtained. The CT scan was read as suggestive of cholecystitis, however a hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HIDA) scan was ordered for confirmation, as the patient was a poor operative candidate. The HIDA demonstrated no bile duct or small bowel activity on initial images or delays, however a classic 'hot rim' sign was present, confirming acute cholecystitis. The patient ultimately underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy with drainage for treatment where acute cholecystitis was confirmed. Upon retrospective review, the CT demonstrated hyperaemia surrounding the gallbladder fossa, which is the CT scan equivalent of a scintigraphic 'hot rim' sign. This is an uncommon example of a radiologic sign correlation between multiple imaging modalities. PMID:22665866

  4. An approach for utilizing clinical statements in HL7 RIM to evaluate eligibility criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Richard; Daniel, Christel; James, Julie; Hussain, Sajjad; McGilchrist, Mark; Delaney, Brendan; Taweel, Adel

    2014-01-01

    The HL7 RIM (Reference Information Model) is a commonly used standard for the exchange of clinical data and can be employed for integrating the patient care and clinical research domains. Yet it is not sufficiently well specified to ensure a canonical representation of structured clinical data when used for the automated evaluation of eligibility criteria from a clinical trial protocol. We present an approach to further constrain the RIM to create a common information model to hold clinical data. In order to demonstrate our approach, we identified 132 distinct data elements from 10 rich clinical trails. We then defined a taxonomy to (i) identify the types of data elements that would need to be stored and (ii) define the types of predicate that would be used to evaluate them. This informed the definition of a pattern used to represent the data, which was shown to be sufficient for storing and evaluating the clinical statements required by the trials. PMID:25160189

  5. Iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim during frontal trephine irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Douglas; Zener, Rebecca; Rotenberg, Brian W

    2014-12-01

    Frontal sinus trephination (FST) has numerous applications in the treatment of acute and chronic sinus disease. This procedure involves making an incision at the medial aspect of the supraorbital rim and then drilling the sinus's anterior table. Placement of a frontal trephine allows for irrigation of the frontal recess in order to evacuate the frontal sinus in a minimally invasive manner. Orbital injury is a rare complication of FST. We present a case of previously unreported orbital compartment syndrome secondary to iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim as a complication of frontal trephine irrigation. We also review the literature on the applications of FST and its associated complications, and we discuss orbital compartment syndrome as a complication of sinus surgery. PMID:25531843

  6. Patient related functional outcome of glenoid rim fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijkman, Bart A; Schep, Niels W L; Luitse, Jan S K; Ponsen, Kees-Jan; Kloen, Peter; Goslings, J Carel

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate patient related outcome and shoulder stability following open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in patients with glenoid rim fractures. After a median follow-up of four years, 14 patients completed the Rowe Shoulder Stability Score and Quick DASH questionnaire. The median Rowe score was 90 (Q1: 88, Q3: 100). Results were graded excellent in 11 patients and good in three. The median DASH score was 4.6 (Q1: 0, Q3: 32). In conclusion this study showed that ORIF of type la and 2 glenoid rim fractures provided satisfactory results with respect to prevention of instability. However, patient reported functional outcome was disappointing in 21% of the patients. PMID:21302569

  7. Ultratrace analysis of long-lived radionuclides by laser mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasensitive analysis of long-lived radionuclides is required in various scientific and technological fields. Traditionally, radiometric methods were and are still used for these determinations with the disadvantages of long measuring times and insufficient selectivities. Therefore, mass spectrometric techniques using ion counting are getting more and important. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) have been applied, when extremely high sensitivities and isotopic selectivities are required and isobaric interferences must be prevented. Drawbacks of AMS are the high experimental expenditure and the limitation in the number of elements addressable in routine operation. These drawbacks are not valid for RIMS which has the advantages of: (i) nearly complete suppression of atomic or molecular isobaric interferences; (ii) good overall sensitivity with detection limits in the fg range; (iii) excellent isotopic selectivity by combining the optical isotope selectivity in the laser excitation process with the isotope abundance sensitivity of a mass spectrometer. (orig.)

  8. Ultratrace analysis of long-lived radionuclides by laser mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, N. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie

    2004-07-01

    Ultrasensitive analysis of long-lived radionuclides is required in various scientific and technological fields. Traditionally, radiometric methods were and are still used for these determinations with the disadvantages of long measuring times and insufficient selectivities. Therefore, mass spectrometric techniques using ion counting are getting more and important. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) have been applied, when extremely high sensitivities and isotopic selectivities are required and isobaric interferences must be prevented. Drawbacks of AMS are the high experimental expenditure and the limitation in the number of elements addressable in routine operation. These drawbacks are not valid for RIMS which has the advantages of: (i) nearly complete suppression of atomic or molecular isobaric interferences; (ii) good overall sensitivity with detection limits in the fg range; (iii) excellent isotopic selectivity by combining the optical isotope selectivity in the laser excitation process with the isotope abundance sensitivity of a mass spectrometer. (orig.)

  9. Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement was studied clinically and by computed tomography (CT) in 6 cases (including 5 sporadic cases) with rimmed vacuolar distal myopathy. Although a predilection for the extensors in the lower leg was noted as stressed so far, there were certain cases without this selectivity. The thigh disclosed a selectivity that the flexors and adductors were severely affected while the m. quadriceps femoris was well preserved. The selectivity in the thigh was still found in the cases without selectivity in the lower leg. The neck flexors were also liable to be involved. In addition, CT revealed no compensatory hypertrophy of the specific muscles which was clearly shown in the thigh of distal muscular dystrophy (Miyoshi). The pattern of skeletal muscle involvement was thought to be a characteristic feature of distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles. It was visualized very clearly and easily by CT of skeletal muscles although it could be noted to a certain degree by physical examination. (author)

  10. Asia/Pacific Rim renewable energy market assessments by the State of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of Hawaii has begun to encourage its economic growth and diversification by increasing the export of U.S. energy, environment, ocean, and information technologies. Hawaii's Strategic Technology Market Assessment and Development (STMAD) program promotes the transfer of U.S. technology into Asia and the Pacific Rim, locations having phenomenal growth potential and vast technological infrastructure demands. The STMAD program is managed by the State's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT). Under the auspices of STMAD, the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii is assessing biomass energy resources of Asian and Pacific Rim countries to identify and investigate sustainable energy markets. This paper reviews the STMAD program and reports findings of renewable energy assessment performed by HNEI and DBEDT. (author)

  11. Ultrasonic inspection method and system for detection of steeple cracking in turbine disk rims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam turbine disks which operate under high cyclic stress in a moist environment can develop cracks in the disk-rim steeples. Detection of these cracks using nondestructive testing methods is necessary to assure safe operation and avoid unnecessary disk replacement. Both magnetic particle (MT) and ultrasonic testing (UT) can be used to inspect the steeples; however, UT can be used without removing the blades. A system for inspecting bladed steeples has been developed that can be applied on a range of disks including those in Westinghouse, General Electric, and Allis Chalmers turbines. The system performs an inspection as the turbine is rotated at slow speeds over turning rolls. This procedure greatly reduces inspection time because the inspection can be done without deblading the disk or resetting the inspection equipment for different rim segments

  12. Pyogenic osteomyelitis of long bone: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of MR in the osteomyelitis, we reviewed MR examinations of 14 patients with pyogenic osteomyelitis of the long bone. All 14 patients were confirmed to have osteomyelitis either surgically (13/14) or by aspiration (1/14). MRI was performed with 0.5 T (n=8) or 2.0 T (n=6) SE technique, and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI was obtained in 10 examinations. Anatomic location of lesions were femur (8/14), tibia (5/14) , and fibula (1/14). The marrow cavity and soft tissue were involved in 13/14, 12/14 respectively. The signals of both intraosseous and extraosseous infected area were iso to low signal intensity to muscles on T1WI and high signal intensity on PDWI and T2WI. Rim or diffuse enhancement of the marrow cavity and soft tissue were seen in all (10/10) case. Sequestra, periosteal reaction, and cortical defect were found in 12/14, 10/14, 9/14. MR provided more accurate and detailed anatomic information including extent of disease and possible activity than bone scintigraphy, CT, or conventional radiography. We conclude that MR might be the choice of modality in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the long bone

  13. Pyogenic osteomyelitis of long bone: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Jae Seung; Lee, Seon Kyu; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of MR in the osteomyelitis, we reviewed MR examinations of 14 patients with pyogenic osteomyelitis of the long bone. All 14 patients were confirmed to have osteomyelitis either surgically (13/14) or by aspiration (1/14). MRI was performed with 0.5 T (n=8) or 2.0 T (n=6) SE technique, and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI was obtained in 10 examinations. Anatomic location of lesions were femur (8/14), tibia (5/14) , and fibula (1/14). The marrow cavity and soft tissue were involved in 13/14, 12/14 respectively. The signals of both intraosseous and extraosseous infected area were iso to low signal intensity to muscles on T1WI and high signal intensity on PDWI and T2WI. Rim or diffuse enhancement of the marrow cavity and soft tissue were seen in all (10/10) case. Sequestra, periosteal reaction, and cortical defect were found in 12/14, 10/14, 9/14. MR provided more accurate and detailed anatomic information including extent of disease and possible activity than bone scintigraphy, CT, or conventional radiography. We conclude that MR might be the choice of modality in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the long bone.

  14. Theoretical and experimental research of hammer forging process of RIM from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Gontarz, A.

    2014-01-01

    The results of theoretical analysis and experimental tests of hammer forging process of rim part from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. On the basis of numerical simulation results, the analysis of limiting phenomena was made. These phenomena include: possibility of overlapping presence, not filling of die impression, overheating of material and cracks. The results of theoretical analysis provided the support for planning of experimental tests in industrial conditions. Forging...

  15. Cracking of an Aircraft Wheel Rim Made From Al-Alloy 2014-T6

    OpenAIRE

    Kosec, G.; Kovac?ic?, G.; Hodolic?, J.; Kosec, B.

    2010-01-01

    Generally failures of different aircraft components and parts are revealed and examined by the use of non-destructive examination methods. In further detailed explanation and interpretation of failures optical and scanning electron microscopy are used. This paper deals with a problem of a crack on aircraft wheel rim made from aluminium alloy 2014-T6.The crack was observed during regular control by the maintenance unit for non-destructive examination of the Slovenian air carrier Adria Airways....

  16. The insect-trapping rim of Nepenthes pitchers: Surface structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Ulrike; Federle, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes capture prey with a pitfall trap that relies on a micro-structured, slippery surface. The upper pitcher rim (peristome) is fully wettable and causes insects to slip by aquaplaning on a thin water film. The high wettability of the peristome is probably achieved by a combination of hydrophilic surface chemistry, surface roughness and the presence of hygroscopic nectar. Insect foot attachment could be prevented by the delayed drainage of the thin...

  17. Mineral resources of the Massacre Rim Wilderness Study Area, Washoe County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Massacre Rim Wilderness Study Area encompasses 23,260 acres in Northwest Nevada. There is moderate mineral resource potential for gold, silve, and mercury in hydrothermal deposits in the eastern part of the study area. There is moderate mineral resource potential for uranium throughout the study area. There is no potential for oil and gas in the study area. The potential for geothermal resources is unknown

  18. Ultratrace analysis of long-lived radionuclides by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope mass spectrometry for the determination of long-lived nuclides can be several orders of magnitude more sensitive than the conventional radiometric methods. The principle of RIMS consists of the vaporization of the radionuclide to be determined and to perform a multiple resonant excitation and ionization of the atoms by laser light. This is followed by mass selective detection of the ions by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Several applications are presented. (author)

  19. Leishmania donovani Ran-GTPase interacts at the nuclear rim with linker histone H1

    OpenAIRE

    Smirlis, Despina; Boleti, Haralabia; Gaitanou, Maria; Soto, Manuel; Soteriadou, Ketty

    2010-01-01

    Ran-GTPase regulates multiple cellular processes such as nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly, nuclear envelope assembly, cell-cycle progression and the mitotic checkpoint. The leishmanial Ran protein, in contrast with its mammalian counterpart which is predominately nucleoplasmic, is localized at the nuclear rim. The aim of the present study was to characterize the LdRan (Leishmania donovani Ran) orthologue with an emphasis on the Ran–histone association. LdRan was found t...

  20. Determinants and structural development of FDI in Pacific-Rim developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Jamuna Prasad

    1989-01-01

    The movements of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the recent past are marked by a relatively very high growth in the Pacific Rim (PR) countries (Australia, Brunei, China, Hongkong, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand). The developing countries of this area were able to raise considerably their share of the total world outflows in the first half of this decade (Table Al) . In the following analysis an attempt is made to work out...

  1. Young Stellar Population of the Bright-Rimmed Clouds BRC 5, BRC 7 and BRC 39

    CERN Document Server

    Panwar, Neelam; Pandey, A K; Samal, M R; Ogura, K; Ojha, D K; Jose, J; Bhatt, B C

    2014-01-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs), illuminated and shaped by nearby OB stars, are potential sites of recent/ongoing star formation. Here we present an optical and infrared photometric study of three BRCs: BRC 5, BRC 7 and BRC 39 to obtain a census of the young stellar population, thereby inferring the star formation scenario, in these regions. In each BRC, the Class I sources are found to be located mostly near the bright rim or inside the cloud, whereas the Class II sources are preferentially outside, with younger sources closer to the rim. This provides strong support to sequential star formation triggered by radiation driven implosion due to the UV radiation. Moreover, each BRC contains a small group of young stars being revealed at its head, as the next-generation stars. In particular, the young stars at the heads of BRC 5 and BRC 7 are found to be intermediate/high mass stars, which, under proper conditions, may themselves trigger further star birth, thereby propagating star formation out to long distances.

  2. Energy indicators series: analyzing the energy-related evidence of economic transition in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, much attention has been focused upon the Asian Pacific countries as constituting an economic 'miracle' over the last two decades. Economic growth in the Pacific Rim has been higher than in any other area of the world. The rapid industrialization process and its impact on the economies of these countries, at both macro and micro levels, are discussed widely in the economic literature. Of particular interest are the fundamental structural changes these countries have experienced in their transition to industrialized economies. This instalment of the annual 'Energy indicators' series concentrates on Pacific Rim countries, namely Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Similar to other experiences, rapid economic growth in these countries has been accompanied by 'spectacular' growth in demand for energy. Therefore, this year's paper not only underlines certain trends in these six energy markets but also attempts to test the phenomenon 'threshold country', i.e., shifting from the developing to the industrialized world by using common indicators and methodologies. The analysis starts with a comparison of energy intensities. Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic and energy indicators of the Pacific Rim countries. Section 3 introduces a standard econometric model on the most dynamic consuming sector, namely transport. Section 4 presents the projections of consumption in this sector and discusses policy issues. Sthis sector and discusses policy issues. Some concluding remarks in Section 6 complete the paper. (author)

  3. Bone Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinoma of the breast, lung or prostate cause the majority of all bone metastases. Prolonged survival is common in patients with breast or prostate tumours. Different types of treatment may significantly increase the quality of life. Single-dose or fractionated radiation therapy may be effective, and 70 to 90 per cent of patients obtain partial or complete relief from pain. Surgery followed by irradiation is indicated in most patients with pathologic femur fractures. Immediate surgical treatment, either alone or combined with radiation theory, may prevent paraparesis in patients with incipient cord compression. For neoplasms sensitive to systemic therapy such treatment should often be added to local treatment. (orig.)

  4. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benign (noncancerous) bone tumors include: Bone cyst Fibroma Osteoblastoma Osteoid osteoma Cancerous tumors include: Ewing sarcoma Multiple myeloma Osteosarcoma Other types of cancer that may have spread to the bone Abnormal ...

  5. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a framework and support that eventually aids in joining the two bones together. Once the bone “bridge” ... and/or bone growth factors to gain the benefits of a variety of substances. Among the combinations ...

  6. Bone density scan (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patient's medical history, is a ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing ...

  7. Dinosaur Bone Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2005-01-01

    This activity features two connected hands-on activities about dinosaur bones. Using chicken or turkey bones and regular household items, learners explore the scientific process of studying fossilized bones. By exposing the bones to vinegar or heat, learners begin to understand how paleontologists use chemical processes to study the bones of animals long dead and gone. Use this bone-themed activity around the Thanksgiving holiday and repurpose some leftovers.

  8. Subperiosteal ganglion associated with Paget's disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumoral lesions related to Paget's disease may be classified as malignant, benign or pseudotumoral. While sarcomatous degeneration is the most feared complication, awareness of benign and pseudotumoral lesions is essential for assisting in accurate histological interpretation of the biopsy sample, which may avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. We present the first case of a juxta-articular subperiosteal ganglion associated with Paget's disease, with classic imaging characteristics, especially on CT examination. The well-defined soft tissue mass at the medial aspect of the obturator rim, adjacent to a small fracture in pagetic quadrilateral plate, showed an ossified rim and internal gas lucencies, these being the hallmarks of a juxta-articular subperiosteal ganglion. On MRI, the lesion was of intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted sequences, increased signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences, with rim enhancement after gadolinium contrast injection and preservation of fatty marrow signal of the underlying pagetic bone. Identification of the entity avoided an unnecessary biopsy or surgical intervention. (orig.)

  9. The CT flare response of metastatic bone disease in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background New or worsening bone lesions in patients responding to treatment, known as the flare phenomenon is well described on 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy, but to our knowledge has not previously been described on CT. The appearance of new or worsening bone sclerosis on CT in patients with prostate cancer may therefore be erroneously classified as disease progression. Purpose To assess the incidence of osteoblastic healing flare response at 3-month CT assessment in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and to identify associated features that enable differentiation from progressive metastatic bone disease at 3 months. Material and Methods CT scans of 67 patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer undergoing treatment were reviewed by a radiologist blinded to clinical outcome. Changes in number, size, and density of metastatic bone lesions were documented and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) in soft tissue lesions, alkaline phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, and 99mTc-MDP bone scans were used for correlation. Results Of the 39 patients who had 3- and 6-month follow-up, eight patients (21%) demonstrated an increase in number, size, or density of sclerotic lesions on the 3-month CT scan despite improvement in PSA and soft tissue lesions. Three out of eight patients (8%) maintained partial response/remained stable at follow-up and were defined as showing a flare response: in this group bone metastases evidsponse: in this group bone metastases evident on CT showed a qualitative and quantitative increase in density and no lesions faded at 3 months. In contrast, in all patients who progressed at 3 months by PSA/RECIST criteria (n = 8) bone lesions showed a mixed pattern with some lesions increasing and others decreasing in density. Conclusion The incidence of flare response of metastatic bone disease evident at 3-month post-treatment CT in patients with prostate cancer undergoing systemic treatment is 8%. In patients with falling PSA and stable/responding soft tissue disease at 3 months an increase in bone sclerosis in the absence of fading bone metastases can be interpreted as flare and is likely to represent a response

  10. [Potentialities of temporal bone CT in the diagnosis of chronic purulent otitis media and its complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikovich, E I

    2004-01-01

    Temporal bone CT was used to examine a group of 87 patients with chronic purulent otitis media (103 temporal bones). The patients' age ranged from 2 to 74 years. A scheme was developed and proposed to evaluate the temporal bone by CT. The CT signs of chronic purulent otitis media uncomplicated by cholesteatoma and those of cholesteatomic purulent otitis were identified. The CT symptomatology of chronic purulent otitis includes: sclerotic changes in the bone tissue of the mastoid process, impaired pneumatization of the cavities of the middle ear, including the tympanic cavity, destructive changes in auditory ossicles, carious changes in the walls of the cavities of the middle ear. The CT semiotics of cholesteatoma depends on its site and spread into the temporal bone and includes as follows: deformation of the epitympanum due to soft tissue mass-induced destruction of the lateral wall; the dilated entrance into the antrum; the presence of a cavity with the sclerosed walls in the antromastoid area; carious changes in the auditory ossicles; the displacement of a chain of ossicles medially or laterally in relation to the initial site of cholesteatoma. CT reflects carious changes in the walls of the cavities of the middle ear, including the roof and labyrinthine wall of the tympanum, which allows labyrinthine fistula and intracranial cholesteatomic complications. The study of the temporal bone by the proposed scheme may reveal anomalies and the specific features of its structure: the presentation of the sigmoid sinus, the high elevation of the bulb of the jugular vein, diverticulum of the latter, the low standing of the bottom of the ACH. PMID:15462050

  11. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of the surgeon. A search for ideal bone graft is on and may continue till time to time. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 198-200

  12. Immediate reconstruction of mandibular defects with revascularized iliac bone grafts after radical surgery for osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitasalo, K; Virolainen, E; Happonen, R P

    1990-01-01

    Excluding multiple myeloma, osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumor. However, it is rare in the jaw bones, where it mainly occurs in young adult men. This report describes two mandibular osteosarcomas found in two males aged 32 and 30. In the former patient, osteosarcoma developed after bilateral mandibular sclerotic changes had been diagnosed radiologically as cementifying fibroma. This patient had received radiation therapy (56 Gy) because of a high grade astrocytoma of the brain three and a half years earlier. In the latter patient the tumor arose de novo in the mandibular molar area. The initial main symptom both patients was pain, which had been considered to be of dental origin because radiographs showed no evidence of malignancy. Radical surgery using immediate mandibular reconstruction with revascularized iliac bone grafts gave good results in both cases. The former patient died eight months after surgery because of recurrent astrocytoma and the latter is now free of disease five years after surgery. Immediate reconstruction of mandibular defects is possible with osteocutaneous groin flaps. PMID:2094848

  13. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  14. Are archaeological bones similar to modern bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is made of the analytical reliability of the INAA determination of major and trace elements, using their short-lives radioisotopes in both regular and defatted modern cancellous bone, and in modern cortical bone. This modern bone information is then compared with analytical data for bones from Egyptian mummies ranging in age from approx. 2000 to approx. 3700 BP, and with normally-buried 11th century French bones. Diagenetic effects may readily be detected by the measurement of elevated quantities of V, Mn and Al in soil-contaminated bones. The Ca to P concentration ratios and the organic content may also be used to separate bone from diagenetically altered archeological specimens. (author)

  15. Stability of one-plate fixation for zygomatic bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a comparative study of clinical zygomatic bone stability following open reduction by one-plate versus multiple-plate fixation. This retrospective study utilized cephalometric radiographs of three dimensional CT which were taken within 1 week and more than 2 months postoperatively. Twenty-three patients who sustained unilateral simple zygomatic bone fracture and underwent open reduction in our unit were included in this study. Of these patients, 15 fractures were fixed using one mini-plate, and 8 fractures were fixed using two or three mini-plates. All of the patients in the multiple-fixation group sustained simple zygomatic bone fractures, besides impure type blow out fractures (3 cases), or open wounds around the orbital rim (5 cases). Two measurements representing vertical and horizontal changes were obtained to evaluate postoperative zygomatic bone movement. Statistical analyses of cephalometric measurements (vertical and horizontal) did not show any significant differences between the two groups. These findings suggested that one-plate fixation for zygomatic bone fracture was sufficiently rigid when the fracture was not comminuted and three-point alignment could be achieved. (author)

  16. The CT flare response of metastatic bone disease in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiou, Christina; deSouza, Nandita M. (Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)), email: Christina.Messiou@icr.ac.uk; Cook, Gary (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)); Reid, Alison H.M.; Attard, Gerhardt; Dearnaley, David; deBono, Johann S. (Inst. of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom))

    2011-06-15

    Background New or worsening bone lesions in patients responding to treatment, known as the flare phenomenon is well described on 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy, but to our knowledge has not previously been described on CT. The appearance of new or worsening bone sclerosis on CT in patients with prostate cancer may therefore be erroneously classified as disease progression. Purpose To assess the incidence of osteoblastic healing flare response at 3-month CT assessment in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and to identify associated features that enable differentiation from progressive metastatic bone disease at 3 months. Material and Methods CT scans of 67 patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer undergoing treatment were reviewed by a radiologist blinded to clinical outcome. Changes in number, size, and density of metastatic bone lesions were documented and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) in soft tissue lesions, alkaline phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, and 99mTc-MDP bone scans were used for correlation. Results Of the 39 patients who had 3- and 6-month follow-up, eight patients (21%) demonstrated an increase in number, size, or density of sclerotic lesions on the 3-month CT scan despite improvement in PSA and soft tissue lesions. Three out of eight patients (8%) maintained partial response/remained stable at follow-up and were defined as showing a flare response: in this group bone metastases evident on CT showed a qualitative and quantitative increase in density and no lesions faded at 3 months. In contrast, in all patients who progressed at 3 months by PSA/RECIST criteria (n = 8) bone lesions showed a mixed pattern with some lesions increasing and others decreasing in density. Conclusion The incidence of flare response of metastatic bone disease evident at 3-month post-treatment CT in patients with prostate cancer undergoing systemic treatment is 8%. In patients with falling PSA and stable/responding soft tissue disease at 3 months an increase in bone sclerosis in the absence of fading bone metastases can be interpreted as flare and is likely to represent a response

  17. The Enigmatic Bench Unit of Endeavour Crater Rim in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    For the first 2680 sols of its mission, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed across essentially the same rocks: sulfur-rich sandstones known as the Burns formation. On August 8, 2011 Opportunity completed a ~21 km traverse from Victoria crater to the rim of the ~22 km diameter Endeavour crater where it crossed a slightly raised smooth bench unit that surrounds an interior core of higher standing and more rugged terrain on a rim segment named Cape York. As recognized by its distinctive morphologic character evident in orbital images, the inward sloping bench feature is found associated with portions of other segments of the discontinuous raised rim of Endeavour crater. Viewed by Opportunity, it appears as platy, fractured, relatively light-toned outcrop that is fine-grained, lacks hematite concretions and in places hosts veins of Ca- and S-rich composition, likely due to precipitation of gypsum in fractures that cut the bench unit (1). The bench outcrop target named Grasberg included a grind using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) to obtain a cleaner surface for the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer chemistry measurement compared with the initially investigated target named Deadwood. In addition to its greater strength than Burns formation as determined by the RAT grind operation, Grasberg and other examples of the bench unit have lower S, higher Cl and other elemental characteristics that depart from typical Burns formation. Thus the 'Grasberg unit' clearly represents a distinct rock type compared to the Meridiani plains. A second unit makes up the exposed core of the Cape York rim segment. Known as Shoemaker formation, it is composed of breccias that are recognized as a suevite deposit produced from the Endeavour impact event (1). The Shoemaker formation appears to be onlapped by the Grasberg unit with Burns formation onlapping it (1). However, a well-exposed section observed in a wedge-shaped fracture known as Whim Creek on the northeast portion of the Cape York bench clearly presents Grasberg rocks above Burns rocks. Erosion of a plunging synclinal form could explain this apparent inverted relationship, or it reveals that the Grasberg unit is younger than Burns formation. But this latter interpretation implies that Grasberg rocks, which have been observed only at the Endeavour rim, have been stripped off of Burns formation everywhere else. The Grasberg bench unit has recently been encountered in an isthmus setting between two low knobs of presumed Shoemaker formation called Nobbys Head and Sutherland Point just south of Cape York. The isthmus also presents Grasberg as topographically elevated above the Burns formation rocks. Despite its broad, smooth exposure, no remnants of Burns formation have been found on top of Grasberg at this location or anywhere on the Cape York bench. So the stratigraphic relationship between Grasberg and Burns rocks remains enigmatic. At the time of writing, Opportunity is at the edge of Solander Point, another bench feature on the northern tip of a rim segment known as Cape Tribulation. The erosional expression of this example appears different from those examined previously and perhaps offers the best chance to understand stratigraphic relationships. 1. S. W. Squyres et al., Ancient impact and aqueous processes at Endeavour Crater, Mars. Science 336, 570 (2012).

  18. [Imaging of bone metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Thariat, Juliette; Nouri, Yasir; Foti, Pauline; Hericord, Olivier; Stolear, Sandy; Coco, Lucia; Hauger, Olivier; Huwart, Laurent; Boileau, Pascal

    2013-11-01

    Bone metastases are detected at initial diagnosis of cancer in 25% of cases and bone metastases are common in the course of a majority of cancer types. The spine and proximal long bones are the most affected sites. Knowledge of the basic radiological semiology is important to make the proper diagnosis of metastasis(s) bone(s), especially in situations in which the clinical context is not suggestive of metastases (such as cases where bone metastases are inaugural or cases of peripheral solitary metastasis). Tumor aggressiveness can be assessed at the level of the cortical bone and periosteum. Lodwick criteria are useful for the diagnosis of malignancy and tumor aggressiveness at initial diagnosis on plain radiographs, which are very important in the context of bone metastases. A CT scanner is required to confirm the malignancy of a bone lesion. MRI is complementary to the scanner including for the assessment of bone marrow involvement and tumor extensions. PMID:24184968

  19. Nd and Sr isotope compositions in modern and fossil bones - Proxies for vertebrate provenance and taphonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tütken, Thomas; Vennemann, Torsten W.; Pfretzschner, Hans-U.

    2011-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REE), while not essential for the physiologic functions of animals, are ingested and incorporated in ppb concentrations in bones and teeth. Nd isotope compositions of modern bones of animals from isotopically distinct habitats demonstrate that the 143Nd/ 144Nd of the apatite can be used as a fingerprint for bedrock geology or ambient water mass. This potentially allows the provenance and migration of extant vertebrates to be traced, similar to the use of Sr isotopes. Although REE may be enriched by up to 5 orders of magnitude during diagenesis and recrystallization of bone apatite, in vivo143Nd/ 144Nd may be preserved in the inner cortex of fossil bones or enamel. However, tracking the provenance of ancient or extinct vertebrates is possible only for well-preserved archeological and paleontological skeletal remains with in vivo-like Nd contents at the ppb-level. Intra-bone and -tooth REE analysis can be used to screen for appropriate areas. Large intra-bone Nd concentration gradients of 10 1-10 3 are often measured. Nd concentrations in the inner bone cortex increase over timescales of millions of years, while bone rims may be enriched over millenial timescales. Nevertheless, ? Nd values are often similar within one ? Nd unit within a single bone. Larger intra-bone differences in specimens may either reflect a partial preservation of in vivo values or changing ? Nd values of the diagenetic fluid during fossilization. However, most fossil specimens and the outer rims of bones will record taphonomic 143Nd/ 144Nd incorporated post mortem during diagenesis. Unlike REE patterns, 143Nd/ 144Nd are not biased by fractionation processes during REE-uptake into the apatite crystal lattice, hence the ? Nd value is an important tracer for taphonomy and reworking. Bones and teeth from autochthonous fossil assemblages have small variations of ±1 ? Nd unit only. In contrast, fossil bones and teeth from over 20 different marine and terrestrial fossil sites have a total range of ? Nd values from -13.0 to 4.9 ( n = 80), often matching the composition of the embedding sediment. This implies that the surrounding sediment is the source of Nd in the fossil bones and that the specimens of this study seem not to have been reworked. Differences in ? Nd values between skeletal remains and embedding sediment may either indicate reworking of fossils and/or a REE-uptake from a diagenetic fluid with non-sediment derived ? Nd values. The latter often applies to fossil shark teeth, which may preserve paleo-seawater values. Complementary to ? Nd values, 87Sr/ 86Sr can help to further constrain the fossil provenance and reworking.

  20. RIMS: An Integrated Mapping and Analysis System with Applications to Earth Sciences and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, A. A.; Glidden, S.; Shiklomanov, A. I.; Lammers, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    A web-based information and computational system for analysis of spatially distributed Earth system, climate, and hydrologic data have been developed. The System allows visualization, data exploration, querying, manipulation and arbitrary calculations with any loaded gridded or vector polygon dataset. The system's acronym, RIMS, stands for its core functionality as a Rapid Integrated Mapping System. The system can be deployed for a Global scale projects as well as for regional hydrology and climatology studies. In particular, the Water Systems Analysis Group of the University of New Hampshire developed the global and regional (Northern Eurasia, pan-Arctic) versions of the system with different map projections and specific data. The system has demonstrated its potential for applications in other fields of Earth sciences and education. The key Web server/client components of the framework include (a) a visualization engine built on Open Source libraries (GDAL, PROJ.4, etc.) that are utilized in a MapServer; (b) multi-level data querying tools built on XML server-client communication protocols that allow downloading map data on-the-fly to a client web browser; and (c) data manipulation and grid cell level calculation tools that mimic desktop GIS software functionality via a web interface. Server side data management of the system is designed around a simple database of dataset metadata facilitating mounting of new data to the system and maintaining existing data in an easy manner. RIMS contains "built-in" river network data that allows for query of upstream areas on-demand which can be used for spatial data aggregation and analysis of sub-basin areas. RIMS is an ongoing effort and currently being used to serve a number of websites hosting a suite of hydrologic, environmental and other GIS data.

  1. Anterior versus posterior, and rim-rent rotator cuff tears: prevalence and MR sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To determine the relative distribution of the locations of rotator cuff tears, and the sensitivity of anterior versus posterior tears on MR images. Patients and methods. We identified 110 consecutive patients who had a shoulder MR and either a partial-thickness or a small full-thickness rotator cuff tear diagnosed at arthroscopy. MR sensitivity and patient age were compared between patients with tears in the anterior and posterior halves of the cuff. In addition, in patients with partial tears less than 2 cm in diameter, an age comparison between those with tears in the critical zone and those with articular surface tears adjacent to the bony insertion (rim-rent tear) was performed. Results. The tear was centered in the anterior half of the rotator cuff in 79% of the patients younger than 36 years old, and in 89% of the patients 36 years old and over. The average age of the patients with tears in the anterior half (44 years) was not significantly different from the average age of those with posterior tears (40 years). The sensitivity of MR for anterior tears was 0.69, and for posterior tears it was 0.56. Five of the nine rim-rent tears (0.56) were interpreted correctly on the original MR report; two of the other tears were misinterpreted as intratendinous fluid but were diagnosable in retrospect. Conclusion. Even in patients less than 36 years old, most partial and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears are centered in the anterior half of the supraspinatus.in the anterior half of the supraspinatus. Although our figure for MR sensitivity for these tears is lower than in recent articles, we found no significant difference between the sensitivity of MR for diagnosing posterior tears versus tears in the anterior half of the supraspinatus tendon. Rim-rent tears can be mistaken for intratendinous signal, and should be carefully looked for in younger patients with shoulder pain. (orig.)

  2. Application of bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scanning has varied applications, particularly in the file of oncology. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with cancers that metastatize to the bones (breast, prostate CA), also in primary bone cancers, infections of the bones and joints. In early stages of primary breast CA (stage I and II), the incidence of unsuspected bone metastasis is only 1-5%. On the other hand, bone scans serve as a baseline study if bone mets occur at some later stage. In patients with stage II and III breast CA, the conversion from normal to abnormal bone scans is 15% and 17%, respectively, clearly in favor of a baseline bone scan. For prostate CA, bone scanning should be used in conjunction with PSA level determination. In advanced disease, a bone scan will define the extent of the metastases, show problematic lesions in weight-bearing bones, and even allow us to evaluate response to therapy in follow-up bone scans. In patients with lung CA, a positive bone scan will make surgery of the primary lesion inappropriate. For other cancers, a bone scan maybe used if there are other signs, whether clinical or chemical, indicating bone involvement. In patients with GIT, liver, skin, brain or bladder CA, routine bone scanning may be considered superfluous. For patients with suspected infection, a 3-phase bone scan is more desirable. In patients with septic arthritis, the bones of each side of the joint take up the radiopharmaceutical while in patients with cellulitis without while in patients with cellulitis without bony involvement, only the first two phases (dynamic and bloodpool images) will be abnormal. Bone scanning is also used in avascular lesions such as Legg-calve-Perthes disease where one will see reduced uptake of Tc99m MDP. The advent of SPECT imaging has greatly increased the sensitivity in diagnosing AVN. (author)

  3. Bone grafting: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, D. O.; Tank, P. H.; Mahida, H. K.; Dhami, M. A.; Vedpathak, H. S.; Karle, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor) to site (recipient). Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports...

  4. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals mainly with technetium bone scanning agents but it also pays some attention to the optimization of rhenium bone seeking agents. Aspects covered include characterization methods used for bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the characterization of technetium bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the interaction of technetium radiopharmaceuticals with blood proteins, adsorption of technetium radiopharmaceuticals on hydroxyapatite, interaction of technetium radiopharmaceuticals with Calvaria, in vivo process occurring after i.v. infection of technetium radiopharmaceuticals and the optimization of bone scanning agents. (U.K.)

  5. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Gelsema, W.J.; Tji, T.G.; Huigen, Y.M.; Vink, H.A. (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Analytisch Chemisch Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    This review deals mainly with technetium bone scanning agents but it also pays some attention to the optimization of rhenium bone seeking agents. Aspects covered include characterization methods used for bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the characterization of technetium bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals, the interaction of technetium radiopharmaceuticals with blood proteins, adsorption of technetium radiopharmaceuticals on hydroxyapatite, interaction of technetium radiopharmaceuticals with Calvaria, in vivo process occurring after i.v. infection of technetium radiopharmaceuticals and the optimization of bone scanning agents. (U.K.).

  6. Bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Yilgor Huri; Nesrin Hasirci; Vasif Hasirci

    2008-01-01

    The requirement for new bone to replace or restore the function of damaged or lost bone is a major clinical and social need. Bone tissue engineering has been considered as the alternative strategy to produce artificial bone grafts. The strategy of the method is to combine progenitor or mature cells isolated from desired cell source with biodegradable scaffolds to produce 3-D viable artificial bone in the laboratory conditions. Incorporation of growth factors that are regulators of cellular ac...

  7. First synthesis of upper rim mono and dinitrone calix[4]arene derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Caroline; Vocanson, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A new class of calix[4]arene derivatives bearing one or two nitrone groups on the upper rim has been synthesized using the oxidation of chiral imines with hydrogen peroxide. The imine intermediates were obtained via amination of the diformyl derivative. The 1H NMR spectra and X-ray data indicated a 1,3-disubstituted cone conformation for the imine derivatives and the existence of a single (E,E) isomer. The structural identity of the nitrone derivatives was confirmed from N...

  8. Wake Flow Simulations for a Mid-Sized Rim Driven Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob O. Hovsapian; Various

    2014-06-01

    The onshore land where wind farms with conventional wind turbines can be places is limited by various factors including a requirement for relatively high wind speed for turbines' efficient operations. Where such a requirement cannot be met, mid-and small-sized turbines can be a solution. In the current paper simulations for near and for wakes behind a mid-sized Rim Driven Wind Turbine developed by Keuka Energy LLC is analyzed. The purposes of this study is to better understand the wake structure for more efficient wind farm planning. Simulations are conducted with the commercial CFD software STARCCM+

  9. Positron emission tracking of individual particles in particle-laden rimming flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motion of a single tracer particle in particle-laden rimming flows is investigated experimentally by means of Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT). Semi-dilute suspensions, with a volume fraction of 8% of heavy particles are considered. The trajectory of the tracer particle is monitored for several thousand cylinder revolutions and related to the optically recorded drift of the large-scale granular segregation bands developing in the cylinder. Results of the data analysis provide first insights into the relation between behaviour of individual particles and the spatiotemporal dynamics displayed by the macroscopic particle-segregation patterns

  10. The rim effect and other high-burnup modeling for NRC fuel performance codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recently initiated a new program to review data on the material properties of fuel and cladding at high burnup levels. The objective of this program is to update NRC fuel performance models within fuel performance codes to improve their predictive capability to rod-average burnup levels of 60 GWd/MTM. Models being reviewed for improvement at the higher burnup levels are fission gas release, fuel swelling, gap conductance, fuel thermal conductivity, pellet rim structure, radial power distribution, cladding corrosion/hydriding, and cladding mechanical properties

  11. Paget's sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most sinister complication of Paget's disease is malignant degeneration. The true etiology of Paget's disease remains unproven and unknown. The relative incidence of sarcoma ranges from 0.9% to 20% depending upon the population source. The anatomical distribution of lesions is similar to that of uncomplicated Paget's disease except for the high incidence in the humerus and rare occurrence in the spine. Approximately 50% of the lesions histologically represent osteosarcomas, with fibrosarcoma, fibrous histiocytoma, chondrosarcoma and giant cell tumor rarely occurring. The radiographic presentation is most commonly lytic, but sclerotic and mixed patterns occur. Cortical destruction and soft tissue mass are the cardinal radiographic signs. Malignant periosteal response is seldom found associated with Paget's sarcoma. The most common sites are femur, humerus, pelvis, skull and tibia. The prognosis is fatal at a very rapid rate. There are but a few isolated cases of long-term survival reported. (orig.)

  12. Bone disease in hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L

    2014-07-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder that may be acquired or inherited. Postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is responsible for the majority of acquired hypoparathyroidism. Bone disease occurs in hypoparathyroidism due to markedly reduced bone remodeling due to the absence or low levels of parathyroid hormone. Chronically reduced bone turnover in patients with hypoparathyroidism typically leads to higher bone mass than in age- and sex-matched controls. Whether this increased bone density reduces fracture risk is less certain, because while increased bone mineralization may be associated with increased brittleness of bone, this does not appear to be the case in hypoparathyroidism. Treatment of hypoparathyroidism with recombinant parathyroid hormone may reduce bone mineral density but simultaneously strengthen the mechanical properties of bone. PMID:25166046

  13. X-ray Proper Motions and Shock Speeds along the Northwest Rim of SN 1006

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P; Williams, Brian J; Winkler, P Frank

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an X-ray proper motion measurement for the NW rim of SN1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 and 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN1006 with significant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated filament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is about 0.30 arcsec/yr, essentially the same as has been measured from the H-alpha filament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0.49 arcsec/yr, close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of about 3000 km/s and 5000 km/s in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H-alpha filament is consistent with the picture that SN1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall m...

  14. Review of psychiatric services to mentally disordered offenders around the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Brink, Johann; Chern, Tor P; Choi, Wing-Kit; Hern-Yee, Jerome Goh; Green, Bob; Heffernan, Ed; Johnson, Sarah B; Kachaeva, Margarita; Shiina, Akihiro; Walker, David; Wu, Kevin; Wang, Xiaoping; Mellsop, Graham

    2014-03-01

    This article was commissioned to collate and review forensic psychiatric services provided in a number of key Pacific Rim locations in the hope that it will assist in future dialogue about service development. The Board of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists identified experts in forensic psychiatry from Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the US. Each contributor provided an account of issues in their jurisdiction, including mental health services to mentally disordered offenders in prison, competence or fitness to stand trial, legal insanity as a defense at trial, diminished responsibility, and special forensic services available, including forensic hospitals and community forensic mental health services. Responses have been collated and are presented topic by topic and country by country within the body of this review. The availability of mental health screening and psychiatric in-reach or forensic liaison services within prisons differed considerably between countries, as did provisioning of community forensic mental health and rehabilitation services. Diversion of mentally disordered offenders to forensic, state, or hybrid hospitals was common. Legal constructs of criminal responsibility (insanity defense) and fitness to stand trial ("disability") are almost universally recognized, although variably used. Disparities between unmet needs and resourcing available were common themes. The legislative differences between contributing countries with respect to the mental health law and criminal law relating to mentally disordered offenders are relatively subtle. The major differences lie in operationalizing and resourcing forensic services. PMID:24249353

  15. Ultratrace analysis of plutonium in environmental samples by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Erdmann, N.; Grüning, C.; Kratz, J. V.; Waldek, A.; Huber, G.; Nunnemann, M.; Passler, G.

    2000-07-01

    Plutonium is present in the environment mainly as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests, satellite and reactor accidents as well as releases from nuclear facilities. Sensitive and fast detection methods are required for risk assessment, low-level surveillance of the environment, personnel dose monitoring, studies of biological effects and investigations of the migration behavior of plutonium. Furthermore, the isotopic composition is of interest to get information from what source the plutonium contamination originated. Alpha-spectroscopy is most frequently used for the determination of trace amounts of plutonium in the environment with the disadvantage that the detection sensitivity depends on the half-life of the isotope to be measured and that there are limitations in the isotopic resolution. Conventional mass spectrometry may suffer from isobaric interferences. Therefore, in the last years resonant laser ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) has been explored as an alternative for ultratrace analysis of plutonium. This method provides a high element and isotope selectivity and a good overall efficiency, resulting in a detection limit of ˜106 atoms (˜0.4 fg). RIMS meets also the requirements of a low background and a short measuring time (1-2 h).

  16. A bright-rimmed cloud sculpted by the H ii region Sh2-48

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, M E; Giacani, E; Rubio, M; Dubner, G

    2013-01-01

    To characterize a bright-rimmed cloud embedded in the HII region Sh2-48 searching for evidence of triggered star formation. We carried out observations towards a region of 2'x2' centered at RA=18h 22m 11.39s, dec.=-14deg 35m 24.81s (J2000) using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE; Chile) in the 12CO J=3-2,13CO J=3-2, HCO+ J=4-3, and CS J=7-6 lines with an angular resolution of about 22". We also present radio continuum observations at 5 GHz carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA; EEUU) interferometer with a synthetized beam of 7"x5". The analysis of our molecular observations reveals the presence of a relatively dense clump with n(H_2)~3x10^3 cm^-3, located in projection onto the interior of the HII region Sh2-48. The emission distribution of the four observed molecular transitions has, at VLSR~38 kms^-1, morphological anti-correlation with the bright-rimmed cloud as seen in the optical emission. From the new radio continuum observations we identify a thin layer of ionized gas lo...

  17. Bilobed flap for reconstruction of defects of the helical rim and posterior ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilis-Kalner, Irene J; Goldberg, Leonard H

    2010-01-01

    When contemplating the repair of defects involving the ear, second intention healing and full or split thickness skin grafts are often considered for reconstructive choices. Closing the combined full thickness helical rim and posterior ear defects, however, represents a reconstructive challenge because of the lack of available freely mobile skin anteriorly, superiorly, and inferiorly to the defect. The choice of the bilobed flap circumvents this challenge by rotating the skin and recruiting the tissue from the post-auricular sulcus, the lower pole of the posterior ear, and, if necessary, from the superior area of the neck adjacent to the posterior ear. This bilobed flap also enables an inconspicuous closure of the donor site and provides sufficient blood supply to ensure flap viability in a simple one-stage repair. Herein, we describe two cases in which we used the bilobed flap to rotate skin from the post-auricular surface to reconstruct full thickness skin defects involving the helical rim and posterior ear, with excellent cosmetic results. PMID:21062603

  18. The GT-MHR - clear, economic, and safe power for the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades the nations of the Pacific Rim have outpaced the rest of the world in economic growth. Beyond an abundant labor market and the region's natural resources, energy has played a pivotal role in fuelling this boom. The diverse sources of this energy largely reflect the naturally occurring fuel assets in the Rim countries. Only in the countries where these resources are less plentiful has nuclear energy become a significant sources of electric power generation. Persuasive as the argument for non-polluting power may be by itself it does not sell the nuclear energy option. In addition to being clean it must also be economically competitive and very safe. The authors claim that the Gas-Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) is an advances nuclear power system that addresses the issues, and should be viewed as an attractive candidate to meet future energy needs. The GT-MHR derives from the coupling of a small, passively safe, modular reactor directly with a compact power conversion module. It uses the Brayton cycle to produce electricity directly with the primary helium coolant driving the turbine-generator. Thus, it shows promise for a quantum reduction in power generation costs by increasing plant efficiency to a remarkable 48% This paper highlights the advantages of the fact that the design is based on proven technology, and offers a clean, economic and safe energy for electricity and high temperature process heat. 2 refs., 4 figs. 2 refs., 4 figs

  19. Nonthermal emission properties of the northwestern rim of supernova remnant RX J0852-4622

    CERN Document Server

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Uchiyama, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852-4622 (Vela Jr., G266.6-1.2) is one of the most important SNRs for investigating the acceleration of multi-TeV particles and the origin of Galactic cosmic rays because of its strong synchrotron X-ray and TeV gamma-ray emission, which show a shell-like morphology similar to each other. Using the XMM-Newton archival data consisting of multiple pointing observations of the northwestern rim of the remnant, we investigate the spatial properties of the nonthermal X-ray emission as a function of distance from an outer shock wave. All X-ray spectra are well reproduced by an absorbed power-law model above 2 keV. It is found that the spectra show gradual softening from a photon index 2.56 in the rim region to 2.96 in the interior region. We show that this radial profile can be interpreted as a gradual decrease of the cutoff energy of the electron spectrum due to synchrotron cooling. By using a simple spectral evolution model that includes continuous synchrotron losses, the spectral s...

  20. Detection of submicron rim growth on zircon using ion microprobe U-Pb age depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. M.; Grove, M.; Whitney, D. L.; Teyssier, C.

    2006-12-01

    The rims of zircon commonly preserve crucial U-Pb age information for deciphering thermotectonic events in orogenic crust. In many cases, the rims recording the last phase of zircon growth are < 1 micron and are hence difficult or impossible to analyze using conventional methods, including ion probe spot analyses. In the migmatitic core of the Valhalla gneiss dome complex of British Columbia, rocks were variably affected by a partial melting and deformation event at 60-50 Ma. Some leucosomes in migmatites with variable melt fraction (5-30 percent) yield 60-50 Ma zircon and monazite U-Pb and Th-Pb ages that constrain when partial melting, extension, and exhumation of the dome occurred. In contrast, zircons from a granodiorite gneiss in the core of the dome contain no easily accessed record of the Eocene event and instead record its 100 Ma emplacement age. To enhance our ability to resolve the Eocene event, we performed "ion drilling" into zircon crystal faces to measure U-Pb age depth profiles with <100 nm spatial resolution with a CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. Zircon was analyzed from 3 samples: leucosome from a stromatic migmatite, leucosome crystallized in a boudin neck, and the granodiorite gneiss. The stromatic leucosome yielded a consistent age of ca. 51 Ma over 4 microns. Previous conventional spot analyses of the same grains (analyzed in polished grain mounts) showed ages from ca. 450 Ma to ca. 52.5 Ma. In the case of the boudin neck, previous spot analyses of zircon had yielded concordant ages of 62 and 59 Ma; however, with the depth profiling technique, most grain rims yielded age gradients from ca. 42 Ma to ca. 60 Ma over the outermost 1-2 microns of the crystals. Zircons from the ca. 100 Ma granodiorite gneiss revealed very high U (to 99805 ppm) rims developed over the outer 100-250 nm. Below the high U rim, the grains record ages that increased from ca. 50 to 90 Ma within the first 0.5 microns of the crystal face. The outermost high-U regions yielded very young and geologically unrealistic U-Pb ages (ca. 26 Ma) that directly correlate with U content and appear to reflect Pb loss. Even though the 3 samples are petrologically and structurally distinct, and represent different structural locations in the dome, all reveal some evidence for an Eocene thermotectonic event. Our results demonstrate the utility of the high- resolution, depth profiling capability of the ion microprobe, and its complementary role to conventional SIMS, LAICPMS, and TIMS U-Pb analyses. In some instances it may represent the only method capable of resolving crucial U-Pb age information preserved at the submicron scale at the outermost surfaces of zircon.

  1. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Bone: Radiological Pattern and the Potential Role of CBCT in Early Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Olutayo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To systematize the clinico-radiological symptoms and course of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw bone and to evaluate the diagnostic potential of various radiological techniques to detect mild osteonecrosis in each stage of the disease.Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 22 patients previously diagnosed with extraoral malignant disease. Diagnosis was based on a clinical examination in conjunction to digital panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Two dentomaxillofacial radiologists reviewed all images.Results: Twenty patients showed mandibular involvement clinically, while two others had a maxillary involvement. Four stages of the disease were proposed based on the clinico-radiological findings. Subclinical cortical and lamina dura thickening was detected with only three-dimensional CBCT and periapical images, while ulceration and cortical bone thickening was detected only by three-dimensional CBCT. Mixed sclerotic, lytic bone destruction involving alveolar and basal bone with or without encroachment on the mandibular canal, pathological mandibular fractures were detected by two-dimensional panoramic and three-dimensional CBCT images. Other findings are non healing extraction sockets, periapical radiolucencies, osteolysis, sequestra, oroantral fistula, and periosteal new bone formation.Conclusions: The present study showed that bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw bone occurs in four distinct clinico-radiological stages. For mild cases, panoramic image diagnosis was much less obvious, whereas cone beam computed tomography was able to fully characterise the bony lesions and describe their extent and involvement of neighbouring structures in all cases. Thus cone beam computed tomography might better contribute to the prevention of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw bone as well to the disease management.

  2. MRI of degenerative bone marrow lesions in experimental osteoarthritis of canine knee joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the value of MRI in the detection of degenerative bone marrow abnormalities in an animal osteoarthritis model. Design. In 10 dogs with experimentally induced unilateral osteoarthritis of the knee, MRI was performed using two-dimensional spin-echo (2D-SE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D-GE) imaging. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted 2D-SE sequences were also obtained after injection of gadolinium-DTPA. The results were compared with the gross and histopathologic findings and with radiography. Results. Histopathologic specimens revealed 21 osteosclerotic lesions and 5 intraosseous cysts. On 2D-SE images, 24 of 26 lesions were detected, while 21 of 26 lesions were identified on 2D-GE sequences. Radiography, including conventional tomography, demonstrated 9 of 26 lesions. Regardless of the sequence weighting, all osteosclerotic lesions appeared hypointense on MRI. Signal loss in bone sclerosis resulted primarily from the reduction of intact fat marrow, the increased bone density being of secondary importance. Quantitative signal analysis allowed approximate estimation of the grade of sclerosis. On postcontrast images, sclerotic bone remained hypointense, although significant but non-specific enhancement relative to the normal fat marrow was observed. The extent of contrast enhancement did not correlate with the grade of osteosclerosis. All five cysts were readily diagnosed by MRI. Cysts displayed either central od by MRI. Cysts displayed either central or marginal contrast enhancement within their cavities. Conclusions. MRI provides a sensitive method for the diagnosis of osteoarthritic bone abnormalities, allowing their differentiation from most non-degenerative subarticular lesions. (orig.). With 1 tab

  3. Pathology of bone injury

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasou, Na

    2009-01-01

    Although the response to injury in bone has some characteristics in common with that in soft tissues, bone repair differs in that it occurs in a mineralized tissue that has a high degree of cellular and molecular organization. Bone is a unique tissue in the body as it is capable of reconstituting itself following injury. Almost any pathological insult to bone can be said to cause a bone injury. This review deals with the response to bone injury that occurs secondary to physical agents, notabl...

  4. Calcium and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Calcium and Bone Health Bones play many roles in ... with osteoporosis, please visit the National Osteoporosis Foundation .* Calcium Calcium is a mineral needed by the body ...

  5. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (217 ... Overtraining Risks for Women Oral Health Partner Resources Smoking: It’s Never Too Late to Stop (NIA)

  6. Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat symptoms in patients with incurable MBD. By killing the cancer cells, radiation relieves pain, stops the ... Entire bone segments or multiple bones can be targeted by local ? eld radiation, depending upon how ...

  7. Modelo de tumor experimental em rim de ratos / Experimental tumor model in rats kidney

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lúcio Flávio Gonzaga, Silva; Felipe dos Santos Dias, Soares; José Nilson Nunes, Anselmo; Daniel Mota Moura, Fé; João Luiz Barbosa Gurgel, Cavalcante; Manoel Odorico de, Moraes; Paulo Roberto Leitão de, Vasconcelos.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker tem despertado o interesse de muitos pesquisadores como modelo experimental para estudo da biologia tumoral. OBJETIVO: estabelecer um modelo de tumor renal que possa ser usado para estudar in vivo e in vitro, as alterações impostas pelas neoplasias. MÉTODOS: utilizado [...] s vinte ratos Wistar, machos, adultos, pesando entre 250-300 g, oriundos do Laboratório de Cirurgia Experimental da Universidade Federal do Ceará. Sob anestesia inalatória procedia-se uma pequena incisão supraumbilical, e com manobra delicada fazia-se a exposição do rim direito. Neste órgão eram inoculadas 3x10(5) células tumorais viáveis. Os animais então eram mantidos em gaiolas individuais com as mesmas condições ambientais e com água e dieta ad libitum. RESULTADOS: o Carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker, implantado no parênquima do rim direito de ratos Wistar apresentou índice de pega de 100%, e crescimento rápido, invadiu por contiguidade as estruturas vizinhas, porém sem apresentar metástases, no entanto, levando os animais a óbito no curso médio de 14 dias. CONCLUSÃO: o modelo de implante de tumor de Walker no parênquima do rim direito de ratos Wistar é eficiente, tem reprodutibilidade, apresentando um índice de pega de 100%, e permitindo seu uso em linhas de pesquisa. Abstract in english Walker carcinossarcoma 256 has a great interest as experimental model for studies on tumoral biology. OBJECTIVE: develop a kidney tumor model to be used in the evaluation of the biological behavior of neoplasms in vitro and in vivo environments. METHODS: twenty adult male Wistar rats weighting betwe [...] en 250-300 g were obtained from the Federal University of the Ceará Experimental Surgery Laboratory. Upon ether anesthesia, the right kidney of each animal was accessed through a supraumbelical incision and inoculated with a solution containing 3 x 10(5) tumor cells (Walker 256 carcinossarcoma tumor cells). Following anesthetic recovery the rats were returned to their cages, housed individually and allowed to eat and drink ad libitum. RESULTS: the post-operative average survival was 14 days. Tumor growth was encountered in all animals. The rats exhibited destruction of the kidney, invasion of the adjacent structures, but absence of metastasis. CONCLUSION: the kidney Walker tumor model proved to be an excellent tool for experimental studies on tumor behavior, due to its rapid growth and its easy reproduction.

  8. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN BRIGHT-RIMMED CLOUD SFO 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the young stellar population in and around SFO 38, one of the massive globules located in the northern part of the Galactic H II region IC 1396, using the Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations (3.6-24 ?m), and followed up with ground-based optical photometric and spectroscopic observations. Based on the IRAC and MIPS colors and H? emission, we identify ?45 young stellar objects (Classes 0/I/II) and 13 probable pre-main-sequence candidates. We derive the spectral types (mostly K- and M-type stars), effective temperatures, and individual extinction of the relatively bright and optically visible Class II objects. Most of the Class II objects show variable H? emission as well as optical and near-infrared photometric variability, which confirm their 'youth'. Based on optical photometry and theoretical isochrones, we estimate the spread in stellar ages to be between 1 and 8 Myr with a median age of 3 Myr and a mass distribution of 0.3-2.2 Msun with a median value around 0.5 Msun. Using the width of the H? emission line measured at 10% peak intensity, we derive the mass accretion rates of individual objects to be between 10-10 and 10-8 Msun yr-1. From the continuum-subtracted H? line image, we find that the H? emission of the globule is not spatially symmetric with respect to the O-type ionizing star HD 206267, and the interstellar extinction toward the globule is also anomalous. We che globule is also anomalous. We clearly detect an enhanced concentration of YSOs closer to the southern rim of SFO 38 and identify an evolutionary sequence of YSOs from the rim to the dense core of the cloud, with most of the Class II objects located at the bright rim. The YSOs appear to be aligned along two different directions toward the O6.5V type star HD 206267 and the B0V type star HD 206773. This is consistent with the Radiation Driven Implosion (RDI) model for triggered star formation. Further, the apparent speed of sequential star formation is consistent with the speed of propagation of shocks in dense globules as derived from numerical simulations of RDI.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy: first German long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective:. Since 1991, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for patients with Gaucher disease in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the MR pattern of bone marrow involvement and response to ERT in Gaucher disease type I. Patients and design:. Thirty patients with Gaucher disease type I had MRI examinations prior to initiation of ERT with alglucerase/imiglucerase and during follow-up. Median MR follow-up and duration of ERT were 36 months. Coronal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images of the lower extremities were obtained to evaluate changes in the appearance of yellow marrow. MR images were categorized as having either a homogeneous (type A) or non-homogeneous patchy (type B) appearance of bone involvement and response to ERT was assessed by two radiologists. Results:. Overall, 19 of 30 patients (63%) showed an increased signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images after 36 months of ERT, consistent with partial reconversion of fatty marrow during treatment. Focal bone lesions surrounded by a low signal intensity (SI) rim did not respond to ERT, suggesting bone infarcts. Of the 11 patients with bone infarcts (low SI rim lesion), 82% had the non-homogeneous type B pattern (P=0.0021). In 86% of patients with splenectomy, bone infarcts were seen (P<0.05). Conclusions:. MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences is a valuable, non-invasive method for monitoring bone marrow response in patients receiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy sieceiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy signal intensity of bone marrow involvement correlates with the presence of bone infarcts (P=0.0021). (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow changes in Gaucher disease during enzyme replacement therapy: first German long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poll, L.W.; Koch, J.A.; Scherer, A.; Boerner, D.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Dahl, S. vom; Niederau, C.; Haeussinger, D. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet; Willers, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Rechenzentrum

    2001-09-01

    Objective:. Since 1991, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been available for patients with Gaucher disease in Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the MR pattern of bone marrow involvement and response to ERT in Gaucher disease type I. Patients and design:. Thirty patients with Gaucher disease type I had MRI examinations prior to initiation of ERT with alglucerase/imiglucerase and during follow-up. Median MR follow-up and duration of ERT were 36 months. Coronal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images of the lower extremities were obtained to evaluate changes in the appearance of yellow marrow. MR images were categorized as having either a homogeneous (type A) or non-homogeneous patchy (type B) appearance of bone involvement and response to ERT was assessed by two radiologists. Results:. Overall, 19 of 30 patients (63%) showed an increased signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images after 36 months of ERT, consistent with partial reconversion of fatty marrow during treatment. Focal bone lesions surrounded by a low signal intensity (SI) rim did not respond to ERT, suggesting bone infarcts. Of the 11 patients with bone infarcts (low SI rim lesion), 82% had the non-homogeneous type B pattern (P=0.0021). In 86% of patients with splenectomy, bone infarcts were seen (P<0.05). Conclusions:. MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences is a valuable, non-invasive method for monitoring bone marrow response in patients receiving ERT. A non- homogeneous patchy signal intensity of bone marrow involvement correlates with the presence of bone infarcts (P=0.0021). (orig.)

  11. Photon absorptiometry of bone and bone standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured and parametrised values of the attenuation coefficients of bone and several bone standards are presented for the photon energies 33, 75, 145, 279 and 662 keV. The values are compared, inadequacies are highlighted and possible new formulations are discussed. (author)

  12. The N-Acetyltransferase RimJ Responds to Environmental Stimuli To Repress pap Fimbrial Transcription in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    White-ziegler, Christine A.; Black, Alia M.; Eliades, Stacie H.; Young, Sarah; Porter, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    In uropathogenic Escherichia coli, P pili (Pap) facilitate binding to host epithelial cells and subsequent colonization. Whereas P pili can be produced at 37°C, the expression of these fimbriae is suppressed at 23°C. Previously, insertion mutations in rimJ, a gene encoding the N-terminal acetyltransferase of ribosomal protein S5, were shown to disrupt this thermoregulatory response, allowing papBA transcription at low temperature. In this study, we created an in-frame deletion of rimJ. This...

  13. Ultratrace analysis and isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radioisotopes by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N; Passler, G; Wendt, K D A

    2004-01-01

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) is a sensitive and selective method for ultratrace analysis of long-lived radioisotopes and isotope ratio measurements. It provides extremely high isobaric suppression and good overall efficiency. The experimental limits of detection are as low as 10(6) atoms per sample and isotopic selectivities of 5x10(12) have been obtained. The widespread potential of RIMS, using different experimental arrangements, is demonstrated for the determination of the radiotoxic isotopes Pu-238 to Pu-244 and Sr-89/Sr-90 in various environmental samples as well as for Ca-41 in nuclear reactor components and biomedical samples. PMID:14523605

  14. Rough Design of a Double-Stator Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator for a Rim-Driven Marine Current Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Djebarri, Sofiane; Fre?de?ric Charpentier, Jean; Scuiller, Franck; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Guemard, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the rough design of a Double-Stator Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine (DSAFPM) for a rim-driven Marine Current Turbine (MCT). The DSAFPM machine will be compared to a previously developed and realized Radial Flux Permanent Magnet Machine (RFPM); given the same rim-driven MCT specifications. For that purpose, a first-order electromagnetic design model and a thermal one are developed and used to compare active part mass, cost, and thermal behavior of the two machines. Th...

  15. FeO-rich rims and veins in Allende forsterite - Evidence for high temperature condensation at oxidizing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents new data on trace elements in fayalite-rich rims, veins, halos, and matrix olivines in the Allende meteorite. On the basis of new evidence, it is argued that the fayalitic rims were formed by condensation from a gas, and not by thermal equilibration of forsterite with FeO-rich metal or FeO-rich olivine in the interior of a parent body. A similar origin is inferred for fayalitic veins within forsterite crystals. Condensation calculations showed that FeO-rich olivine can be formed by condensation from a gas with enhanced oxygen fugacity. 29 refs

  16. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small anima...

  17. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... Bone density testing can be done several different ways. The most ... x-rays . (You receive more radiation with a chest x-ray.) There ...

  18. SPECT bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The authors present planar bone scintigraphy as the most sensitive imaging test for detecting most forms of skeletal pathology. The bone scan has become the most common nuclear medicine imaging procedure performed in the United States. The authors recommend that SPECT be added to many bone scans and describe currently available rotating gamma camera devices

  19. Growth and instability of the liquid rim in the crown splash regime

    CERN Document Server

    Agbaglah, G

    2014-01-01

    We study the formation, growth, and disintegration of jets following impact of a drop on a thin film of the same liquid for We < 1000 and Re < 2000 using a combination of numerical simulations and linear stability theory (Agbaglah et al. 2013). Our simulations faithfully capture this phenomena and are in good agreement with experimental profiles obtained from high-speed X-ray imaging.We obtain scaling relations from our simulations and use these as inputs to our stability analysis. The resulting prediction for the most unstable wavelength are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Our calculations show that the dominant destabilizing mechanism is a competition between capillarity and inertia but that deceleration of the rim provides an additional boost to growth. We also predict over the entire parameter range of our study the number and timescale for formation of secondary droplets formed during a splash, based on the assumption that the most unstable mode sets the droplet number.

  20. Infrared observations of Barnard 35: Heat sources for bright-rimmed molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted a deep 2 mm wavelength infrared survey of an extended region of enhanced 12CO emission in the bright-rimmed molecular cloud Barnard 35 in order to search for embedded heat sources. Twelve infrared sources were detected, all of which have been identified with visible, apparently foreground stars. Optical spectra were obtained for most of these sources, and we found them to be of relatively late spectral type (i.e., F8 and later). Two of the sources we detected are Ha emission-line, Orion population stars, one of which had been previously classified as Gea. However, we found no evidence for an embedded population of either early type (i.e., B and earlier) or intermediate type (F and earlier) stars in the cloud

  1. The insect-trapping rim of Nepenthes pitchers: surface structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ulrike; Federle, Walter

    2009-11-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes capture prey with a pitfall trap that relies on a micro-structured, slippery surface. The upper pitcher rim (peristome) is fully wettable and causes insects to slip by aquaplaning on a thin water film. The high wettability of the peristome is probably achieved by a combination of hydrophilic surface chemistry, surface roughness and the presence of hygroscopic nectar. Insect foot attachment could be prevented by the delayed drainage of the thin water film between the adhesive pad and the surface. Drainage should be faster for insects with a hairy adhesive system; however, they slip equally on the wet peristome. Therefore the stability of the water film against dewetting appears to be the key factor for aquaplaning. New experimental techniques may help to clarify the detailed function of the pitcher plant peristome and to explore its potential for biomimetic applications. PMID:20009546

  2. Development of RIMS apparatus for isotope analysis of calcium in nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a frequency stabilized laser system of RIMS analysis of a long-lived radionuclide of calcium (41Ca) in concrete waste materials. A stable reference laser has been developed using magnetically induced circular dichroism of atomic rubidium. The frequency stability was estimated to be 50 kHz over 8-h period from beat frequency measurement. Furthermore, a computer-controlled fringe offset lock system has been developed to transfer the high frequency stability to the other lasers for three-step excitation of atomic calcium. By using the system precise frequency tuning of 1 MHz error over 1 GHz scan was realized. The overall frequency tuning precision was also confirmed by a multistep fluorescence and resonance ionization spectroscopy of calcium. (author)

  3. Study of triggered star formation in a bright-rimmed cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M. E.; Paron, S.; Giacani, E.; Petriella, A.

    2014-10-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are small and dense molecular clouds located in the periphery of the evolved HII regions. The illumination of these dark clumps by nearby OB stars might be responsible for triggered collapse and subsequent star formation through the mechanism known as radiation-driven implosion (RDI). We carried out a multi-wavelength study of a BRC located in the periphery of the evolved HII region G52.85-0.55. From the evaluation of the pressure balance between the ionized gas located at the illuminated border of the clump and the molecular gas, we show that shocks are being driven in the external layers of the BRC. On the other hand the pressure balance suggests that the birth of young stellar objects embedded in the BRC could have been initiated by the RDI mechanism.

  4. Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles: Report on clinical characteristics in 23 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV is an autosomal recessive (AR myopathy characterized clinically by the preferential involvement of the tibialis anterior and has been reported predominantly in the Japanese population. Materials and Methods: A case series of DMRV patients seen over a period of 3 years at a tertiary national referral center for neurological disorders in south India. Results: We describe the clinical characteristics, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings and classical histopathological feature in 23 patients. There were 12 men and 11 women. Mean age of onset was 27.04 ± 6.35 years (10-39 years. Onset was in the second or third decade in a majority. Mean age at presentation was 33.95 ± 6.35 years (25-48 years. Mean duration of illness was 6.74 ± 4.8 years (1-18 years. Consanguinity was reported in eight (34.8% patients. The predominant and initial manifestation was bilateral foot drop in all patients. Muscle MRI demonstrated classical involvement of the anterior compartment muscles of the lower legs and the posterior compartment muscles of the thighs and the quadriceps was normal in all. Muscle histopathology showed numerous fibers containing rimmed vacuoles. Necrotic fibers or phagocytosis or regenerating fibers were rarely noted or were absent. Conclusions: DMRV is a rare AR myopathy. The disorder presents as progressive foot drop and hence has many differential diagnoses. It is easily mistaken as neuropathy of hereditary nature and hence it is extremely important to recognize the preferential muscle involvement and characterize the phenotype. This is the first report from India with patients having characteristic phenotype of Nonaka?s/AR hereditary inclusion body myopathy with quadriceps sparing, and all were confirmed by histopathology.

  5. X-RAY PROPER MOTIONS AND SHOCK SPEEDS ALONG THE NORTHWEST RIM OF SN 1006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuda, Satoru [RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Petre, Robert [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Winkler, P. Frank, E-mail: katsuda@crab.riken.jp, E-mail: long@stsci.edu, E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov, E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu, E-mail: winkler@middlebury.edu [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We report the results of an X-ray proper-motion measurement for the NW rim of SN 1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 to 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN 1006 with significant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated filament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is Almost-Equal-To 0.''30 yr{sup -1}, essentially the same as has been measured from the H{alpha} filament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0.''49 yr{sup -1}, close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN 1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of {approx}3000 km s{sup -1} and {approx}5000 km s{sup -1} in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H{alpha} filament is consistent with the picture that SN 1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall morphology. In the thermally dominated portion of the X-ray shell, we also see an offset in the radial profiles at different energies; the 0.5-0.6 keV peak dominated by O VII is closer to the shock front than that of the 0.8-3 keV emission-due to the longer times for heavier elements to reach ionization states where they produce strong X-ray emission.

  6. [Changes and analysis of soil quality under different land use types in oasis rim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Dong-Wei; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Zeng, Fan-Jiang; Mu, Gui-Jin; Yang, Fa-Xiang; Zhu, Jun-Tao

    2010-09-01

    The aggravation process of oasisization leads to changes of land use type in oasis rim. In order to discuss the effects of different land use types on soil properties and soil quality, the four land use types located Cele oasis rim in south margin of Tarim Basin, which are the cotton field, orchard, and Caligonum mongolicum Turcz land use type reclaimed by people and nature state land use type covered by Alhagi sparsifolia SHAP, were selected as study object. The relative soil quality index (RI) and the soil quality synthesis index (SQI) were used to analyse the changes of soil quality between four land use types within 0-20 cm, 2040 cm, 40-60 cm soil depth, respectively. Meantime, the fractal theory was used to analyse the particle-size distribution (PSD) property of top soil under different land use types. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in the soil organic matter and total nitrogen in same soil depth between four land use types; the order ranked according to RI was same to the order ranked according to SQI in each soil depth between four land use types. The cotton field and orchard have an obviously positive effect on soil quality of the top soil, however, the soil quality of Alhagi sparsifolia SHAP land use type was gradually increasing along with the increasing soil depth. The soil properties and soil quality of Caligonum mongolicum Turcz land use type were at the lowest level according to the comparison results among all land use types, and the calculation results of PSD fractal dimension also indicated the Caligonum mongolicum Turcz land use type had the worst ability on maintaining soil fine fractions. PMID:21072954

  7. X-RAY PROPER MOTIONS AND SHOCK SPEEDS ALONG THE NORTHWEST RIM OF SN 1006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of an X-ray proper-motion measurement for the NW rim of SN 1006, carried out by comparing Chandra observations from 2001 to 2012. The NW limb has predominantly thermal X-ray emission, and it is the only location in SN 1006 with significant optical emission: a thin, Balmer-dominated filament. For most of the NW rim, the proper motion is ?0.''30 yr–1, essentially the same as has been measured from the H? filament. Isolated regions of the NW limb are dominated by nonthermal emission, and here the proper motion is much higher, 0.''49 yr–1, close to the value measured in X-rays along the much brighter NE limb, where the X-rays are overwhelmingly nonthermal. At the 2.2 kpc distance to SN 1006, the proper motions imply shock velocities of ?3000 km s–1 and ?5000 km s–1 in the thermal and nonthermal regions, respectively. A lower velocity behind the H? filament is consistent with the picture that SN 1006 is encountering denser gas in the NW, as is also suggested by its overall morphology. In the thermally dominated portion of the X-ray shell, we also see an offset in the radial profiles at different energies; the 0.5-0.6 keV peak dominated by O VII is closer to the shock front than that of the 0.8-3 keV emission—due to the longer times for heavier elements to reach ionization states where they produce strong X-ray emission.

  8. Production optimization of thin-oil rims: Evaluation of a stochastic steepest-ascent approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, I. I.; Markovinovic, R.; Ermolaev, A. I.; Naevdal, G.

    2008-11-15

    This paper is concerned with water flood optimization of oil recovery from thin oil rims of gas-condensate fields. Such fields are notorious for gas and water coning problems, i.e. early gas or water breakthrough in producing wells, causing low recovery efficiency. The optimization method employed in this paper is of a steepest ascent type and may be seen as belonging to the class of stochastic optimization methods, as it involves estimation of the gradient search direction using ensembles of perturbed control strategies. The method is easy to implement and, moreover, it offers a great flexibility, as it is adjoint-free and is not restricted to the use of a specific reservoir simulator. The core of the method, named EnOpt, was recently proposed as an optimizer for the closed-loop reservoir production optimization, that is, the joint data assimilation and hydrocarbon production exercise. In this paper, the usefulness and performance of the optimization scheme are tested on a synthetic model of a homogeneous oil rim reservoir equipped with a horizontal producer and a horizontal injector placed on the opposite sides of the field. The reservoir geology is assumed known. The objective to optimize is a net present value (NPV) as a function, over a fixed production time-horizon, of the injected and produced fluid flow-rates weighted by corresponding economical factors and discount rates. Two different types of the control variables and corresponding constraints on their allowable values are considered. In both cases, the injection bottom-hole pressure is kept constant, and the freedom in controlling the fluid flow consisted in controlling the producer's bottom-hole pressure and the total liquid rate, respectively, at pre-specified time-instances. Simulation results confirm the potential of the optimization scheme. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. RPPAML/RIMS: A metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessy Bryan T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of interest. Results In this report an RPPA Information Management System (RIMS is described and made available with open source software. In order to implement the proposed system, we propose a metadata format known as reverse phase protein array markup language (RPPAML. RPPAML would enable researchers to describe, document and disseminate RPPA data. The complexity of the data structure needed to describe the results and the graphic tools necessary to visualize them require a software deployment distributed between a client and a server application. This was achieved without sacrificing interoperability between individual deployments through the use of an open source semantic database, S3DB. This data service backbone is available to multiple client side applications that can also access other server side deployments. The RIMS platform was designed to interoperate with other data analysis and data visualization tools such as Cytoscape. Conclusion The proposed RPPAML data format hopes to standardize RPPA data. Standardization of data would result in diverse client applications being able to operate on the same set of data. Additionally, having data in a standard format would enable data dissemination and data analysis.

  10. RPPAML/RIMS: A metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislaus, Romesh; Carey, Mark; Deus, Helena F; Coombes, Kevin; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

    2008-01-01

    Background Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of interest. Results In this report an RPPA Information Management System (RIMS) is described and made available with open source software. In order to implement the proposed system, we propose a metadata format known as reverse phase protein array markup language (RPPAML). RPPAML would enable researchers to describe, document and disseminate RPPA data. The complexity of the data structure needed to describe the results and the graphic tools necessary to visualize them require a software deployment distributed between a client and a server application. This was achieved without sacrificing interoperability between individual deployments through the use of an open source semantic database, S3DB. This data service backbone is available to multiple client side applications that can also access other server side deployments. The RIMS platform was designed to interoperate with other data analysis and data visualization tools such as Cytoscape. Conclusion The proposed RPPAML data format hopes to standardize RPPA data. Standardization of data would result in diverse client applications being able to operate on the same set of data. Additionally, having data in a standard format would enable data dissemination and data analysis. PMID:19102773

  11. Degree of coordination between breathing and rhythmic arm movements during hand rim wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, N; Perrey, S; Arbez, L; Ruiz, J; Tordi, N; Rouillon, J D

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed (i) to quantify the spontaneous coordination between breathing and hand rim wheelchair propulsion, (ii) to manipulate arm movement frequency and assess its effects on spontaneous coordination, and (iii) to investigate the hypothesis that entrainment of breathing improves economy of locomotion and leads to a lower rate of perceived exertion (RPE) compared with spontaneous breathing. Nine male, able-bodied participants completed four bouts of 6 min submaximal steady state exercise at 60 % of maximal propulsion velocity on a wheelchair ergometer, with spontaneous breathing and arm frequencies (Fspont), with 20 % higher and lower arm frequencies (F +20 and F -20, respectively) compared to Fspont accompanied with spontaneous breathing frequency, and by synchronising expiration phase with pushing time and inspiration phase with upper limb recovery time (C). Oxygen uptake and propulsion frequency were continuously recorded. The degree of coordination was expressed as a percentage of inspiration starting in the same phase of the wheelchair propulsion cycle (i.e. pushing and recovery times). No difference in degree of coordination was observed between Fspont, F -20 and F +20 conditions (49.2 +/- 12.1 %, 49.1 +/- 29.0 % and 48.2 +/- 29.4 %, respectively). Oxygen uptake increased significantly during C condition while RPE was significantly lower for C and F -20 (p propulsion activity itself. In conclusion, this study showed that the same locomotor-respiratory coupling occurred during hand rim wheelchair propulsion regardless of the arm movement frequency, and that entrainment of breathing did not improve economy of locomotion. PMID:16388445

  12. Regeneration of Mastoid Air Cells in Vivo Using Autologous Cortical Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Kaneko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This was a preliminary study to assess surgical construction and regeneration of mastoid air cells in the treatment of cholesteatoma. Methods: Two-stage tympanoplasty with mastoidectomy was performed in four cases of unilateral cholesteatoma with sclerotic mastoid. During the first-stage operation, small fragments of autologous cortical bone were inserted into the cavity after mastoidectomy to form a honeycomb-like structure. Reconstruction of the lateral wall of the mastoid cavity was performed using the mastoid cortical bony plate. Pre- and postoperative mastoid volume was evaluated by three-dimensional reconstruction based on high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT images. Results: HR-CT images after the first-stage operation showed that mastoid volume had increased in all subjects. Macroscopic inspection during the second-stage operation revealed that the honeycomb-like structure made of bony fragments and covered by thin mucosa in the mastoid cavity was stable, with no evidence of effusion or granulation tissue. No retraction of the eardrum, middle ear effusion or recurrence of cholesteatoma was observed, and the hearing level on a pure-tone audiogram was improved in any subject 60 - 94 months after the second-stage operation. Conclusion: Surgical construction and regeneration of mastoid air cells using autologous cortical bone can be useful in treatment of cholesteatoma with arrested mastoid pneumatization.

  13. Enfermedad de Paget en Chile: una serie de 15 pacientes / Paget disease of bone: Report of 15 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilberto, González V; Francisca, Brusco G; Eugenio, Arteaga U; José, Rodríguez P; Sergio, Jacobelli G; Loreto, Massardo V; Cristián, Ortiz M; Oscar, Contreras O.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Paget disease of bone (PD) is a localized disorder of bone remodeling, which leads to bone fragility and deformity. In Chile PD is uncommon. Aim: To study clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with PD seen in the Clinical Hospital of the Catholic University. Patients and m [...] ethods: Patients with typical radiological and clinical features of PD referred to our institution during the last decade were included in this review. Results: We obtained data from 15 patients with PD (ten males, eight Chilean, six European and one Asian), eleven of them were diagnosed during the last 3 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 68,7±11,1 years old. No one had first degree relatives with PD. Bone pain was the main complaint in 13 patients and elevated total alkaline phosphatases in the other two. The average duration of the symptoms prior to diagnosis was 38,8 months. Eight patients had monostotic lesions; the most commonly involved sites were the pelvis, spine and femur. Radiological evaluation disclosed sclerotic changes in all patients as well as bone deformity and osteoarthritis in eight patients. Total alkaline phosphatases were elevated in 14 cases (mean: 4 times over the upper normal limit). Conclusions: When compared to series of the Northern hemisphere, PD in Chile is characterized by an older age at diagnosis, a higher frequency of symptomatic presentation, advanced radiological involvement and greater proportion of complications. PD should be suspected in every patient, Chilean or foreigner, with bone pain or elevated alkaline phosphatases (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 491-7).

  14. Enfermedad de Paget en Chile: una serie de 15 pacientes Paget disease of bone: Report of 15 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto González V

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paget disease of bone (PD is a localized disorder of bone remodeling, which leads to bone fragility and deformity. In Chile PD is uncommon. Aim: To study clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with PD seen in the Clinical Hospital of the Catholic University. Patients and methods: Patients with typical radiological and clinical features of PD referred to our institution during the last decade were included in this review. Results: We obtained data from 15 patients with PD (ten males, eight Chilean, six European and one Asian, eleven of them were diagnosed during the last 3 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 68,7±11,1 years old. No one had first degree relatives with PD. Bone pain was the main complaint in 13 patients and elevated total alkaline phosphatases in the other two. The average duration of the symptoms prior to diagnosis was 38,8 months. Eight patients had monostotic lesions; the most commonly involved sites were the pelvis, spine and femur. Radiological evaluation disclosed sclerotic changes in all patients as well as bone deformity and osteoarthritis in eight patients. Total alkaline phosphatases were elevated in 14 cases (mean: 4 times over the upper normal limit. Conclusions: When compared to series of the Northern hemisphere, PD in Chile is characterized by an older age at diagnosis, a higher frequency of symptomatic presentation, advanced radiological involvement and greater proportion of complications. PD should be suspected in every patient, Chilean or foreigner, with bone pain or elevated alkaline phosphatases (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 491-7.

  15. Bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of Tc-99m labeled polyphosphates, bone scintigraphy has become a widely accepted method in pediatry. Compared to adults children are less cooperative and the bony structures, which have to be investigated, are much smaller. Due to the age dependent differences of bone metabolism in the developing skeleton the interpretation of bone scans is more difficult than in adults and requires more experience. High quality images require the child's immobilisation and a correct positioning as well as an optimized technical equipment. The administered activity should follow the recommendations of the 'Paediatric Task Group' of EANM. Two or three phase scintigraphy is the routine procedure but additional techniques like pinhole images or SPECT can be very helpful for different indications and localisations. The most important diseases requiring bone scintigraphy in childhood are infections, aseptic necrosis, benign, malignant or metastatic bone tumors and posttraumatic lesions. Bone scan has a high sensitivity in the early detection of pathological bone metabolism indicating bone disease; other investigations, which are describing morphological changes like X-ray, are less sensitive especially at the onset of most of those diseases. Negative bone scan rules out significant bone disorders with a high certainty. Follow-up studies can give additional information about the response to therapeutical regimes and about the prognosis. To improve the specificity of aprognosis. To improve the specificity of a bone scan a combined interpretation of scintigraphy and X-ray is recommended. (orig./MG)

  16. Diabetes, biochemical markers of bone turnover, diabetes control and bone

    OpenAIRE

    JakobStarup-Linde

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone marker...

  17. Bone scintiscanning updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentle, B.C.; Russell, A.S.; Percy, J.S.; Scott, J.R.; Jackson, F.I.

    1976-01-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine. The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  18. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained. PMID:1259268

  19. Spatially Resolved XRF, XRD and Fe-XANES Analysis of Fine-Grained Rims in the Murchison (CM2) Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Russell, S. S.

    2014-09-01

    Fe3+/?Fe ratios suggest that hydration of fine-grained rims and matrix in the Murchison meteorite occurred in a similar environment. However, local variations in mineralogy and crystal chemistry indicate that the alteration varied at the ?m-scale.

  20. 76 FR 336 - Intent To Prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for PacRim Coal's Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...power distribution system). The project proponent, PacRim Coal, LP, targets a...current estimated coal reserves. 2. A...issue and enforce mining permits in Alaska...Discharge Elimination System program was transferred...alternatives, and coal export terminal...

  1. An oxygen isotope study of Wark-Lovering rims on type A CAIs in primitive carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodénan, Jean-David; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.; Wright, Ian P.; Franchi, Ian A.

    2014-09-01

    Calcium-aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and the thin Wark-Lovering (WL) rims of minerals surrounding them offer a record of the nature of changing conditions during the earliest stages of Solar System formation. Considerable heterogeneity in the gas composition in the immediate vicinity of the proto-Sun had previously been inferred from oxygen isotopic variations in the WL rim of a CAI from Allende (Simon et al., 2011). However, high precision and high spatial resolution oxygen isotope measurements presented in this study show that WL rim and pristine core minerals of individual CAIs from meteorites that had experienced only low degrees of alteration or low grade metamorphism (one from Léoville (reduced CV3), two in QUE 99177 (CR3.0) and two in ALHA 77307 (CO3.0)) are uniformly 16O-rich. This indicates that the previously observed variations are the result of secondary processes, most likely on the asteroid parent body, and that there were no temporal or spatial variations in oxygen isotopic composition during CAI and WL rim formation. Such homogeneity across three groups of carbonaceous chondrites lends further support for a common origin for the CAIs in all chondrites. 16O-poor oxygen reservoirs such as those associated with chondrule formation, were probably generated by UV photo-dissociation involving self-shielding mechanisms and must have occurred elsewhere in outer regions of the solar accretion disk.

  2. Human prostatic acid phosphatase directly stimulates collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase content of isolated bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) directly enhances the differentiated characteristics of isolated bone cells in vitro. This enzyme, when added to cell cultures for 24 h in vitro stimulates collagen synthesis and the production of alkaline phosphatase. The effects are dose dependent, with statistically significant effects occurring from 0.1-100 nM hPAP. Concentrations higher than 100 nM do not evoke greater effects. The maximal effect of hPAP occurs between 12 and 24 h of exposure. The cells stimulated to the greatest degree are osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from the same tissue show a lesser sensitivity to hPAP. hPAP has no detectable effect on cell proliferation, as measured by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation or total DNA synthesis. None of the observations reported in this work can be attributed to contaminating proteins in the hPAP preparation. hPAP was radiolabeled with 125I and was used for affinity binding and cross-linking studies. Scatchard analysis of specific binding indicated the presence of 1.0 X 10(5) high affinity binding sites/cell, with a Kd of 6.5 nM. Cross-linking studies demonstrated the presence of one 320-kDa binding complex. The pH profile and kinetic determinations of Km and maximum velocity for hPAP were similar to those previously reported, except for the finding of positive cooperativity of the substrate with the enzyme under the conditions of our assay. We believe that the direct stimulation of bone-lieve that the direct stimulation of bone-forming cells by hPAP may contribute to the sclerotic nature of skeletal bone around sites of neoplastic prostatic metastases and that the effect of the enzyme is probably mediated by a plasma membrane receptor

  3. Diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficients to differentiate benign from malignant vertebral bone marrow lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained in diffusion-weighted (DW) MR sequences for the differentiation between malignant and benign bone marrow lesions. Method: Forty-five patients with altered signal intensity vertebral bodies on conventional MR sequences were included. The cause of altered signal intensity was benign osteoporotic collapse in 16, acute neoplastic infiltration in 15, and infectious processes in 14; based on plain-film, CT, bone scintigraphy, conventional MR studies, biopsy or follow-up. All patients underwent isotropic DW MR images (multi-shot EPI, b values of 0 and 500 s/mm2). Signal intensity at DW MR images was evaluated and ADC values were calculated and compared between malignancy, benign edema and infectious spondylitis. Results: Acute malignant fractures were hyperintense compared to normal vertebral bodies on the diffusion-weighted sequence, except in one patient with sclerotic metastases. Mean ADC value from benign edema (1.9 ± 0.39 x 10-3 mm2/s) was significantly (p -3 mm2/s). Mean ADC value of infectious spondilytis (0.96 ± 0.49 x 10-3 mm2/s) was not statistically (p > 0.05) different from untreated metastasic lesions. ADC value was low (0.75 x 10-3 mm2/s) in one case of subacute benign fracture. Conclusions: Aubacute benign fracture. Conclusions: ADC values are a useful complementary tool to characterize bone marrow lesions, in order to distinguish acute benign fractures from malignant or infectious bone lesions. However, ADC values are not valuable in order to differentiate malignancy from infection.

  4. RIM-DB: a taxonomic framework for community structure analysis of methanogenic archaea from the rumen and other intestinal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedorf, Henning; Kittelmann, Sandra; Henderson, Gemma; Janssen, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Methane is formed by methanogenic archaea in the rumen as one of the end products of feed fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract. To develop strategies to mitigate anthropogenic methane emissions due to ruminant farming, and to understand rumen microbial differences in animal feed conversion efficiency, it is essential that methanogens can be identified and taxonomically classified with high accuracy. Currently available taxonomic frameworks offer only limited resolution beyond the genus level for taxonomic assignments of sequence data stemming from high throughput sequencing technologies. Therefore, we have developed a QIIME-compatible database (DB) designed for species-level taxonomic assignment of 16S rRNA gene amplicon data targeting methanogenic archaea from the rumen, and from animal and human intestinal tracts. Called RIM-DB (Rumen and Intestinal Methanogen-DB), it contains a set of 2,379 almost full-length chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene sequences, including 20 previously unpublished sequences from isolates from three different orders. The taxonomy encompasses the recently-proposed seventh order of methanogens, the Methanomassiliicoccales, and allows differentiation between defined groups within this order. Sequence reads from rumen contents from a range of ruminant-diet combinations were taxonomically assigned using RIM-DB, Greengenes and SILVA. This comparison clearly showed that taxonomic assignments with RIM-DB resulted in the most detailed assignment, and only RIM-DB taxonomic assignments allowed methanogens to be distinguished taxonomically at the species level. RIM-DB complements the use of comprehensive databases such as Greengenes and SILVA for community structure analysis of methanogens from the rumen and other intestinal environments, and allows identification of target species for methane mitigation strategies. PMID:25165621

  5. RIM-DB: a taxonomic framework for community structure analysis of methanogenic archaea from the rumen and other intestinal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Seedorf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methane is formed by methanogenic archaea in the rumen as one of the end products of feed fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract. To develop strategies to mitigate anthropogenic methane emissions due to ruminant farming, and to understand rumen microbial differences in animal feed conversion efficiency, it is essential that methanogens can be identified and taxonomically classified with high accuracy. Currently available taxonomic frameworks offer only limited resolution beyond the genus level for taxonomic assignments of sequence data stemming from high throughput sequencing technologies. Therefore, we have developed a QIIME-compatible database (DB designed for species-level taxonomic assignment of 16S rRNA gene amplicon data targeting methanogenic archaea from the rumen, and from animal and human intestinal tracts. Called RIM-DB (Rumen and Intestinal Methanogen-DB, it contains a set of 2,379 almost full-length chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene sequences, including 20 previously unpublished sequences from isolates from three different orders. The taxonomy encompasses the recently-proposed seventh order of methanogens, the Methanomassiliicoccales, and allows differentiation between defined groups within this order. Sequence reads from rumen contents from a range of ruminant-diet combinations were taxonomically assigned using RIM-DB, Greengenes and SILVA. This comparison clearly showed that taxonomic assignments with RIM-DB resulted in the most detailed assignment, and only RIM-DB taxonomic assignments allowed methanogens to be distinguished taxonomically at the species level. RIM-DB complements the use of comprehensive databases such as Greengenes and SILVA for community structure analysis of methanogens from the rumen and other intestinal environments, and allows identification of target species for methane mitigation strategies.

  6. Monostotic Paget Disease of Bone or Bone Metastasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Erdem Süer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Paget’s disease of bone is a metabolic bone disorder with male predominance and characterized by increased bone turnover. Recent literature indicates a reduction in incidence and severity. We report a 55 years old female patient who was admitted with knee pain, and whose pelvis x-ray demonstrated pathological features. She was investigated with preliminary diagnoses of Paget’s disease of bone, osteosclerotic bone metastasis and primary bone tumor. Histopathological examination of bone biopsy confirmed Paget’s disease of bone and Paget’s disease of bone is reviewed. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008;54:73-6

  7. Bone health in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The skeleton undergoes rapid change with respect to growth, modeling and remodeling processes in adolescence. Consequently, the effects of factors that affect bone health positively or negatively can be greater. Between 40% and 60% of, peak bone mass which serves as the bone bank for life, is accrued during adolescence. Lifetime risk of osteoporosis and fracture may be increased if optimal peak bone mass cannot be reached.Accrual of peak bone mass is affected by unmodifiable intrinsic factors and less important extrinsic factors. Higher body mass index and body fat and lower dietary calcium intake increase fracture risk in healthy adolescents. Bone mass was found to be 5% to 10% lower in adolescents with fracture than their peers. Adequate nutrition in amount and composition and life style factors are important for skeletal health. While diets rich in saturated fats and refined sugars and lower in protein may be detrimental to bone health, optimal quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids and complex carbohydrates may be beneficial to bone health. Dietary calcium and vitamin D are key factors in promoting bone health and preventing bone loss. Phosphorus and magnesium as well as other elements and especially vitamin C and K have been shown to play important roles in bone health. While weight bearing regular exercise and a healthy bodyweight are beneficial to bone health, alcohol consumption and smoking contribute to poor bone health. Adolescence may serve as a period of opportunity for reduction of the incidence of osteoporosis in adulthood through implication of effective intervention strategies. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 54-8

  8. Biomaterials and bone mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikavitsas, V. I.; Temenoff, J. S.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Bone is an extremely complex tissue that provides many essential functions in the body. Bone tissue engineering holds great promise in providing strategies that will result in complete regeneration of bone and restoration of its function. Currently, such strategies include the transplantation of highly porous scaffolds seeded with cells. Prior to transplantation the seeded cells are cultured in vitro in order for the cells to proliferate, differentiate and generate extracellular matrix. Factors that can affect cellular function include the cell-biomaterial interaction, as well as the biochemical and the mechanical environment. To optimize culture conditions, good understanding of these parameters is necessary. The new developments in bone biology, bone cell mechanotransduction, and cell-surface interactions are reviewed here to demonstrate that bone mechanotransduction is strongly influenced by the biomaterial properties.

  9. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  10. Growth and bone development.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C.; Harvey, N.; Javaid, K.; Hanson, M.; Dennison, E.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss, and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. The normal patterns of skeletal growth have been well characterized in cross-sectional and longitudina...

  11. Better Bone Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tony.

    2002-01-01

    This Web site come from Science@NASA, an online source for news and information about NASA-funded research, and describes the work of researchers at the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space, who are developing artificial bones for long-lasting, pain-free hip and knee replacements. These ceramic bones are touted as "so much like the real thing that they could actually meld with living bone."

  12. Pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Suraya, A.; Nurhazla, H.; Mia, Sharifah; Sp, Tan

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an extremely rare case of a huge aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the pelvis, occurring in the patient’s 5th decade of life. The patient presented with a history of painless huge pelvic mass for 10 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography showed huge expansile lytic lesion arising from the right iliac bone. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to profuse bleeding from the tumour.

  13. Literature Survey for Bone Diseases Identification Using Thickness of Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedha.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario, bone diseases pose a major threat to middle-aged women all over the world. Bone is a living tissue that breaks down and rebuilds its structure throughout our lives. Bone is made up of calcium that makes bone dense (hard and strong. bone are affected by many disease.Diseases of bones are major causes of abnormalities of the human skeletal system. Although physical injury, causing fracture, fracture is one of several common causes of bone diseases. Bone disease are formerly regarded as conditions that are more mechanical that metabolic. This is cause by unhealthy lifestyle and improper diet. Some of the bone disease are osteoporosis, Osteogenesis imperfect, Paget disease of bone, Osteomalacia, .Fibrous dysplasia, Osteitis fibrosa cystic, Osteopetroses, Bone tumors and etc. we have to mention particularly the bone disease such as osteoporosis.

  14. Metastatic bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol U. Hutagalung

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic bone disease is the most common malignancy of bone, it is estimated that 70% of all malignant bone tumors are metastatic in origin. At autopsy it has been reported between 30 to 85% of patients who die from cancer show occult skeletal metastases. Bone is the third most common site of metastatic process after lung and liver. 80% of metastatic bone disease arise from Ca of breast, prostate, lung, kidney and thyroid. Typical location are thoracolumbal spine, pelvis, ribs, skull and proximal of femur and humerus. Pathogenesis of metastatic bone disease had been explained by Paget’s “Seed and Soil” theory and Ewing’s circulatory theory. Diagnostic procedures include complete laboratory examination, diagnostic bone imaging, chest x-ray, total body scan, CT-scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis and confirmed by histopathological examination. Management of metastatic bone disease is palliative that includes : chemotherapy, radiotherapy, bisphosphonates and surgical treatment for impending / established pathologic fracture to alleviate pain, ease nursing and restore functional activity. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 127-31 Keywords: bone cancer, metastases

  15. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  16. Dinosaur Flesh and Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Crosslin

    2004-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore dinosaur skeletons. First, learners listen to "Bones, Bones, Dinosaur Bones" by Byron Barton to learn about the difference between pictures of dinosaurs that have skin and muscle (fleshed-out) and those that show skeletons. Then, learners match pictures of dinosaurs to pictures of the dinosaurs' skeletons. Learners can also explore other animal bones and skeletons online and/or reassemble paper dinosaur skeletons. This activity can also be used to help learners explore scale as they realize that large dinosaurs had large skeletons and small dinosaurs had small skeletons. This activity is featured on page 37 of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for K-2 learners.

  17. Multiple soft tissue aneurysmal cysts: An occurrence after resection of primary aneurysmal bone cyst of fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkuzhali P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of multiple extraosseous aneurysmal cysts occurring in the muscle and subcutaneous plane of postero-lateral aspects of the upper right leg. They appeared about 15 months after resection of aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper end of the fibula. They varied in size from 2 cm to 5 cm. Radiologically they were well-defined lesions with central septate areas surrounded by a rim of calcification. Histologically they showed central cystic spaces separated by septa consisting of fibroblasts, osteoclast type of giant cells and reactive woven bone. Thus they showed histological similarity with aneurysmal bone cysts, but did not show any connection with the bone. Only very few examples of aneurysmal cysts of soft tissue had been described in the past one decade and they were reported in various locations including rare sites such as arterial wall and larynx. Recent cytogenetic analyses have shown abnormalities involving 17p11-13 and/or 16q22 in both osseous and extraosseous aneurysmal cysts indicating its probable neoplastic nature. Our case had unique features like multiplicity and occurrence after resection of primary aneurysmal bone cyst of the underlying bone.

  18. Correlation between 3D microstructural and 2D histomorphometric properties of subchondral bone with healthy and degenerative cartilage of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, Andreas; Kasch, Richard; Spank, Heiko; Erggelet, Christoph; Esser, Jan; Merk, Harry; Mrosek, Eike

    2014-11-01

    Cartilage degeneration of the knee joint is considered to be a largely mechanically driven process. We conducted a microstructural and histomorphometric analysis of subchondral bone samples of intact cartilage and in samples with early and higher- grade arthritic degeneration to compare the different states and correlate the findings with the condition of hyaline cartilage. These findings will enable us to evaluate changes in biomechanical properties of subchondral bone during the evolution of arthritic degeneration, for which bone density alone is an insufficient parameter. From a continuous series of 80 patients undergoing implantation of total knee endoprosthesis 30 osteochondral samples with lesions macroscopically classified as ICRS grade 1b (group A) and 30 samples with ICRS grade 3a or 3b lesions (group B) were taken. The bone samples were assessed by 2D histomorphometry (semiautomatic image analysis system) and 3D microstructural analysis (high-resolution micro-CT system). The cartilage was examined using the semiquantitative real-time PCR gene expression of collagen type I and II and aggrecan. Both histomorphometry and microstructural and biomechanical analysis of subchondral bone in groups A and B consistently revealed progressive changes of both bone and cartilage compared with healthy controls. The severity of cartilage degeneration as assessed by RT PCR was significantly correlated with BV/TV (Bone Volume Fraction), Tb.Th (Trabecular Thickness) showed a slight increase. Tb.N (Trabecular Number), Tb.Sp (Trabecular separation) SMI (Structure Model Index), Conn.D (Connectivity Density) and DA (Degree of Anisotropy) were inversely correlated. We saw sclerotic transformation and phagocytic reticulum cells. Bone volume fraction decreased with an increasing distance from the cartilage with the differences compared with healthy controls becoming greater in more advanced cartilage damage. The density of subchondral bone alone is considered an unreliable parameter for classifying changes evolving over time. The progressive damage of subchondral bone seen in the present study correlates well with cartilage changes. Trabecular orientation is also impaired, which explains the changes in biomechanical parameters and the inadequate load transfer and excessive loading of cartilage. Besides subchondral bone density, which in turn correlates with cartilage thickness, other parameters such as structure model index and grade of anisotropy best reflect mechanical properties such as Young modulus, compressive strength, tensile stress, and failure energy. However, it remains unclear whether the mechanical interaction of the mineralized subchondral tissues with articular cartilage works vice versa. The possibility of a biochemical signalling from the degenerating cartilage via the synovial fluid and bone- cartilage crosstalks via subchondral pores may indeed explain a certain depth-dependency of subchondral bone changes. PMID:24828695

  19. Clinical data integration of distributed data sources using Health Level Seven (HL7 v3-RIM mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viangteeravat Teeradache

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information exchange and health information integration has become one of the top priorities for healthcare systems across institutions and hospitals. Most organizations and establishments implement health information exchange and integration in order to support meaningful information retrieval among their disparate healthcare systems. The challenges that prevent efficient health information integration for heterogeneous data sources are the lack of a common standard to support mapping across distributed data sources and the numerous and diverse healthcare domains. Health Level Seven (HL7 is a standards development organization which creates standards, but is itself not the standard. They create the Reference Information Model. RIM is developed by HL7's technical committees. It is a standardized abstract representation of HL7 data across all the domains of health care. In this article, we aim to present a design and a prototype implementation of HL7 v3-RIM mapping for information integration of distributed clinical data sources. The implementation enables the user to retrieve and search information that has been integrated using HL7 v3-RIM technology from disparate health care systems. Method and results We designed and developed a prototype implementation of HL7 v3-RIM mapping function to integrate distributed clinical data sources using R-MIM classes from HL7 v3-RIM as a global view along with a collaborative centralized web-based mapping tool to tackle the evolution of both global and local schemas. Our prototype was implemented and integrated with a Clinical Database management Systems CDMS as a plug-in module. We tested the prototype system with some use case scenarios for distributed clinical data sources across several legacy CDMS. The results have been effective in improving information delivery, completing tasks that would have been otherwise difficult to accomplish, and reducing the time required to finish tasks which are used in collaborative information retrieval and sharing with other systems. Conclusions We created a prototype implementation of HL7 v3-RIM mapping for information integration between distributed clinical data sources to promote collaborative healthcare and translational research. The prototype has effectively and efficiently ensured the accuracy of the information and knowledge extractions for systems that have been integrated

  20. Prediction of bone loss using biochemical markers of bone turnover.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenora, J.; Ivaska, Kaisa; Obrant, Karl; Gerdhem, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The association between baseline levels of eleven bone turnover markers and 5-year rate of bone density change was prospectively studied in a population-based sample of 601 75-year-old women. Several bone formation and resorption markers as well as urinary osteocalcin were modestly correlated to rate of bone density change. Introduction Prediction of bone loss by bone turnover markers (BTMs) has been investigated with conflicting results. There is limited information in the elderly. Methods E...

  1. Building for the Pacific Rim Countries. Energy-efficient building strategies for hot, humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinkopf, K. [ed.

    1991-09-01

    This book has been published by the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), the US trade association of the solar thermal, photovoltaic, and passive solar manufacturers, distributors, and component suppliers. Its purpose is to help architects, builders, and developers construct energy-efficient homes in hot humid climates like the Pacific Rim Countries, and to allow occupants of these homes to enjoy enhanced comfort without reliance on mechanical air-conditioning systems. Two important factors are addressed in this book. First, the past few years have seen a tremendous increase in practical applications of new research. The current popularity of ceiling paddle fans, attic radiant barriers and natural daylighting attest to the importance of keeping up with the latest concepts in energy-reduction and comfort-awareness. Professionals who have been in the field for the past few years may be unaware of the latest research findings--some of which dramatically alter prior thinking on such subjects as natural ventilation or mechanical air conditioning. The second factor is the importance of site-specific characteristics, which greatly affect building strategies and designs. A thorough understanding of the climate is a prerequisite to good building design. Such factors as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation must be understood and properly integrated into the design for the home to be truly energy-efficient.

  2. Multiple nuclear dots and rim-like/membranous IgG isotypes in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Ferri, Silvia; Pappas, Georgios; Volta, Umberto; Menichella, Rita; Bianchi, Francesco B; Lenzi, Marco; Muratori, Luigi

    2009-03-01

    Anti nuclear (ANA) immunomorphological patterns such as multiple nuclear dots (MND) and rim-like/membranous (RL/M) are considered highly specific but little sensitive for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) diagnosis. To evaluate frequency and clinical significance of MND and RL/M in PBC patients when investigated at the level of immunoglobulin G isotypes. MND and RL/M pattern have been tested in 141 PBC sera and 230 pathological controls using HEp-2 cells as substrate and anti- total IgG and individual IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4) as specific antisera. One hundred and fourteen of 141 (80%) PBC patients had RL/M or MND pattern when IgG subclasses were used as revealing reagents (vs. 34% when anti total IgG were used, p gain in terms of sensitivity without a loss of specificity. In Italian PBC patients MND and RL/M pattern did not seem to characterize any subgroup of patients with a poorer prognosis. PMID:19301204

  3. The stellar population and complex structure of the bright-rimmed cloud IC 1396N

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, M T; López, R; Girart, J M; Estalella, R

    2009-01-01

    Context. IC 1396N is a bright-rimmed cloud associated with an intermediate-mass star-forming region, where a number of Herbig-Haro objects, H2 jet-like features, CO molecular outflows, and millimeter compact sources have been observed. Aims. To study in detail the complex structure of the IC 1396N core and the molecular outflows detected in the region and to reveal the presence of additional YSOs inside this globule. Methods. We carried out a deep survey of the IC 1396N region in the J, H, K' broadband filters and deep high-angular resolution observations in the H2 narrowband filter with NICS at the TNG telescope. The completeness limits in the 2MASS standard are Ks~17.5, H~18.5 and J~19.5. Results. A total of 736 sources have been detected in all three bands within the area where the JHK' images overlap. There are 128 sources detected only in HK', 67 detected only in K', and 79 detected only in H. We found only few objects exhibiting a Near-Infrared excess and no clear signs of clustering of sources towards ...

  4. Ciclamato de sódio e rim fetal Sodium cyclamate and fetal kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Germano Ferraz de Arruda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O ciclamato é usado como adoçante artificial não calórico em diversos alimentos e bebidas, sendo 30 vezes mais doce que a sacarose sem o sabor amargo da sacarina. Aparece na composição dos produtos como ciclamato de sódio, ciclamato de cálcio e ácido ciclâmico. O ciclamato e a ciclohexilamina, seu principal metabólito, atravessam a barreira placentária em humanos e desse modo podem ser expostos ao feto. O rim de ratos pode ser afetado por elevadas doses de ciclamato de sódio. Estudos sobre efeitos do ciclamato de sódio na espécie humana são necessários, pois, além de poder substituir a sacarose - prejudicial em casos de diabetes ou quando o controle e a redução do peso corporal são essenciais para a saúde dos pacientes - não propicia desenvolvimento de cárie dentária.Cyclamate is used as an artificial non-caloric sweetener in a variety of foods and beverages, being 30 times as sweet as sugar without the bitter after-taste of saccharin. It is present in the formula of products such as sodium and calcium cyclamates and cyclamic acid. Cyclamate and cyclohexylamine, its principal metabolite, can cross the human placenta exposing the fetus. It has been demonstrated in rats that the kidney may be adversely affected by high doses of cyclamate. Studies on the effects of sodium cyclamate in the human species are necessary, because in addition to replacing saccharose - harmful in individuals with diabetes or patients in whom weight reduction and control are essential for health - it does not cause dental caries.

  5. Origin of the Tertiary reservoired hydrocarbons along the central Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast rim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, G.A.; Sassen, R. (BP Exploration, Inc., Houston, TX (USA)); Chinn, E.W. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA)); Piggott, N.; Gibbons, M.J.

    1990-05-01

    Tertiary reservoired hydrocarbons along the central Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast rim were most likely derived from Paleocene/Eocene Wilcox Group and Sparta Formation marine shales. Sixteen total soluble extracts and >200 oil samples were analyzed using carbon isotopic techniques ({delta}{sup 13}C) and gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS). Results demonstrated that interpretations must use all types of data because Cretaceous derived and Tertiary derived oils overlap in southern Louisiana. When isotopic, sterane, hopane, and light hydrocarbon data are combined separation of classes become possible. Cretaceous oils and extracts have a full range of extended hopanes, a characteristic peak eluting immediately after C{sub 30} hopane and no oleanane. Paleogene oils and extracts have oleanane and a restricted range of extended hopanes. Regional trends indicate that eastern Louisiana oils were derived from the Sparta or a Sparta/Wilcox mix, the Mississippi delta oils from a Cretaceous clastic source, and western Louisiana and Texas oils from the Wilcox source. Regional variations in GOR/CGR are a function of timing and mechanism of migration.

  6. Bioclimate-Vegetation Interrelations along the Pacific Rim of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Peinado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine relationships between climate and vegetation of the Pacific rim of North America, from the Mediterranean deserts of California to Alaska’s boreal taiga. Relations were inferred from temperature and rainfall data recorded at 457 weather stations and by sampling the vegetation around these stations. Climate data were used to construct climatograms, calculate forty one variables and detect main latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. In order to identify the best functions able to relate our variables, polynomial and non-polynomial regressions were performed. The k-means algorithm was the clustering method used to validate the variables that could best support our bioclimatic classification. The variable that best fitted our classification was finally used to prepare a discriminatory key for bioclimates. Across this extensive area three macrobioclimates were identified, Mediterranean, Temperate and Bo- real, within which we were able to distinguish nine bioclimates. Finally, we relate the different types of potential natural vegetation to each of these bioclimates and describe their floristic composition and physiognomy.

  7. Impact of ionic liquids on europium and americium extraction by an upper rim phosphorylated calixarene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of europium and americium using the calixarene 5,11,17,23-tetrakis[dipropylphosphinylmethyl] 25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene (conical conformation) in the presence of ionic liquids with different natures was studied. It was shown that upper rim phosphorylated calixarene is able to extract europium and americium from nitric acid to dichloroethane by forming a 1:1 complex without the addition of ionic liquids. The distribution coefficients of americium are higher than those of europium in this case, but the isolation degrees of both elements are insufficient for this system to be useful in extraction technologies. The addition of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate increases the europium distribution coefficient by values ranging from twofold to more than two orders of magnitude at ionic liquid concentrations of 1 and 50 %, respectively. The values of the distribution coefficients for americium are increased by approximately 25-fold after a 50 % addition of the ionic liquid. (author)

  8. Can bone scintigraphy predict the final outcome of pasteurized autografts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As pasteurization is becoming more widely used in limb salvage reconstruction, more study is required to understand about host-graft junction healing, graft revascularization and incorporation, and the incidence and type of complications among pasteurized autografts. This was mainly achieved by follow-up radiography. We aimed to clarify whether Tc99m bone scanning can be considered a reliable method in determining these three parameters. Twenty-seven osteosarcoma patients with pasteurized autograft reconstructions were retrospectively reviewed using available scintigraphic and radiographic follow-up every 6 months postoperatively for 36 months. Follow-up of the unhealed cases was continued for the maximum follow-up period available for each case beyond the original study period, ranging from 1 to 15 months. Tc99m uptake was classified as cold, faint, moderate and high uptake. Junction healing was classified as none, partial and complete healing. Seventy percent of junctions united with a mean of 22 months. Ninety to 100% of junctions showed increased uptake (high or moderate) at one time of the study regardless of final outcome. 85% of the pasteurized grafts showed the characteristic ''tramline appearance''. Four grafts (15%) were complicated: pseudoarthrosis and implant failure (1), fractured plate (1), intramedullary nail (IMN) fracture (1), and prosthesis stem loosening in the host bone (1), with underlying unhealed junctions in all cases. Bone scanning can determins in all cases. Bone scanning can determine the stages of the graft's rim revascularization and incorporation; however, it cannot detect or predict junction healing or occurrence of complications. Supplementary treatment of unhealed junctions showing either decreased junctional uptake or graft quiescence may be warranted. Otherwise, detection of distant metastasis and early local recurrence remains the main application of Tc99m scanning in the management of bone sarcomas. (orig.)

  9. The RIM101/pacC homologue from the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is functional in multiple pH-sensitive phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva T; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2005-06-01

    A homologue of the gene encoding the transcription factor Rim101 (PacC), involved in pH signal transduction in fungi, was identified in the pathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis. The gene (RIM101) encodes a protein of 827 amino acid residues, which shows highest similarity to PacC proteins from Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger. The gene had the capacity to restore protease activity to rim101 mutants from Yarrowia lipolytica, confirming its homologous function, and was expressed at both acid and neutral pH. Null Deltarim101 mutants were not affected in the in vitro pH-induced dimorphic transition, their growth rate, resistance to hypertonic sorbitol or KCl stress, and pathogenicity. However, similar to pacC (rim101) mutants in other fungi, they displayed a pleiotropic phenotype with alterations in morphogenesis, impairment in protease secretion, and increased sensitivity to Na+ and Li+ ions. Other phenotypic characteristics not previously reported in fungal pacC (rim101) mutants (morphological changes, increased sensitivity to lytic enzymes, and augmented polysaccharide secretion) were also observed in U. maydis mutants. All these modifications were alleviated by transformation with the wild-type gene, confirming that all were the result of mutation in RIM101. These data indicate that the Pal/Rim pathway is functional in U. maydis (and probably in other basidiomycetes) and plays complex roles in pH-sensing phenomena, as occurs in ascomycetes and deuteromycetes. PMID:15947192

  10. Low Bone Mass in Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why is low bone mass an issue in thalassemia? Having bones that grow and develop into strong, ... the individual engages in regularly. However, people with thalassemia are also more prone to develop bone mass ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  12. Spatial modeling of bone microarchitecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Kang; Kim, Taehyong; Zhang, Aidong; Ramanathan, Murali

    2012-03-01

    We develop and evaluate a novel 3D computational bone framework, which is capable of enabling quantitative assessment of bone micro-architecture, bone mineral density and fracture risks. Our model for bone mineral is developed and its parameters are estimated from imaging data obtained with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and x-ray imaging methods. Using these parameters, we propose a proper 3D microstructure bone model. The research starts by developing a spatio-temporal 3D microstructure bone model using Voronoi tessellation. Then, we simulate and analyze the architecture of human normal bone network and osteoporotic bone network with edge pruning process in an appropriate ratio. Finally, we design several measurements to analyze Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and bone strength based on our model. The validation results clearly demonstrate our 3D Microstructure Bone Model is robust to reflect the properties of bone in the real world.

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow ...

  14. Composite correction of a unilateral cleft lip nose deformity and alveolar bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokal Nitin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managing the cleft lip nasal deformity has always been a challenge. Even now, there is no single established universally accepted method of correction. The open alveolar gap and the ipsilateral hypoplastic maxilla are two major problems in achieving consistently good results in a cleft lip nasal deformity. In our study, after first assuring the orthodontic realignment of maxillary arches, we combined bone grafting in the alveolar gap and along the pyriform margin, with a formal open rhinoplasty approach. Methods: All the patients underwent orthodontic treatment for preparation of the alveolar bone grafting. During the process of alveolar bone graft, a strip of septal cartilage graft was harvested from the lower border of the septum which also helps to correct the septal deviation. The cancellous bone graft harvested from the iliac crest was used to fill the alveolar gap and placed along the pyriform margin to gain symmetry. Through open rhinoplasty along the alar rim and additionally using Potter?s incision extending to the lateral vestibule, the lateral crura of the alar cartilage on the cleft side was released from its lateral attachment and advanced medially as a chondromucosal flap in a V-Y fashion, in order to bring the cleft-side alar cartilage into a normal symmetric position. The harvested septal cartilage graft was used as a columellar strut. The cleft nostril sill was narrowed by a Y-V advancement at the alar base and any overhanging alar rim skin was carefully excised to achieve symmetry. Results: The results of this composite approach were encouraging in our series of 15 patients with no additional morbidity and a better symmetry of the nose and airway especially in the adolescent age group. Conclusion: This concept of simultaneous approach when appropriate for nasal correction at the time of alveolar bone grafting showed an encouraging aesthetic and functional outcome.

  15. Deep Drawing for high LDR by a new Hydro-rim Forming Process with Differential Temperature- Analysis and Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and test a possible increase of the Limit Drawing Ratio (LDR) in Deep Drawing by Hydro-rim process (a certain subset of the classical Hydroforming) which includes the newly differential temperature effect. The idea is to facilitate the plastic flow by local heating along the flange and to cool the area where strength is needed. The suggested analysis is based on the dual bounds approach (upper and lower bounds simultaneously) using the highly versatile Johnson-Cook constitutive material model. The advantage of combined high hydraulic pressure (about 1000 bar) with relatively high blank temperature (with magnitude of about one third the melting temperature of the considered material) in the same operation is discussed. Emphasis is given to the rule of blank temperature difference (between the flange and the wall of the product) conjugate with optimal hydro rim pressure in increasing the limit drawing ratio of the products (Aluminum, Copper and various Steels)

  16. A world perspective of the back-end fuel cycle and its significance for the Pacific rim countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently two options available for the management of irradiated fuel. The first is reprocessing and recycle, and the second is the direct disposal of fuel following some form of storage and treatment. Interim storage is not an option but a deferral of the decision of which option to take. This paper identifies the major issues which are important in deciding on which option to follow and examines the possible implications for Pacific Rim Countries. Reprocessing and direct disposal are likely to remain complementary technologies for the foreseeable future, but it is the strategic significance of recycle that beckons with reduced dependence on energy imports within the Pacific Rim. This is challenged only by the perceptions of risks of and related attitudes to, nuclear weapons proliferation. This latter is a matter that can only be resolved at political level with international consensus

  17. Subperiosteal ganglion associated with Paget's disease of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, R.; Nanni, M.; Muthukumar, T.; Butt, S.H.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Tumoral lesions related to Paget's disease may be classified as malignant, benign or pseudotumoral. While sarcomatous degeneration is the most feared complication, awareness of benign and pseudotumoral lesions is essential for assisting in accurate histological interpretation of the biopsy sample, which may avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. We present the first case of a juxta-articular subperiosteal ganglion associated with Paget's disease, with classic imaging characteristics, especially on CT examination. The well-defined soft tissue mass at the medial aspect of the obturator rim, adjacent to a small fracture in pagetic quadrilateral plate, showed an ossified rim and internal gas lucencies, these being the hallmarks of a juxta-articular subperiosteal ganglion. On MRI, the lesion was of intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted sequences, increased signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences, with rim enhancement after gadolinium contrast injection and preservation of fatty marrow signal of the underlying pagetic bone. Identification of the entity avoided an unnecessary biopsy or surgical intervention. (orig.)

  18. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  19. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  20. Bone and Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone and Cancer Foundation, PO Box 287452 New York, NY 10128-0025 Email: bcfdn@aol.com Information for Patients List of Patient Publications ... HIGHER) Welcome Welcome to the Bone and Cancer Foundation, a new information resource for patients and health ...

  1. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocyat the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  2. Ear and temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioanatomy of ear and temporal bone is described. Problems of X-ray examination of the diseases of ear and mastoid process (disturbance of ear development, inflammatory diseases, otosclerosis, tumors) are considered. Roentgenoframs of temporal bone of healthy people and that in some diseases are presented and aanalyzed

  3. Vegetation changes in a river oasis on the southern rim of the Taklamakan Desert in China between 1956 and 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Bruelheide, Helge; Jandt, Ute; Gries, Dirk; Thomas, Frank M.; Foetzki, Andrea; Bu?rkert, Andreas; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Ximing; Runge, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The indigenous vegetation surrounding the river oases on the southern rim of the Taklamakan Desert has drastically diminished due to overexploitation as a source of fodder, timber and fuel for the human population. The change in the spatial extent of landscape forms and vegetation types around the Qira oasis was analyzed by comparing SPOT satellite images from 1998 with aerial photographs from 1956. The analysis was supplemented by field surveys in 1999 and 2000. The study is part of a joi...

  4. Combination of surgical excision and custom designed silicon pressure splint therapy for keloids on the helical rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmeyer Peter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Keloids are defined as dermal fibrotic lesions which are considered an aberration of the wound healing process. Their etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Different treatment modalities are described in the literature depending on the morphology and size of the keloid. We report a case of a large ear keloid on the helical rim which was successfully treated with surgery and a custom designed silicon pressure clip.

  5. Human prostatic acid phosphatase directly stimulates collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase content of isolated bone cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibe, M.; Rosier, R.N.; Puzas, J.E. (Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester, New York (United States))

    1991-10-01

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) directly enhances the differentiated characteristics of isolated bone cells in vitro. This enzyme, when added to cell cultures for 24 h in vitro stimulates collagen synthesis and the production of alkaline phosphatase. The effects are dose dependent, with statistically significant effects occurring from 0.1-100 nM hPAP. Concentrations higher than 100 nM do not evoke greater effects. The maximal effect of hPAP occurs between 12 and 24 h of exposure. The cells stimulated to the greatest degree are osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from the same tissue show a lesser sensitivity to hPAP. hPAP has no detectable effect on cell proliferation, as measured by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation or total DNA synthesis. None of the observations reported in this work can be attributed to contaminating proteins in the hPAP preparation. hPAP was radiolabeled with 125I and was used for affinity binding and cross-linking studies. Scatchard analysis of specific binding indicated the presence of 1.0 X 10(5) high affinity binding sites/cell, with a Kd of 6.5 nM. Cross-linking studies demonstrated the presence of one 320-kDa binding complex. The pH profile and kinetic determinations of Km and maximum velocity for hPAP were similar to those previously reported, except for the finding of positive cooperativity of the substrate with the enzyme under the conditions of our assay. We believe that the direct stimulation of bone-forming cells by hPAP may contribute to the sclerotic nature of skeletal bone around sites of neoplastic prostatic metastases and that the effect of the enzyme is probably mediated by a plasma membrane receptor.

  6. Human prostatic acid phosphatase directly stimulates collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase content of isolated bone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibe, M; Rosier, R N; Puzas, J E

    1991-10-01

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) directly enhances the differentiated characteristics of isolated bone cells in vitro. This enzyme, when added to cell cultures for 24 h in vitro stimulates collagen synthesis and the production of alkaline phosphatase. The effects are dose dependent, with statistically significant effects occurring from 0.1-100 nM hPAP. Concentrations higher than 100 nM do not evoke greater effects. The maximal effect of hPAP occurs between 12 and 24 h of exposure. The cells stimulated to the greatest degree are osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from the same tissue show a lesser sensitivity to hPAP. hPAP has no detectable effect on cell proliferation, as measured by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation or total DNA synthesis. None of the observations reported in this work can be attributed to contaminating proteins in the hPAP preparation. hPAP was radiolabeled with 125I and was used for affinity binding and cross-linking studies. Scatchard analysis of specific binding indicated the presence of 1.0 X 10(5) high affinity binding sites/cell, with a Kd of 6.5 nM. Cross-linking studies demonstrated the presence of one 320-kDa binding complex. The pH profile and kinetic determinations of Km and maximum velocity for hPAP were similar to those previously reported, except for the finding of positive cooperativity of the substrate with the enzyme under the conditions of our assay. We believe that the direct stimulation of bone-forming cells by hPAP may contribute to the sclerotic nature of skeletal bone around sites of neoplastic prostatic metastases and that the effect of the enzyme is probably mediated by a plasma membrane receptor. PMID:1653783

  7. Ultrasonic bone densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoop, J. M. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A device, for measuring the density of a bone structure so as to monitor the calcium content, is described. A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic transducers incude piezoelectric crystals shaped to direct signals through the bone encompassed in the heel and finger of the subject being tested. A pulse generator is coupled to one of the transducers and generates an electric pulse for causing the transducers to generate an ultrasonic sound wave which is directed through the bone structure to the other transducer. An electric circuit, including an amplifier and a bandpass filter couples the signals from the receiver transducer back to the pulse generator for retriggering the pulse generator at a frequency proportional to the duration that the ultrasonic wave takes to travel through the bone structure being examined.

  8. A tale of two cores: Triggered massive star formation in the bright-rimmed cloud SFO 75

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, J S; Morgan, L K; Pestalozzi, M R; White, G J; Muna, D N; White, Glenn J.

    2007-01-01

    Abridged: We present a detailed multi-wavelength study of the bright-rimmed cloud SFO 75, including 1.3cm and 1.2mm continuum, and 13CO and ammonia spectral line observations. The 13CO and 1.2 mm emission reveals the presence of a dense core located behind the bright rim of the cloud which is approximately coincident with that of the IRAS point source. From an analysis of the IRAS and 1.2mm fluxes we derive a dust temperature of ~30 K, a luminosity of 1.6x10^4 L\\odot and estimate the core mass to be ~570 M\\odot. The higher resolution ammonia observations resolve the 1.2mm core into two distinct cores, one directly behind the cloud's rim (Core A) and the second located slightly farther back (Core B). Comparing the morphology of Core A with that of the photon-dominated region and ionised boundary layer leaves little doubt that it is being strongly affected by the ionisation front. 2MASS and GLIMPSE archive data which reveal a small cluster of three deeply embedded high- and intermediate-mass young stellar objec...

  9. Challenges, solutions, and best practices in telemental health service delivery across the pacific rim-a summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R; Shore, Jay; Ferguson, Stewart; Jordan, Patricia J; Saiki, Stanley; Poropatich, Ronald K

    2012-10-01

    The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, in conjunction with the American Telemedicine Association's Annual Mid-Year Meeting, conducted a 1-day workshop on how maturing and emerging processes and applications in the field of telemental health (TMH) can be expanded to enhance access to behavioral health services in the Pacific Rim. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together experts in the field of TMH from the military, federal agencies, academia, and regional healthcare organizations serving populations in the Pacific Rim. The workshop reviewed current technologies and systems to better understand their current and potential applications to regional challenges, including the Department of Defense and other federal organizations. The meeting was attended by approximately 100 participants, representing military, government, academia, healthcare centers, and tribal organizations. It was organized into four sessions focusing on the following topic areas: (1) Remote Screening and Assessment; (2) Post-Deployment Adjustment Mental Health Treatment; (3) Suicide Prevention and Management; and (4) Delivery of Training, Education, and Mental Health Work Force Development. The meeting's goal was to discuss challenges, gaps, and collaborative opportunities in this area to enhance existing or create new opportunities for collaborations in the delivery of TMH services to the populations of the Pacific Rim. A set of recommendations for collaboration are presented. PMID:23061646

  10. Myeloma Bone Disease: Current and Future Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors. Though both myeloma and other tumor bone metastases cause increased bone destruction, in myeloma bone repair does not take place. Because of the severe bone destruction, patients can experience: ? bone pain ? fractures ? too much calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) ? ...

  11. Ciclamato de sódio e rim fetal / Sodium cyclamate and fetal kidney

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Germano Ferraz de, Arruda; Alex Tadeu, Martins; Reinaldo, Azoubel.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O ciclamato é usado como adoçante artificial não calórico em diversos alimentos e bebidas, sendo 30 vezes mais doce que a sacarose sem o sabor amargo da sacarina. Aparece na composição dos produtos como ciclamato de sódio, ciclamato de cálcio e ácido ciclâmico. O ciclamato e a ciclohexilamina, seu p [...] rincipal metabólito, atravessam a barreira placentária em humanos e desse modo podem ser expostos ao feto. O rim de ratos pode ser afetado por elevadas doses de ciclamato de sódio. Estudos sobre efeitos do ciclamato de sódio na espécie humana são necessários, pois, além de poder substituir a sacarose - prejudicial em casos de diabetes ou quando o controle e a redução do peso corporal são essenciais para a saúde dos pacientes - não propicia desenvolvimento de cárie dentária. Abstract in english Cyclamate is used as an artificial non-caloric sweetener in a variety of foods and beverages, being 30 times as sweet as sugar without the bitter after-taste of saccharin. It is present in the formula of products such as sodium and calcium cyclamates and cyclamic acid. Cyclamate and cyclohexylamine, [...] its principal metabolite, can cross the human placenta exposing the fetus. It has been demonstrated in rats that the kidney may be adversely affected by high doses of cyclamate. Studies on the effects of sodium cyclamate in the human species are necessary, because in addition to replacing saccharose - harmful in individuals with diabetes or patients in whom weight reduction and control are essential for health - it does not cause dental caries.

  12. Inertial effects at moderate Reynolds number in thin-film rimming flows driven by surface shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, E. D.; Hibberd, S.; Power, H.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study two-dimensional thin-film flow inside a stationary circular cylinder driven by an imposed surface shear stress. Modelling is motivated by a need to understand the cooling and film dynamics provided by oil films in an aero-engine bearing chamber characterised by conditions of very high surface shear and additional film mass flux from oil droplets entering the film through the surface. In typical high-speed operation, film inertial effects can provide a significant leading-order mechanism neglected in existing lubrication theory models. Inertia at leading-order is included within a depth-averaged formulation where wall friction is evaluated similar to hydraulic models. This allows key nonlinear inertial effects to be included while retaining the ability to analyse the problem in a mathematically tractable formulation and compare with other approaches. In constructing this model, a set of simplified mass and momentum equations are integrated through the depth of the film yielding a spatially one-dimensional depth-averaged formulation of the problem. An a priori assumed form of velocity profile is needed to complete the system. In a local Stokes flow analysis, a quadratic profile is the exact solution for the velocity field though it must be modified when inertial effects become important. Extension of the velocity profile to a cubic profile is selected enabling specification of a wall friction model to include the roughness of the cylinder wall. A modelling advantage of including the inertia term, relevant to the applications considered, is that a smooth progression in solution can be obtained between cases of low Reynolds number corresponding to lubrication theory, and high Reynolds number corresponding to uniform rimming-flow. Importantly, we also investigate the effect of inertia on some typical solutions from other studies and present a greater insight to existing and new film solutions which arise from including inertia effects.

  13. Stable and radiogenic isotopic analysis of aquifer systems, Atlantic Rim, Carbon County, Wyoming: Implications for production of coalbed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J. Fred

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production requires the extraction of considerable volumes of water from target formations. This process can dynamically alter local aquifers and affect the larger hydrologic systems of a producing area. An analytical method that provides immediate, cost-effective quantitative information on both resource (methane) and habitat (coalbed aquifer) would help to optimize gas production. This study used a combination of field measurements, water chemistry analysis, and isotopic analysis, both stable (delta13C DIC, deltaO, deltaD) and radiometric (87Sr/ 86Sr), to analyze and characterize the CBNG aquifers and hydrogeologic systems of Wyoming's Atlantic Rim. Waters were sampled and analyzed from streams, springs, and CBNG wells across the Atlantic Rim. Samples were first grouped on the basis of geologic location, and then additionally defined by isotopic and water chemistry analysis into Mesaverde Group springs, Lewis Shale springs, Steele Shale springs, Sand Hill springs, enriched delta 13CDIC springs, methane springs, and subsurface samples (monitoring and CBNG wells). Two distinct water chemistry types are evident in Atlantic Rim samples, Ca-Mg-SO4-type and Na-HCO3-type waters. Atlantic Rim samples also had distinct radiogenic isotopic signatures. Stream water sourced from the Sierra Madre and waters associated with the Mesaverde Group have the highest 87Sr/86Sr ratios, whereas spring samples from the Lewis Shale have the lowest 87Sr/ 86Sr. delta13CDIC, which is enriched by bacterial methanogenesis, was used to identify coalbed waters from other natural waters. Positive delta13CDIC identified spring waters that originated from Mesaverde coalbed aquifers, including methane springs. Strongly positive delta13CDIC of Atlantic Rim CBNG samples identified those coalbed aquifers that are hydraulically isolated, whereas lower delta13CDIC identified wells within open aquifer systems and wells with inefficient casing. This study demonstrated that delta13C DIC was able to help identify hydraulic aquifer isolation, well casing integrity, springs associated with methanogenic coalbed aquifers, and areas of peak methanogenic activity, all of which can be utilized to assess gas potential and promote efficient CBNG production. This abstract supports a supplementary file.

  14. The “Rügener Inklusionsmodell” (RIM – Effects of a school concept based on the Response to Intervention approach on the mathematics and reading achievement of German elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Voß

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the school year 2010/2011 on the Isle of Rügen every child starting school gets enrolled at the regular elementary school whether it has special needs or not. Framework for the structure and organization of these preventive and inclusive schools is the concept “Rügener Inklusionsmodell” (RIM which is an adaption of the US-american Response to Intervention approach (RTI. The RIM is the first large-scale implementation of a school concept in Germany which is based on RTI. This study analyses the effects of the RIM after two school years in comparison to the conventional school concept. The positive effects of RTI reported in US literature could not be replicated however findings do indicate that the RIM provides an appropriate inclusive school setting. Results for children with learning disabilities are not reliable at this point but will be presented later at the end of grade three.

  15. Distinct focal lesions of the femoral head: imaging features suggesting an atypical and minimal form of bone necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heading AbstractObjective. To document the imaging findings observed in patients with an unusual pattern of abnormality of the femoral head, most likely representing osteonecrosis.Design and patients. The imaging findings in 11 patients (10 men, 1 woman; age range 32-55 years) with a distinct lesion of the femoral head were reviewed with particular attention to the morphologic appearance, location, and extent of the lesion(s) in the proximal femur.Results. The 16 lesions identified in these patients extended to the subchondral area. Articular collapse was not evident in any hip. Radiography and CT showed areas of mixed bone sclerosis and osteolysis surrounded by sclerotic margins. On MR imaging, the signal intensity characteristics of the osseous lesion(s) were most commonly similar to those of fluid. Histopathologic findings, available in two hips, were typical of osteonecrosis. There was evidence of correlation of the site of the lesion with the known general distribution and anastomoses of arteries supplying the femoral head.Conclusion. A distinct, focal lesion of the femoral head is believed to represent an atypical form of bone necrosis. Its restriction to a small portion of the femoral head may relate to localized vascular anatomy. Recognition of the quite characteristic imaging findings can prevent misdiagnosis and may have implications for the prediction of the natural course of the disease. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of sequential FDG-PET/CT for monitoring bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Correlation between morphological and metabolic changes with tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the significance of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) findings for evaluating the bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Forty-seven patients with bone metastases from breast cancer who underwent sequential 18F-flourodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT studies during therapy were enrolled. A total of 771 lesions were identified. The changes in the PET and CT findings were compared with the tumor marker levels in each patient by calculating the weighted kappa value. The correlation between the PET and CT findings was examined for each lesion by an adjusted Chi-square test. The change in the tumor marker levels was substantially correlated with the PET findings and moderately correlated with the CT findings (weighted kappa=0.780 and 0.585 for quadratic weighting, respectively). An increase in FDG uptake was correlated with lytic changes on the CT images (62/65, 95.4%, p<0.05). Sclerotic changes suggested improvement, but sclerosis and progression occurred at the same time in some lesions. Changes of FDG uptake are useful for evaluating individual bone metastases in cases of breast cancer during therapy. Lytic change on CT images suggests progression of bone metastasis. The lysis-progression/sclerosis-improvement pattern was observed in the majority of subjects, but a sclerosis-progression pattern was also observed. The hybrid pattern of increase of FDG uptake on PET/lytic change on CT is m FDG uptake on PET/lytic change on CT is most accurate to show progression of bone metastases. Assessments of these processes during therapy are necessary for the precise evaluation of bone metastases. (author)

  17. Concurrent Rotator Cuff Tear and Axillary Nerve Palsy Associated with Anterior Dislocation of the Shoulder and Large Glenoid Rim Fracture: A “Terrible Tetrad”

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiaki Takase; Atsuyuki Inui; Yutaka Mifune; Tomoyuki Muto; Yoshifumi Harada; Takeshi Kokubu; Masahiro Kurosaka

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of concurrent rotator cuff tear and axillary nerve palsy resulting from anterior dislocation of the shoulder and a large glenoid rim fracture—a “terrible tetrad.” A 61-year-old woman fell on her right shoulder. Radiographs showed anterior dislocation of the shoulder with a glenoid rim fracture, and an MRI two months after injury revealed a rotator cuff tear. Upon referral to our hospital, physical and electrophysiological examinations revealed axillary nerve palsy. The...

  18. Slt2 and Rim101 Contribute Independently to the Correct Assembly of the Chitin Ring at the Budding Yeast Neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae? †

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Alberto; Perez, Jaqueline; Reyes, Abigail; Duran, Angel; Roncero, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the simultaneous absence of Slt2 and Rim101 prevents growth in nonosmotically stabilized media (F. Castrejon et al., Eukaryot. Cell 5:507-517, 2006). The double mutant slt2? rim101? displays altered chitin rings, together with a significant reduction in the overall levels of chitin. Cultures of this mutant lyse upon transfer to nonosmotically stabilized media, mostly through the bud, and such lysis is partially prevented by deletion of the chitinase gene (CTS1)....

  19. Lymphangioma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patient is a 5-year-old boy, who suffered from frequent pathological fractures in many bones. Roentgenologic examination revealed widely distributed cystic lesions in many bones. Cysts of the same nature were also seen in the soft tissues of the right neck, retroperitoneum and colon. These lesions were composed of many dilated cysts which were lined by a single layer of flat endothelial cells. The over all lesions were considered to be the cystic lymphangiomatosis involving both bone and extraskeletal tissues. The nature of the lesion seems to be a kind of tissue malformation rather than a true neoplasm. (author)

  20. Hidden bone erosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salaffi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pictorial essay was to demonstrate the diagnostic efficacy of high-resolution sonography in detecting bone erosions in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Standard X-Ray of the feet did not reveal clearly evident erosions. Ultrasonography was able to detect the presence of bone erosions of the metatarsal heads of both the first toes and of the V toe of the left foot. Because the appearance of bone erosions on radiographs of a patient with a recent onset arthritis indicates a poor prognosis, the possibility of demonstrating small hidden erosions at the level of the early targets of the disease is of relevant practical value.

  1. Temporal bone imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruauff, Kristen; Coffey, Kristen; Chazen, J Levi; Phillips, C Douglas

    2015-02-01

    Temporal bone imaging is performed for a variety of clinical conditions addressed in the outpatient and acute care setting ranging from hearing loss to trauma. Recent advances in magnetic resonance technology have enhanced the assessment of fine anatomic temporal bone detail and improved the diagnostic sensitivity for important pathology. For example, non-echo planar diffusion weighted imaging increases detection rate and diagnostic confidence of recurrent cholesteatoma. This chapter will focus on relevant temporal bone clinical entities and new MR developments that have come into clinical practice. PMID:25654420

  2. Why date old bones?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods for pretreatment and purification of bone have not been accorded the same standard protocols that are applied to other sample materials. Many users lack confidence in bone dates, with some justification, and it is not clear how to proceed. With the advent of AMS dating, it is becoming easy to date very small amounts of highly purified samples such as single amino acids from bone collagen. This note serves a warning that there are dangers in the uncritical application of powerful separation and measurement techniques to uncharacterized material. (orig.)

  3. Bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-polyphosphate or sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate was carried out in 54 children suspected of bone disease. Signals of skeletal metastases were recognized in 13 children by scintigraphy whereas X-ray examination showed lesions in only 10 of these. In 5 children with primary osteosarcoma, three cases of fibrous dysplasia, and 4 cases of osteomyelitis, the lesions were clearly demonstrated by scintigraphy. Abnormal accumulation of radioactivity in soft tissue lesions was observed in primary adrenal neuroblastoma, Hodgkin's granuloma, and metastatic Burkitt's lymphoma. Several cases are reported, and the value of bone scintigraphy in children is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  5. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research: Bone Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developed by the Education Committee of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), this Bone Curriculum website "is intended for use by students from high school to medical school." The website features sections on Bone Cells, Exercise and Nutrition, Hormones that Effect Bone, Collagen and Bone Matrix, and more. The brief text sections are interspersed with great images, diagrams, slide shows, and animations. The site also contains links for related websites, textbooks, and journals.

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Play Video Clip (00:04:40) Your Radiologist Explains Bone X-ray What is Bone X-ray ( ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  7. Alkaline stress triggers an immediate calcium fluctuation in Candida albicans mediated by Rim101p and Crz1p transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Biao; Zheng, Wen; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2011-08-01

    In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, environmental pH has profound effects on morphogenesis and response to extracellular pH is clearly relevant to the pathogenicity of this fungus. Yeast cells have evolved a complex network of mechanisms in response to the environmental pH and they often require the integration of the Rim101 and calcineurin/Crz1 signaling pathways. Ca(2+) burst is a common cellular response when cells are exposed to environmental stresses; therefore, in this study, we asked whether it follows the same case under alkaline stress and whether this calcium change is regulated by Rim101p and Crz1p. We confirmed the calcium influx was activated by KOH stimuli using a flow cytometry-based method, but it was obviously abolished in cells lacking MID1 or CCH1. We also found that alkaline pH-induced activation of the PHO89 promoter was blocked without the same gene; moreover, the response was Crz1p- and Rim101p-dependent. Finally, we investigated the regulation role of Rim101p and Crz1p in calcium influx through MID1, CCH1 and YVC1 genes, which were all downregulated in rim101?/? and crz1?/? mutants. The important role of calcium influx in the alkaline stress response and its regulation suggested a potential integration effect of Rim101 and Crz1 signaling pathways in C. albicans. PMID:21457451

  8. Can bone scintigraphy predict the final outcome of pasteurized autografts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, Ahmed Shawky [Ain Shams University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Jeon, Dae-Geun; Cho, Wan Hyeong [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    As pasteurization is becoming more widely used in limb salvage reconstruction, more study is required to understand about host-graft junction healing, graft revascularization and incorporation, and the incidence and type of complications among pasteurized autografts. This was mainly achieved by follow-up radiography. We aimed to clarify whether Tc99m bone scanning can be considered a reliable method in determining these three parameters. Twenty-seven osteosarcoma patients with pasteurized autograft reconstructions were retrospectively reviewed using available scintigraphic and radiographic follow-up every 6 months postoperatively for 36 months. Follow-up of the unhealed cases was continued for the maximum follow-up period available for each case beyond the original study period, ranging from 1 to 15 months. Tc99m uptake was classified as cold, faint, moderate and high uptake. Junction healing was classified as none, partial and complete healing. Seventy percent of junctions united with a mean of 22 months. Ninety to 100% of junctions showed increased uptake (high or moderate) at one time of the study regardless of final outcome. 85% of the pasteurized grafts showed the characteristic ''tramline appearance''. Four grafts (15%) were complicated: pseudoarthrosis and implant failure (1), fractured plate (1), intramedullary nail (IMN) fracture (1), and prosthesis stem loosening in the host bone (1), with underlying unhealed junctions in all cases. Bone scanning can determine the stages of the graft's rim revascularization and incorporation; however, it cannot detect or predict junction healing or occurrence of complications. Supplementary treatment of unhealed junctions showing either decreased junctional uptake or graft quiescence may be warranted. Otherwise, detection of distant metastasis and early local recurrence remains the main application of Tc99m scanning in the management of bone sarcomas. (orig.)

  9. Usefulness of {sup 18}F fluoride PET/CT in breast cancer patients with osteosclerotic bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Ho; Kim, Ku Sang; Kang, Seok Yun; Song, Hee Sung; Jo, Kyung Sook; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Joon Kee; An, Young Sil [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong Hoi [Gyeongsang National Univ. Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Bone metastasis is an important factor for the treatment and prognosis of breast cancer patients. Whole body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) can evaluate skeletal metastases, and {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT seems to exhibit high specificity and accuracy in detecting bone metastases. However, there is a limitation of {sup 18}F FDG PET in assessing sclerotic bone metastases because some lesions may be undetectable. Recent studies showed that {sup 18}F fluoride PET/CT is more sensitive than WBBS in detecting bone metastases. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of {sup 18}F fluoride PET/CT by comparing it with WBBS and {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients with osteosclerotic skeletal metastases. Nine breast cancer patients with suspected bone metastases (9 females; mean age {+-} SD, 55.6{+-}10.0 years) underwent {sup 99m}Tc MDP WBBS, {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT and {sup 18}F fluoride PET/CT. Lesion based analysis of five regions of the skeletons(skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, pelvic bones and long bones of extremities) and patient based analysis were performed. {sup 18}F fluoride PET/CT, {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT and WBBS detected 49, 20 and 25 true metastases, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of {sup 18}F fluoride PET/CT were 94.2%, 46.3%, 57.7% and 91.2%, respectively. Most true metastatic lesions of {sup 18}F fluoride PET/CT had osteosclerotic change (45/49, 91.8%), and only four lesions showed osteolytic change. Most lesions on {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT also demonstrated osteosclerotic change (17/20, 85.0%) with three osteolytic lesions. All true metastatic lesions detected on WBBS and {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT were identified on {sup 18}F fluoride PET/CT. {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT in detecting osteosclerotic metastatic lesions. {sup 18}F fluoride PET/CT might be useful in evaluating osteosclerotic metastases in breast cancer patients.

  10. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. In fact, a skeletal scintigram or bone scan ... inform their physician or technologist if they are breastfeeding or if there is any possibility that they ...

  11. Primary bone lymphoma (osteolymphoma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, D.R.H.; Cahill, S.P.; Barton, M.B. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Depts. of Radiation Oncology and Radiology

    1996-08-01

    Seventeen patients with primary lymphoma of bone are reviewed. In 15 patients treated with radical radiotherapy, local progression or recurrence occurred in four. The results support the use of radiotherapy alone, using doses of 45-50 Gy. Although small numbers prevent firm conclusions, the inclusion of the whole bone or regional nodes in the irradiated volume did not appear to improve results. Eight patients received systemic chemotherapy with no apparent improvement in rates of relapse. Two patients suffered pathological fractures after radiotherapy in the absence of recurrence at the fracture site; however, osteomyelitis, older age, Paget`s disease, high-dose prednisolone and whole-bone radiotherapy may have added to the risk of fracture. Because of the many complex names and selection criteria applied to this condition, literature searching and comparison between studies was difficult. The simple term osteolymphoma is proposed, consistent with other primary bone conditions. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Bone Healing: Little Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to stimulate bone repair, heal non-unions, or restore lost segments of bone is a common goal among orthopaedic surgeons, trauma surgeons, and scientists who investigate wound healing responses. The stimulation of bone repair has been reported using biophysical means such as electromagnetic fields, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shockwave therapy. Reported studies on the use of these modalities suggest beneficial effects but the quality of the evidence and high between-study heterogeneity leave the impact of these biophysical stimuli on bone repair uncertain. New biotechnologies to enhance skeletal repair have focused on growth factors, osteoinductive molecules, and, more recently, autologous adult bone marrow stem cells. Recent randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials using recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 for the treatment of tibial shaft fractures, and platelet-derived growth factor for the treatment of ankle fractures have yielded potentially interesting results. More data are needed to confirm these findings. Investigations using prostaglandin EP-2 receptor agonists to enhance tibia shaft fracture healing are also under way. Clinicians and scientists have utilized autologous bone marrow for over a century. Unprocessed preparations have shown uneven results with regard to their ability to enhance bone repair. Recent data, however, demonstrating the use of autologous bone marrow stem cells in a concentrated manner have been very encouraging. Injection of bone marrow aspirate concentrate into non-unions and in conjunction with local bone for the enhancement of spinal fusion have shown impressive results. Perhaps the most well-investigated biotechnology for the enhancement of bone repair is the use of the bone morphogenetic proteins. BMP-2 and BMP-7 are now available as recombinant molecules and have been evaluated in both spinal and long-bone trauma applications. RhBMP-2 has demonstrated efficacy in the enhancement of single-level lumbar intervertebral body fusions and open (compound) tibia-shaft fractures. RhBMP-7 (also known as OP-1) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of recalcitrant non-unions of long bones. Fusion of the spine, however, in patients undergoing posterolateral fusions has been somewhat less successful. At this time, use of BMPs should be limited to only those applications approved by government regulatory bodies as off-label use has been associated with serious complications, such as the use of BMP-2 in the cervical spine causing airway obstruction. Future biotechnologies to enhance bone repair are in development. One potential area of interest may be to target the Wnt signaling pathway in osteoblasts. Recent data suggesting the efficacy of Wnt proteins in the enhancement of skeletal healing suggest that this pathway may be worthy of further investigation. Although technologies for the enhancement of skeletal repair have focused on locally applied materials that are either implanted or injected, future technologies may focus on systemic means of enhancing skeletal repair. In particular, the presence of known human phenotypes associated with mutations in the receptor-ligand interactions that trigger this pathway suggests that modification of Wnt signaling may have a beneficial clinical impact when the appropriate agonist or antagonist is formulated in the appropriate way. A recent randomized, controlled trial using parathyroid hormone (1–34) to enhance the healing of distal radius fractures shows promise and may form the foundation for future investigations to develop systemic therapies for bone repair.

  13. Medicines and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the sun. It’s also found in salmon, shrimp, and milk with added vitamin D. You may ... gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html — Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource center: www.niams.nih.gov/Health_ ...

  14. Fossilized Dinosaur Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide show presents images of dinosaur bones and shows paleotologists at work excavating and preserving these fossils, the best evidence remaining of these long-lost creatures. A background essay and discussion questons are included.

  15. Low Bone Density (Osteopenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safely Quality of Life Resources BoneSource Bonesource For Healthcare Professionals Connect to our Community Share your experience and get involved. Joining the conversation is the first step to ...

  16. Molecular biology of bone remodelling

    OpenAIRE

    Rucci, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    Bone remodelling is an active and dynamic process that relies on the correct balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts. Moreover, these two functions must be tightly coupled not only quantitatively, but also in time and space. When the coupling is lost, the correct bone mass could be compromised, leading to several skeletal pathologies. Indeed, bone loss and osteoporosis are the result of an increased osteoclast function and/or a reduced osteoblast acti...

  17. Triggered Star Formation in a Bright-rimmed Cloud (BRC 5) of IC 1805

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Naoya; Miao, Jingqi; Sugitani, Koji; Kawahara, Kentaro; Watanabe, Makoto; Nakano, Makoto; Pickles, Andrew J.

    2013-08-01

    We report recent optical, near-infrared (NIR), and millimeter observations which have revealed some new features of the bright-rimmed cloud BRC 5 associated with W4. With slitless spectroscopy, we detected 17 H? emission stars around the cloud; 4 are near the surface of the cloud, and 1 is toward IRAS 02252+6120. NIR photometry shows that the central H? emission star, together with one bright infrared source, has large NIR excesses and Class I spectral energy distributions. These two Class I objects are associated with the 2.9 mm continuum peaks and with a bipolar outflow, and are in between two separate, elongated C18O(J = 1-0) cores. The C18O cores and the two Class I sources are aligned along a line at position angle ~240°, somewhat less than perpendicular to the direction of UV radiation from the OB stars. Most of the detected H? emission stars, all T Tauri candidates, are located within ~3' of the cloud on the exciting star side. An estimate of the age of the stars based on a color-magnitude diagram suggests that these T Tauri candidates have ages of ~1 Myr or less, but are more evolved objects than the central young stellar objects. This age sequence suggests sequential star formation within the BRC 5 cloud. The 13CO(J = 1-0) emission shows three elongated structures, which indicates the asymmetric structure toward the UV incident axis. We present our exploratory simulation results by using a smoothed particle hydrodynamic code that suggests that the asymmetrical BRC 5 structure could possibly result from the evolution of a preexisting prolate molecular cloud subject to radiation-driven implosion (RDI). Our best-fit prolate cloud has an initial mass of ~400 M ?, an axial ratio of ~1.7, and a semi-major axis of ~1.6 pc, pointing away from the ionization flux by an angle of 15°. The simulated cloud structure not only closely matches the observed asymmetric morphological structure of BRC 5, but also reveals the possibility of the development of two major cores at the head of BRC 5. For the first time, the possibility of forming two stars by an RDI mechanism in a BRC is investigated.

  18. Triggered star-formation in the bright rimmed globule IC1396A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimesh A.; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Goldsmith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    IC1396 is a well known HII region and molecular cloud complex surrounding the Trumpler 37 cluster of OB stars in the Cepheus OB2 association. The dense, elephant trunk shaped globules in this region typically show bright rims facing the central exciting O6 star HD~206267. This region, at a distance of 870 pc, is an excellent astrophysical laboratory for studying the feedback effects of massive stars on neighboring molecular clouds. Triggered star formation occurs when dense cores (which would otherwise remain stable) are compressed and made unstable by the sustained energy input from the OB association. Observationally it remains challenging to prove whether the onset of star-formation in such globules is triggered or spontaneous.Using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), we observed IC1396 globule A (Pottasch 1958 nomenclature), targeting four newly discovered protostars from recent Herschel PACS observations. Here we present 230 GHz molecular line (CO, 13CO, C18O, N2D+ and H2CO) and continuum results for the source IC1396A-PACS-1 (Sicilia-Aguilar et al. 2014). This is a Class 0 source very close to the edge of the ionization front and Herschel observations show this to be a most promisingcase of triggered star-formation. The SMA 230 GHz continuum source has a flux density of 280 mJy. We estimate a dust mass of about 0.1 Msun in this source which appears very compact in our 5" beam. CO, 13CO and C18O emission is largely resolved out by the interferometer and will require combined imaging with single-dish observations. (We have a parallel ongoing study being carried out with the IRAM 30m telescope). SMA N2D+ emission peaks on the continuum sourceand is partially resolved. H2CO emission appears to avoid the peak of continuum and N2D+, suggesting depletion. Both the morphology and kinematics in H2CO emission are indicative of internal disturbance, away from the PDR region into the globule.

  19. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION IN A BRIGHT-RIMMED CLOUD (BRC 5) OF IC 1805

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Naoya [Faculty of Biosphere-Geosphere Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-chou, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Miao, Jingqi [Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Sugitani, Koji [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan); Kawahara, Kentaro [Faculty of Informatics, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-chou, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Watanabe, Makoto [Department of Cosmosciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Nakano, Makoto [Faculty of Education and Welfare Science, Oita University, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Pickles, Andrew J., E-mail: fukudany@big.ous.ac.jp [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We report recent optical, near-infrared (NIR), and millimeter observations which have revealed some new features of the bright-rimmed cloud BRC 5 associated with W4. With slitless spectroscopy, we detected 17 H{alpha} emission stars around the cloud; 4 are near the surface of the cloud, and 1 is toward IRAS 02252+6120. NIR photometry shows that the central H{alpha} emission star, together with one bright infrared source, has large NIR excesses and Class I spectral energy distributions. These two Class I objects are associated with the 2.9 mm continuum peaks and with a bipolar outflow, and are in between two separate, elongated C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) cores. The C{sup 18}O cores and the two Class I sources are aligned along a line at position angle {approx}240 Degree-Sign , somewhat less than perpendicular to the direction of UV radiation from the OB stars. Most of the detected H{alpha} emission stars, all T Tauri candidates, are located within {approx}3' of the cloud on the exciting star side. An estimate of the age of the stars based on a color-magnitude diagram suggests that these T Tauri candidates have ages of {approx}1 Myr or less, but are more evolved objects than the central young stellar objects. This age sequence suggests sequential star formation within the BRC 5 cloud. The {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) emission shows three elongated structures, which indicates the asymmetric structure toward the UV incident axis. We present our exploratory simulation results by using a smoothed particle hydrodynamic code that suggests that the asymmetrical BRC 5 structure could possibly result from the evolution of a preexisting prolate molecular cloud subject to radiation-driven implosion (RDI). Our best-fit prolate cloud has an initial mass of {approx}400 M{sub Sun }, an axial ratio of {approx}1.7, and a semi-major axis of {approx}1.6 pc, pointing away from the ionization flux by an angle of 15 Degree-Sign . The simulated cloud structure not only closely matches the observed asymmetric morphological structure of BRC 5, but also reveals the possibility of the development of two major cores at the head of BRC 5. For the first time, the possibility of forming two stars by an RDI mechanism in a BRC is investigated.

  20. Diffuse lymphangiomatosis of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of lymphangiomatosis of bone, a very rare systemic condition characterised by both skeletal and parenchymal lesions, are presented. The skeletal changes have an appearance similar to haemangiomas in the spine, and soap-bubbly lesions in the flat bones. One case carried the diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma for 18 years. The findings on MRI, which have not been previously well-established, are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Bone tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the contribution of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the care of patients with bone neoplasms. These modalities are emphasized because of their relative newness and not because they are considered more significant than the other more established examinations. Routine radiographs remain the most informative and essential imaging procedures for the diagnosis of bone tumors

  2. Bone marrow trephine biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, B.

    2001-01-01

    Trephine biopsies of the bone marrow should be carried out, when clinically indicated, by trained individuals following a standard operating procedure. A bone marrow aspiration should be performed as part of the same procedure. For patient safety and convenience, biopsies are usually performed on the posterior iliac crest. The biopsy specimen should measure at least 1.6 cm and, if it does not, consideration should be given to repeating the procedure, possibly on the contralateral iliac crest....

  3. Bone changes in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mende, B.; Stein, G.; Kreysel, H.W.

    1985-02-01

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated.

  4. Bone changes in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.)

  5. Osteogenic scaffolds for bone reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Jiang; Liu, Ning; Shi, Jian-Gang; Liu, Qing; Jia, Lian-Shun; Yuan, Wen

    2012-06-01

    A highly osteogenic hybrid bioabsorbable scaffold was developed for bone reconstruction/augmentation. Through the use of a solid free-form fabrication technology, a bioabsorbable polycaprolactone (PCL) cage scaffold with a desired size and shape was produced and then filled with osteogenic bone graft particles, that is, morselized autologous bone chips. A rabbit total lamina defect model was chosen to demonstrate its efficacy in regenerating bone with a complicated anatomic shape. Both iliac bone and morselized iliac bone grafts were used in this study for comparison purposes. Serum osteocalcin and collagen type I cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide (CTx) determination showed that active bone remodeling occurred after bone grafts were implanted. X-ray images showed that the bony defects were completely filled with bone mass in all the groups with bone grafts. However, biomechanical tests showed that only the iliac bone and hybrid scaffold groups could restore the mechanical properties to the normal level after 10 weeks of implantation. A histology study showed that both iliac and hybrid scaffold groups had extensive new bone formation, and no adhesion and fibrosis were found. These results indicated that this osteogenic hybrid scaffold can be a good alternative to autologous iliac bone, because it does not need a second iliac bone-harvesting surgery, and thus the morbidity and the possible infections that are often associated with the bone harvesting surgery can be avoided. PMID:23515416

  6. Ghrelin and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhanty, Patric J D; van der Eerden, Bram C J; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-derived peptide hormone, first isolated from the stomach. Ghrelin was initially characterized as a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, but it plays a more important role as a potent orexigen and modulator of whole-body energy homeostasis. Ghrelin itself is closely regulated by metabolic status. Bone remodeling constantly renews the skeleton in a highly energy-dependent fashion. Accordingly, bone metabolism is tightly coupled to energy metabolism through the integration of peripheral and central mechanisms, involving the sympathetic nervous system and factors such as leptin. Ghrelin has been shown to modulate osteoblast differentiation and function, both directly and perhaps also through regulation of the GH-insulin-like growth factor axis. However, recently it has also been shown that ghrelin interacts with leptin in modulating bone structure, constituting a new mechanism that couples bone metabolism with energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role that ghrelin plays modulating bone cell function, and its integrative role in coupling bone metabolism with energy metabolism. PMID:23804549

  7. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  8. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Hospital

    1998-02-01

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  9. Bone changes in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While treating 14 phenylketonurial (PKU) patients, we evaluated bone density, changes in bone age, and bony changes such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. A total of 14 PKU patients aged between 1 month and 14 years (mean, 6.4 years) were under dietary treatment. Eight and eleven patients underwent radiography of the left hand and wrist and bone densitometry (BMD) of the lumbar spine, respectively. The results were reviewed with regard to abnormal bony changes, delayed bone age, and osteopenia. Patients were assigned to either the early or late treatment group, depending on whether or not dietary therapy was started before 3 months of age. Those in whom a blood phenylalanine level of under 10 mg/dl was maintained were assigned to the good control group; others were classified as variable control. The findings of radiographs of the left hand and lumbar BMD were evaluated in relation to the time of dietary therapy, and adequacy of treatment. None of the 14 PKU patients who underwent dietary therapy had bony abnormalities such as spiculation or metaphyseal widening. In four of the 11, bone age was at least one year less than chronological age, and on lumbar BMD, osteoporosis was seen. For the evaluation of bone change in PKU patients, plain radiography and BMD are thus complementary. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  10. A degradable soybean-based biomaterial used effectively as a bone filler in vivo in a rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'gold standard' for bone filling is currently the bone autograft, but its use is limited by material availability and by the possible risks of infection or other donor site morbidity. Materials proposed so far as bone fillers do not show all the characteristics which are desirable. These are (a) osteoconductivity, (b) controlled biodegradation and (c) ease of adaptation to the implantation site. Recently, a new class of biodegradable material based on soybeans has been presented which shows good mechanical properties and an intrinsic bioactivity on inflammatory and tissue cells in vitro. The authors investigated the morphology in vivo of bone response in repairing a surgical lesion in the presence of granules of a novel soybean-based biomaterial (SB), comparing it with a sham-operated contralateral lesion of critical size (non-healing model); 26 operations were performed in New Zealand White rabbits, with back scattered electron microscopy as the analysis technique of choice. Implantation of SB granules over 8 weeks produced bone repair with features distinct from those obtained by healing in a non-treated defect. New and progressively maturing trabeculae appeared in the animal group where SB granules were implanted, while sham operation produced only a rim of pseudo-cortical bone still featuring a large defect. The trabeculae forming in the presence of SB granules had features typical of reticular bone. These findings suggest that the bone regeneration potential gest that the bone regeneration potential of SB granules and their intrinsic bioactivity, combined with their relatively easy and cost-effective preparation procedures, make them suitable candidates as a bone filler in clinical applications.

  11. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 ?g of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  12. Rim Thickness Factor to Evaluate Fracture Resistance of Spur Gears Factor por espesor de llanta para evaluar resistencia a la fractura en ruedas dentadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo González Rey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In thin rimmed gears running with sufficient bending stress resistance at the tooth-root, fatigue cracks with propagation through the rims, rather than at the tooth fillet, has been observed. Both the ISO and AGMA standards introduce stress-modifying factors (denominated rim thickness factors YB and KB for the bending stress calculation where the rim thickness is not sufficient to provide full support of the tooth root. However, some new experiences and tests of gears have evidenced that the effects of rim thickness on fracture resistance in spur gear are not completely considered with the ISO and AGMA factors for rim thickness. In this paper, some studies published about the effects of rim thickness on spur gear bending stress are reviewed. Moreover, the influence in the rim thickness factor of both rim backup ratio and web thickness ration is confirmed based on statistical analysis and a better formula for calculation of rim thickness factor is proposed.En engranajes de ruedas dentadas con llantas de pequeño espesor y con suficiente resistencia a los esfuerzos en la base de los dientes, ha sido observado el surgimiento de grietas en dirección transversal a la llanta con rotura por fractura de la rueda dentada. En las Normas ISO y AGMA se introducen factores modificadores de los esfuerzos (YB y KB para ruedas dentadas con llantas de pequeño espesor para valorar el esfuerzo en la base de los dientes de engranajes. Experiencias y ensayos de ruedas dentadas han puesto en evidencia que el efecto de fractura de las llantas no está totalmente considerado con los actuales factores de espesor de llanta presentes en las normas referidas. En el presente trabajo, son mostrados resultados derivados de un análisis de la interrelación entre el factor por adelgazamiento de llanta, la relación de espesor con referencia a la llanta y de los nervios del soporte en ruedas dentadas cilíndricas, que permitieron obtener una fórmula de mayor alcance para valorar el efecto del espesor de la llanta y el espesor de los nervios en la resistencia a la fractura de las ruedas dentadas.

  13. Bone Mineral Density Value Dependence on Bone Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtari-Dizaji

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA is the most widely used measurement for the assessment of bone mass in osteoporosis. In clinical measurement, bone width can affect bone mineral parameters. The purpose of this study was to examine the dependence of bone mineral pa-rameters on bone width. In this study, DXA measurements were conducted on rabbit bone in vivo using clinical instruments. We have selected rabbit’s bones that have low BMD and more collagen tissue to predict structure not only measures BMD, but is also sensitive to the structure of the bone. To investigate the effect of bone width on the measured parameters, three regions of femur and tibia bones (N=132 were processed: upper (1/3 of length, middle (1/2 of length and lower (2/3 of length for BMC, areal BMD and volumetric BMD. The ANOVA analysis of bone mineral extracted by DXA showed significant differences (P<0.05 between BMC, BMDa and BMDv of six groups of upper, middle and lower parts of the femur and the tibia. It shows that BMC and BMD correlate well with the bone width, but BMDv inversely correlates with bone width. Linear and nonlinear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between DXA characteristics with bone width and the regression function for each parameter is given. We concluded that BMC, areal BMD, and volumetric BMD in rabbit's bone with collagen fibers more than bone mineral are dependent on bone width. This result may be at least in part due to large precision error measurement of the bone width, in vivo.

  14. In situ SUMOylation analysis reveals a modulatory role of RanBP2 in the nuclear rim and PML bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUMO modification plays a critical role in a number of cellular functions including nucleocytoplasmic transport, gene expression, cell cycle and formation of subnuclear structures such as promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies. In order to identify the sites where SUMOylation takes place in the cell, we developed an in situ SUMOylation assay using a semi-intact cell system and subsequently combined it with siRNA-based knockdown of nucleoporin RanBP2, also known as Nup358, which is one of the known SUMO E3 proteins. With the in situ SUMOylation assay, we found that both nuclear rim and PML bodies, besides mitotic apparatuses, are major targets for active SUMOylation. The ability to analyze possible SUMO conjugation sites would be a valuable tool to investigate where SUMO E3-like activities and/or SUMO substrates exist in the cell. Specific knockdown of RanBP2 completely abolished SUMOylation along the nuclear rim and dislocated RanGAP1 from the nuclear pore complexes. Interestingly, the loss of RanBP2 markedly reduced the number of PML bodies, in contrast to other, normal-appearing nuclear compartments including the nuclear lamina, nucleolus and chromatin, suggesting a novel link between RanBP2 and PML bodies. SUMOylation facilitated by RanBP2 at the nuclear rim may be a key step for the formation of a particular subnuclear organization. Our data imply that SUMO E3 proteins like RanBP2 facilitate spatio-temporal SUMOylation for certain nuclear structure and functionrtain nuclear structure and function

  15. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Ma1, Peter X

    2013-11-01

    Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior towards the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials. PMID:24688283

  16. Mimicking the nanostructure of bone matrix to regenerate bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Key features of bone tissue structure and composition are capable of directing cellular behavior toward the generation of new bone tissue. Bone tissue, as well as materials derived from bone, have a long and successful history of use as bone grafting materials. Recent developments in design and processing of synthetic scaffolding systems has allowed the replication of the bone's desirable biological activity in easy to fabricate polymeric materials with nano-scale features exposed on the surface. The biological response to these new tissue-engineering scaffold materials oftentimes exceeds that seen on scaffolds produced using biological materials.

  17. Computer Calculations of Eddy-Current Power Loss in Rotating Titanium Wheels and Rims in Localized Axial Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhall, D J; Stein, W; Gronberg, J B

    2006-05-15

    We have performed preliminary computer-based, transient, magnetostatic calculations of the eddy-current power loss in rotating titanium-alloy and aluminum wheels and wheel rims in the predominantly axially-directed, steady magnetic fields of two small, solenoidal coils. These calculations have been undertaken to assess the eddy-current power loss in various possible International Linear Collider (ILC) positron target wheels. They have also been done to validate the simulation code module against known results published in the literature. The commercially available software package used in these calculations is the Maxwell 3D, Version 10, Transient Module from the Ansoft Corporation.

  18. Whispering gallery modes at the rim of an axisymmetric optical resonator: analytical versus numerical description and comparison with experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, I; Sturman, B; Sedlmeir, F; Schwefel, H G L; Buse, K

    2013-12-16

    Optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of mm-sized axisymmetric resonators are well localized at the equator. Employing this distinctive feature, we obtain simple analytical relations for the frequencies and eigenfunctions of WGMs which include the major radius of the resonator and the curvature radius of the rim. Being compared with results of finite-element simulations, these relations show a high accuracy and practicability. High-precision free-spectral-range measurements with a millimeter-sized disc resonator made of MgF(2) allow us to identify the WGMs and confirm the applicability of our analytical description. PMID:24514644

  19. The application and implementation of optimized mine ventilation on demand (OMVOD) at the Xstrata Nickel Rim South Mine, Sudbury, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Optimized Mine Ventilation on Demand (OMVOD) system has been installed at the Xstrata Nickel Rim South Mine in Sudbury. Developed by Simsmart Technologies, the OMVOD system monitors and controls air quality and quantity through real time dynamic automation. A ventilation on demand (VOD) system was needed to remove diesel particulate matter (DPM), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This paper described the real-time tracking and monitoring of the OMVOD system and optimization of ventilation equipment. Simsmart's OMVOD system was shown to reduce energy costs while improve air quality in the underground mine. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Red-Rimmed Melania (Melanoides tuberculatus) - A Snail in Biscayne National Park, Florida - Harmful Invader or Just a Nuisance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, G. Lynn; Murray, James B.; Schill, W. Bane; Phillips, Emily C.

    2008-01-01

    Potentially harmful to humans and other animals, the red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculatus; family Thiaridae) was discovered in Biscayne National Park, Florida, in 2003 by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers. The discovery raised concerns for park managers because this aquatic non-native snail is present in significant numbers in areas frequently used by park visitors and poses a risk of exposure. Researchers are addressing questions such as: Is this species a danger to human health? How widespread is it within the park? What factors control the distribution of the species? Is its presence a threat to native animals?

  1. Development of high sensitive and reliable FFD and sodium leak detection technique for fast reactor using RIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An early detection of fuel failure and subsequent precise identification of the failed fuel subassemblies are important and indispensable for operational safety of sodium cooled fast reactors. They help to prevent radioactive contamination in the primary cooling system, to reduce the personnel radiation dose and also to improve the plant availability factor as well. The artificially blended xenon and krypton gas (tag gas) is used as the failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) of the prototype fast breeder reactor Monju. The tag gas with different isotopic ratio was enclosed in each Monju fuel cladding tube and is measured by means of the mass spectrometry in the event of fuel failure. Since the tag gas released in the argon cover gas region is eventually diluted under the ppb level, it needs to concentrate at about 105 times using cryogenic charcoal bed which requires an elaborate operation and time. The high sensitive FFDL system is developed using laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) method. The RIMS is suitable for the isotope analysis of the element of ultra trace level, since there is no increase of the background by interfering ion and isobaric interference except for measuring element, because the measuring element is selectively ionized. Developed RIMS system (as shown) consists of the variable wavelength laser system with pulsed optical parametric oscillator and reflectron type time of flight mass spectrometer (RETOFMS). Employing ht mass spectrometer (RETOFMS). Employing a pulsed supersonic valve for sample gas injection enhanced the sensitivity. In order to suppress the unwanted peaks, the mass gating unit was adopted to prevent the argon ions from reaching the detector of RE-TOFMS. The RIMS was applied to measure the tag gas which is used for the pressurized steel capsule of on-line creep rupture experiment in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. As a result, this system could analyze the tag gas isotopic ratios of about 100 ?102 ppb level and the measured results could identify tag gas. An in-pile fuel failure simulation test was conducted in the experimental fast reactor Joyo to evaluate the fission products behavior in the primary cooling system and cover gas, and to confirm the plant operation procedure in the event of fuel failure.During the sodium sipping operation for FFDL, the sample of cover gas was taken into the stainless steel container and xenon nuclides were analyzed by the RIMS system . The RIMS system has detected stable xenon nuclides and 133Xe of which absolute value was evaluated to be a few ppt using the germanium semiconductor detector. This is the first measured data of actual fission gas in the sodium cooled fast reactor plant, and it shows the a applicability of the RIMS system for the fuel failure detection using the stable radioactive xenon isotopes. In a demonstration fast reactor designed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA,) the gap volume between a reactor vessel and its guard vessel increases in proportional to the reactor size and nitrogen gas is filled the space in the double walled piping, resulting in the decrease of the sodium density. An innovative technology has been developed to selectively detect the sodium isotopes in the primary cooling system using RIMS. The target in this study is to improve the detection sensitivity of sodium isotopes up to two to three orders of magnitude lower than the current methods. This research and development program consists of (1) investigating the detection process of sodium aerosol by RIMS, (2) manufacturing the prototype sodium detection system, and (3) testing its detection efficiency. The aerodynamic lens was newly introduced, which can transfer aerosols at atmospheric pressure into a vacuum chamber while increasing the aerosol density at the same time. Furthermore, the ionization process was applied by using the external electric field after resonance exciting from the ground level to the Rydberg level in order to increase the ionization efficiency. We performed the experiments using stable isotope 23Na to eval

  2. Bone disease after transplantation: osteoporosis and fractures risk / Doença óssea pós-transplante: risco de osteoporose e fraturas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina A. M., Kulak; Victoria Z. C., Borba; Jaime, Kulak Júnior; Melani Ribeiro, Custódio.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transplantes de órgão é terapia padrão-ouro para várias doenças em estágio terminal. Perda óssea é uma complicação comum que ocorre em pacientes transplantados. Osteoporose e fraturas por fragilidade são complicações sérias, principalmente no primeiro ano pós-transplante. Muitos fatores podem contri [...] buir para patogênese da doença óssea nesses pacientes. Esta revisão aborda os mecanismos de perda óssea incluindo o papel dos agentes imunossupressores, bem como os fatores específicos da perda óssea após rim, pulmão, fígado, coração e transplante de medula óssea. A prevenção e o tratamento da perda óssea nos pacientes transplantados devem ser realizados para evitar fraturas. Abstract in english Organ transplantation is the gold standard therapy for several end-stage diseases. Bone loss is a common complication that occurs in transplant recipients. Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are serious complication, mainly in the first year post transplantation. Many factors contribute to the pat [...] hogenesis of bone disease following organ transplantation. This review address the mechanisms of bone loss including the contribution of the immunosuppressive agents as well as the specific features to bone loss after kidney, lung, liver, cardiac and bone marrow transplantation. Prevention and management of bone loss in the transplant recipient should be included in their post transplant follow-up in order to prevent fractures.

  3. Osteonecrosis Mimicking Bone Metastasis in Femoral Head on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyu Ho; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Yoo, Ik Dong; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Han, Eun Ji [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    A 77 year old woman underwent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and brachytherapy for cervical cancer 9 years ago. On a follow up {sup 18F} fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT image, focal FDG uptake was noted in a focal osteolytic lesion in the right femoral head. During magnetic resonance imaging, this lesion showed subchondral dark signal intensity rim on T1 weighted image and double line sign on T2 weighted image, suggestive of osteonecrosis. The lesion was pathologically confirmed as osteonecrosis after surgery. This case demonstrates that osteonecrosis of the femoral head may demonstrate focal FDG uptake mimicking bone metastasis.

  4. Ultratrace analysis of long-lived radionuclides by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For long-lived radionuclides such as actinides, conventional radioanalyses by ? spectroscopy suffer from unsatisfactory limits of detection (LOD). Resonance ionization mass spectrometry, on the contrary, achieves limits of detection of 106 atoms and is free from isobaric interferences. The multiple step resonant excitation of evaporated atoms with laser light and the mass selective detection is presented for isotopes of plutonium as an example. We use a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 10 kHz to pump three titanium-sapphire lasers delivering wave lengths of 420.76 nm, 847.28 nm, and 767.53 nm to resonantly excite plutonium into a Rydberg state from where ionization is achieved by applying an electric field. For isotopic composition measurements, the wavelengths of lasers 1 and 2 must be readjusted for each isotope while laser 3 can be maintained at the same wavelength. The accuracy of isotopic ratios determined this way is demonstrated with a certified NIST standard. Applications are presented for fallout plutonium, reactor plutonium, samples from the Chernobyl area, wapons plutonium from the Mururoa island, seawater plutonium from the Northern Sea, and from the Irish Sea. Migration of plutonium through a granite fracture in the Grimsel underground laboratory has also been investigated. By detecting ionization thresholds as a function of the applied electric field, accurate ionization potentials IP of Ac, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, and Es have been determined by extrapolation to zero field strength. In a first attempt to determine also the IP of Fm, a sample of 20.1-h 255Fm produced at the HFIR at Oak Ridge has been investigated. By resonance excitation with a dye laser and ionization with an excimer laser in a buffer gas cell, two excited states of Fm (5f12 7s 7p) have been identified and mass spectra of 255Fm+ and the daughter 251Cf+ have been measured by a quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a channeltron detector. By measuring the drift times of these ions and of 238UO+, ion mobilities in the electric field could be determined. These are potentially useful to determine ionic radii of the heavy actinides and superheavy elements. By using a commercial IONTOF-SIMS apparatus, analyses of hot micro particles with high lateral resolution in the sub-micron range have been exploited. For the determination of the location of these hot particles (x,y coordinate on the target holder) their content of fissile material via fission track analysis has been used. In order to avoid isobaric interferences, the sputtered ions (SIMS) were suppressed by a pulsed counter voltage applied to the target holder, and the abundantly sputtered neutral particles were resonantly excited and ionized by RIMS. The resulting ions were directed by an alternating acceleration voltage into the TOF mass spectrometer. (author)

  5. 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Japan's Nuclear Disaster - Implications for Indian Ocean Rim countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Nuclear disaster in Japan after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 has elicited global response to have a relook at the safety aspects of the nuclear power plants from all angles including natural hazards like earthquakes and tsunami. Several countries have gone into safety audits of their nuclear programs in view of the experience in Japan. Tectonically speaking, countries located close to subduction zones or in direct line of impact of the subduction zones are the most vulnerable to earthquake or tsunami hazard, as these regions are the locale of great tsunamigenic earthquakes. The Japan disaster has also cautioned to the possibility of great impact to the critical structures along the coasts due to other ocean processes caused by ocean-atmosphere interactions and also due to global warming and sea level rise phenomena in future. This is particular true for island countries. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan will be remembered more because of its nuclear tragedy and tsunami rather than the earthquake itself. The disaster happened as a direct impact of a tsunami generated by the earthquake 130 km off the coast of Sendai in the Honshu region of Japan. The depth of the earthquake was about 25 km below the ocean floor and it occurred on a thrust fault causing a displacement of more than 20 meters. At few places, water is reported to have inundated areas up to 8-10 km inland. The height of the tsunami varied between 10 and 3 meters along the coast. Generally, during an earthquake damage to buildings or other structures occur due to strong shaking which is expressed in the form of ground accelerations 'g'. Although, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) consistently exceeded 2g at several places from Sendai down south, structures at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant did not collapse due to the earthquake. In the Indian Ocean Rim countries, Indian, Pakistan and South Africa are the three countries where Nuclear power plants are operational, few of them along the coasts. There are a few countries where nuclear installations are planned and hence, a critical analysis is required to know the realistic hazard due to earthquakes and tsunami in these countries. The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami generated due to Sumatra earthquake of M9.3 claimed more than 250,000 lives but did not caused a situation like in Japan. We studied the tsunami run-up heights and inundation along the east coast of India. The maximum run-up height of 5.2 meters was observed at Nagapattinam with lateral inundation up to 800 meters and the minimum was at Devanaampatnam with a lateral inundation up to 340 meters. At Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, the tsunami run-up height was 4.1 meters and water entered up to 360 meters inside the campus. Using the observed data we modeled several scenarios for Indian coast line for different earthquakes along the subduction zone of Andaman-Sumatra in the east and Makran in south Pakistan in the western side using N2 Tsunami Model. The results obtained for few critical structures will be presented with an overview of scenarios for other countries.

  6. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Bone marrow transplantation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were made to determine whether genetic resistance (GR) to bone marrow transplantation represents a natural lymphoma-leukemia defense mechanism, as follows: (C57 x AKR) F1 hybrid mice show GR to C57 parental bone marrow cells, but not to AKR parental bone marrow cells (C3H x AKR) F1 hybrids show no GR to bone marrow transplantation from either parental strain. However, transplantation of AKR lymphoma cells into lethally irradiated ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F1 and ''nonresistant'' (C3H x AKR) F1 hybrids produced lymphomatous spleen colonies in ''nonresistant'' hybrids but not in ''resistant'' hybrids. Thus ''resistant'' (C57 x AKR) F1 hybrids can recognize and reject AKR lymphoma cells, but not normal AKR bone marrow cells. A normal biologic role of leukemia-lymphoma surveillance was postulated for genetic resistance to marrow transplantation, directed at antigens which, like TL, are expressed on normal hemopoietic cells of some strains, but only on leukemic cells of other strains

  8. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the acromium with soft tissue extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is an unusual, benign tumor of cartilaginous origin and represents less than 1% of all primary bone tumors. It usually involves the long bones around the knee joint or the flat bones of the pelvis or ribs. Soft tissue extension is also thought to be rare in these lesions. They are usually eccentrically located in the metaphyses of the long bones and centrally in the flat bones. The radiographic appearances are characteristically those of a single, lytic lesion with lobulated margins, septations, cortical expansion and a sclerotic rim. Histologically, they display a lobulated pattern with spindle-shaped cells lying within a myxoid matrix with areas of hyaline cartilage. The differential diagnosis includes giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma or enchondroma as well as chondrosarcoma. The rarity of these lesions may render the diagnosis difficult to make, especially when the lesion involves an unusual site such as the acromium. (orig.)

  9. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the acromium with soft tissue extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, D. [Departments of Anatomic and Clinical Pathology, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Orthopedic and Arthritic Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fornasier, V. [Department of Anatomical Pathology and Cytology, St. Michael' s Hospital, Wellesley-Central Site, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Holtby, R. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Orthopedic and Arthritic Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-03-30

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is an unusual, benign tumor of cartilaginous origin and represents less than 1% of all primary bone tumors. It usually involves the long bones around the knee joint or the flat bones of the pelvis or ribs. Soft tissue extension is also thought to be rare in these lesions. They are usually eccentrically located in the metaphyses of the long bones and centrally in the flat bones. The radiographic appearances are characteristically those of a single, lytic lesion with lobulated margins, septations, cortical expansion and a sclerotic rim. Histologically, they display a lobulated pattern with spindle-shaped cells lying within a myxoid matrix with areas of hyaline cartilage. The differential diagnosis includes giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma or enchondroma as well as chondrosarcoma. The rarity of these lesions may render the diagnosis difficult to make, especially when the lesion involves an unusual site such as the acromium. (orig.)

  10. Multiscale imaging of bone microdamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poundarik, Atharva A; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Bone is a structural and hierarchical composite that exhibits remarkable ability to sustain complex mechanical loading and resist fracture. Bone quality encompasses various attributes of bone matrix from the quality of its material components (type-I collagen, mineral and non-collagenous matrix proteins) and cancellous microarchitecture, to the nature and extent of bone microdamage. Microdamage, produced during loading, manifests in multiple forms across the scales of hierarchy in bone and functions to dissipate energy and avert fracture. Microdamage formation is a key determinant of bone quality, and through a range of biological and physical mechanisms, accumulates with age and disease. Accumulated microdamage in bone decreases bone strength and increases bone's propensity to fracture. Thus, a thorough assessment of microdamage, across the hierarchical levels of bone, is crucial to better understand bone quality and bone fracture. This review article details multiple imaging modalities that have been used to study and characterize microdamage; from bulk staining techniques originally developed by Harold Frost to assess linear microcracks, to atomic force microscopy, a modality that revealed mechanistic insights into the formation diffuse damage at the ultrastructural level in bone. New automated techniques using imaging modalities, such as microcomputed tomography are also presented for a comprehensive overview. PMID:25664772

  11. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assay provide more sensitive and specific assays

  12. Fine-Grained Rims in the Allan Hills 81002 and Lewis Cliff 90500 CM2 Meteorites: Their Origin and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, X.; Wang, J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Antarctic CM meteorites Allan Hills (ALH) 8 1002 and Lewis Cliff (LEW) 90500 contain abundant fine-grained rims (FGRs) that surround a variety of coarse-grained objects. FGRs from both meteorites have similar compositions and petrographic features, independent of their enclosed objects. The FGRs are chemically homogeneous at the 10 m scale for major and minor elements and at the 25 m scale for trace elements. They display accretionary features and contain large amounts of volatiles, presumably water. They are depleted in Ca, Mn, and S but enriched in P. All FGRs show a slightly fractionated rare earth element (REE) pattern, with enrichments of Gd and Yb and depletion of Er. Gd is twice as abundant as Er. Our results indicate that those FGRs are not genetically related to their enclosed cores. They were sampled from a reservoir of homogeneously mixed dust, prior to accretion to their parent body. The rim materials subsequently experienced aqueous alteration under identical conditions. Based on their mineral, textural, and especially chemical similarities, we conclude that ALH 8 1002 and LEW 90500 likely have a similar or identical source.

  13. Electron Spin Resonance Studies on Spots with Brown Rims on a Vitreous Silica Surface formed by a Silicon Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yoshio; Tamura, Motonori; Ikari, Atsushi

    1998-12-01

    Vitreous silica plates were immersed separately in a silicon melt at 1460°C for 4 h and 25 h, respectively in argon atmosphere. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical microscopy observations showed that the paramagnetic species (g=2.0049, peak-to-peak line width (?Hpp) =7.0 G) existed at the center and the periphery of the spots with brown rims in the silica plate subjected to 4 h immersion. It was revealed that both silicon oxide (SiO1.49) and silicon monoxide(SiO1.04) have silicon dangling bonds (e.g., •Si?Si3, •Si?Si2O, and •Si?SiO2) which have ESR parameters (g=2.0048, ?Hpp=7.5 G). The paramagnetic species in the spots with brown rims were estimated to be the silicon dangling bonds (e.g., •Si?Si3, •Si?Si2O, and •Si?SiO2) in the silicon monoxides.

  14. Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 in a cat with a supernumerary kidney / Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 em gata com rim supranumerário

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, Pedrassani; Hamilton, Wendt; Erley Alexandre, Rennau; Samuel Tibes, Pereira; Simone Balão Taques, Wendt.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Relata-se um caso de parasitismo por Dioctophyme renale em rim supranumerário e em cavidade abdominal de um gato do Brasil. Uma fêmea adulta, não castrada, sem raça definida e com aproximadamente três anos de idade, foi encaminhada ao Hospital Veterinário da Universidade do Contestado, em Canoinhas- [...] SC, com aumento de volume abdominal e o proprietário suspeitava de gestação. Após ultrassonografia foi descartada a gestação e foi detectado parasitismo em rim. Como gatos domésticos são considerados hospedeiros incomuns desse parasita, relata-se o presente caso. Abstract in english This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyme renale in a supernumerary kidney and abdominal cavity of a female cat in Brazil. The three-year-old cat of indeterminate breed presented abdominal distension and was taken to the University of Contestado Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, state o [...] f Santa Catarina, since the owner suspected pregnancy. An ultrasound scan did not confirm pregnancy but revealed parasitism in the kidney. This case is worth reporting because domestic cats are rarely hosts of this nematode species.

  15. Mesoscale Raised Rim Depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A Review of the Characteristics, Processes, and Spatial Distributions of Analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Devon M.; Bruno, Barbara C.; Lanagan, Peter D.; Glaze, Lori; Jaeger, Windy L.; Soare, Richard J.; Tseung, Jean-Michel Wan Bun; Skinner, James A. Jr.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach.

  16. Vascularized bone grafts for the treatment of carpal bone pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Brian M.; Murray, Peter M.; Shin, Alexander Y.; Bueno, Reuben A.; Mathoulin, Christophe L.; Ade, Tim; Neumeister, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary bone healing fails to occur in 5–15 % of scaphoid bones that undergo fracture fixation. Untreated, occult fractures result in nonunion up to 12 % of the time. Conventional bone grafting is the accepted management in the treatment algorithm of scaphoid nonunion if the proximal pole is vascularized. Osteonecrosis of the proximal scaphoid pole intuitively suggests a need for transfer of the vascularized bone to the nonunion site. Scaphoid nonunion treatment aims to prevent biological...

  17. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SITE › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Share: Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  18. Bone - marrow postirradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells in chicken bone Marrow were investigated after acute single irradiation with doses 4.5 Gy and 5 Gy. Samples of bone marrow were obtained from proximal femoral epiphysis of decapitated chickens. Marrow smears were prepared and stained according to Pappenheim. Qualitative examination of myelogram showed proliferation of adipose tissue, hypocellularity, caryolyosis, caryorexis, disintegration of cells and proliferation of cells which could not be differentiated. Quantitative examination revealed high radiosensitivity of blast cells and lymphocytes shortly after irradiation. (authors)

  19. Joint bone radiobiology workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Bone Radiobiology Workshop was held on July 12--13, 1991 in Toronto, Canada. This document contains the papers presented at the meeting. The five sections were: Dose-effects, Endogenous Cofactors, Tumorigenesis, New Methods and Medical Implications. The papers covered risk assessment, tissue distribution of radionuclides, lifetime studies, biological half-lifes, the influence of age at time of exposure, tumor induction by different radionuclides, microscopic localization of radionuclides, and nuclear medicine issues including tissue distribution in the skeleton and bone marrow transplantation

  20. Bone Metabolism in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Gillberg, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the importance of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and sex steroids for male bone metabolism has been investigated, and the effects of continuous low dose GH replacement in GH deficient (GHD) adults. In a population-based sample of men, positive correlations were found between bone mineral density (BMD) and IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and the testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) ratio. Serum IGFBP-3 and testosterone l...

  1. Bone cement implantation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuin, R; Effat, O; Shahidan, M N; Shama, D V; Miswan, M F M

    2013-06-01

    Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is characterized by hypoxia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac arrest. It is a known cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cemented orthopaedic surgeries. The rarity of the condition as well as absence of a proper definition has contributed to under-reporting of cases. We report a 59-year-old woman who sustained fracture of the neck of her left femur and underwent an elective hybrid total hip replacement surgery. She collapsed during surgery and was revived only to succumb to death twelve hours later. Post mortem findings showed multiorgan disseminated microembolization of bone marrow and amorphous cement material. PMID:23817399

  2. Acid-promoted rearrangement of carbonate functionality anchored to the lower rim of a calix[4]arene skeleton: A new class of chiral calix[4]arene and its chiroptical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hesek, D.; Inoue, Y.; Drew, Mgb; Beer, Pd; Hembury, Ga; Ishida, H.; Aoki, F.

    2000-01-01

    (equation presented) A unique calix[4]arene lower-rim intramolecular rearrangement, resulting in molecular asymmetry arising from the upper- and lower-rim substitution pattern, produces a new class of inherently chiral calix[4]arenes in a partial cone conformation. This was aided by molecular rigidification arising from ?-? and C-H?? interactions between bulky lower-rim substituents, with the corresponding circular dichroism spectra exhibiting the most intense bisignate Cotton effects ye...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist ... of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for comparison ...

  4. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Oral Health and Bone Disease Publication available in: PDF ( ... Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Smoking Partner Resources Oral Health FAQs (OWH) Periodontal (Gum) Disease (NIDCR) Seal ...

  5. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using bone conduction. The Baha device uses sound vibrations, and those vibrations then are passed from the side with no ... from a normal soundwave into a bone conduction vibration, and that is what is passed then through ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, ... remove jewelry, removable dental appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? ... soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays ...

  8. JAMA Patient Page: Bone Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Bone Fractures A bone fracture is a break ... YOURSELF To find this and other JAMA Patient Pages, go to the Patient Page link on JAMA ’s ...

  9. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (236 KB) Related Resources Calcium and Vitamin D El calcio y la vitamina D (Calcium ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? View larger with caption A bone ... exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? While x-ray images ...

  12. Meniere's disease, petrous bone tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements on tomograms of the petrous bone in Meniere's disease revealed a decreased thickness of the retrolabyrinthine part of the petrous bone. This could help to confirm previous theories that the cause of Meniere's disease is developmental. (orig.)

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes ... for a physician to view and assess bone injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. ...

  14. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Baha system consists of a bone-anchored titanium fixture that is implanted in the mastoid bone, ... the -- great. I'm going to grab the titanium implant. And what I want you to notice ...

  15. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the sound quality was less natural. Another alternative was a bone conduction device, but because the ... as the bone conduction thresholds, which is the test of the sensory ability of the inner ear, ...

  16. Osteoma osteoide no osso ilíaco: relato de dois casos / Osteoid osteoma in the iliac bone: report on two cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elmano de Araújo, Loures; Bruno Fajardo do, Nascimento; Marcelo de Carvalho, Amorim; Clarice Naya, Loures.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O osteoma osteoide é um tumor benigno do osso que se apresenta geralmente com dor noturna em adultos jovens, aliviada por repouso e salicilatos. Pode acometer qualquer osso, mas sua ocorrência no ilíaco é infrequente. Os autores descrevem dois casos de osteoma osteoide intramedular, localizado junto [...] à articulação sacroilíaca, com sintomas que simulavam dor ciática e cujo diagnóstico se deu de forma tardia, apesar de o exame radiológico inicial mostrar lesão esclerótica em ambos os casos. O diagnóstico foi ratificado por tomografia computadorizada e o tratamento proposto foi a ressecção em bloco da lesão, com excisão do nidus. O diagnóstico definitivo foi confirmado pelo exame histopatológico. No seguimento de longo prazo, ambos estão assintomáticos e observou-se completa remodelação óssea no sítio cirúrgico. Os autores enfatizam as características típicas do tumor, a localização não usual, o diagnóstico diferencial e o tratamento. Abstract in english Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that generally presents with nighttime pain among young adults and is relieved by rest and salicylates. It can affect any bone, but occurrences in the iliac are unusual. The authors describe two cases of intramedullary osteoid osteoma next to the sacroiliac joi [...] nt, with symptoms that simulated sciatic pain. The cases were diagnosed late, although the initial radiographs showed sclerotic lesions in both cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of CT scan and the nidus was excised surgically through en bloc resection. The definitive diagnosis was given by means of histopathological examination. Over long-term follow-up, both cases remained asymptomatic and complete bone remodeling at the surgical site was observed. The authors highlight the typical characteristics of the tumor, the unusual location, the differential diagnosis and the treatment.

  17. Osteoma osteoide no osso ilíaco: relato de dois casos Osteoid osteoma in the iliac bone: report on two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmano de Araújo Loures

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O osteoma osteoide é um tumor benigno do osso que se apresenta geralmente com dor noturna em adultos jovens, aliviada por repouso e salicilatos. Pode acometer qualquer osso, mas sua ocorrência no ilíaco é infrequente. Os autores descrevem dois casos de osteoma osteoide intramedular, localizado junto à articulação sacroilíaca, com sintomas que simulavam dor ciática e cujo diagnóstico se deu de forma tardia, apesar de o exame radiológico inicial mostrar lesão esclerótica em ambos os casos. O diagnóstico foi ratificado por tomografia computadorizada e o tratamento proposto foi a ressecção em bloco da lesão, com excisão do nidus. O diagnóstico definitivo foi confirmado pelo exame histopatológico. No seguimento de longo prazo, ambos estão assintomáticos e observou-se completa remodelação óssea no sítio cirúrgico. Os autores enfatizam as características típicas do tumor, a localização não usual, o diagnóstico diferencial e o tratamento.Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor that generally presents with nighttime pain among young adults and is relieved by rest and salicylates. It can affect any bone, but occurrences in the iliac are unusual. The authors describe two cases of intramedullary osteoid osteoma next to the sacroiliac joint, with symptoms that simulated sciatic pain. The cases were diagnosed late, although the initial radiographs showed sclerotic lesions in both cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of CT scan and the nidus was excised surgically through en bloc resection. The definitive diagnosis was given by means of histopathological examination. Over long-term follow-up, both cases remained asymptomatic and complete bone remodeling at the surgical site was observed. The authors highlight the typical characteristics of the tumor, the unusual location, the differential diagnosis and the treatment.

  18. MR morphology of primary aneurysmal bone cyst: a retrospective analysis of 38 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To define MR imaging characteristics of primary aneurysmal bone cyst. Materials and methods: MR imaging studies of 38 patients with histologically proven primary aneurysmal bone cyst were reviewed with reference to morphological features, signal characteristics, and patterns of contrast-enhancement. Result: Most lesions wer well marginated towards bone and soft issues (95%), either surrounded by a complete (84%) or incomplete (16%) rim of low signal intensity on images of all pulse sequences. Frequent features were polycyclic margins (84%), cortical expansion (87%), cystic spaces (100%), contrast-enhancing cyst walls (100%), internal septations (89%), fluid levels (71%) and diverticula-like projections of cyst walls (68%). Solid tissue components could be identified by MR imaging in all lesions which, on pathological examination, contained larger portions of solid material (18%). Edema of surrounding soft-tissues was observed in 29% of the cases. Conclusions: Primary aneurysmal bone cysts demonstrate a relatively uniform MR imaging appearance, which reflects the patho-anatomic composition of the lesion. (orig.)

  19. Protuberant fibro-osseous lesions of the temporal bone: two additional case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miji; Song, Joon Seon; Chun, Sung-Min; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Suk Ho; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2014-11-01

    The most commonly encountered fibro-osseous lesions of the skull bone are fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma. Two cases of a unique "protuberant fibro-osseous lesion of the temporal bone" were first described by Selesnick and colleagues in 1999, and 2 further cases were reported in 2010 under the name "Bullough lesion". We recently found 2 new cases of this rare entity. Two Korean female patients aged 70 and 54 years presented with slow growing postauricular masses without pain or tenderness for 6 and 7 years, respectively. Computed tomography revealed a 2.9 cm calcified mass in the temporal bone of the first patient, and a 5.5 cm enhancing mass with internal cartilaginous matrix in the temporal bone of the second patient. Intramedullary or intracranial extension was not found in either case, and en bloc removals were performed. Microscopically, multiple round to oval osseous islands were scattered throughout the bland fibrous stroma in both cases. The osseous islands varied in size and were lamellar or woven, without osteoblastic rimming, and surrounded by fibroblastic bands. Neither patient has shown evidence of postoperative recurrence for 18 months. The location, histology, and clinical course of these 2 cases were identical to the 4 cases previously reported, although age and sex varied. The lesions were tested for the R201H mutation in the GNAS gene, which is present in fibrous dysplasia. No mutations were found, suggesting a different genetic background for these lesions. PMID:25118809

  20. Osteogenic Scaffolds for Bone Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ling-jiang; Liu, Ning; Shi, Jian-gang; Liu, Qing; Jia, Lian-shun; Yuan, Wen

    2012-01-01

    A highly osteogenic hybrid bioabsorbable scaffold was developed for bone reconstruction/augmentation. Through the use of a solid free-form fabrication technology, a bioabsorbable polycaprolactone (PCL) cage scaffold with a desired size and shape was produced and then filled with osteogenic bone graft particles, that is, morselized autologous bone chips. A rabbit total lamina defect model was chosen to demonstrate its efficacy in regenerating bone with a complicated anatomic shape. Both iliac ...

  1. Multicellular tumor spheroid interactions with bone cells and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro coculture techniques were used to study HSDM1C1 murine fibrosarcoma multicellular tumor spheroid (HSDM1C1-MTS) interactions with mouse calvarial bone cells having osteoblastic characteristics and mouse bone explants. HSDM1C1-MTS attached to confluent bone cell monolayers and their attachment rate was quantified. HSDM1C1-MTS interaction with bone cells was further demonstrated by the release of 3H-deoxyuridine from prelabeled bone cells during coculture with multicellular tumor spheroids. HSDM1C1-MTS-induced cytotoxicity was mimicked by the addition of 10(-5) M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to 3H-deoxyuridine-labeled bone cells. The effects of low (10(-9) M) and high (10(-5) M) concentrations of PGE2 on bone cell proliferation were also studied. Higher concentrations of PGE2 inhibited bone cell proliferation. HSDM1C1-MTS resorbed living explants in the presence of indomethacin, suggesting that other tumor cell products may also participate in bone resorption. HSDM1C1-MTS caused direct bone resorption as measured by the significantly elevated release of 45Ca from prelabeled, devitalized calvaria. However, the growth of a confluent bone cell layer on devitalized, 45Ca-prelabeled calvaria resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of 45Ca released subsequent to the seeding of HSDM1C1-MTS onto the explants. Bone cells at the bone surface may act as a barrier against invasion and tumor cell-mediated bone resornvasion and tumor cell-mediated bone resorption. Violation of this cellular barrier is achieved, in part, by tumor cell products

  2. Mechanical Test to Bovine Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presbítero Espinosa, Gerardo; Maciel Cerda, Alfredo; Tejeda Cruz, Adriana; Piña Barba, Cristina

    2006-09-01

    The Young modulus in compression of fresh and inorganic bovine bone was obtained, in the longitudinal and transversal directions of the trabeculae, using an Instron universal machine. It was found that the elastic properties of the bone depend strongly on the orientation of the force regarding the direction of the trabeculae, specially for fresh bone.

  3. Development of the isotope analysis technique for inorganic trace elements using laser ablation assisted resonance ionization mass spectrometry (LA-RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed and assessed LA-RIMS as the isotope analysis method for trace inorganic elements in agricultural products. We used magnesium isotope analysis to verify that LA-RIMS had the capability to identify the production areas with the required precision of 0.3%. We demonstrated direct measurements of trace strontium (sub ppm level) in brown rice and confirmed that the isotope analysis precision was improved through the signal intensity enhancement by increasing the ablation power and expanding the laser spot. For the present system, we estimated the strontium isotope ratio of 87Sr/86Sr to be 0.69±0.10 (14%). We concluded that the direct isotope analysis for trace inorganic elements such as strontium in brown rice using LA-RIMS had an advantage under the serious situation of isobaric interference and had sufficient capability to identify agricultural production areas. (author)

  4. Detailed characterisation of the rim microstructure in PWR fuels in the burn-up range 40-67 GWd/tM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel porosity, volume pore density and pore size distributions were determined as a function of the radial position for specimens with average burn-ups between 40 and 67 GWd/tM. In the rim region, the porosity and pore density increase exponentially towards the pellet edge, whereas the mean pore size remains constant. Accompanying the porosity increase, a band of recrystallised material (submicron-grains) is formed at the pellet edge, followed by a wide transition zone where porous grain-refined areas are mixed with the original matrix grains. Individual pores were found associated with recrystallised surroundings, extending up to a distance of 1 to 3 submicron grains from the pore surface. Accordingly, a representation of the rim material with localised recrystallisation around pores is proposed. As determined by microindentation, the mechanical strength of the rim material appeared to be increased with respect to unirradiated UO2. This improvement is supposed to be caused by grain refinement. (orig.)

  5. Bone vascularization: a way to study bone microarchitecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blery, P.; Autrusseau, F.; Crauste, E.; Freuchet, Erwan; Weiss, Pierre; Guédon, J.-P.; Amouriq, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Trabecular bone and its microarchitecture are of prime importance for health. Studying vascularization helps to better know the relationship between bone and vascular microarchitecture. This research is an animal study (nine Lewis rats), based on the perfusion of vascularization by a contrast agent (a mixture of 50% barium sulfate with 1.5% of gelatin) before euthanasia. The samples were studied by micro CT at a resolution of 9?m. Softwares were used to show 3D volumes of bone and vessels, to calculate bone and vessels microarchitecture parameters. This study aims to understand simultaneously the bone microarchitecture and its vascular microarchitecture.

  6. Bone dynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factor analysis was applied to dynamic study of Tc-99m MDP for the evaluation of hip joint disorders. Fifteen patients were examined; eight were normal, six was osteoarthritis in which one accompanied synovitis was included, and one was aseptic necrosis on the head of the femur. In normals, according to the Tc-99m MDP kinetics, three factor images and time-activity curves were obtained which were named as blood vessel, soft tissue, and bone factor images and curves. In the patient with osteoarthritis, increased accumulation of the hip joint was shown in bone factor image only. But in one patient, who took osteoarthritis with synovitis, marked accumulations of the Tc-99m MDP appeared not only on the bone factor image but also on the soft tissue. Operation revealed thickening synovial tissue around the hip joint, caused by inflammatory process. In follow-up studies of the patient with aseptic necrosis on the head of the left femur, exessive accumulations, which were seemed in his left hip joint on both bone and soft tissue factor images at first, were decreased respondently to the treatment of this lesion. In conclusion, the factor analysis was useful for differential diagnosis of the hip joint disorders and observation of the clinical course of the hip joint disorders. (author)

  7. Bone scintiscanning in metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three fold interest of bone scintiscanning is discussed in relation to 182 cases of bone metastases of various origins. Firstly, this technic facilitates early diagnosis of invasion of the bone by the detection of metastatic lesions which, in 7.7% of cases are still infraradiologic, or even of reflex algodystrophy of the legs, which can be detected only from a scintiscan, long before X-ray plates can show the lumbar metastasis which is responsible. Secondly, the method is able to pick up more metastasic sites in 54.4% of cases than can be detected by X-ray; this is confirmed by investigation of the S/R ratio (ratio of the number of strongly binding sites to the number of sites showing radiologic damage) which is greater than unity for a considerable period. Thirdly, repeated scintiscanography provides a prognosis, because the survival time appears to be fairly closely correlated with the regression, stability or extension of strongly binding sites, although a ''flare phenomenon'' may give the erroneous impression that the metastatic process has deteriorated. Repeated scintiscanography also provides a good way of evaluating the efficacy of medical treatment, particularly in the case of bone metastases of mammary or prostatic origin. Sometimes, the decision for or against prophylactic or palliative orthopedic surgery may be based to a considerable extent on data provided by scintiscan

  8. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  9. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  10. Paget's disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine techniques are currently playing an important complementary role in the evaluation, management, and follow-up of the patient who is suspected of having Paget's disease of bone. The earlier diagnoses made possible by some of the described techniques should lead to a better understanding of the basic pathophysiology and, in addition, result in improved therapeutic modalities

  11. A Study of Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Kogan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study of bones undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. The article discusses the process and shows the results achieved by the children during the three phases of the project through photographs and other documentation of the children's work. The article concludes with reflections by the author and parents.

  12. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction

  13. [Metabolic bone disease osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss-Borst, M A

    2014-05-01

    Osteomalacia is a rare disorder of bone metabolism leading to reduced bone mineralization. Underlying vitamin D deficiency and a disturbed phosphate metabolism (so-called hypophosphatemic osteomalacia) can cause the disease. Leading symptoms are dull localized or generalized bone pain, muscle weakness and cramps as well as increased incidence of falls. Rheumatic diseases, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, myositis and fibromyalgia must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is typically elevated in osteomalacia while serum phosphate and/or 25-OH vitamin D3 levels are reduced. The diagnosis of osteomalacia can be confirmed by an iliac crest bone biopsy. Histological correlate is reduced or deficient mineralization of the newly synthesized extracellular matrix. Treatment strategies comprise supplementation of vitamin D and calcium and for patients with intestinal malabsorption syndromes vitamin D and calcium are also given parenterally. In renal phosphate wasting syndromes substitution of phosphate is the treatment of choice, except for tumor-induced osteomalacia when removal of the tumor leads to a cure in most cases. PMID:24811356

  14. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.)

  15. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  16. Osteoclastoma of temporal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Hazra, T. K.

    2003-01-01

    A 20 year male presented with a gradually increasing painless swelling at right temporal region with progressive hearing loss conductive in type. On plain X-ray-a wide radio translucent area of bone destruction was noted. The mass was excised as much as possible via post-auricular incision extending antiriorly toward the zygomatic root.

  17. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you happy. Read more Life The Power of Positive Thinking We support you in making a commitment to your health and are here to help. As a first step to help you feel good, start thinking of yourself as having healthy bones and good health. Some people find that just commiting ... more ...

  18. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, S.L.J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steven.james@roh.nhs.uk; Panicek, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Davies, A.M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, B31 2AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed.

  19. Bone marrow scintigraphy in Paget's disease of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen patients with 20 lesions of Paget's disease of bone were studied with bone marrow scintigraphy (colloid), bone tissue scintigraphy and radiography. Bone marrow scintigraphy showed normal or incrased colloid uptake in 15 of 20 pagetic lesions, and decreased uptake in 4. Bone tissue scintigraphy showed increased metabolic activity in all lesions and was useful in detecting polyostotic disease as well as the extent of the lesions. Conventional radiography most often showed the typical appearance of Paget's disease, but the changes observed were sometimes difficult to differentiate from malignant disease. However, a preserved or increased reticuloendothelial function in the pagetic lesion contradicts metastatic disease as a differential diagnosis. Bone marrow scintigraphy with radiocolloid is a valuable method in the analysis of Paget's disease of bone. (orig.)

  20. Bone mineral density for bone metastatic regions of prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iba, Shozo [Ichihara Nursing Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Futami, Tsutomu; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Koichi; Kuramochi, Yoshio

    1997-01-01

    As a purpose of investigation, we explored to the lumbar vertebras of 25 patients with prostatic cancer. The methods of investigation measured the content of bone mineral density between normal bone and metastasis of cancer to the bone using QDR-2000 apparatus with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The content of bone mineral density of lumbar vertebras metastasized through the blood circulation were increased to the average 32% than normal bone. In comparison with measured results and the data of the standard bone mineral density, 40% of normal lumbar vertebras were under than the range of the data of the standard bone mineral density. There is a significant difference between metastases to the lumbar vertebra of the prostatic cancer and the osteoarthritis of spine. The risk on statistical calculation is P<0.02. (author)

  1. Bone mineral density for bone metastatic regions of prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a purpose of investigation, we explored to the lumbar vertebras of 25 patients with prostatic cancer. The methods of investigation measured the content of bone mineral density between normal bone and metastasis of cancer to the bone using QDR-2000 apparatus with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The content of bone mineral density of lumbar vertebras metastasized through the blood circulation were increased to the average 32% than normal bone. In comparison with measured results and the data of the standard bone mineral density, 40% of normal lumbar vertebras were under than the range of the data of the standard bone mineral density. There is a significant difference between metastases to the lumbar vertebra of the prostatic cancer and the osteoarthritis of spine. The risk on statistical calculation is P<0.02. (author)

  2. Combined bone grafting: an alternative method for bone healing stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most provocative problem in bone grafting is the effectiveness of healing of the graft. When you use the heterogenous bone graft, it may take one or more than two years for consolidation and union depends on the graft quality and the situation of surrounding blood supply. In our preliminary report seven cases of freeze-dried heterogenous bone graft from the Bangkok Biomaterial Center were mixed with autogenous iliac bone graft from the patient in the ratio of 3:1. After that the healing was checked by clinical examination and X-ray in the periodic follow up. The causes of bone lost are post evacuation of benign bone tumor and post infection of bone after trauma. The result of bony union could be tested by clinical examination and showed in the X-ray films as early as 3 months post grafting

  3. Bone marrow oedema associated with benign and malignant bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow oedema is associated with a wide variety of pathological processes including both benign and malignant bone tumours. This imaging finding in relation to intraosseous tumours can aid in providing a more focused differential diagnosis. In this review, we will discuss the MR imaging of bone marrow oedema surrounding intraosseous neoplasms. The different pulse sequences used in differentiating underlying tumour from surrounding oedema are discussed along with the role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Benign lesions commonly associated with bone marrow oedema include osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. Metastases and malignant primary bone tumours such as osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma may also be surrounded by bone marrow oedema. The imaging findings of these conditions are reviewed and illustrated. Finally, the importance of bone marrow oedema in assessment of post chemotherapeutic response is addressed

  4. Bone scintigraphy in bone metastases due to prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findings of bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP were compared with bone radiography and biochemical data including total acid phosphatase (T. ACP), prostatic acid phosphatase (P. ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in 35 patients with histologically proven prostatic cancer. Bone metastases were diagnosed in 20 of 35 cases (57 %) by scintigraphy. The common sites of metastases were the pelvic bones, ribs, lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. In vertebrae, metastases were mainly distributed in the lower level. The most frequent radiographic change due to metastases was the osteoblastic type. On follow-up studies, there was a relatively good agreement in the results of bone scintigraphy and radiography. However, there was a good number of cases showing discrepancy between either scintigraphy or radiography and laboratory data. Bone scintigraphy seems to be the most contributory in monitoring bone metastases from prostatic cancer. (author)

  5. Cation binding resorcinarene bis-crowns: the effect of lower rim alkyl chain length on crystal packing and solid lipid nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Helttunen, Kaisa; Salorinne, Kirsi; Barboza, Tahnie; Barbosa, He?le?ne Campos; Suhonen, Aku; Nissinen, Maija

    2012-01-01

    A group of seven resorcinarene bis-crown ethers (CNBC5) with two polyether bridges at the upper rim and either propyl, butyl, pentyl, heptyl, nonyl, decyl or undecyl groups at the lower rim were synthesized and their binding properties with Cs+ were investigated by NMR titration. The bis-crowns form 1:2 complexes with Cs+ with binding constants of logK 4–5. Crystal structures of bis-crowns and their Cs+ and K+ complexes were studied and different packing motifs were found depending on the a...

  6. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technetium-99m(/sup 99m/Tc)-labelled diphosophonate bone scan remains the most frequently requested investigation in any nuclear medicine department because of its exquisite sensitivity for lesion detection. It has a wide, and apparently ever-increasing, range of applications in clinical practice and the purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive review of the use of bone scanning. In addition, important topics of current interest, such as single photon emission computed tomography, quantitation of bone uptake of diphosphonate and bone mineral measurements by photon absorptiometry, are included. The emphasis is on the clinical use of bone scanning

  7. The Basic Elements of Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tümay Sözen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone is a dynamic tissue, and its metabolism is regulated by bone cells that respond to various environmental signals, including chemical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic stimuli. Three cell types are found in bone: osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. In general, specific responses are governed by cellular receptors found in the membrane of the cells or within the cell itself. The cell membrane receptors bind the exogeneous signals and transfer the information across the cell’s cytoplasm to the nucleus through a series of interactions that involve a complex set of transduction mechanisms. The periosteum lines the outer surface of bone. Periosteum covers the external surface of most bones to serve as a transitional region between the cortical bone and the overlying soft tissue or musculature. It is composed of two layers. The outer layer is in contact with muscle and other soft tissue elements and is populated by fibroblast-like cells. The inner layer is known as the cambium layer, and it is populated by fibroblast-appearing cells, many of which are committed progenitors of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. This layer contributes to appositional bone growth during bone development and is responsible for the expansion of the diameter of the long bones with aging. In this review of the basic elements of bone, bone cells, osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes and the periostium are discussed in detail in the light of the recent research. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 10-1

  8. Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst of the heel: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanc-Giannakopoulos Gabriela A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign but often rapidly expanding osteolytic multi-cystic osseous lesion that occurs as a primary, secondary, intra-osseous, extra-osseous, solid or conventional lesion. It frequently coexists with other benign and malignant bone tumors. Although it is considered to be reactive in nature, there is evidence that some aneurysmal bone cysts are true neoplasms. The solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare subtype of aneurysmal bone cyst with a preponderance of solid to cystic elements. Such a case affecting the heel, an unusual site, is reported. Case presentation A 26-year-old Caucasian man presented with pain and swelling in his left lower extremity. A plain radiograph demonstrated an intra-osseous, solitary, eccentric mass in the front portion of the left heel. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed that the lesion appeared to be sub-cortical, solid with a small cystic portion without the characteristic fluid-fluid level detection but with distinct internal septation. Bone images containing fluid-fluid levels are usually produced by aneurysmal bone cysts. The fluid-fluid level due to bleeding within the tumor followed by layering of the blood components based density differences, but it was not seen in our case. An intra-lesional excision was performed. Microscopic examination revealed fibrous septa with spindle cell fibroblastic proliferation, capillaries and extensive areas of mature osteoid and reactive woven bone formation rimmed by osteoblasts. The spindle cells had low mitotic activity, and atypical forms were absent. The histological features of the lesion were consistent with the solid variant of an aneurysmal bone cyst. Conclusion Solid aneurysmal bone cysts have been of great interest to pathologists because they may be mistaken for malignant tumors, mainly in cases of giant cell tumors or osteosarcomas, because of cellularity and variable mitotic activity. It is rather obvious that the correlation of clinical, radiological and histological findings is necessary for the differential diagnosis. The eventual diagnosis is based on microscopic evidence and is made when a predominance of solid to cystic elements is found. The present case is of great interest because of the nature of the neoplasm and the extremely unusual location in which it developed. Pathologists must be alert for such a diagnosis.

  9. Bone metastases in bronchiogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 100 patients with bronchiogenic carcinoma bone scintigraphy and X-ray examination was performed. Fifty seven percent of the patients showed no evidence of bone metastase, 28% had tumorous involvement of the skeletal system; 15% of the patients had a positive bone scan, but most probably due to degenerative lesions. In these cases, however, bone metastases could not be excluded by X-ray examination. Forteen of 28 patients had metastases of the skeletal system, which could only be proven by bone scintigraphy. By contrast, there were only 3 out of 28 patients with bone metastases being scintigraphically negative. Eleven out of those 28 patients showed correlation of scintigraphic and X-ray results. There was no evidence of correlation between bone metastases and histologic type of tumor. (orig.)

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions trading among Pacific Rim countries: An analysis of policies to bring developing countries to the bargaining table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the aggregate net costs and individual country cost savings of greenhouse gas emissions trading among Pacific Rim countries. We propose emission permit allocation rules designed to entice developing countries to participate. Absence of developing country involvement has served as an excuse for the lack by participation by the United States in the first compliance period of the Kyoto Protocol and may serve as a disincentive to even more countries in subsequent periods. Our analysis specifies permit allocation rules that could result in no net costs, and even cost-savings, to developing countries for their involvement in the emissions trading market, while at the same time providing extensive benefits to industrialized countries through access to lower-cost mitigation alternatives

  11. A data model based on semantically enhanced HL7 RIM for sharing patient data of breast cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratilla, Juan M; Alonso-Calvo, Raul; Molina-Vaquero, Gema; Paraiso-Medina, Sergio; Perez-Rey, David; Maojo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer clinical trial researchers have to handle heterogeneous data coming from different data sources, overloading biomedical researchers when they need to query data for retrospective analysis. This paper presents the Common Data Model (CDM) proposed within the INTEGRATE EU project to homogenize data coming from different clinical partners. This CDM is based on the Reference Information Model (RIM) from the Health Level 7 (HL7) version 3. Semantic capabilities through an SPARQL endpoint were also required to ensure the sustainability of the platform. For the SPARQL endpoint implementation, a comparison has been carried out between a Relational SQL database + D2R and a RDF database. The results show that the first option can store all clinical data received from institutions participating in the project with a better performance. It has been also evaluated by the EU Commission within a patient recruitment demonstrator. PMID:23920745

  12. High concentration two-stage optics for parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorber and large rim angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collares-Pereira, M. (Centro para a Conservacao de Energia, Amadora (Portugal)); Gordon, J.M. (Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel)); Rabl, A. (Centre d' Energetique, Paris (France)); Winston, R. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A new two-stage optical design is proposed for parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorbers. It can boost the concentration ratio by a factor of 2.5 relative to the conventional design, while maintaining the large rim angles (i.e., low nominal f-numbers) that are desirable for practical and economical reasons. The second state involves asymmetric nonimaging concentrators of the CPC type, facing segments of the parabolic first stage. The second stage can be accommodated inside an evacuated receiver, allowing the use of first-surface silvered reflectors. The low heat loss of this design opens the possibility of producing steam at temperatures and pressures of conventional power plants, using only one-axis tracking. The improvement in conversion efficiency would be substantial.

  13. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth over Bohai rim region by exploiting multifunctional transport satellite and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Linyan; Feng, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jiahua; Mi, Xiaonan; Zhu, Lanwei

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have a significant impact on global climate change. For the purpose of estimating the effect of aerosols on climate, information on the spatial and temporal distribution of the aerosols is necessary. In this study, we developed an algorithm to retrieve hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the data from the multifunctional transport satellite (MTSAT) visible channel over Bohai rim region. First, the MODIS data was used to identify aerosol module, and then the MTSAT data was used to calculate hourly AOD. The results show that the AOD derived from AERONET observations agrees well with the MTSAT-AOD products with spatio-temporal scale, as well as spectral scale. Therefore, the algorithm developed in this study has potential for monitoring AOD hourly.

  14. Tumor fibroso solitário do rim: descrição de caso / Solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovani Rodrigues, Batista; Giuseppe, D' Ippolito; Jacob, Szejnfeld; Suzan, Menasce; Marcos Tadeu l., Fischman; Renato Lima de, Moraes Junior.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de tumor renal num paciente de 27 anos de idade, que foi submetido a estudo de imagem por tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética. As características radiológicas da massa induziam para um diagnóstico de tumor renal maligno de origem intraparanquimatosa. No entanto, o [...] estudo histopatológico revelou tumor fibroso solitário benigno originário da pelve e porção calicial do rim direito. Abstract in english We present a case of a 27-year-old male patient submitted to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of a renal tumor. The radiological features of the mass suggested the diagnosis of a malignant renal tumor of parenchymatous origin. However, the histological findings p [...] roved to be a benign solitary fibrous tumor within the pelvis and caliceal portion of the right kidney.

  15. Tumor fibroso solitário do rim: descrição de caso Solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Rodrigues Batista

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de tumor renal num paciente de 27 anos de idade, que foi submetido a estudo de imagem por tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética. As características radiológicas da massa induziam para um diagnóstico de tumor renal maligno de origem intraparanquimatosa. No entanto, o estudo histopatológico revelou tumor fibroso solitário benigno originário da pelve e porção calicial do rim direito.We present a case of a 27-year-old male patient submitted to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of a renal tumor. The radiological features of the mass suggested the diagnosis of a malignant renal tumor of parenchymatous origin. However, the histological findings proved to be a benign solitary fibrous tumor within the pelvis and caliceal portion of the right kidney.

  16. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  17. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeha Razaq

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly vascular nature of the bone marrow (which increases the probability that cancer cells will be deposited in bone marrow capillaries, and molecular characteristics of the cancer cells that allow them to adapt to the bone marrow microenvironment. The goals of treating osseous metastases are manifold. Proper treatment can lead to significant improvements in pain control and function, and maintain skeletal integrity. The treatment plan requires a multidisciplinary approach. Widespread metastatic disease necessitates systemic therapy, while a localized problem is best managed with surgery, external beam radiotherapy, or both. Patients with bone metastasis can have prolonged survival, and proper management can have a significant impact on their quality of life. We will review the factors in this article that are promising molecular bone-targeted therapies or will be likely targets for future therapeutic intervention to restore bone remodeling and suppress tumor growth.

  18. Bone Metabolism in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often ...

  19. Multiple myeloma: radiology or bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)

  20. Percutaneous bone biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty three percutaneous bone biopsy (PBB) procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guide at department of diagnostic radiology of Kosin Medical College, Pusan, Korea. The overall accuracy was 88.4% (38/43) true positive rate was 74% (32 cases), true negative was 14% (6 cases), false negative was 12% (5 cases). In case of suspected metastasis with or without known primary, PBB occasionally provide the final tissue diagnosis and was helpful in tumor staging and seeking the primary site. In cases of primary bone tumor, the tissue diagnosis obtained by PBB was helpful for planning future therapy and confirmed the recurrent tumor and residural lesion following treatment. There was no serious complication related to PBB. In conclusion, PBB is simple, safe, economic and accurated diagnostic tool. PBB gave the final tissue diagnosis. It not only provided accurate tumor staging and future therapeutic plan before treatment and also helped in the management of follow up in patients with recurrent or residural lesion