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Sample records for sclerotic bone rim

  1. Localized sclerotic bone response demonstrated reduced nanomechanical creep properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuli; Goh, James Cho Hong; Teoh, Swee Hin; De, Shamal Das; Soong, Richie; Lee, Taeyong

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosis (tissue hardening) development is a common occurrence in slow growing or benign osteolytic lesions. However, there is lack of knowledge on the mechanical and material property changes associated with sclerotic bone response. The immune system is postulated to play a relevant role in evoking sclerotic bone responses. In this study, localized sclerotic response in an immunocompetent model of Walker 256 breast carcinoma in SD rats showed an apparent increase in new reactive bone formation. Sclerotic rat femurs had significant increases in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone surface density (BS/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and structural model index (SMI) as compared to control rat femurs. Significantly reduced creep responses (increased ?) were observed for both trabecular and cortical bone in sclerotic bones while no significant difference was observed in elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) values. Therefore, we conclude that viscoelastic creep property using nanoindentation would serve as a more sensitive indicator of localized bone modeling than elastic properties. Moreover, reduced viscoelasticity can contribute towards increased microcrack propagation and therefore reduced toughness. Since significant positive correlations between elastic properties (E) and (H) with viscosity (?) were also observed, our results indicate that sclerotic response of bone metastasis would cause reduced toughness (increased ?) with stiffening of material (increased E and H). PMID:23127639

  2. Sclerotic bone metastases from sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with multiple sclerotic skeletal metastatic lesions. Renal cell carcinoma is frequently metastatic at presentation, with a high incidence of skeletal involvement, classically described as osteolytic. However, sclerotic or osteoblastic metastatic skeletal lesions from renal cell carcinoma are rare, with only two previous reports identified in the literature, neither of which involved the sarcomatoid variant of renal cell carcinoma. In our case the sclerotic metastases were characterized by bone scan, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histologic analysis. (orig.)

  3. Sclerotic bone metastases from sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P.T. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Conley, C.R. [Dept. of Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callstrom, M.R. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1999-10-01

    We present a case of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with multiple sclerotic skeletal metastatic lesions. Renal cell carcinoma is frequently metastatic at presentation, with a high incidence of skeletal involvement, classically described as osteolytic. However, sclerotic or osteoblastic metastatic skeletal lesions from renal cell carcinoma are rare, with only two previous reports identified in the literature, neither of which involved the sarcomatoid variant of renal cell carcinoma. In our case the sclerotic metastases were characterized by bone scan, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histologic analysis. (orig.)

  4. Neural Crest-Specific TSC1 Deletion in Mice Leads to Sclerotic Craniofacial Bone Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Sun, Shaogang; Wang, Li; Guan, Jun-Lin; Giovannini, Marco; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. TSC has high frequency of osseous manifestations such as sclerotic lesions in the craniofacial region. However, an animal model that replicates TSC craniofacial bone lesions has not yet been described. The roles of Tsc1 and the sequelae of Tsc1 dysfunction in bone are unknown. In this study, we generated a mouse model of TSC with a deletion of Tsc1 in neural crest-derived (NCD) cells that recapitulated the sclerotic craniofacial bone lesions in TSC. Analysis of this mouse model demonstrated that TSC1 deletion led to enhanced mTORC1 signaling in NCD bones and the increase in bone formation is responsible for the aberrantly increased bone mass. Lineage mapping revealed that TSC1 deficient NCD cells overpopulated the NCD bones. Mechanistically, hyperproliferation of osteoprogenitors at an early postnatal stage accounts for the increased osteoblast pool. Intriguingly, early postnatal treatment with rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, can completely rescue the aberrant bone mass, but late treatment cannot. Our data suggest that enhanced mTOR signaling in NCD cells can increase bone mass through enlargement of the osteoprogenitor pool, which likely explains the sclerotic bone lesion observed in TSC patients. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25639352

  5. Neural crest-specific TSC1 deletion in mice leads to sclerotic craniofacial bone lesion†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Sun, Shaogang; Wang, Li; Guan, Jun-Lin; Giovannini, Marco; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. TSC has high frequency of osseous manifestations such as sclerotic lesions in the craniofacial region. However, an animal model that replicates TSC craniofacial bone lesions has not yet been described. The roles of Tsc1 and the sequelae of Tsc1 dysfunction in bone are unknown. In this study, we generated a mouse model of TSC with a deletion of Tsc1 in neural crest-derived (NCD) cells that recapitulated the sclerotic craniofacial bone lesions in TSC. Analysis of this mouse model demonstrated that TSC1 deletion led to enhanced mTORC1 signaling in NCD bones and the increase in bone formation is responsible for the aberrantly increased bone mass. Lineage mapping revealed that TSC1 deficient NCD cells overpopulated the NCD bones. Mechanistically, hyperproliferation of osteoprogenitors at an early postnatal stage accounts for the increased osteoblast pool. Intriguingly, early postnatal treatment with rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, can completely rescue the aberrant bone mass, but late treatment cannot. Our data suggest that enhanced mTOR signaling in NCD cells can increase bone mass through enlargement of the osteoprogenitor pool, which likely explains the sclerotic bone lesion observed in TSC patients. PMID:25639352

  6. Cystic angiomatosis of bone with sclerotic changes mimicking osteoblastic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five unusual cases of cystic angiomatosis of bone which presented with the radiologic appearance of osteoblastic lesions are reported. Three patients were female (ages 37, 41, and 65 years) and two were male (ages 24 and 66 years). Although cystic angiomatosis of bone usually produces widespread osteolytic lesions with a honeycombed appearance in the skeletal system, multiple osteoblastic lesions mimicking metastatic osteoblastic carcinoma are sometimes seen. This radiological presentation has not been well emphasized in previous reports. Histologically, in addition to the angiomatous lesions, both mature thickened lamellar bone trabeculae and immature trabeculae of woven bone were found. In one of our patients, increasing density of the osteoblastic lesions was noted over time. One previous study has suggested that the age of the lesions of cystic angiomatosis is related to radiographic density. It is important to recognize this uncommon variant of cystic angiomatosis and to include this entity among the radiologic differential diagnoses when multiple osteoblastic lesions are encountered. (orig.)

  7. Condensing osteitis of the clavicle in childhood: A rare sclerotic bone lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven children and adolescents with sclerotic and periosteal alterations of the clavicle are reported, two of them in detail. Malignancies and bacterial inflammatory processes, which were first suspected, could be excluded. Clinical and radiographic features as well as differential diagnosis are discussed, as is the pertinent literature. The etiology of this uncommon bone lesion, which is described under different names, could not be clarified. (orig.)

  8. An Inflammatory Dentigerous Cyst Shows Rim Uptake on Bone Scan: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dentigerous cysts are developmental odontogenic jaw cysts, commonly manifesting in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life. This article presents an extremely rare case of dentigerous cyst showing increased uptake in the peripheral rim on bone scan. Herein, we discuss the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of dentigerous cysts as well as the pathological mechanism underlying their activities on the bone scan. Bone scan was a sensitive tool for detecting the biologic activity of dentigerous cyst in our case

  9. Innumerable Small Bony Nodular Sclerotic Lesions with Negative Findings on Both Bone Scintigraphy and F-18 FDG PET: Osteopoikilosis a Patient of Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteopoikilosis is a rare, benign hereditary disease, which presents multiple osteosclerotic, and small round nodules in the bone. It is usually detected incidentally by radiological examination. A radionuclide bone scintigraphy is essential in distinguishing osteopoikilosis from osteoblastic metastases, because scintigraphic findings are usually normal in patients with osteopoikilosis. However, there have been no reports about F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET findings in osteopoikilosis. Herein, we wish to report a case of osteopoikilosis with breast cancer, which could not be seen in either bone scintigraphy or F-18 FDG PET/CT

  10. Lytic and sclerotic (mixed) vertebral metastasis in ganglioneuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical presentation of ganglioneuroblastoma is highly variable and it is not uncommon to see metastasis at presentation. Bone is the second most common site of metastasis in neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma cells usually activate osteoclasts and form osteolytic lesions. Here, we describe a patient who presented with back pain. On evaluation, X-ray and positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed mixed lytic and sclerotic vertebral metastasis, and subsequently diagnosed as ganglioneuroblastoma

  11. Lytic and sclerotic (mixed) vertebral metastasis in ganglioneuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, Subbiah; Bhadada, Sanjay Kuamr; Bhansali, Anil; Bhattacharya, Anish

    2012-01-01

    The clinical presentation of ganglioneuroblastoma is highly variable and it is not uncommon to see metastasis at presentation. Bone is the second most common site of metastasis in neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma cells usually activate osteoclasts and form osteolytic lesions. Here, we describe a patient who presented with back pain. On evaluation, X-ray and positron emission tomography-computed tomography showed mixed lytic and sclerotic vertebral metastasis, and subsequently diagnosed as ganglio...

  12. Ossifying fibroma of long bones in adults: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Herrero, Fernando; Silvestre Muñoz, Antonio; Martinez Rodriguez, Miguel; Gomar Sancho, Francisco

    2006-12-01

    Ossifying fibroma (osteofibrous dysplasia) is a rare fibro-osseous lesion made up of fibrous tissue with woven bone formation. It is most commonly found in the tibia and fibula of children ten years of age or younger. The most important differential diagnosis is monostotic fibrous dysplasia, which is radiologically similar but without woven bone rimmed by active osteoblasts like ossifying fibroma on histological examination. No epitheloid cells are found as in adamantinoma. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who had a 12-month history of pain and slight swelling. Radiographs showed a multilocular radiolucent lesion with sclerotic rim in the proximal tibia. The lesion was curetted and the defect was packed with bone graft and acrylic cement. Microscopic examination showed active osteoblasts rimming the irregulary woven bone. One-year follow-up showed good functional recovery without recurrence of the lesion. PMID:17260623

  13. Sclerotic bodies beyond nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawan, Jag; Perez-Chua, Tanya A; Goldberg, Lynne

    2013-09-01

    Sclerotic bodies are round to oval structures made up of collagen with entrapped elastic fibers, which may be sometimes ossified. These bodies may be found in skin biopsies from patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a disease linked to the use of gadolinium in radiologic procedures and chronic renal failure. Sclerotic bodies have not been reported in other diseases. Herein, we report sclerotic bodies as an incidental finding in a re-excision specimen of a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from the forearm of an 85-year-old man with chronic renal failure. The patient had had multiple SCC removed over time. Additional clinical history revealed patient having received gadolinium in 2003 and 2004, preceding his dialysis that began in 2009. All of his excision specimens revealed sclerotic bodies in 20 of 30 specimens from 2008. None of the 26 re-excision specimens prior to gadolinium exposure had these bodies. Our findings suggest that sclerotic bodies are the result of gadolinium exposure in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Because the bodies were found near the re-excision scar, it may be that gadolinium or its metabolites activate fibroblasts in the setting of wound healing. The reasons why this patient did not develop NSF are unclear. PMID:23808625

  14. Morphology of autogenous bone graft and castor oil polyurethane in the infraorbital rim of rabbits: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça José Carlos Garcia de; De Rossi Rafael; Inouye Celso Massaschi; Bazan Diego Rodrigo Paulillo; Monteiro João Carlos Castro; Mendonça Juliana Pedroso de

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Morphological study comparing castor oil polyurethane and autogenous bone graft to repair bone defect in zygomatic bone of rabbits. METHODS: Twenty-four adult, male New Zealand rabbits were randomly distributed between two groups of twelve. Bone defects of 5mm in diameter were cut through the zygomatic bone and filled with polyurethane discs in the experimental group or autogenous bone harvested from the tibia in the control group. Animals were sacrificed after 30, 60 or 90 days, and...

  15. Detection of Sclerotic Spine Metastases via Random Aggregation of Deep Convolutional Neural Network Classifications

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Holger R.; Yao, Jianhua; Lu, Le; Stieger, James; Burns, Joseph E.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Automated detection of sclerotic metastases (bone lesions) in Computed Tomography (CT) images has potential to be an important tool in clinical practice and research. State-of-the-art methods show performance of 79% sensitivity or true-positive (TP) rate, at 10 false-positives (FP) per volume. We design a two-tiered coarse-to-fine cascade framework to first operate a highly sensitive candidate generation system at a maximum sensitivity of ~92% but with high FP level (~50 per...

  16. Adamantinoma of long bone: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological findings of adamantinomas of long bones are described in 22 patients. In 21 patients the tibia was involved and in one patient the fibula. The tumour was nearly always in the diaphysis (20 cases). The most striking radiological feature was a diaphyseal lesion confined to the bone showing multicentric translucencies. The latter showed surrounding or central ring shaped or focal areas of increased density. The lesions tended to be longitudinal, averaging 11 cm (between 3 and 25 cm). All lesions showed a sclerotic margin separating it from normal bone, at least over part of the lesion. Expanding lesions were mostly separated from the soft tissues by a bony rim (18 cases). (orig./GDG)

  17. The sclerotic pedicle - how many causes are there?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sclerotic pedicle is a commonly encountered roentgen sign that may be associated with numerous conditions, both benign and malignant. The following paper discusses the common as well as the unusual causes of this interesting phenomenon and demonstrates the radiographic presentations of the various etiologies. (orig.)

  18. Dopamine-Mediated Sclerotization of Regenerated Chitin in Ionic Liquid

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    Dongyeop X. Oh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is a promising structural material for biomedical applications, due to its many advantageous properties and abundance in nature. However, its usage and development in the biomedical field have been stagnant, because of chitin’s poor mechanical properties in wet conditions and the difficulties in transforming it into an applicable form. To overcome these challenges, we created a novel biomimetic chitin composite. This regenerated chitin, prepared with ionic liquid, showed improved mechanical properties in wet conditions by mimicking insect cuticle and squid beak sclerotization, i.e., catechol-meditated cross-linking. By ionic liquid-based heat treatment, dopamine oxidation produced melanin-like compounds and dopamine-meditated cross-links without any solvent evaporation and oxidant utilization. The dopamine-meditated sclerotization increased the ultimate tensile strength (UTS of the regenerated chitin by 2.52-fold, measured after six weeks of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS submersion. In addition, the linear swelling ratio (LSR of the chitin film was reduced by about 22%. This strategy raises a possibility of using regenerated chitin as an artificial hard tissue in wet conditions.

  19. Transplante renal sem imunossupressão de manutenção. Pares monozigóticos e receptores de rim e medula óssea do mesmo doador / Renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression. Identical twins and kidney transplantation following a successful bone marrow graft

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Riad Abdel, Hadi; Gustavo Gomes, Thomé; Adriana Reginato, Ribeiro; Roberto Ceratti, Manfro.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Pacientes que receberam transplantes renais sem imunossupressão de manutenção têm sido esporadicamente relatados. Os casos incluem relatos de pacientes não aderentes que suspenderam a medicação imunossupressora, transplantes entre gêmeos monozigóticos, transplante renal após um bem sucedido t [...] ransplante de medula óssea do mesmo doador e transplante simultâneo de medula óssea e rim para tratamento de pacientes com mieloma múltiplo com insuficiência renal associada. Existem, atualmente, ensaios clínicos em andamento com o propósito de induzir tolerância imunológica específica ao doador utilizando a infusão de células hematopoiéticas do mesmo doador do enxerto renal. A seguir, descrevemos dois casos de transplante renal sem imunossupressão como exemplos de situações descritas acima. Abstract in english Abstract Renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression has been sporadically reported in the literature. The cases include non-adherent patients who discontinued their immunosuppressive medications, transplantation between identical twins, kidney transplantation after a successful bone [...] marrow graft from the same donor and simultaneous bone marrow and kidney transplantation for the treatment of multiple myeloma with associated renal failure. There are also ongoing clinical trials designed to induce donor specific transplant tolerance with infusion of hematopoietic cells from the same kidney donor. Here we describe two cases of renal transplantation without immunosuppression as examples of situations described above.

  20. Rim Sign in Acute Cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'rim sign' is a rim of increased hepatic activity adjacent to the gall bladder fossa and known as an useful indicator of acute cholecystitis. Also, many reports suggested that if rim sign is positive there is an increased risk for complications such as perforation and gangrene. To evaluate the usefulness of this rim sign, we reviewed 32 cases that were pathologically confirmed. The incidence of rim sign was 47% similar to other reports but with our results, the rim sign was not specific to acute cholecystitis nor indicator of increased risk for complications.

  1. Micromorphological and hardness analyses of human and bovine sclerotic dentin: a comparative study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gisela Muassab, Castanho; Márcia Martins, Marques; Juliana Barbosa, Marques; Maitê André, Camargo; Antonio Alberto De, Cara.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that both human and bovine sclerotic dentin have similar hardness properties, in addition to similar micromorphological characteristics. Sixteen teeth (8 human and 8 bovine) exhibiting exposed dentin in the incisal edge and showing characteristics [...] typical of sclerosis were used. Vickers surface microhardness testing was conducted. Three areas of the dentin surface of each specimen were selected. All teeth were processed for scanning electron microscopy in order to estimate the amount (in percentage) of solid dentin on the sclerotic dentin surface. The data were compared by Student's t test (? = 0.05). The micromorphological and microhardness data were compared by Pearson's linear correlation test (? = 0.05). The mean percentages of solid dentin of human and bovine sclerotic dentin were similar (human 90.71 ± 0.83 and bovine 89.08 ± 0.81, p = 0.18). The mean microhardness value (VHN) of human sclerotic dentin was significantly higher than that of bovine sclerotic dentin (human 45.26 ± 2.92 and bovine 29.93 ± 3.83, p = 0.006). No correlation was found between the microhardness values and the amount of solid dentin in the sclerotic dentin, irrespective of the species considered (human R² = 0.0240, p = 0.714; bovine R² = 0.0017, p = 0.923; and combined R² = 0.038, p = 0.46). We concluded that although both bovine and human sclerotic dentin present a similar amount of solid tissue, human sclerotic dentin presents higher microhardness than bovine sclerotic dentin.

  2. AVALIAÇÃO HISTOLÓGICA DE FÍGADO, RIM, TIREÓIDE, PARATIREÓIDE E OSSO DE SUÍNOS EM TERMINAÇÃO SUBMETIDOS A DIFERENTES DIETAS HISTOLOGICS AVALUATIONS OF LIVER, KIDNEY, THYROID, PARATHYROID AND METACARPIAN BONE OF FINISHING PIGS WITH DIFFERENT DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Sobestiansky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar histologicamente fígado, rim, tireóide, paratireóide e osso metacarpo de suínos submetidos a restrições de microminerais, vitaminas e fósforo, e suplementados com a enzima fitase em dois períodos de restrição. Empregaram-se 48 fêmeas suínas com idade inicial de 105 dias (66,15 ± 0,14kg, recebendo dietas experimentais à base de milho e farelos de soja e trigo. Os animais foram agrupados aleatoriamente em seis tratamentos: dieta completa (T1; dieta completa sem suplemento micromineral-vitamínico (T2; dieta sem suplemento micromineral-vitamínico e com fitase (T3; dieta sem suplemento micromineral-vitamínico, sem 1/3 de fósforo inorgânico e com fitase (T4; dieta sem suplemento micromineral-vitamínico, sem 2/3 de fósforo inorgânico e com fitase (T5; dieta sem suplemento micromineral-vitamínico, sem fósforo inorgânico e com fitase (T6. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em duas etapas, sendo a primeira composta por 24 animais, restrição de 35 dias e abate aos 150 dias (106,65 kg, e a segunda, composta por 24 animais, restrição de 60 dias e abate aos 175 dias (123,87 kg. No momento do abate, colheram-se fragmentos de fígado, rim, tireóide, paratireóide e osso metacarpiano de cada animal dos diversos tratamentos. Todos os fragmentos foram fixados em solução de formol tamponado a 10%, processados, incluídos em parafina e corados por hematoxilina e eosina (HE. Empregou-se a coloração especial de tricrômico de Mallory apenas nas amostras ósseas. Ao exame histológico dos rins foram constatados 37 animais com nefrite intersticial (77%. À histologia hepática, observou-se discreto infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear de distribuição predominantemente focal em quinze animais (31,25%. Os tratamentos preconizados não provocaram alterações histológicas nas glândulas paratireóide e tireóide. À microscopia dos ossos metacarpianos, observou-se discreta osteocondrose em animais dos diferentes tratamentos e fases de restrição. Entretanto, durante o período experimental não se registraram quaisquer alterações clínicas relacionadas a doenças metabólicas ósseas ou a osteocondrose. Ainda, de acordo com os resultados, concluiu-se que a fitase foi eficiente em disponibilizar o fósforo fítico da dieta, uma vez que não se observaram lesões ósseas macro e microscópicas características de deficiência de fósforo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alterações histológicas, fitase, restrição de fósforo, vitaminas, microminerais. The present experiment aimed to evaluate histological changes in hepatic, renal, thyroid, parathyroid and metacarpian bone tissues of pigs submitted to diets without micro minerals and vitamins, reduced inorganic phosphorus levels and phytase addition in two restriction times. Forty eight 105-days old (66.15±0.14 kg female pigs received experimental diets with corn, soybean and wheat meal. The animals were randomly distributed in six groups: standard diets (T1; composed of corn, soybean meal and wheat meal; standard ration without micro mineral and vitamin supplement (T2; T2 ration with phytase (T3; T2 ration reducing 1/3 of inorganic phosphorus with phytase (T4; T2 ration reduced 2/3 of inorganic phosphorus with phytase (T5; and T2 ration with complete reduction of inorganic phosphorus with phytase (T6. The experiment was carried out in two phases: Phase 1. 24 animals, 35 days of restriction and slaughter at 150 days of age (106.65 kg, and Phase 2, 24 animals, 60 days of restriction and slaughter at 175 days of age (123.87 kg. At slaughter, samples of liver, kidney, thyroid, parathyroid and metacarpian bone were collected from all animals. The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and stained by hematoxilin and eosin (HE. The Mallory’s trichrome stain was used in bone sections. Kidney histopathological evaluation showed interstitial nephritis in 37 animals (77%. Mononuclear inflammatory infiltrated was observed focally on liver of 15 animals (31.25%. Treatments didn’t promote histopathologi

  3. RIMS: Resource Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is given of the capabilities and functions of the resource management system (RIMS). It is a simple interactive DMS tool which allows users to build, modify, and maintain data management applications. The RIMS minimizes programmer support required to develop/maintain small data base applications. The RIMS also assists in bringing the United Information Services (UIS) budget system work inhouse. Information is also given on the relationship between the RIMS and the user community.

  4. Quantitative determination of catecholic degradation products from insect sclerotized cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2008-09-01

    Acid hydrolysates of cuticle from various insect species were quantitatively analyzed for five catecholic amino acid adducts. Four of the adducts are ketocatechols; in three of them the amino acid moiety, either lysine, glycine or beta-alanine, is connected via its amino group to the alpha-carbon atom of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, in the fourth a tyrosine residue is connected to the same position via its phenolic group. The fifth adduct contains histidine linked via its imidazole-ring to the beta-position of the dopamine sidechain. The three ketocatecholic adducts containing alpha-amino acids were obtained in significant yields from adult cuticles of the locust Schistocerca gregaria, the cockroaches Blaberus craniifer and Periplaneta americana, and the beetles Pachynoda sinuata and Tenebrio molitor, but only in trace amounts from larval and pupal cuticles of T. molitor, pupal cuticles of the moths Manduca sexta and Hyalophora cecropia, and puparia of the blowfly Calliphora vicina. The beta-alanine-containing ketocatechol was not obtained from cuticle of locusts and T. molitor larvae and pupae, but it was present in the hydrolysates of the other cuticles. The beta-histidine-dopamine adduct was obtained from all the cuticles, the highest yield was obtained from adult P. sinuata and the lowest yield was from adult S. gregaria. The beta-histidine-dopamine adduct is derived from the product formed by reaction of p-quinone methides of N-acetyldopamine (NADA) or N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD) with histidine residues in the cuticular proteins. The ketocatecholic adducts are assumed to be degradation products of crosslinks formed when oxidized dehydro-NADA reacts with the cuticular proteins. The insect species investigated appear to use both pathways for sclerotization, but to widely differing extents; the dehydro-NADA pathway dominates in cuticles which are exposed to strong deforming forces, such as those of adult locusts and cockroaches, and the p-quinone methide pathway dominates in cuticle of lepidopteran pupae and blowfly puparia, which are not exposed to strong mechanical forces but have to be effectively protected against microbial and fungal attacks. PMID:18675913

  5. The use of qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reactions for diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infections in bone marrow and kidney transplant recipients / Desenvolvimento e aplicação de PCRs quali-quantitativas para diagnóstico de citomegalovirose em transplantados de rim e medula óssea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lauro Juliano, Marin; Aldo Albuquerque, Cunha; Victor Hugo, Aquino; Luiz Tadeu Moraes, Figueiredo.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar uma PCR qualitativa e uma PCR semiquantitativa para CMV para determinar a carga de CMV nos leucócitos de pacientes transplantados de medula óssea e transplantados de rim. Trinta e três pacientes TMO e 35 TR participaram deste estudo. O DNA foi testado pela PCR qu [...] alitativa utilizando primers que amplificam parte do gene gB de CMV. As cargas de CMV das amostras positivas foram determinadas pela PCR semi-quantitativa utilizando como controle plasmídios quantificáveis inseridos com parte do gene gB de CMV. A sensibilidade do teste foi de 867 plamídios/µg DNA. Cargas de CMV entre 2.118 e 72.443 copias/µg DNA foram observadas em 12,1% dos TMO entre 1,246 e 58,613 cópias/µg DNA foram observadas em 22,9% dos TR. Futuros estudos, com maiores casuísticas são necessários para confirmar a utilidade desta PCR semiquantitativa para CMV em pacientes transplantados. Abstract in english The purpose of this work was to test a cytomegalovirus qualitative PCR and a semi-quantitative PCR on the determination of CMV load in leukocytes of bone marrow and kidney transplanted (RT) patients. Thirty three BMT and 35 RT patients participated of the study. The DNA was subjected to a qualitativ [...] e PCR using primers that amplify part of CMV gB gene. CMV load of positive samples was determined by a semi-quantitative PCR using quantified plasmids inserted with part of the gB gene of CMV as controls. The sensitivity of the test was determined to be 867 plasmid copies/µg DNA. CMV loads between 2,118 and 72,443 copies/µg DNA were observed in 12.1% BMT recipients and between 1,246 and 58,613 copies/µg DNA in 22.9% RT recipients. Further studies are necessary to confirm the usefulness of this CMV semi-quantitative PCR in transplanted patients.

  6. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  7. CUTANEOUS MYXOID CYST ON THE SCLEROTIC FINGER IN A PATIENT WITH DIFFUSE SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeko Nakamura-Wakatsuki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin tumors occurring on the scleroderma fingers are rarely seen. Swollen fingers are hallmarks of systemic sclerosis, and mucin deposition in the lesional skin is a constant feature in systemic sclerosis. Here we describe a case of cutaneous myxoid cyst on the flexor aspect of the sclerotic fingers in a patient with severe diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Cutaneous myxoid cyst is a relatively common benign tumor; however, cases of cutaneous myxoid cysts developing on the scleroderma fingers have not been reported to date. Mucin deposition in the sclerotic skin may be a predisposing factor in the induction of myxoid cyst on the scleroderma finger in our patient.

  8. Clinical observation of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for refractory glaucoma by directly puncturing the sclerotic tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ke Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinic effects and complication of Ahmed glaucoma valve(AGVimplantation in refractory glaucoma by using the 23G syringe needle direct puncture the sclerotic tunnel.METHODS: Forty-four cases(44 eyesof refractory glaucoma underwent AGV implantation by useing the 23G syringe needle direct puncture the sclerotic tunnel. The intraocular pressure(IOP, visual acuity, and complication of post-operation were contrasted with those of pre-operation. RESULTS:The success rate was 84.1%, the mean preoperative IOP in research group was 52.1±10.1mmHg, and the last follow up mean IOP was 15.6±6.9mmHg. Compared with the preoperative visual acuity, 11 eyes increased, 27 eyes had no changes and 6 eyes decreased. The main post-operative complications included shallow anterior chamber(4 eyes, choroidal detachment(3 eyes, drainage tube shift(1 eye, hyphema(6 eyes, drainage tube blockage(1 eye, expulsive choroidal hemorrhage(1 eye, and fiber wrap of drainage tray(5 eyes.CONCLUSION: AGV implantation by direct puncture the sclerotic tunnel is feasible and easy. It avoids of making sclerotic petal and the xenogenic sclera transplanting, simplified the operation technique, prevent the leakage of around tube. The shallow anterior chamber rate is lower. It is an effective procedure for refractory glaucoma.

  9. Rim seal for turbine wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA); Boyd, Gary L. (Alpine, CA); Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A turbine wheel assembly includes a disk having a plurality of blades therearound. A ceramic ring is mounted to the housing of the turbine wheel assembly. A labyrinth rim seal mounted on the disk cooperates with the ceramic ring to seal the hot gases acting on the blades from the disk. The ceramic ring permits a tighter clearance between the labyrinth rim seal and the ceramic ring.

  10. Surgical Management of Myxoma Like Sclerotic Calcified Mass in Left Ventricle Outflow Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Bilezikçi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this short report, we present the succesfull surgical traetment of a patient who had an echocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular mass during her routine controls. This patient was treated by surgical excision of the ventricular mass and after the pathological examination the diagnosis was “myxoma like sclerotic calcified mass”. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on day 7 of surgery. The follow-up period lasted for 2 years without any event and the echocardiograms revelaed no residual or reccurrent lesions. Surgical resection of intracardiac masses are necessary and safe treatment options but there is not a standardization about the type of surgical options. The localization of the mass has the key role in determining the type of the surgical approach. In this case, aortotomy provided a good access and facilitated the exposure of this rare myxoma like sclerotic calcified mass.

  11. CUTANEOUS MYXOID CYST ON THE SCLEROTIC FINGER IN A PATIENT WITH DIFFUSE SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Taeko Nakamura-Wakatsuki; Toshiyuki Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Skin tumors occurring on the scleroderma fingers are rarely seen. Swollen fingers are hallmarks of systemic sclerosis, and mucin deposition in the lesional skin is a constant feature in systemic sclerosis. Here we describe a case of cutaneous myxoid cyst on the flexor aspect of the sclerotic fingers in a patient with severe diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Cutaneous myxoid cyst is a relatively common benign tumor; however, cases of cutaneous myxoid cysts developing on the scleroderma fin...

  12. Linhas escleróticas metafisárias em crianças e adolescentes em uso de alendronato / Sclerotic metaphyseal lines in children and adolescents treated with alendronate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érika C.C., Silva; Maria Teresa R.A., Terreri; Tania C.M. de, Castro; Cássia P.L., Barbosa; Artur R.C., Fernandes; Maria Odete E., Hilário.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os bisfosfonatos inibem a reabsorção óssea pela interferência na ação dos osteoclastos. Dentre os efeitos adversos, as linhas escleróticas em metáfise de ossos longos são descritas como principal alteração radiográfica na faixa etária pediátrica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência de alteraç [...] ões radiográficas causadas pelo alendronato utilizado em crianças e adolescentes com baixa densidade óssea ou calcinose. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo do tipo coorte retrospectiva analisando-se prontuários de 21 pacientes que fizeram uso de alendronato semanal por no mínimo 10 meses. Os pacientes realizaram radiografias de ossos longos antes do início do alendronato e aproximadamente um ano após o seu uso. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes (52,3%) apresentaram linhas escleróticas em metáfise dos ossos longos. A localização mais frequente foi em tíbia (8/11 pacientes), seguida de fêmur (7/11), úmero (6/11), rádio (4/11), ulna (3/11) e fíbula (2/11). Nenhum paciente apresentou regressão das alterações radiográficas durante o tempo de evolução (até 1,1 ano após a suspensão do alendronato). CONCLUSÃO: Se usado com critério, o alendronato é seguro e as alterações radiográficas não mostraram ter um significado mais importante. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by interfering with the action of osteoclasts. Among the adverse effects, sclerotic lines observed in the metaphysis of long bones have been described as the main imaging finding in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of radi [...] ographic changes caused by alendronate in children and adolescents with low bone density or calcinosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 21 patients who were treated with once-weekly alendronate for at least 10 months. Patients underwent x-rays of long bones before the start of alendronate and approximately one year after its use. RESULTS: Eleven patients (52.3%) had sclerotic lines in the metaphysis of long bones. The most frequent site was the tibia (8/11 patients), followed by the femur (7/11), humerus (6/11), radius (4/11), ulna (3/11), and fibula (2/11). Regression of radiographic changes during the study period (up to 1.1 years after discontinuation of alendronate) was not observed. CONCLUSION: If used carefully, alendronate is safe and radiographic changes have not been shown to be clinically relevant.

  13. Aspects of cuticular sclerotization in the locust, Scistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-03-01

    The number of reactive amino groups in cuticular proteins decreases during the early period of insect cuticular sclerotization, presumably due to reaction with oxidation products of N-acetyldopamine (NADA) and N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD). We have quantitated the decrease in cuticular N-terminal amino groups and lysine epsilon-amino groups during the first 24h of sclerotization in adult locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, and in larval and adult beetles, Tenebrio molitor, as well as the increase in beta-alanine amino groups in Tenebrio cuticle. The results indicate that nearly all glycine N-terminal groups and a significant part of the epsilon-amino groups from lysine residues are involved in the sclerotization process in both locusts and Tenebrio. A pronounced increase in the amount of free beta-alanine amino groups was observed in cuticle from adult Tenebrio and to a lesser extent also in Tenebrio larval cuticle, but from locust cuticle no beta-alanine was obtained. Hydrolysis of sclerotized cuticles from locusts and Tenebrio by dilute hydrochloric acid released a large number of compounds containing amino acids linked to catecholic moieties. Products have been identified which contain histidine residues linked via their imidazole group to the beta-position of various catechols, such as dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-ethanol (DOPET), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-acetaldehyde (DOPALD), and a ketocatecholic compound has also been identified composed of lysine linked via its epsilon-amino group to the alpha-carbon atom of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone. Some of the hydrolysis products have previously been obtained from sclerotized pupal cuticle of Manduca sexta [Xu, R., Huang, X., Hopkins, T.L., Kramer, K.J., 1997. Catecholamine and histidyl protein cross-linked structures in sclerotized insect cuticle. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 27, 101-108; Kerwin, J.L., Turecek, F., Xu, R., Kramer, K.J., Hopkins, T.L., Gatlin, C.L., Yates, J.R., 1999. Mass spectrometric analysis of catechol-histidine adducts from insect cuticle. Analytical Biochemistry 268, 229-237; Kramer, K.J., Kanost, M.R., Hopkins, T.L., Jiang, H., Zhu, Y.C., Xu, R., Kerwin, J.L., Turecek, F., 2001. Oxidative conjugation of catechols with proteins in insect skeletal systems. Tetrahedron 57, 385-392], but the lysine-dihydroxyacetophenone compound and the histidine-DOPALD adduct have not been reported before. It is suggested that the compounds are derived from NADA and NBAD residues which were incorporated into the cuticle during sclerotization, and that the lysine-dihydroxyacetophenone as well as the DOPET and DOPALD containing adducts are degradation products derived from cross-links between the cuticular proteins, whereas the dopamine-containing adducts are derived from a non-crosslinking reaction product. PMID:17296497

  14. Window prototype investigations : Rim seal construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, JØrgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the requirements to be set for a proper rim seal construction for aerogel glazings and includes theoretically parameter analyses of thermal bridge effect, water vapour diffusion and gas diffusion through the rim seal. Different ideas for rim seal solutions are described.

  15. The effects of hydroxyapatite coating and bone allograft on fixation of loaded experimental primary and revision implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØballe, Kjeld; Mouzin, Olivier R G

    2003-01-01

    We used our established experimental model of revision joint replacement to examine the roles of hydroxyapatite coating and bone graft in improving the fixation of revision implants. The revision protocol uses the Søballe micromotion device in a preliminary 8-week period of implant instability for the presence of particulate polyethylene. During this procedure, a sclerotic endosteal bone rim forms, and a dense fibrous membrane is engendered, having macrophages with ingested polyethylene and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. At the time of revision after 8 weeks, the cavity is revised with either a titanium alloy (Ti) or a hydroxyapatite (HA) 6.0 mm plasma-sprayed implant, in the presence or absence of allograft packed into the initial 0.75 mm peri-implant gap. The contralateral limb is subjected to primary surgery with the same implant configuration, and serves as control. 8 implants were included in each of the 8 treatment groups (total 64 implants in 32 dogs). The observation period was 4 weeks after revision. Outcome measures are based on histomorphometry and mechanical pushout properties. The revision setting was always inferior to its primary counterpart. Bone graft improved the revision fixation in all treatment groups, as also did the HA coating. The sole exception was revision-grafted HA implants, which reached the same fixation as primary Ti and HA grafted implants. The revision, which was less active in general, seems to need the dual stimulation of bone graft and HA implant surface, to obtain the same level of fixation associated with primary implants. Our findings suggest that the combination of HA implant and bone graft may be of benefit in the clinical revision implant setting.

  16. Three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture of the lumbar spine in bone metastasis from prostate cancer: comparison with degenerative sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, inducing osteosclerotic lesions. The objective of this study was to clarify the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular bone microstructure in bone metastasis from prostate cancer by comparison with normal and degenerative sclerotic bone lesions, using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). A total of 32 cancellous bone samples were excised from the lumbar spine of six autopsy patients: 15 metastatic samples (one patient), eight degenerative sclerotic samples (four patients) and the rest from normal sites (three patients). The samples were serially scanned cross-sectionally by micro-CT with a pixel size of 23.20 ?m, slice thickness of 18.56 ?m, and image matrix of 512 x 512. Each image data set consisted of 250 consecutive slices. The volumes of interest (96 x 96 x 120 voxels) were defined in the original image sets and 3D indices of the trabecular microstructure were determined. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in degenerative sclerotic lesions was significantly higher than that in normal sites, whereas no significant difference was observed in trabecular number (Tb.N). By contrast, in metastatic lesions, the Tb.N was significantly higher with increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV) than in normal sites, and no significant difference was found in Tb.Th. The characteristics of the trabecular surface in the metastatic samples showed concave structural elements with an increase in BV/TV, indicating osteolysis of the trabecular bndicating osteolysis of the trabecular bone. In 3D reconstructed images, increased trabecular bone with an irregular surface was observed in samples from metastatic sites, which were uniformly sclerotic on soft X-ray radiographs. These results support, through 3D morphological features, the strong bone resorption effect in bone metastasis from prostate cancer. (orig.)

  17. Ossicular bone modeling in acute otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Rasmus Lysholdt; Hermansson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    A number of middle ear diseases are associated with pathologic bone modeling, either formative or resorptive. As such, the pathogenesis of a sclerotic mastoid has been controversial for decades. Experimental studies on acute middle ear infection have shown progressive osteoneogenesis in the bone structures surrounding the middle ear cavity, and a few studies have reported acute changes of the ossicular chain. However, detailed qualitative and quantitative information on ossicular bone modeling dynamics has not been accounted for and is thus the purpose of this study.

  18. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation : An Omani Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active member of this organisation and has established manifold economic links with countries of the region.

  19. Cerebral abscess with multiple rims on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a patient with multiple brain abscesses caused by Nocardia asteroides. On T2-weighted MRI, multiple concentric rims were seen in the abscess, which could be a finding specific for infection. The rims may be due to organization of the necrotic debris and phagocytoses by macrophages in the capsule. (orig.)

  20. Composite flywheels with rim and hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, K.; Igarashi, J.-I.; Shiratori, E.

    The possibility of obtaining a flywheel of high energy density by increasing both rotating speed and moment of inertia of the disc is investigated. As the starting point of the search process for such a flywheel, a glass cloth-laminated disc with a hole at the center is considered. The rotating speed of the disc is improved by reinforcing the central hole of the disc with the same material as that of the disc. The large moment of inertia is obtained by attaching a rim around the disc. The rim is moulded by winding carbon fiber around it. This rim also has the usual 'hoop' effect which prevents a reduction of the rotating speed of the disc because of the additional moment of inertia of the rim. The shape of the disc having a high energy density is numerically sought by varying the dimensions of the hub and the rim of the disc, and an optimal shape is proposed.

  1. Treatment of scaphoid nonunion with vascularised and nonvascularised dorsal bone grafting from the distal radius

    OpenAIRE

    Ribak, Samuel; Medina, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez; Mattar, Rames; Ulson, Heitor Jose Rizzardo; Resende, Marcelo Rosa; Etchebehere, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a prospective randomised study comparing the clinical, functional and radiographic results of 46 patients treated for scaphoid nonunion using a vascularised bone graft from the dorsal and distal aspect of the radius (group I), relative to 40 patients treated by means of a conventional non-vascularised bone graft from the distal radius (group II). Surgical findings included 30 sclerotic, poorly-vascularised scaphoids in group I versus 20 in group II. Bone fusion was achieved in 89...

  2. High-precision thorium RIMS for geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our latest results in the development of resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) using cw lasers to measure isotope ratios of importance in geochemistry and geochronology. The RIMS method provides a higher ionization efficiency than thermal ionization allowing analysis of smaller sample sizes, while maintaining equivalent internal precision. The bias introduced in 230/232Th ratio measurements by the RIMS method when using narrow-band and broad-band lasers is discussed. Spectra of 239Th, which can be used as an internal standard, are also presented

  3. Antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yinghua, Song; Lubing, Zhu; Ming, Li.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of crocetin in scleroderma fibroblasts and in sclerotic mice. METHODS: Skin fibroblasts that were isolated from three systemic scleroderma (SSc) patients and three healthy subjects were treated with crocetin (0.1, 1 or 10 ?M). Cell proliferation [...] was measured with an MTT assay. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected via an immunohistochemical method. Alpha 1 (I) procollagen (COL1A1), alpha 1 (III) procollagen (COL3A1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA levels were measured using real-time PCR. SSc mice were established by the subcutaneous injection of bleomycin. Crocetin (50 mg/kg/d) was injected intraperitoneally for 14 days. Dermal thickness and lung fibrosis were assessed with Masson's trichrome staining. Plasma ET-1 was detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin and lung ET-1 and COL1A1 mRNA levels were measured via real-time PCR. RESULTS: Crocetin inhibited the proliferation of SSc and normal fibroblasts, an effect that increased with crocetin concentration and incubation time. Crocetin decreased the expression of ?-SMA and the levels of mRNA for COL1A1, COL3A1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1, while crocetin increased TIMP-1 mRNA levels in both SSc and normal fibroblasts. Skin and lung fibrosis was induced, and the levels of ET-1 in the plasma, skin and lungs were elevated in bleomycin-injected mice. Crocetin alleviated the thickening of the dermis and lung fibrosis; decreased COL1A1 mRNA levels in the skin and lung; and simultaneously decreased ET-1 concentrations in the plasma and ET-1 mRNA levels in the skin and lungs of the bleomycin-induced sclerotic mice, especially during the early phase (weeks 1-3). CONCLUSION: Crocetin inhibits cell proliferation, differentiation and collagen production in SSc fibroblasts. Crocetin alleviates skin and lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, in part due to a reduction in ET-1.

  4. Renal subcapsular rim sign. Radionuclide pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renal cortical rim sign is a radiological term describing the thin peripheral nephrogram of 2-4 mm thick which is from the peri-renal capsular collateral circulation in an otherwise nonfunctioning kidney. Radionuclides are used frequently in the estimation of renal function. A neonate with renal vein thrombosis demonstrated a rim sign on renal scan with Technetium DTPA. The rim sign on renal scan can be differentiated from severe hydronephrosis or multicystic kidney both of which may have a peripheral thin cortex which functions late on the renal scan. The rim sign in renal vein thrombosis was best visualized during the early blood pool phase when there was a considerable amount of radioactivity in the blood pool

  5. The Pacific Rim Library: A Surprising Pearl

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, DT

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific Rim Library (PRL) is an initiative of the Pacific Rim Digital Library Association (PRDLA). The project began in 2006 using the OAI-PMH paradigm and now holds over 300,000 records harvested from OAI data provider libraries around the Pacific. PRL's goal is to enable the sharing of digital collections amongst PRDLA members and the world, but greater unexpected benefits have been discovered. Through mirroring their metadata, PRL increases the chance that their data will be discovered...

  6. Association Between the Proportion of Sclerotic Glomeruli and Serum Creatinine in Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf FAKHRJOU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the possible correlation between the extent of sclerotic glomeruli and the level of serum creatinine and its clearance rate in patients with primary focal segmental glomerolusclerosis.Material and Method: In a cross-sectional study, 50 patients with biopsy-proven primary focal segmental glomerolusclerosis were recruited. The proportion of globally and segmentally sclerosed glomeruli was determined during the first histopathological examination of renal biopsy specimens. Correlations of these variables with on admission serum level of creatinine and its clearance rate were investigated.Results: Twenty-four males and 26 females with a mean age of 39.82±16.45 (range: 16-85 years were enrolled in the study. In a significant fashion, the proportions of segmental and global glomerulosclerosis were directly correlated with the serum level of creatinine and inversely with its clearance rate (r=-0.43 with p=0.002 and r=-0.45 with p=0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Apart from the degree of interstitial fibrosis, the serum level of creatinine and its clearance rate are well correlated with the proportions of both segmentally and globally sclerosed glomeruli in primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

  7. Involvement of tyrosine residues, N-terminal amino acids, and beta-alanine in insect cuticular sclerotization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2007-09-01

    During sclerotization of insect cuticle the acyldopamines, N-acetyldopamine (NADA) and N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD), are oxidatively incorporated into the cuticular matrix, thereby hardening and stabilizing the material by forming crosslinks between the proteins in the cuticular matrix and by forming polymers filling the intermolecular spaces in the cuticle. Sclerotized cuticle from the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid, and from the hydrolysates some components presumably degradation products of cuticular crosslinks were isolated. In two of the components, the sidechain of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone was linked to the amino groups of glycine and beta-alanine, respectively, and in the third component to the phenolic group of tyrosine. These three compounds, glycino-dihydroxyacetophenone, beta-alanino-dihydroxyacetophenone, and O-tyrosino-dihydroxyacetophenone, as well as the previously reported compound, lysino-dihydroxyacetophenone [Andersen, S.O., Roepstorff, P., 2007. Aspects of cuticular sclerotization in the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37, 223-234], are suggested to be degradation products of cuticular crosslinks, in which amino acid residues formed linkages to both the alpha- and beta-positions of the sidechain of acyldopamines. PMID:17681236

  8. Dependence of rim pore radius on rim porosity and temperature behavior in the high burnup UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rim porosity at the high burnup UO2 fuel is obtained at the various rim pore radius ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 ?m. The rim pore radius of 1.0 ?m gives the best estimation for the rim porosity. With increasing the rim pore radius, thermal conductivity degrades with pellet average burnup because the rim pore acts as the thermal barrier. And by using the NEA database, the culculated fuel centerline temperature considering the rim effect is compared with the experimentally measured NEA database. The calculated temperature predicts reasonably well the temperature behavior of irradiated fuel

  9. Modulation of renin angiotensin system predominantly alters sclerotic phenotype of glomeruli in HIVAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagov, Andrei; Lan, Xiqian; Rai, Partab; Kumar, Dileep; Lederman, Rivka; Rehman, Shabina; Malhotra, Ashwani; Ding, Guohua; Chander, Praveen N; Singhal, Pravin C

    2014-12-01

    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a common complication of HIV-1 infection in patients with African ancestry in general and with APOL1 gene risk variants in particular. Although collapsing glomerulopathy is considered a hallmark of HIVAN, significant numbers of glomeruli in patients with HIVAN also display other variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We propose that collapsed glomeruli as well as glomeruli with other variants of FSGS are manifestations of HIVAN and their prevalence depends on associated host factors. We explored the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the manifestation of any specific glomerular phenotype in HIVAN. To evaluate the role of the RAS we have used a genetically engineered mouse model of HIVAN (Tg26) with two and four copies of angiotensinogen (Agt) gene (Tg26/Agt2 and Tg26/Agt4). In Tg26/Agt2, 1 out of 6 glomeruli exhibited sclerosed phenotype, whereas 1 out of 25 glomeruli displayed collapsed phenotype; on the other hand, in Tg26/Agt4, 1 out of 3 glomeruli exhibited sclerotic phenotype and only 1 out of 7 glomeruli showed collapsed phenotype. To inhibit the effect of RAS, Tg26/Agt2 were administered captopril, aliskiren, aliskiren plus captopril or aliskiren plus telmisartan by miniosmotic pumps for 4 weeks. In all experimental groups there was a significant reduction in percentage of sclerosed glomeruli and only minimal reduction in collapsed glomeruli compared to normal saline receiving Tg26/Agt2. These findings suggest that the manifestation of the sclerosed phenotype in HIVAN is predominantly dependent on activation of the RAS. PMID:24892944

  10. North Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A northern portion of the rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon of this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 7, 2009, during the 1,820st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  11. East Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A high point on the distant eastern rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon in this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 8, 2009, during the 1,821st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 34 kilometers (21 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  12. Managing oil logistics around the Baltic Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland's Neste Group is a major player in the oil business in the Baltic area. Neste tankers and petroleum product logistics services comprehensively serve the region. Neste's main Baltic Rim terminal outside Finland is located at Muuga close to the Estonian capital, Tallinn. This will be joined by one in Riga in Latvia at the end of this year. A terminal for St. Petersburg is in the planning stage

  13. Hallazgo de cuerpos escleróticos en un canino: sospecha de cromoblastomicosis cutánea Sclerotic bodies found in a dog: suspected cutaneous chromoblastomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Una paciente canina se presenta a consulta con prurito generalizado de curso crónico. El examen dermatológico evidencia lesiones alopécicas descamativas con hiperqueratosis en la cara interior caudal de ambos muslos. El examen microscópico directo de muestra de escamas cutáneas con KOH más tinta Quinck Parker evidencia la presencia de cuerpos escleróticos, elementos diagnósticos de cromoblastomicosis, una patología micótica muy infrecuente en Chile y previamente no reportada en cánidos. La terapia antimicótica tópica con peróxido de benzoílo consiguió la remisión clínica y micológica de las lesiones.A female canine patient presented a history of chronic generalized pruritus. In the dermatological examination, scaly alopecic lesions with hyperkeratosis were detected on the inner posterior face of both thighs. Microscopical examinations of skin scrapings showed the presence of sclerotic bodies, diagnostic elements of chromoblastomycosis, a mycotic infection rare in Chile and not previously described in dogs. Topical antifungal therapy with benzoyl peroxide resulted in clinical and mycological cure of lesions.

  14. [Surgical Techniques for Patella Replacement in Cases of Deficient Bone Stock in Revision TKA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschl, P; Machacek, F; Strehn, L; Kloiber, J

    2015-06-01

    The patella replacement in revision surgery is a challenge especially in cases of unsufficient bone stock. Depending on the extent of the bone defect, the following videos demonstrate different approaches: Video 1: bone sparing removal of the patella implant: onlay-type patella implants. Video 2: complete cortical bone rim of the patella, residual thickness between 6 to 10?mm: biconvex patella implant. Video 3 and 4: small defects of the cortical bone rim of the patella, residual thickness 1 to 5?mm (patella shell): gull-wing osteotomy, patella bone grafting techniques. Video 5: partial necrosis/defect of the patella shell with incomplete cortical bone rim: porous tantalum patella prosthesis. On account of the various surgical options for different bone defects of the patella, patellectomy and pure patelloplasty should be avoided to prevent functional shortcomings. PMID:26114564

  15. Candida albicans Rim13p, a Protease Required for Rim101p Processing at Acidic and Alkaline pHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingchun; Martin, Samuel J.; Bruno, Vincent M.; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Davis, Dana A.

    2004-01-01

    Candida albicans is an important commensal of mucosal surfaces that is also an opportunistic pathogen. This organism colonizes a wide range of host sites that differ in pH; thus, it must respond appropriately to this environmental stress to survive. The ability to respond to neutral-to-alkaline pHs is governed in part by the RIM101 signal transduction pathway. Here we describe the analysis of C. albicans Rim13p, a homolog of the Rim13p/PalB calpain-like protease member of the RIM101/pacC pathway from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively. RIM13, like other members of the RIM101 pathway, is required for alkaline pH-induced filamentation and growth under extreme alkaline conditions. Further, our studies suggest that the RIM101 pathway promotes pH-independent responses, including resistance to high concentrations of lithium and to the drug hygromycin B. RIM13 encodes a calpain-like protease, and we found that Rim101p undergoes a Rim13p-dependent C-terminal proteolytic processing event at neutral-to-alkaline pHs, similar to that reported for S. cerevisiae Rim101p and A. nidulans PacC. However, we present evidence that suggests that C. albicans Rim101p undergoes a novel processing event at acidic pHs that has not been reported in either S. cerevisiae or A. nidulans. Thus, our results provide a framework to understand how the C. albicans Rim101p processing pathway promotes alkaline pH-independent processes. PMID:15189995

  16. West Rim of Endeavour and a Farther Crater's Rim on Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] In the left half of this view from the panoramic camera (Pancam) of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, a western portion of the rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon. In the right half, the rim of a smaller crater, farther away, appears faintly on the horizon. Opportunity's Pancam took this image on March 8, 2009, during the 1,821st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon. The part of Endeavour's rim visible here is about 16 kilometers (10 miles) from where Opportunity was when the image was taken. The rover was at the same location as when its Pancam took images after a drive on Sol 1820. Opportunity remained at that location until a drive on Sol 1823. The more-distant rim to the right, part of Iazu Crater, is about 38 kilometers (24 miles) away. Iazu is south of Endeavour and about 7 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter.

  17. The Pacific Rim and global natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing interest in natural gas as a part of national or international strategies to moderate the environmental consequences of fuel use. Although the underutilized global gas resource justifies the interest, the future consumption of gas is likely to be constrained by the high capital costs of new transportation facilities to bring remote gas supplies into areas of growing energy demand. The Asian Pacific Rim countries include rapidly growing demand areas as well as significant reserves of gas. The region will continue to play a leading role in the evolution of a world trade in gas. Gas resources within the Asian Pacific region are adequate to serve the foreseeable demands, but historically the region has utilized liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. Financial constraints upon the gas producing countries of the region and political instability in some of them will probably continue to require the importing of sustantial quantities of gas from the Middle East and possibly from Alaska and the former USSR as the resources indigenous to the region itself are developed more slowly than demand. The financial arrangements and contractual approaches that evolve to meet the needs of the Asia Pacific Rim will shape the future of world LNG markets. (Author)

  18. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  20. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08780 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08780 NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Hallazgo de cuerpos escleróticos en un canino: sospecha de cromoblastomicosis cutánea / Sclerotic bodies found in a dog: suspected cutaneous chromoblastomycosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V, Silva; H, Madrid; S, Anticevic.

    Full Text Available Una paciente canina se presenta a consulta con prurito generalizado de curso crónico. El examen dermatológico evidencia lesiones alopécicas descamativas con hiperqueratosis en la cara interior caudal de ambos muslos. El examen microscópico directo de muestra de escamas cutáneas con KOH más tinta Qui [...] nck Parker evidencia la presencia de cuerpos escleróticos, elementos diagnósticos de cromoblastomicosis, una patología micótica muy infrecuente en Chile y previamente no reportada en cánidos. La terapia antimicótica tópica con peróxido de benzoílo consiguió la remisión clínica y micológica de las lesiones. Abstract in english A female canine patient presented a history of chronic generalized pruritus. In the dermatological examination, scaly alopecic lesions with hyperkeratosis were detected on the inner posterior face of both thighs. Microscopical examinations of skin scrapings showed the presence of sclerotic bodies, d [...] iagnostic elements of chromoblastomycosis, a mycotic infection rare in Chile and not previously described in dogs. Topical antifungal therapy with benzoyl peroxide resulted in clinical and mycological cure of lesions.

  2. Esclerosis inflamatoria orbitaria y síndrome de fibrosis multifocal Sclerotic inflammation of the orbit and multifocal fibrosclerosis syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mataix

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico: Mujer de 52 años que consulta en nuestro Servicio por proptosis bilateral. La aparición de sintomatología aguda digestiva durante el ingreso para el estudio de la proptosis, condujo al diagnóstico de un cuadro de fibroesclerosis multifocal, con afectación simultánea de los tejidos orbitarios, grasa mesentérica y tronco de encéfalo. Discusión: El pseudotumor esclerosante orbitario es una rara entidad clinicopatológica, cuyas características en la clínica y en las pruebas de imagen pueden ser similares a las del pseudotumor inflamatorio idiopático. El diagnóstico diferencial es importante porque ambos difieren tanto en su tratamiento como en su pronóstico.Clinical case: A fifty-two-year-old woman consulted our department because of a bilateral proptosis. The appearance of acute symptoms suggestive of a digestive disorder during her admission to hospital for the study of the proptosis, led to a diagnosis of multifocal fibrosclerosis with simultaneous affliction of orbital tissue, mesenteric fat and the brain stem. Discussion: Idiopathic Sclerotic Inflammation of the orbit is a rare pathological entity, with similar clinical and radiological characteristics to orbital pseudo-tumour. The differential diagnosis is important because both these conditions differ in treatment and prognosis.

  3. Esclerosis inflamatoria orbitaria y síndrome de fibrosis multifocal / Sclerotic inflammation of the orbit and multifocal fibrosclerosis syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Mataix; E., López-Navarrete; M., López-Domínguez; R., Ángeles.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico: Mujer de 52 años que consulta en nuestro Servicio por proptosis bilateral. La aparición de sintomatología aguda digestiva durante el ingreso para el estudio de la proptosis, condujo al diagnóstico de un cuadro de fibroesclerosis multifocal, con afectación simultánea de los tejidos orbi [...] tarios, grasa mesentérica y tronco de encéfalo. Discusión: El pseudotumor esclerosante orbitario es una rara entidad clinicopatológica, cuyas características en la clínica y en las pruebas de imagen pueden ser similares a las del pseudotumor inflamatorio idiopático. El diagnóstico diferencial es importante porque ambos difieren tanto en su tratamiento como en su pronóstico. Abstract in english Clinical case: A fifty-two-year-old woman consulted our department because of a bilateral proptosis. The appearance of acute symptoms suggestive of a digestive disorder during her admission to hospital for the study of the proptosis, led to a diagnosis of multifocal fibrosclerosis with simultaneous [...] affliction of orbital tissue, mesenteric fat and the brain stem. Discussion: Idiopathic Sclerotic Inflammation of the orbit is a rare pathological entity, with similar clinical and radiological characteristics to orbital pseudo-tumour. The differential diagnosis is important because both these conditions differ in treatment and prognosis.

  4. Effect of the application time of phosphoric acid and self-etch adhesive systems to sclerotic dentin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandra Patricia, Mena-Serrano; Eugenio Jose, Garcia; Miguel Munoz, Perez; Gislaine Cristine, Martins; Rosa Helena Miranda, Grande; Alessandro Dourado, Loguercio; Alessandra, Reis.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of application time on the resin-dentin bond strength (µTBS) and etching pattern of adhesive systems applied on sclerotic dentine. Material and Methods: A total of forty-two bovine incisors had their roots removed. The 1-step self-etch GO (SDI), the 2-step self- [...] etch Adper SE Bond (3MESPE) and the 35% phosphoric acid (3MESPE) from the 2-step etch-and-rinse Adper Single Bond 2 (3MESPE) were applied on the bovine incisal surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions or duplicating the recommended conditioning time. After adhesive application, thirty teeth were restored with composite resin, stored for 24 h in distilled water at 37°C, and sectioned into resin-dentin bonded sticks (0.8 mm 2 ) and tested according to the µTBS at 0.5 mm/min. The etching pattern of the remaining twelve teeth (n=4 for each material) was examined under scanning electron microscopy. Each tooth was divided into a buccal-to-lingual direction into three thirds, and each third randomly assigned to the groups: control (no treatment), according to the manufacturers' instructions and duplicating the recommended application time. The µTBS and the relative percentage of the tubule area opening were evaluated by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's tests (?=0.05). Results: The duplication of the conditioning time favored only the GO adhesive (p

  5. The lichen planus like and sclerotic phases of the graft versus host disease in man: an ultrastructural study of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin-Mercier, A; Saurat, J H; Bourges, M; Sohier, J; Jean, L D; Gluckman, E

    1981-01-01

    Skin biopsies from 6 patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were studied ultrastructurally. The 6 patients experienced an early lichenoid phase 65-135 days after the graft and 3 of them progressed to a late sclerotic phase 200-340 days after the grafting Damage to the basal membrane and to the keratinocytes of the basal layer and low spinous layers, and presence of epidermal regenerative cells were features common to the lichenoid phase of chronic GVHD and idiopathic lichen planus. The late sclerotic phase of GVHD with persistence of basal cell injury, normal periodicity and structure of the collagen fibres and numerous active fibroblasts in the upper third of the dermis were findings that distinguished GVHD from scleroderma. Satellite cell necrosis, i.e. lymphocyte satellites of necrotic keratinocyte, was observed in the two phases of chronic GVHD. Thus at the ultrastructural level the early phase of chronic GVHD mimics lichen planus, but the late sclerotic phase is distinct from scleroderma. PMID:6167099

  6. Parosteal osteoma of the iliac bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 33-year-old patient with a 2-year history of intermittent pain in the right gluteal region and thigh presented with a large sclerotic lesion of the iliac bone. From the findings on radiography, scintigraphy, CT and MRI, a giant parosteal osteoma was suspected. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Since the lesion was extensive it was observed with periodic follow-up examinations. At present, 5 years after the diagnosis, the patient is asymptomatic and imaging studies show that the lesion persists with reduction of sclerosis and size. The tumor was on the surface as well as intramedullary -only one other case with such a distribution is known to us - and it was also in the iliac bone. (orig.)

  7. LSRA STS Tire Test - on rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    From 1993 to 1995, in conjunction with other NASA centers, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, used a Convair CV-990 airplane as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) to perform Space Shuttle tire tests. The results provided the Space Shuttle Program with data to support its flight rules and enabled it to resurface a grooved runway at Kennedy Space Center that had added unnecessary wear to the Space Shuttle tires. Tests were done using a unique fixture mounted in the center of the CV-990 fuselage, between the main landing gear. Landing gear systems from other aircraft could be attached to the test fixture, which lowered them to the runway surface during actual landings. The LSRA had the ability to reproduce the loads and speeds of the other aircraft, as well as simulate crosswind landing conditions in a safe, controlled environment. The video clip shows a landing on the concrete runway at Edwards, California on August 11, 1995, which concluded the Space Shuttle gear research program. As the Space Shuttle tire was lowered onto the surface, it was destroyed almost instantly. The rim scraped on the concrete, and stopped rolling as it became flat. It heated up and left a flaming trail of hot rubber and aluminum alloy particles. Notice how the fire quickly went out as the test gear was raised, indicating a safer condition than prevailed in a lakebed landing.

  8. Business Strategy Analysis of RIM in China's Smartphone Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lei

    2011-01-01

    China, the biggest mobile phone market in the world, is crucial for the future of Research In Motion (RIM). While RIM entered China’s market in 2006, its market share is still very small in China. The launch of 3G amid the restructuring of China’s telecom industry proved crucial to the company’s development. RIM has partnered with all mobile operators in China to provide BlackBerry Enterprise Service and BlackBerry Internet Service to both business and individual users. It has gained a ...

  9. Histologia e ultraestrutura do rim e rim cefálico do pacu Histology and ultrastructure of kidney and cephalic kidney in Pacu

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlane M. Costa; Ana R De Lima; Mendelson G. de Lima; José R Kfoury Jr

    2012-01-01

    O pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, é um teleósteo da Família Characidae, intensivamente cultivado no Brasil devido sua rusticidade, crescimento rápido e fácil adaptação. O conhecimento morfológico dos sistemas corpóreos, incluído órgãos linfóide, se faz necessário, para uma melhor produção no cultivo de peixes, fornecendo subsídios na manutenção dos estoques. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever morfologicamente o rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus, analisando os perfis celulares de...

  10. Bone metastases in stomach cancer patients: comparison of Tc-99m HDP scintigraphy and FDG PET/CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the values of FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m HDP bone scan in the detection of bone metastases in stomach cancer patients. PET/CT and bone scan images obtained within a month of each other from patients with confirmed stomach cancer, from November 2003 to November 2006, were evaluated. The number and location of the bone lesions were noted. On PET ICT, discrete focal FDG uptake distinguishable from the background cortex or marrow activity was considered a positive finding. The CT portion of the PET/CT was also reviewed for osteoblastic or osteolytic lesions. Confirmation was made by further follow up images with PET/CT, bone scan, CT, and/or MRI. Images of 203 patients were included (69 female, 134 male, average age 60.5 yrs), of which 187 cases were concluded as free from bone metastasis and 16 cases positive for bone metastases. On patient basis, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET/CT were 99.5%, 87.5%, and 98.5%, and of bone scan were 96.8%, 75.0%, and 95.1 %, respectively. On lesion basis, PET/CT detected more lesions in the cervical vertebrae, while bone scan detected more lesions in the rib cage and skull. There were 5 cases where PET/CT missed lesions seen on bone scan, and the CT portion of the PET/CT demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 cases, mixed osteolytic and sclerotic lesion in 1 case, and equivocal finding in 1 other case. In the diagnosis of bone metastasis in stomach cancer patients, PET/CT showed higher accuracy than bone scaET/CT showed higher accuracy than bone scan. However, bone scan detected more lesions in the ribs and skull. The CT portion of the PET/CT should be carefully examined for osteoblastic metastases

  11. 18F-FDG PET/CT bone/bone marrow findings in Hodgkin's lymphoma may circumvent the use of bone marrow trephine biopsy at diagnosis staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is necessary in selecting appropriate treatment. Bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB) is the standard procedure for depicting bone marrow involvement. BMB is invasive and explores a limited part of the bone marrow. 18F-FDG PET/CT is now widely used for assessing response to therapy in HL and a baseline study is obtained to improve accuracy. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to assess whether routine BMB remains necessary with concomitant 18F-FDG PET/CT. Data from 83 patients (newly diagnosed HL) were reviewed. All patients had received contrast-enhanced CT, BMB and 18F-FDG PET/CT. Results of BMB were not available at the time of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Seven patients had lymphomatous involvement on BMB. Four patients had bone involvement on conventional CT (two with negative BMB). All patients with bone marrow and/or bone lesions at conventional staging were also diagnosed on 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. PET/CT depicted FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci in nine additional patients. Four of them had only one or two foci, while the other had multiple foci. However, the iliac crest, site of the BMB, was not involved on 18F-FDG PET/CT. Osteolytic/sclerotic lesions matching FDG-avid foci were visible on the CT part of PET/CT in three patients. MRI ordered in three other patients suggested bone marrow involvement. Interim and/or end-therapy 18F-FDG PET/CT docuend-therapy 18F-FDG PET/CT documented response of FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci to chemotherapy in every patient. 18F-FDG PET/CT highly improves sensitivity for diagnosis of bone/bone marrow lesions in HL compared to conventional staging. (orig.)

  12. Does rim microstructure formation degrade the fuel rod performance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High burnup extension of LWR fuel is progressing to reduce the total process flow and eventually the costs of the nuclear fuel cycle. A particular fuel restructuring at high burnups, commonly observed at the periphery of LWR fuel pellets (rim structure), but also in FBR fuels to some extent and in the Plutonium rich clusters of the MOX Fuels, was considered a priori as a limitation for burnup extension. Since more than ten years this rim effect have been deeply investigated. Its causes and consequences are however not yet totally elucidated. The three steps actually identified of this phenomenon are first a progressive disappearing of the intra-granular Xenon, the outset of numerous 0.5 to 1 m pores and finally a grain subdivision around the pores. Penalty of the porosity increase on the thermal conductivity is obvious. One expect the fission gases to remain trapped in the rim porosity up to a 75 MWd/kgUO2 local burnup. Above this threshold, 15 to 20 % of the fission gases seem to be quickly released. Microindentation tests conducted at ITU have shown the rim structure to resist fracture extension under punching. It is still open whether this implies certain ductility and viscosity of the material, or if it corresponds to stress relaxation by microcracking. Whatever the case be, it is suggested that the rim material would be able to decrease the interaction stresses and to equalise the cladding strains during a power ramp. Moreover, in the RIA tests, it was concluded so far that the grain de-cohesion caused by gas expansion at the grain boundaries was responsible for the cladding strain and failure. However, not the rim zone was affected by grain de-cohesion but the region adjacent to it. Therefore, in front of the question whether the rim structure degrades the fuel rod behaviour, we continue to argue on its benefit for fuel burnup extension. (author)

  13. A radiographic investigation of third carpal bone injury in 42 racing thoroughbreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of carpal radiographs from 42 racing thoroughbreds with carpal lameness was performed. Radiographs from 50 carpal examinations were available for review. The radiographic findings pertaining to the third carpal bone were described. Fractures and/or sclerosis occurred almost exclusively within the radial fossa. The occurrence of sclerosis without fracture in 20 of the 50 carpal examinations was higher than anticipated, occurring in both the right and left third carpal bone with equal frequency. The right third carpal bone was more frequently fractured and more severely affected than the left. The sclerotic changes seen in the radial fossa of the third carpal bone may be stress-induced, possibly preceding more serious changes in the joint such as cartilage damage or gross fracture. Earlier recognition of sclerosis of the third carpal bone may help prevent more serious changes from occurring

  14. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 59-year-old female with carcinoma of the colon and known liver metastatic disease was referred for bone scan to evaluate for bone metastases. Although no bone metastases were found, there was abnormal uptake noted in the liver corresponding to a metastatic calcified lesion. The only other findings were of degenerative disease in the cervical spine, right shoulder and small joints of the hands. A 69-year-old male with carcinoma of the prostate and right side low back pain was referred for bone scan. No focal abnormalities to suggest metastatic disease were identified; findings within the cervical spine, lumber spine and knees were presumed secondary to degenerative disease. Intermittent pain persisted and the patient was referred for a repeat bone scan six months later. Previous scan findings of degenerative disease and no metastatic disease were confirmed; however, closer inspection revealed an enlarged right kidney with significant retention of tracer in the pelvicalyceal system suggesting possible obstruction. A Retrograde pyelogram was performed, and no obvious obstruction demonstrated. As bone scan findings were very suggestive of obstruction, a DTPA scan with lasix was performed showing a dilated right collecting system with no functional obstruction. Given the degree of dilation, it is possible that the patient experiences intermittent PUJ obstruction causing his symptoms. A 33-year-old male with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and viral arthritis was refeetes mellitus and viral arthritis was referred for a bone scan. A three phase revealed increased uptake in the region of the knee and leR proximal tibia. Delayed whole body images revealed multiple focal areas of osteoblastic activity in the leR tibia. Abnormal uptake was also seen in the upper third of the leR femur. The remainder of the skeletal survey was normal. X-ray correlation of the leR tibia and femoral findings was undertaken. Combinating unilateral changes on bone scan and X-ray although very suggestive of sclerotic polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Three cases with interesting and unusual bone scan findings assisted in further management and treatment of patients

  15. Factors influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy for bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the factors influencing diagnostic yield of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) for bone lesions. Materials and methods: Between September 2005 and July 2011, 162 consecutive CT-guided CNB procedures were performed in 155 patients. The variables analysed were age, sex, lesion location, lesion type, lesion size, specimen size, biopsy needle gauge, and individual radiologist. The factors influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous CNB for bone lesions were determined by multivariate analysis of variables. Results: The diagnostic yield was 81.5%. Diagnostic yield was 89.9% for lytic bone lesions and 48.5% for sclerotic bone lesions (p < 0.001), and 89.2% for lesions ?3 cm and 73.4% for lesions <3 cm (p = 0.010). The significant factors influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous CNB for bone lesions were lesion type [p < 0.001; odds ratio (OR) for a lytic lesion was approximately 12 times higher than that for a sclerotic lesion; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.22–34.01], and lesion size (p = 0.012; OR for a lesion size ?3 cm was about five-times higher than that for a lesion size <3 cm; 95% CI: 1.42–16.71). Conclusion: Lesion type and lesion size are determining factors in diagnostic yield. The higher diagnostic yield is correlated with lytic lesion and lesion size ?3 cm

  16. Aqueous Alteration of Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farrand, W. H.; Grant, J. A., III; Jolliff, B. L.; Parker, T. J.; Peretyazhko, T.

    2014-12-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring Noachian age rocks of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Overlying the pre-impact lithologies and rim breccias is a thin apron of fine-grained sediments, the Grasberg fm, forming annuli on the lower slopes of rim segments. Hesperian Burns fm sandstones overly the Grasberg fm. Grasberg rocks have major element compositions that are distinct from Burns fm sandstones, especially when comparing interior compositions exposed by the Rock Abrasion Tool. Grasberg rocks are also different from Endeavour rim breccias, but have general compositional similarities to them. Grasberg sediments are plausibly fine-grained materials derived from the impact breccias. Veins of CaSO4 transect Grasberg fm rocks demonstrating post-formation aqueous alteration. Minor/trace elements show variations consistent with mobilization by aqueous fluids. Grasberg fm rocks have low Mn and high Fe/Mn ratios compared to the other lithologies. Manganese likely was mobilized and removed from the Grasberg host rock by redox reactions. We posit that Fe2+ from acidic solutions associated with formation of the Burns sulfate-rich sandstones acted as an electron donor to reduce more oxidized Mn to Mn2+. The Fe contents of Grasberg rocks are slightly higher than in other rocks suggesting precipitation of Fe phases in Grasberg materials. Pancam spectra show that Grasberg rocks have a higher fraction of ferric oxide minerals than other Endeavour rim rocks. Solutions transported Mn2+ into the Endeavour rim materials and oxidized and/or precipitated it in them. Grasberg has higher contents of the mobile elements K, Zn, Cl, and Br compared to the rim materials. Similar enrichments of mobile elements were measured by the Spirit APXS on West Spur and around Home Plate in Gusev crater. Enhancements in these elements are attributed to interactions of hydrothermal acidic fluids with the host rocks. Interactions of fluids with the Grasberg fm postdate the genesis of the Endeavour rim phyllosilicates. The aqueous alteration history of Endeavour rim rocks is complicated by different styles of alteration that have spanned the Noachian and Hesperian. Late stage acidic aqueous alteration of Grasberg fm materials is likely penecontemporaneous with the diagenesis of the sulfate-rich sediments of Meridiani Planum.

  17. Aqueous Alteration of Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Clark, Benton C.; Morris, Richard V.; Yen, Albert S.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Farrand, William H.; Grant, John A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Parker, Timothy J.; Peretyazhko, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring Noachian age rocks of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Overlying the pre-impact lithologies and rim breccias is a thin apron of fine-grained sediments, the Grasberg fm, forming annuli on the lower slopes of rim segments. Hesperian Burns fm sandstones overly the Grasberg fm. Grasberg rocks have major element compositions that are distinct from Burns fm sandstones, especially when comparing interior compositions exposed by the Rock Abrasion Tool. Grasberg rocks are also different from Endeavour rim breccias, but have general compositional similarities to them. Grasberg sediments are plausibly fine-grained materials derived from the impact breccias. Veins of CaSO4 transect Grasberg fm rocks demonstrating post-formation aqueous alteration. Minor/trace elements show variations consistent with mobilization by aqueous fluids. Grasberg fm rocks have low Mn and high Fe/Mn ratios compared to the other lithologies. Manganese likely was mobilized and removed from the Grasberg host rock by redox reactions. We posit that Fe2+ from acidic solutions associated with formation of the Burns sulfate-rich sandstones acted as an electron donor to reduce more oxidized Mn to Mn2+. The Fe contents of Grasberg rocks are slightly higher than in other rocks suggesting precipitation of Fe phases in Grasberg materials. Pancam spectra show that Grasberg rocks have a higher fraction of ferric oxide minerals than other Endeavour rim rocks. Solutions transported Mn2+ into the Endeavour rim materials and oxidized and/or precipitated it in them. Grasberg has higher contents of the mobile elements K, Zn, Cl, and Br compared to the rim materials. Similar enrichments of mobile elements were measured by the Spirit APXS on West Spur and around Home Plate in Gusev crater. Enhancements in these elements are attributed to interactions of hydrothermal acidic fluids with the host rocks. Interactions of fluids with the Grasberg fm postdate the genesis of the Endeavour rim phyllosilicates. The aqueous alteration history of Endeavour rim rocks is complicated by different styles of alteration that have spanned the Noachian and Hesperian. Late stage acidic aqueous alteration of Grasberg fm materials is likely penecontemporaneous with the diagenesis of the sulfate-rich sediments of Meridiani Planum.

  18. Symptomatic giant (10-cm) bone island of the tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ho Sung; Jang, Kyu Yun [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Pathology, Jeonju (Korea); Kim, Jung Ryul [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jeonju (Korea); Lee, Sang Yong [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jeonju (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    A bone island represents a focus of mature compact bone within the cancellous bone, and it can be diagnosed based on characteristic clinical and radiologic features. The lesion is typically asymptomatic with a preference for the pelvis, femur, and other long bones. On radiographs, the lesion appears as an ovoid, round or oblong homogeneously dense and sclerotic focus in the cancellous bone. The characteristic features of this lesion are radiating bony streaks, known as thorny radiations or pseudopodia. Most bone islands are small, and the majority of these lesions measure from 0.1 to 2.0 cm. A giant bone island, defined as having a diameter greater than 2 cm, has been rarely reported in the English-language literature. We report here on a case of a giant bone island that measured 10 x 1.7 x 1 cm in the diaphysis of the right tibia in a 31-year-old man who complained of right lower leg pain for 3 weeks. (orig.)

  19. RIM1? SUMOylation Is Required for Fast Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Girach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid, activity-dependent quantal presynaptic release of neurotransmitter is vital for brain function. The complex process of vesicle priming, fusion, and retrieval is very precisely controlled and requires the spatiotemporal coordination of multiple protein-protein interactions. Here, we show that posttranslational modification of the active zone protein Rab3-interacting molecule 1? (RIM1? by the small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1 functions as a molecular switch to direct these interactions and is essential for fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis. RIM1? SUMOylation at lysine residue K502 facilitates the clustering of CaV2.1 calcium channels and enhances the Ca2+ influx necessary for vesicular release, whereas non-SUMOylated RIM1? participates in the docking/priming of synaptic vesicles and maintenance of active zone structure. These results demonstrate that SUMOylation of RIM1? is a key determinant of rapid, synchronous neurotransmitter release, and the SUMO-mediated “switching” of RIM1? between binding proteins provides insight into the mechanisms underpinning synaptic function and dysfunction.

  20. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limitations of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ... of page What are the limitations of DXA Bone Densitometry? A DXA test cannot predict who will ...

  1. Histologia e ultraestrutura do rim e rim cefálico do pacu / Histology and ultrastructure of kidney and cephalic kidney in Pacu

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerlane M., Costa; Ana R., Lima; Mendelson G. de, Lima; José R, Kfoury Jr.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, é um teleósteo da Família Characidae, intensivamente cultivado no Brasil devido sua rusticidade, crescimento rápido e fácil adaptação. O conhecimento morfológico dos sistemas corpóreos, incluído órgãos linfóide, se faz necessário, para uma melhor produção no cultivo [...] de peixes, fornecendo subsídios na manutenção dos estoques. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever morfologicamente o rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus, analisando os perfis celulares de cada órgão com o uso de microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O resultado da análise macroscópica mostrou que a localização do rim e rim cefálico são as mesmas encontradas na maioria dos teleósteos. O rim apresentou uma forma em "H", onde a região média se expandia sobre a bexiga natatória. O rim cefálico se apresentou como uma dilatação na região cranial do rim, mostrando-se bem visível. Na microscopia eletrônica de transmissão também foram observadas similaridades ultraestruturais com outros teleósteos. Observando nossos resultados concluímos que histologicamente e ultraestruturalmente, os órgãos linfóides rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus são similares aos de outros teleósteos. Abstract in english The Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is a teleostei of the Characidae family, intensively cultivated in Brazil due to its rusticity, fast growth and easy adaptation. Morphological knowledge of the body systems including the lymphoid organs is necessary to improve fish production and supply subsidies f [...] or the maintenance of stocks. This study aimed to describe morphologically kidney and head kidney of Piaractus mesopotamicus, analyzing the cellular profile of each organ with the use of light microscopy and electronic transmission microscopy. The result of the macroscopic analysis showed that the localization of the kidney and head kidney is the same as found in the majority of the teleostei. The kidney presented a form in "H", where the medium region is expanded on the natatorium bladder. The head kidney presented a dilatation in the cranial region of the kidney. In the transmission electronic microscopy we found ultrastructural similarities with other teleostei fish. It can be concluded that the lymphoid organs (kidney and head kidney) of Piaractus mesopotamicus are histologically and ultra-structurally similar to the other teleostei.

  2. Histologia e ultraestrutura do rim e rim cefálico do pacu Histology and ultrastructure of kidney and cephalic kidney in Pacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlane M. Costa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, é um teleósteo da Família Characidae, intensivamente cultivado no Brasil devido sua rusticidade, crescimento rápido e fácil adaptação. O conhecimento morfológico dos sistemas corpóreos, incluído órgãos linfóide, se faz necessário, para uma melhor produção no cultivo de peixes, fornecendo subsídios na manutenção dos estoques. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever morfologicamente o rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus, analisando os perfis celulares de cada órgão com o uso de microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O resultado da análise macroscópica mostrou que a localização do rim e rim cefálico são as mesmas encontradas na maioria dos teleósteos. O rim apresentou uma forma em "H", onde a região média se expandia sobre a bexiga natatória. O rim cefálico se apresentou como uma dilatação na região cranial do rim, mostrando-se bem visível. Na microscopia eletrônica de transmissão também foram observadas similaridades ultraestruturais com outros teleósteos. Observando nossos resultados concluímos que histologicamente e ultraestruturalmente, os órgãos linfóides rim e rim cefálico de Piaractus mesopotamicus são similares aos de outros teleósteos.The Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is a teleostei of the Characidae family, intensively cultivated in Brazil due to its rusticity, fast growth and easy adaptation. Morphological knowledge of the body systems including the lymphoid organs is necessary to improve fish production and supply subsidies for the maintenance of stocks. This study aimed to describe morphologically kidney and head kidney of Piaractus mesopotamicus, analyzing the cellular profile of each organ with the use of light microscopy and electronic transmission microscopy. The result of the macroscopic analysis showed that the localization of the kidney and head kidney is the same as found in the majority of the teleostei. The kidney presented a form in "H", where the medium region is expanded on the natatorium bladder. The head kidney presented a dilatation in the cranial region of the kidney. In the transmission electronic microscopy we found ultrastructural similarities with other teleostei fish. It can be concluded that the lymphoid organs (kidney and head kidney of Piaractus mesopotamicus are histologically and ultra-structurally similar to the other teleostei.

  3. Deep and Bottom Water of the Weddell Sea's Western Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Huber, Bruce A.; Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Ffield, Amy

    1993-10-01

    Oceanographic observations from the Ice Station Weddell 1 show that the western rim of the Weddell Gyre contributes to Weddell Sea Bottom Water. A thin (<300 meters), highly oxygenated benthic layer is composed of a low-salinity type of bottom water overlying a high-salinity component. This complex layering disappears near 66^circS because of vertical mixing and further inflow from the continental margin. The bottom water flowing out of the western rim is a blend of the two types. Additionally, the data show that a narrow band of warmer Weddell Deep Water hugged the continental margin as it flowed into the western rim, providing the continental margin with the salt required for bottom-water production.

  4. Design analysis of Hub, Rim and Drum in Brake Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurti V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress analysis connected with the brake assembly of heavy vehicles is a complicated problem in view of the machine elements involved. The hub (on the rear axle, the rim (holding the wheel and the drum (holding the brake shoe experience severity of loads. While the vehicle is being driven the power is transmitted from the hub to the rim. When the brake is applied, the brake drum receives the braking torque and communicates it to the rim. Analysis associated with braking is actually transient since the braking torque varies with time in a short period of time whereas the one associated with driving is predominantly steady while the vehicle moves with uniform speed. None of them can be considered rotationally symmetric. Even though 3D brick element can be used for modelling all the three members, the computational effort needed to handle the problem of braking becomes extremely cumbersome. Hence a compromise solution is presented in this paper.

  5. Pacific Rim coal trade model for U.S. involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world contains 700 billion tons of coal reserves mineable by today's technical standards with the United States having one-third of the total. Coal demand of the Pacific Rim will grow very rapidly in the next decade due to expanded use of coal to produce electricity and steel. Imported 1989 coal supply to the Pacific Rim was from Australia (50%), Canada (18%), U.S. (13%), South Africa (7%), U.S.S.R. (6%), China (4%) and Indonesia (1%). The U.S. coal price will continue to trend downward due to increasing mine productivity. The world is moving toward a transnational economy. Groups of nations are forming economic ties and cooperation. This paper reports that the U.S. can increase involvement in the Pacific Rim coal markets by offering value-added coal sales transactions and by understanding Orient culture

  6. Experimental study of a TAHGEM detector with mini-rims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas gain and energy resolution of single and double THGEM detectors (5 cm × 5 cm effective area) with mini-rims (rim less than 10 ?m) were studied. The maximum gain was found to reach 5 × 103 and 2 × 105 for single and double THGEMs respectively, while the energy resolution for 5.9 keV X-rays varied from 18% to 28% for both single and double THGEM detectors of different hole sizes and thicknesses. Different combinations were also investigated of noble gases (argon, neon) mixed with a quantity of other gases (isobutane, methane) at atmospheric pressure. (authors)

  7. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided procedure in which a small sample of a bone is removed ... top of page What are the limitations of Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy may not be able ...

  8. Bone sarcomas in Paget disease: a study of 85 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Botet, J.F.; Yeh, S.D.J.

    1984-09-01

    This is a comprehensive review of 85 patients who had bone sarcoma associated with Paget disease and who were seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1927 and 1982. There was an almost equal distribution of tumors in the axial and the appendicular skeletons. The pelvis, humerus, femur, and skull were the tumor sites in 80% of cases. The tumors were bulky large soft tissue masses. Lytic lesions were more common than sclerotic lesions. Methylene diphosphonate scans of the bone often showed a cold area that was associated with marked increase in uptake on the gallium scan. Angiography, which was performed in 13 patients, was useful, but CT was much more helpful in showing the soft tissue mass as well as the extent of bony disease. Only three patients in this study survived for five years.

  9. Bone sarcomas in Paget disease: a study of 85 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a comprehensive review of 85 patients who had bone sarcoma associated with Paget disease and who were seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1927 and 1982. There was an almost equal distribution of tumors in the axial and the appendicular skeletons. The pelvis, humerus, femur, and skull were the tumor sites in 80% of cases. The tumors were bulky large soft tissue masses. Lytic lesions were more common than sclerotic lesions. Methylene diphosphonate scans of the bone often showed a cold area that was associated with marked increase in uptake on the gallium scan. Angiography, which was performed in 13 patients, was useful, but CT was much more helpful in showing the soft tissue mass as well as the extent of bony disease. Only three patients in this study survived for five years

  10. The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_trail)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 4 arcs representing The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Rim Trail was collected by a Trimble...

  11. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  12. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  13. The Cryptococcus neoformans Alkaline Response Pathway: Identification of a Novel Rim Pathway Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Kyla S; O'Meara, Teresa R; Huda, Naureen; Esher, Shannon K; Alspaugh, J Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The Rim101/PacC transcription factor acts in a fungal-specific signaling pathway responsible for sensing extracellular pH signals. First characterized in ascomycete fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rim/Pal pathway maintains conserved features among very distantly related fungi, where it coordinates cellular adaptation to alkaline pH signals and micronutrient deprivation. However, it also directs species-specific functions in fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans, where it controls surface capsule expression. Moreover, disruption of the Rim pathway central transcription factor, Rim101, results in a strain that causes a hyper-inflammatory response in animal infection models. Using targeted gene deletions, we demonstrate that several genes encoding components of the classical Rim/Pal pathway are present in the C. neoformans genome. Many of these genes are in fact required for Rim101 activation, including members of the ESCRT complex (Vps23 and Snf7), ESCRT-interacting proteins (Rim20 and Rim23), and the predicted Rim13 protease. We demonstrate that in neutral/alkaline pH, Rim23 is recruited to punctate regions on the plasma membrane. This change in Rim23 localization requires upstream ESCRT complex components but does not require other Rim101 proteolysis components, such as Rim20 or Rim13. Using a forward genetics screen, we identified the RRA1 gene encoding a novel membrane protein that is also required for Rim101 protein activation and, like the ESCRT complex, is functionally upstream of Rim23-membrane localization. Homologs of RRA1 are present in other Cryptococcus species as well as other basidiomycetes, but closely related genes are not present in ascomycetes. These findings suggest that major branches of the fungal Kingdom developed different mechanisms to sense and respond to very elemental extracellular signals such as changing pH levels. PMID:25859664

  14. Pre-transplantation risk factors to develop sclerotic chronic GvHD after allogeneic HSCT: a multicenter retrospective study from the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrait, M Y; Morisset, S; Peffault de Latour, R; Yakoub-Agha, I; Crocchiolo, R; Tabrizi, R; Bay, J-O; Chevalier, P; Barraco, F; Raus, N; Vigouroux, S; Magro, L; Mohty, M; Milpied, N; Blaise, D; Socié, G; Michallet, M

    2015-02-01

    Sclerotic chronic GvHD (cGvHD) is one of the most severe complications after allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Risk factors associated with this complication remain not very well defined. With the aim to define a pre-transplantation risk profile, we have conducted a French retrospective analysis in 705 consecutive patients between 2005 and 2010. Analyses to determine pre-transplantation risk factors included as variables: patient and donor age, kind of donor, HLA matching, ABO matching, sex-matching, diagnosis, stem cell source, gender, GvHD prophylaxis and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in the conditioning regimen. The cumulative incidence of sclerotic cGvHD was 18% (95% CI, 16.6-19.6) 3 years after onset of cGvHD. In univariate analysis, we found a significantly lower number of sclerotic cGvHD form in patients transplanted from cord blood cells (P=0.0021), in patients with a one mismatched donor (P=0.041) and in patients who had received ATG in the conditioning regimen (P=0.002). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with an increased risk of sclerotic cGvHD were young patient age, multiple myeloma and PBSC as the stem cell source. ATG in conditioning regimen and cord blood unit as the stem cell source were associated with a lower risk. PMID:25365068

  15. Bone Mass Measurement (Bone Density)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Bone mass measurement (bone density) How often is it covered? Medicare Part ... see if you're at risk to broken bones, once every 24 months (more often if medically ...

  16. Compactly supported solutions for a rimming flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a generally ill-posed Cauchy problem with 2?-periodic initial data for a nonlinear forward–backward heat equation. The problem is originated from a lubrication approximation of viscous rimming flow dynamics on the inner surface of a rotating horizontal cylinder in the presence of gravitational field. For a certain class of compactly supported initial data we prove local in time existence of generalized weak solutions. (paper)

  17. View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006).

  18. Whale bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    N/A N/A (Go Card USA; )

    2007-12-21

    Vertebrates, or animals that have a skeletal structure for body support, leave bones behind after their death. These bones can be placed together to recreate the skeletal frame of that animal. Bones can be examined to determine what animal the bones came from.

  19. Rubber Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    Over 1 or 2 days, learners use vinegar to remove the calcium from a chicken bone. They then explore how the bones have changed. An accompanying video with Mr. O further explores the relationship between cartilage and bone and explains how bones grow.

  20. Modelo de tumor experimental em rim de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Lúcio Flávio Gonzaga

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker tem despertado o interesse de muitos pesquisadores como modelo experimental para estudo da biologia tumoral. OBJETIVO: estabelecer um modelo de tumor renal que possa ser usado para estudar in vivo e in vitro, as alterações impostas pelas neoplasias. MÉTODOS: utilizados vinte ratos Wistar, machos, adultos, pesando entre 250-300 g, oriundos do Laboratório de Cirurgia Experimental da Universidade Federal do Ceará. Sob anestesia inalatória procedia-se uma pequena incisão supraumbilical, e com manobra delicada fazia-se a exposição do rim direito. Neste órgão eram inoculadas 3x10(5 células tumorais viáveis. Os animais então eram mantidos em gaiolas individuais com as mesmas condições ambientais e com água e dieta ad libitum. RESULTADOS: o Carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker, implantado no parênquima do rim direito de ratos Wistar apresentou índice de pega de 100%, e crescimento rápido, invadiu por contiguidade as estruturas vizinhas, porém sem apresentar metástases, no entanto, levando os animais a óbito no curso médio de 14 dias. CONCLUSÃO: o modelo de implante de tumor de Walker no parênquima do rim direito de ratos Wistar é eficiente, tem reprodutibilidade, apresentando um índice de pega de 100%, e permitindo seu uso em linhas de pesquisa.

  1. Free energy landscape of rim-pore expansion in membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risselada, Herre Jelger; Smirnova, Yuliya; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2014-11-18

    The productive fusion pore in membrane fusion is generally thought to be toroidally shaped. Theoretical studies and recent experiments suggest that its formation, in some scenarios, may be preceded by an initial pore formed near the rim of the extended hemifusion diaphragm (HD), a rim-pore. This rim-pore is characterized by a nontoroidal shape that changes with size. To determine this shape as well as the free energy along the pathway of rim-pore expansion, we derived a simple analytical free energy model. We argue that dilation of HD material via expansion of a rim-pore is favored over a regular, circular pore. Further, the expanding rim-pore faces a free energy barrier that linearly increases with HD size. In contrast, the tension required to expand the rim-pore decreases with HD size. Pore flickering, followed by sudden opening, occurs when the tension in the HD competes with the line energy of the rim-pore, and the rim-pore reaches its equilibrium size before reaching the critical pore size. The experimental observation of flickering and closing fusion pores (kiss-and-run) is very well explained by the observed behavior of rim-pores. Finally, the free energy landscape of rim-pore expansion/HD dilation may very well explain why some cellular fusion reactions, in their attempt to minimize energetic costs, progress via alternative formation and dilation of microscopic hemifusion intermediates. PMID:25418297

  2. Thermally-induced amphibole reaction rim development: EBSD insights into microlite orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Sarah; Lavallée, Yan; Larsen, Jessica; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2014-05-01

    Amphibole is an important mineral present in many calc-alkaline volcanic deposits. A hydrous phase, volcanic amphibole is only stable at pressures greater than 100 MPa (approx. 4 km), temperature less than ~860-870 oC, and in melts containing at least 4 wt % H2O. When removed from their thermal and barometric stability field, amphiboles decompose to form aggregate rims of anhydrous minerals. The thickness, texture, and mineralogy of these rims are thought to be reflective of the process driving amphibole disequilibrium (e.g. heating, decompression, etc). However, significant overlap in rim thicknesses and microlite textures means that distinguishing between processes it not simple. This study employed backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to examine both experimental heating-indced amphibole reaction rims and natural amphibole reaction rim from Augustine Volcano. We collected crystal orientation maps of amphibole reaction rims to investigate if different types of disequilibrium produce different patterns of microlite orientation. We identified two types of reaction rim: Type 1- reaction rim microlites are generally oriented at random and share little or no systematic relationship with the crystallographic orientation of the host amphibole, and; Type 2- reaction rim microlites exhibit a topotactic relationship with the host amphibole (they share the same crystallographic orientation). Experimentally produced heating reaction rims are without exception Type 2. However the natural reaction rims are evenly distributed between Types 1 and 2. Further experimental data on decompression induced reaction rim formation is needed to investigate if Type 1 reaction rims resemble the breakdown of amphibole due to decompression. If so, reaction rim microlite orientation could provide a clear method for distinguishing between heating and decompression processes in amphibole bearing magmas.

  3. Prostate cancer with lytic bone metastases: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography for diagnosis and monitoring response to medical castration therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytic bone metastases are rare in prostate cancer. We here present 18 fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) images of a 67-year-old male patient with lytic metastases from prostate cancer. Repeat 18F-FDG PET-CT done 6 months later showed response to medical castration therapy. While the role of 18F-FDG PET-CT for sclerotic bone metastases in prostate cancer remains controversial, it appears to be useful for detection and response assessment of lytic prostate cancer metastases. (author)

  4. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT bone/bone marrow findings in Hodgkin's lymphoma may circumvent the use of bone marrow trephine biopsy at diagnosis staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin-Romsee, Gerard [Universite Paris 7, Service de Medicine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Institut Curie, Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif; Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel; Moretti, Jean-Luc [Universite Paris 7, Service de Medicine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (France); Cuenca, Xavier; Brice, Pauline; Sibon, David [Hopital Saint-Louis, Haemato-Oncology, Paris (France); Decaudin, Didier; Anitei, Marcela [Institut Curie, Haematology, Paris (France); Benamor, Myriam [Institut Curie, Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Briere, Josette [Hopital Saint-Louis, Pathology, Paris (France); Kerviler, Eric de [Hopital Saint-Louis, Radiology, Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is necessary in selecting appropriate treatment. Bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB) is the standard procedure for depicting bone marrow involvement. BMB is invasive and explores a limited part of the bone marrow. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is now widely used for assessing response to therapy in HL and a baseline study is obtained to improve accuracy. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to assess whether routine BMB remains necessary with concomitant {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Data from 83 patients (newly diagnosed HL) were reviewed. All patients had received contrast-enhanced CT, BMB and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Results of BMB were not available at the time of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Seven patients had lymphomatous involvement on BMB. Four patients had bone involvement on conventional CT (two with negative BMB). All patients with bone marrow and/or bone lesions at conventional staging were also diagnosed on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan. PET/CT depicted FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci in nine additional patients. Four of them had only one or two foci, while the other had multiple foci. However, the iliac crest, site of the BMB, was not involved on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Osteolytic/sclerotic lesions matching FDG-avid foci were visible on the CT part of PET/CT in three patients. MRI ordered in three other patients suggested bone marrow involvement. Interim and/or end-therapy {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT documented response of FDG-avid bone/bone marrow foci to chemotherapy in every patient. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT highly improves sensitivity for diagnosis of bone/bone marrow lesions in HL compared to conventional staging. (orig.)

  5. Bone Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students use a tension-compression machine (or an alternative bone-breaking setup) to see how different bones fracture differently and with different amounts of force, depending on their body locations. Teams determine bone mass and volume, calculate bone density, and predict fracture force. Then they each test a small animal bone (chicken, turkey, cat) to failure, examining the break to analyze the fracture type. Groups conduct research about biomedical challenges, materials and repair methods, and design repair treatment plans specific to their bones and fracture types, presenting their design recommendations to the class.

  6. "Repair of cranial bone defects using endochondral bone matrix gelatin in rat "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Sobhani A

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone matrix gelatin (BMG has been used for bone induction intramuscularly and subcutaneously by many investigators since 1965. More recently, some of the researchers have used BMG particles for bone repair and reported various results. In present study for evaluation of bone induction and new bone formation in parital defects, BMG particles were used in five groups of rats. The BMG was prepared as previously described using urist method. The defects wee produced with 5 –mm diameter in pariteal bones and filled by BMG particles. No BMG was used in control group.For evaluation of new bone formation and repair, the specimens were harvested on days 7 , 14 , 21 and 28 after operation. The samples were processed histologically, stained by H& E, alizarin red S staining, and Alcian blue, and studied by a light microscope.The results are as follows:In control group: Twenty-eight days after operation a narrow rim of new bone was detectable attached to the edge of defect.In BMG groups: At day 7 after operation young chondroblast cells appeared in whole area of defect. At 14th day after operation hypertrophic chondrocytes showed by Alcian blue staining and calcified cartilage were detectable by Alizarin red S staining. The numerous trabeculae spicules, early adult osteocytes and highly proliferated red bone marrow well developed on dayd 21 . finally typic bone trabeculae with regulated osteoblast cells and some osteoclast cells were detectable at day 28 after operation. In conclusion,BMG could stimulate bone induction and new bone formation in bony defects. So, it seems that BMG could be a godd biomaterial substance for new bone inducation in bone defects

  7. Near-IR Imaging Polarimetry toward a Bright-rimmed Cloud: Magnetic Field in SFO 74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji; Miao, Jingqi; Tamura, Motohide; Sato, Yaeko; Kwon, Jungmi; Watanabe, Makoto; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nagayama, Takahiro; Sato, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We have made near-infrared (JHK s) imaging polarimetry of a bright-rimmed cloud (SFO 74). The polarization vector maps clearly show that the magnetic field in the layer just behind the bright rim is running along the rim, quite different from its ambient magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field just behind the tip rim is almost perpendicular to that of the incident UV radiation, and the magnetic field configuration appears to be symmetric as a whole with respect to the cloud symmetry axis. We estimated the column and number densities in the two regions (just inside and far inside the tip rim) and then derived the magnetic field strength, applying the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The estimated magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim, ~90 ?G, is stronger than that far inside, ~30 ?G. This suggests that the magnetic field strength just inside the tip rim is enhanced by the UV-radiation-induced shock. The shock increases the density within the top layer around the tip and thus increases the strength of the magnetic field. The magnetic pressure seems to be comparable to the turbulent one just inside the tip rim, implying a significant contribution of the magnetic field to the total internal pressure. The mass-to-flux ratio was estimated to be close to the critical value just inside the tip rim. We speculate that the flat-topped bright rim of SFO 74 could be formed by the magnetic field effect.

  8. Living Bones, Strong Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA Johnson Space Center

    2012-06-26

    In this activity about engineering, nutrition, and physical activity, learners design and build a healthy bone model of a space explorer which is strong enough to withstand increasing amounts of weight. This activity contains several engaging mini-activities and stresses the importance of the scientific method. Learners can complete this activity as part of NASA's Fit Explorer Challenge, in which learners train like astronauts, set goals, track their progress, and accumulate points to progress through Exploration Levels and earn certificates.

  9. View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria' (Altered Contrast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006). Contrast has been altered to improve the visibility of details in shadowed areas.

  10. Investigation about crack propagation paths in thin rim gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Curà

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack propagation in gears is a problem related not only to the life of the components, but also to the concept of failsafe design. Fail safe design means to design a component in order that, if a failure occurs, this may cause a “safe failure”. This aspect is very important above all in aerospace industry. As a matter of fact, in aerospace application, the need of reducing weight brings to produce gears with very thick rim and web. Considering thin rim gears, when a crack is nucleated near the tooth root, it may propagate through the tooth (causing the loss of the entire tooth or a portion of it or the propagation may follow a path across the wheel diameter (causing the projection of big parts of the gear that may break the gearbox and may cause serious damage to the aircraft. The first failure mode is define as “failsafe failure” and the second one as “catastrophic failure” and of course has to be avoided. Designers need to have robust design criteria in order to predict crack propagation paths and to avoid catastrophic failures. In literature, few works are present concerning this topic, in particular related to the effect of geometrical parameters that may affect the crack propagation. In this work a numerical analysis about crack propagation in gears with respect to the backup ratio (ratio between tooth height and rim thickness, initial crack position and shape has been done by means of the Extended FEM (XFEM technique, realizing 3D models. XFEM 3D is a relatively new technique consisting in enriching traditional finite elements with more complex shape functions; in this way it is possible to propagate crack also between mesh nodes and to have mesh independent results. Aim of this paper is to highlight the crack propagation path in order to give to designers an high confident design criterion, related to the gear geometry. In particular, the effect of both rim thickness and orientation of the initial crack have been considered in order to enrich the literature knowledge. Numerical results obtained in this work have been compared with those found in the literature, showing a very good correlation.

  11. Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joint. Some joints move and others don't. Fixed joints are fixed in place and don't move at all. ... which helps bones harden and become strong. Be active! Another way to strengthen your bones is through ...

  12. Bone Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    This is an activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about the two main components of bone - collagen and minerals (like calcium) - and how they each contribute to its flexibility and strength. Learners will submerge 3 chicken bones in water, bleach, and vinegar, wait 24 hours, then observe and test each bone. This resource includes information about how nanoscientists are trying to produce artificial analogs to these components and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Bone Regrowth.

  13. Influence of slip on the Rayleigh-Plateau rim instability in dewetting viscous films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumchen, Oliver; Marquant, Ludovic; Blossey, Ralf; Münch, Andreas; Wagner, Barbara; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-07-01

    A dewetting viscous film develops a characteristic fluid rim at its receding edge due to mass conservation. In the course of the dewetting process, the rim becomes unstable via an instability of Rayleigh-Plateau type. An important difference exists between this classic instability of a liquid column and the rim instability in a thin film as the growth of the rim is continuously fueled by the receding film. We explain how the development and macroscopic morphology of the rim instability are controlled by the slip of the film on the substrate. A single thin-film model captures quantitatively the characteristics of the complete evolution of the rim observed in the experiments. PMID:25032928

  14. Imaging features of low-grade central osteosarcoma of the long bones and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the age and gender distribution and imaging features of low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS) of the long bones and pelvis and to discuss our findings in the context of lesions for which LGCOS has been mistaken. We reviewed 99 cases of LGCOS collected between 1919 and 2002 from our institution and pathology consultation files. Adequate imaging was available in 70 cases (36 radiographs only, 17 radiographs/CT, 12 radiographs/MRI, 2 radiographs/CT/MRI, 2 CT only, 1 MRI only, 5 bone scans). Patient average age was 30.1±14.2 years, with a slight female predominance. The femur and tibia were the most common long bones involved (29 and 20 each) with the majority of these tumors arising around the knee, followed by the fibula, radius, humerus and ulna (four, three, two and one case each). Flat bones were involved in six cases (three pelvis, one rib, two scapulae). Short tubular bones were involved in five cases (two metatarsal, two phalanges, one clavicle). The lesion extended to the end of the affected long bone in 22 of 59 cases. Lesions were large at presentation (mean 7.9±4.6 cm, range 2-24). Four radiographic patterns were identified: lytic with varying amounts of thick and coarse trabeculation (n=22), predominantly lytic with few thin, incomplete trabecula (n=21), densely sclerotic (n=17) and mixed lytic and sclerotic (n=10). Lesions were benign-appearing overall with focally aggressive features. CT or MRI demonstrated cortical breech or extension into rated cortical breech or extension into the soft tissues in all cases. LGCOS has a variable appearance on radiographs. A frequent pattern is a slow-growing large intracompartmental fibro-osseous lesion with varying amounts of septal ossification associated with focal areas of aggression. A homogeneously sclerotic pattern was also noted. Imaging with CT or MRI was helpful in every instance in our series in identifying areas of soft tissue extension or cortical disruption suggestive of a low-grade malignancy. (orig.)

  15. Optimization of Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zr 4 Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Hanson, Brady D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of this work is to build on the results reported in the M2 milestone M2FT 13PN0805051, document number FCRD-USED-2013-000151 (Hanson, 2013). In that work, it was demonstrated that unirradiated samples of zircaloy-4 cladding could be pre-hydrided at temperatures below 400°C in pure hydrogen gas and that the growth of hydrides on the surface could be controlled by changing the surface condition of the samples and form a desired hydride rim on the outside diameter of the cladding. The work performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since the issuing of the M2 milestone has focused its efforts to optimize the formation of a hydride rim on available zircaloy-4 cladding samples by controlling temperature variation and gas flow control during pre-hydriding treatments. Surface conditioning of the outside surface was also examined as a variable. The results of test indicate that much of the variability in the hydride thickness is due to temperature variation occurring in the furnaces as well as how hydrogen gas flows across the sample surface. Efforts to examine other alloys, gas concentrations, and different surface conditioning plan to be pursed in the next FY as more cladding samples become available

  16. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Vertical Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Polar Projection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater. Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Influence of deformation on dolomite rim growth kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, Vanessa; Rybacki, Erik; Grafulha Morales, Luiz Fernando; Dresen, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Using a gas-deformation apparatus stacks of oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals were deformed at T = 750° C and P = 400 MPa to examine the influence of stress and strain on magnesio-calcite and dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) growth kinetics. Triaxial compression and torsion tests performed at constant stresses between 7 and 38 MPa and test durations between 4 and 171 hours resulted in bulk strains of 0.03-0.2 and maximum shear strains of 0.8-5.6, respectively. The reaction rims consist of fine-grained (2-7 ?m) dolomite with palisade-shaped grains growing into magnesite reactants and equiaxed granular dolomite grains next to calcite. In between dolomite and pure calcite, magnesio-calcite grains evolved with an average grain size of 20-40 ?m. Grain boundaries tend to be straighter at high bulk strains and equilibrium angles at grain triple junctions are common within the magnesio-calcite layer. Transmission electron microscopy shows almost dislocation free palisades and increasing dislocation density within granular dolomite towards the magnesio-calcite boundary. Within magnesio-calcite grains, dislocations are concentrated at grain boundaries. Variation of time at fixed stress (˜17 MPa) yields a parabolic time dependence of dolomite rim width, indicating diffusion-controlled growth, similar to isostatic rim growth behavior. In contrast, the magnesio-calcite layer growth is enhanced compared to isostatic conditions. Triaxial compression at given time shows no significant change of dolomite rim thickness (11±2 ?m) and width of magnesio-calcite layers (33±5 ?m) with increasing stress. In torsion experiments, reaction layer thickness and grain size decrease from the center (low stress/strain) to the edge (high strain/stress) of samples. Chemical analysis shows nearly stoichiometric composition of dolomite palisades, but enhanced Ca content within granular grains, indicating local disequilibrium with magnesio-calcite, in particular for twisted samples. The shift from local equilibrium is ˜3 mol% in triaxial compression and ˜7 mol% in torsion. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis reveals a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) within the reaction layers with [0001] axes parallel to the compression/rotation axis and poles of {2-1-10} and {10-10} prismatic planes parallel to the reaction interface. Compared to isostatic annealing, the CPO is more pronounced and the amount of low-angle grain boundaries is increased. At the imposed experimental conditions, most of the bulk deformation is accommodated by calcite single, which is stronger than magnesite. Application of flow laws for magnesio-calcite and dolomite suggest that the fine-grained reaction products should deform by grain boundary diffusion creep, resulting in lower flow strength than the single crystal reactants. However, microstructural observations indicate that deformation of granular dolomite and magnesio-calcite is at least partially assisted by dislocation creep, which would result in an almost similar strength to calcite. Therefore, flattening of the reaction layers during triaxial compression may be counterbalanced by enhanced reaction rates, resulting in almost constant layer thickness, independent of the applied stress. For simple shear, the reduced reaction kinetics in the high stress/strain region of twisted samples may be related to increased nucleation rates, resulting in a lower grain size and rim thickness.

  19. Bone Lesions and Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms » Bone Damage Bone Lesions and Damage Bone lesions from multiple myeloma ... evaluate bone damage in myeloma patients. Causes of bone destruction in myeloma Normally, osteoclasts function with bone- ...

  20. Bone metastases as the presenting manifestation of rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rarely, rhabdomyosarcoma can present with bone pain and bone lesions on radiographs without evidence of a primary tumor. Of 428 children with biopsy-proven rhabdomyosarcoma, four presented with radiographic evidence of bone metastases, but no primary tumor was found on subsequent evaluation. On radiographs, these metastases, located most commonly in the metaphyses of the extremities and in the spine, displayed a destructive or diffusely permeative pattern without sclerotic margins and mimicked the more common neuroblastoma. One patient also had diaphyseal cortical lytic metastases of the tibia. Radiographs defined metastases of the extremities better than the correlative bone scans. In the spine, on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, metastases displayed high signal intensity which contrasted with the low-signal-intensity marrow in these pediatric patients. On histopathologic examination, metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma was composed of small cells of variable size, shape, and growth pattern similar to other round cell tumors. A positive desmin immunohistochemical test helped to establish the diagnosis. The radiologist, pathologist, and clinician should be aware of this unusual presentation of rhabdomyosarcoma so that suitable immunohistochemical tests are performed and appropriate chemotherapy given. (orig.)

  1. CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 ± 6 to 6 ± 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 ± 87 to 111 ± 54 mGy × cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure

  2. CT Guided Bone Biopsy Using a Battery Powered Intraosseous Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnapauff, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.schnapauff@charite.de; Marnitz, Tim, E-mail: tim.marnitz@charite.de; Freyhardt, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.freyhardt@charite.de; Collettini, Federico, E-mail: Federico.collettini@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany); Hartwig, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.hartwig@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Haematology and Oncology (Germany); Joehrens, Korinna, E-mail: korinna.joehrens@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Department of Pathology (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.hamm@charite.de; Kroencke, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.kroencke@charite.de; Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: Bernhard.gebauer@charite.de [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a battery powered intraosseous device to perform CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients in whom bone specimen were acquired from different locations under CT-fluoroscopy guidance using the OnControl bone marrow biopsy system (OBM, Vidacare, Shavano Park, TX, USA). Data of the 12 were compared to a historic cohort in whom the specimen were acquired using the classic Jamshidi Needle, as reference needle using manual force for biopsy. Results: Technical success was reached in 11 of 12 cases, indicated by central localisation of the needle within the target lesion. All specimen sampled were sufficient for histopathological workup. Compared to the historical cohort the time needed for biopsy decreased significantly from 13 {+-} 6 to 6 {+-} 4 min (P = 0.0001). Due to the shortened intervention time the radiation dose (CTDI) during CT-fluoroscopy was lowered significantly from 169 {+-} 87 to 111 {+-} 54 mGy Multiplication-Sign cm (P = 0.0001). Interventional radiologists were confident with the performance of the needle especially when using in sclerotic or osteoblastic lesions. Conclusion: The OBM is an attractive support for CT-fluoroscopy guided bone biopsy which is safe tool and compared to the classical approach using the Jamshidi needle leading to significantly reduced intervention time and radiation exposure.

  3. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP pinhole bone scintigraphic feature of fibrovascular zone: a new diagnostic sign of osteoid osteoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hoon; Choi, Yeong Jin [Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Osteoid osteoma is a common benign tumor. Histologically, the tumor is characterized by the presence of the nidus, fibrovascular zone (FVZ) and reactive host bone scleroses of various intensities. A nidus consists of core meshwork of osteoid trabeculae, woven bone and osteoblastic rim and a FVZ, 1-2 mm rim, is composed of loose fibrovascular tissue and nerve fibers. The nidus and FVZ are readily identifiable on pathological specimen and CT when sclerosis is not too extensive. Recently on pinhole bone scan, we observed a peculiar rim sign that denoted FVZ in a patient with pathologically proven osteoid osteoma. Not previously described the sign appears to be pathognomonic of osteoid osteoma, uniquely providing metabolic information. The finding was correlated with that of radiography, CT and MRI and low power light microscopy.

  4. Catecholamines and related o-diphenols in cockroach hemolymph and cuticle during sclerotization and melanization: comparative studies on the order Dictyoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla, T H; Hopkins, T L; Kramer, K J

    1990-01-01

    Catecholamines and related o-diphenols extracted from the cuticle and hemolymph of adult cockroaches during sclerotization and pigmentation of the cuticle were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC with electrochemical detection. At ecdysis, dopamine (DA) o-conjugates predominated in the hemolymph of Periplaneta americana, P. australasiae, P. fuliginosa, P. brunnea, and Blatta orientalis (Blattidae); Blattella germanica (Blattellidae); and Gromphadorhina portentosa and Blaberus craniifer (Blaberidae). N-Acetyldopamine (NADA) conjugates were second in abundance in these species, but were major in the hemolymph of the other blaberoid species, Leucophaea maderae and Nauphoeta cinerea. After ecdysis NADA became the major hemolymph catecholamine in all species as DA decreased rapidly. N-beta-Alanyldopamine (NBAD) concentrations in the hemolymph remained low in all species, although NBAD and its metabolite, N-beta-alanylnorepinephrine (NBANE), were generally the major catecholamines in tanning cuticle. Catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) occurred mainly as a conjugate(s) at high levels in the hemolymph of nymphs and adults of all blattid species. Only trace amounts were detected in B. germanica and Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae), and none was found in any of the blaberoid species. High concentrations of NBANE and NBAD accumulated in tanning cuticle of B. germanica, G. portentosa, and all blattid species, whereas NADA and DA predominated in cuticle from the other blaberoid species, particularly L. maderae and N. cinerea. However, cockroaches as a group appear to utilize both the N-acetyl and N-beta-alanyl catecholamines for stabilization of the exoskeleton. The Blattidae differed most from the other families in having considerably higher concentrations of catecholamines in hemolymph and cuticle, as well as the large amounts of catechol conjugates in the hemolymph. PMID:2391402

  5. Windage rise and flowpath gas ingestion in turbine rim cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaser, Fred; Jack, James; McGreehan, William

    1987-05-01

    A method for modeling the windage rise and flowpath gas ingestion in turbine rim cavities on a macroscopic scale is presented, with application to the minimization of the necessary required cooling air in order to provide optimum turbine cycle performance and hardware durability. Comparison is made between measured and predicted results for: (1) the prediction of critical flow in a turbine aeroperformance rig; (2) a boltless blade retainer design; (3) the impact of instrumentation wire; and (4) a modulated throughflow test. It is noted that the effects of inner and outer flow extraction, rotor and stator drag, rotor and stator bolt drag, leakages, and injection momentum must be accounted for to accurately model the wheel space.

  6. Infecção gonocócica em rim carcinomatoso / Gonococcal infection in carcinomatous kidney

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge de, Gouvêa; J. Guilherme, Lacorte.

    Full Text Available Os A.A. observaram um caso de infecção renal gonocócica, que relatam com as necessarias minucias, tanto sob o ponto de vista clinico-cirurgico como bacteriologico. 2 - Revendo a bibliografia sobre o assunto, verificaram que as infecções renais gonocócias são raras, e rarissimas as que apresentam pro [...] vas de identificação bacteriologica completa do gonocóco, como se fez no presente caso que deve figurar em 15º lugar, desde a descoberta do germen por Neisser, ha 59 anos. 3 - As provas bacteriologicas consistiram no exame bacterioscopico do sedimento urinario e pús renal, caracteres das colonias e culturas, seguidas de exames de esfregaços, provas de fermentação de glicose e maltose; sôro aglutinação e gono fixação. Todas as provas foram positivas para o gonocóco. 4- O rim não deve ser favoravel á proliferação do gonocóco, ou pela natureza do seu epitelio ou pela secreção de substancias que impeçam o seu desenvolvimento ou outra causa qualquer. Dada a frequencia das infecções gonocócicas no parelho urinario inferior, seria de esperar que, em grande numero de casos, fosse atingido o superior.5 - Como causas predisponentes a esse ataque secundario que se processa por vias sanguinea, linfatica ou contiguidade, cita Uhle as seguintes: 1º - perturbações congenitas, lesões obstrutoras, principalmente do ureter. 2º - calculos, tumores, etc. 3º - traumatismos seguidos de rutura e hemorragia e 4º - antecedentes patologícos não demonstrados. O nosso caso cabe no 2º paragrafo. O rim apresentava um tumor maligno e tinha inumeros calculos. 6 - Depois que o rim foi retirado pela intervenção cirurgica, que correu sem acidentes, o doente entrou logo a melhorar, tendo alta curado, do Hospital. Nada tem havido, até a presente data, que faça suspeitar, no desenvolvimento de qualquer metastase do tumor. Aliás, a operação foi indicada em virtude do estado infeccioso, sendo posterior á mesma a descoberta do carcinoma. 7 - Interessante referir tambem que, muito embora o rim estivesse atacado pelo gonocóco, o aparelho urinario inferior nada acusou nesse sentido, nem antes da operação, nem depois do doente ter tido alta. 8 - Casos como o presente, se bem que raros, pois que assim se têm mostrado nos centros onde a pesquiza é sistematica, devem aparecer outras vezes, sendo, portanto, sempre aconselhavel o exame bacteriologico dos casos de infecções renais supuradas. Abstract in english 1 - The AA. observed a case of gonococcal infection of kidney which they report with the necessary details, both from the clinico-surgical and bacteriological standpoints. 2 - In perusing the bibliography on the matter, they verified that gonococcal infections of kidney are rare, and very rare those [...] which present proofs of thorough bacteriological identification of the gonococcus, such as was furnished in the present case, which should occupy the 15th place since the discovery of the germ by Neisser, 59 years ago. 3 - In the bacterioscopical examination of the urinary sediment and of the pus from the kidney the bacteriological proofs are constituted by the characteristic features of the colonies and cultures, followed by examinations of the smears, by fermentation tests for glucose and maltose, by sero-agglutination and gono-fixation. All tests were positive for gonococcus. 4 - The kidney does not favour the proliferation of the gonococcus, either thanks to the nature of its epithelium, or thanks to the secretion of substances which prevent the development of the gonococcus, or thanks to any other cause. Taking into consideration the frequency of gonococcal infections of the lower urinary apparatus, it was to be expected that also the upper one should be attained in a great deal of cases. 5 - As to the causes which predispose to such a secondary attack proceeding by the way of blood, of lymphatic current or by contiguity, uhle quotes the following: 1º - Congenital disorders, obstruction changes, mainly of the ureter; 2º - Calculi, tumors, etc.; 3º - Traumatisms followed by ruptu

  7. La Niña diversity and Northwest Indian Ocean Rim teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Barlow, Mathew

    2014-11-01

    The differences in tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) expressions of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events of the same phase have been linked with different global atmospheric circulation patterns. This study examines the dynamical forcing of precipitation during October-December (OND) and March-May (MAM) over East Africa and during December-March (DJFM) over Central-Southwest Asia for 1950-2010 associated with four tropical Pacific SST patterns characteristic of La Niña events, the cold phase of ENSO. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate La Niña events, and seasonal precipitation forcing was investigated in terms of the tropical overturning circulation and thermodynamic and moisture budgets. Recent La Niña events with strong opposing SST anomalies between the central and western Pacific Ocean (phases 3 and 4), force the strongest global circulation modifications and drought over the Northwest Indian Ocean Rim. Over East Africa during MAM and OND, subsidence is forced by an enhanced tropical overturning circulation and precipitation reductions are exacerbated by increases in moisture flux divergence. Over Central-Southwest Asia during DJFM, the thermodynamic forcing of subsidence is primarily responsible for precipitation reductions, with moisture flux divergence acting as a secondary mechanism to reduce precipitation. Eastern Pacific La Niña events in the absence of west Pacific SST anomalies (phases 1 and 2), are associated with weaker global teleconnections, particularly over the Indian Ocean Rim. The weak regional teleconnections result in statistically insignificant precipitation modifications over East Africa and Central-Southwest Asia.

  8. Out of the Blue: The Pacific Rim as a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Santa-Cruz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1993, in advance of what was to be the first Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC leader’s summit, US president Bill Clinton gave a lecture at Waseda University in Japan. In his speech, Clinton called for the creation of a “community of the Pacific.” The idea of a Pacific community is neither Clinton’s nor the Democratic Party’s invention, however. In the previous decade Ronald Reagan had already used it, going even beyond later conceptualizations, by referring to the 21st century as the Pacific’s century. But Reagan's prophecy concerning the Great Ocean was not new back in the 1980s either. In 1900 then US Secretary of State John Hay wrote: “the Mediterranean is the ocean of the past, the Atlantic the ocean of the present and the Pacific is the ocean of the future.” In a more general manner, as Christopher Coker has observed, the notion of the “Century of the Pacific” is plausible because it is consistent with the idea, popularized by Hegel, that the spirit of civilization is moving toward that part of the globe. Thus, the century of the Pacific has become a kind of zeitgeist. In this paper I undertake a conceptual, historical, and theoretical journey through the “Pacific Rim” or “Asia-Pacific,” as it has been called more recently. Although I will question the utility of the term, I want to make clear that my purpose is only to undertake a critical survey of “the Pacific.” As in any trip, however, one needs a starting point. But, What is the starting point of the Pacific Rim, that geographic zone that has been compared to Pascal’s sphere: “with periphery indeterminable and a center that may be anywhere”?

  9. Systemic mastocytosis (SM) and associated malignant bone marrow histiocytosis - a hitherto undescribed form of SM-AHNMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzki, Zbigniew; Sotlar, Karl; Kudela, Andrzej; Starzak-Gwó?d?, Jolanta; Horny, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    An elderly woman presented with anaemia, thrombocytopenia and multifocal lytic and sclerotic bone lesions. Trephine bone marrow biopsy demonstrated widespread involvement by systemic mastocytosis (SM). The neoplastic mast cells expressed mast cell tryptase, CD117, CD25 and CD9, and were accompanied by compact sheets of atypical large histiocytic cells, expressing CD68, CD4, S-100 protein and CD14, in keeping with a concomitant histiocytosis (SM-AHNMD). Mutation analysis revealed the activating point mutation D816V of the c-kit proto-oncogene in microdissected pooled bone marrow mast cells. Partial remission was achieved using interferon alpha. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of SM-AHNMD with histiocytosis as the non-mast cell component. PMID:21866466

  10. From Theory to Practice: "Kaizen" and the Academy of the Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdale, Spencer

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles the Academy of the Pacific Rim Charter Public School (Hyde Park, Massachusetts) and describes the school's culture. The school's students, who are in grades 6 through 12, are surrounded by rituals, routines, and relationship-building activities. Pacific Rim's culture stems from and supports the school's…

  11. Bendy Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMSI

    2004-01-01

    In this activity (on pages 19-24 of PDF), learners soak chicken bones or eggshells in vinegar for several days. Learners observe what happens to the material as the acid dissolves the calcium that provides the strength to the material. The lesson includes information about calcium, calcium-rich foods that keep bones strong, and an explanation of how the acidic vinegar solution causes the bone or eggshell to become weak.

  12. 99mTc MDP bone scan in evaluation of painful scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 18-year-old male presented with low back ache. The patient was investigated and was diagnosed to have painful scoliosis. X-ray and other examinations could not reveal any diagnosis. The patient was referred to undergo bone scan on clinical suspicion of osteoid osteoma and to rule out stress fracture if any. Planar bone scan was performed, which showed a lesion in L3 vertebra and was further evaluated with SPECT (Single photon emission computed tomography) study to characterize the lesion. On SPECT examination, the classical features of osteoid osteoma, the double density sign (11), was noted in the pars interarticularis region. These findings were confirmed by a CT scan, which showed a sclerotic lesion in pars interarticularis of L3 vertebra. The patient was posted for operation and was relieved of symptoms in the postoperative follow-up. (author)

  13. Computed tomography of temporal bone pneumatization. 1. Normal pattern and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pneumatization of 141 normal temporal bones on computed tomography (CT) was evaluated in 100 patients. Because of the controversy surrounding the sclerotic squamomastoid (mastoid), temporal bones with this finding were discarded. A CT index of pneumatization was based on the pneumatized area and the number of cells seen within a representative scanning section. Results suggest that squamomastoid pneumatization follows the classic normal distribution and does not correlate with age, gender, or laterality. A high degree of symmetry was found in 41 patients who had both ears examined. Air-cell configuration was variable. Air-cell size tended to increase progressively from the mastoid antrum. The scutum pseudotumor appearance caused by incomplete pneumatization was seen frequently, and should not be mistaken for mastoiditis or an osteoma. Thick sections producing partial-volume effect may also produce this spurious finding. Therefore, when searching for mucosal thickening due to mastoiditis, large air cells should preferably be analyzed

  14. Complex chemical zoning in eclogite facies garnet reaction rims: the role of grain boundary diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenzel, J.; Abart, R.; Keller, L.

    2009-03-01

    In metapelites of the Saualpe complex (Eastern Alps) continuous 10 µm to 20 µm wide garnet reaction rims formed along biotite-plagioclase and biotite-perthite interfaces. The pre-existing mineral assemblages are remnants of low pressure high temperature metamorphism of Permian age. The garnet reaction rims grew during the Cretaceous eclogite facies overprint. Reaction rim growth involved transfer of Fe and Mg components from the garnet-biotite interface to the garnet-feldspar interface and transfer of the Ca component in the opposite direction. The garnets show complex, asymmetrical chemical zoning, which reflects the relative contributions of short circuit diffusion along grain boundaries within the polycrystalline garnet reaction rims and volume diffusion through the grain interiors on bulk mass transfer. It is demonstrated by numerical modelling that the spacing of the grain boundaries, i.e. the grain size of the garnet in the reaction rim is a first order control on its internal chemical zoning.

  15. Anion recognition properties of new upper-rim bis[rhenium(I) bipyridyl, ruthenium(II) bis(bipyridyl), cobaltocenium]calix[4]arene receptors dictated by lower-rim substituents

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, PD; Drew, MGB; HESEK, D; Shade, M; SZEMES, F

    1996-01-01

    New upper-rim bis[rhenium(I) bipyridyl, ruthenium(II) bis(bipyridyl), cobaltocenium]calix[4]arene receptors exhibit remarkable dihydrogen phosphate selective anion recognition properties dictated by the relative positions of lower-rim tosyl substituents.

  16. The RimL transacetylase provides resistance to translation inhibitor microcin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Teymur; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Semenova, Ekaterina; Mukhamedyarov, Damir; Datsenko, Kirill A; Metlitskaya, Anastasija; Vondenhoff, Gaston H; Tikhonov, Anton; Agarwal, Vinayak; Nair, Satish; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Severinov, Konstantin

    2014-10-01

    Peptide-nucleotide antibiotic microcin C (McC) is produced by some Escherichia coli strains. Inside a sensitive cell, McC is processed, releasing a nonhydrolyzable analog of aspartyl-adenylate, which inhibits aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. The product of mccE, a gene from the plasmid-borne McC biosynthetic cluster, acetylates processed McC, converting it into a nontoxic compound. MccE is homologous to chromosomally encoded acetyltransferases RimI, RimJ, and RimL, which acetylate, correspondingly, the N termini of ribosomal proteins S18, S5, and L12. Here, we show that E. coli RimL, but not other Rim acetyltransferases, provides a basal level of resistance to McC and various toxic nonhydrolyzable aminoacyl adenylates. RimL acts by acetylating processed McC, which along with ribosomal protein L12 should be considered a natural RimL substrate. When overproduced, RimL also makes cells resistant to albomycin, an antibiotic that upon intracellular processing gives rise to a seryl-thioribosyl pyrimidine that targets seryl-tRNA synthetase. We further show that E. coli YhhY, a protein related to Rim acetyltransferases but without a known function, is also able to detoxify several nonhydrolyzable aminoacyl adenylates but not processed McC. We propose that RimL and YhhY protect bacteria from various toxic aminoacyl nucleotides, either exogenous or those generated inside the cell during normal metabolism. PMID:25002546

  17. Talking Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jaclyn; Kassing, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Describes cooperation with the Saint Louis Zoo to provide opportunities for elementary school students to learn about bones, how animals move, what they eat, and how much they grow. Uses biofacts which include bones, skulls, and other parts to make the laboratory a hands-on experience for students. (YDS)

  18. Effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size distribution in the rim structure of UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, the bubble size in the rim structure of UO2 is not dependent on the fuel burnup and the bubble pressure is higher than that in the equilibrium condition. However it was also observed that if the fuel pellet is not restrained, the size of the bubbles in the rim structure could be larger than that in the restraint condition. Although the wide variety of rim bubble sizes and porosities possibly result from an external restrain effect, the quantitative method to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble distribution in the rim is not available at the moment. In this paper, a method is developed which can be used to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on the bubble distribution in the rim structure of UO2 fuel based on the data in the literatures. The total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume could be derived by a summation of the number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble in a unit rim volume. The number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble could be calculated by the Van der Waals equation of state and the pressure expressed by p=?+C/r, where C is an unknown constant to be determined as a function of the temperature and the burnup. On the other hand, the total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume can also be calculated by Xe depression data. If the fuel pellet is not restrained, the uniform hydrostatic stress, ? is zero. Hence if the data of the fuel disk without a restraint is used, a constant C canut a restraint is used, a constant C can be obtained at 823K and a local burnup of 90 GWd/t. Although the local burnup of PCMI restraint case is slightly different from that without PCMI restraint, the value derived above is used for the analysis of PCMI restraint case. The calculated bubble distribution with PCMI restraint was similar to the measured one. Because the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size increased with the bubble size, the development of a large bubble was suppressed. Hence, the PCMI restraint caused a typical bubble size in the rim and decreased the porosity and fuel swelling as compared with the no PCMI restrained condition. (author)

  19. A simplified procedure for preparation of undecalcified human bone sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, J A; Tkocz, I

    1985-01-01

    A new type of apparatus for sectioning samples of hard, undecalcified bone is described. Slices of fresh or archeological human bone 4-5 mm thick are dehydrated and then embedded in epoxy resin. The apparatus used to prepare sections from the resulting blocks consists of a low-speed rim-type diamond cut-off wheel and a slowly advancing table carrying the specimen held in a rotating mount. Sections may be cut at a thickness of 80 micron +/- 1%. After cleaning in an ultrasonic bath, these can be mounted on slides for quantitative microscopic examination with transmitted light. Grinding and polishing are not necessary. The results obtained are illustrated.

  20. The PacC-family protein Rim101 prevents selenite toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by controlling vacuolar acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sampietro, Maria; Herrero, Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rim101 is a member of the fungal PacC family of transcription factors involved in the response to alkaline pH stress. Further studies have also implicated Rim101 in the responses to other stresses, and have shown its genetic interaction with the iron deprivation-responsive factor Aft1. The present study shows that the absence of Rim101 leads to hypersensitivity to oxidants such as t-butyl hydroperoxide and diamide, and also to the prooxidant agent selenite. The protective role of Rim101 against selenite requires the sensing complex component Rim8, the ESCRT-I/II/III complexes and the Rim13 protease involved in proteolytic activation of Rim101. The Nrg1 transcriptional repressor is a downstream effector of Rim101 in this response to selenite, as occurs in the responses to alkaline pH, Na(+) and Li(+) stresses. Deletion of RIM101 causes downregulation of the vacuolar ATPase genes VMA2 and VMA4, which becomes accentuated compared to wild type cells upon selenite stress, and activation of the Rim101 protein prevents inhibition of vacuolar acidification caused by selenite. These observations therefore support a role of Rim101 in modulation of vacuolar acidity necessary for selenite detoxification. In addition, a parallel Rim101-independent pathway requiring the complete ESCRT machinery (including the ESCRT-0 complex) also participates in protection against selenite. PMID:25239548

  1. RIM, Munc13, and Rab3A interplay in acrosomal exocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello, Oscar D.; Zanetti, M. Natalia [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia, IHEM (CONICET-UNCuyo), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (Argentina); Laboratorio de Biologia Reproductiva, Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia, IHEM (CONICET-UNCuyo), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (Argentina); Mayorga, Luis S. [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia, IHEM (CONICET-UNCuyo), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (Argentina); Michaut, Marcela A., E-mail: mmichaut@fcm.uncu.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Biologia Reproductiva, Instituto de Histologia y Embriologia, IHEM (CONICET-UNCuyo), Facultad de Ciencias Medicas (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (5500) (Argentina)

    2012-03-10

    Exocytosis is a highly regulated, multistage process consisting of multiple functionally definable stages, including recruitment, targeting, tethering, priming, and docking of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, followed by calcium-triggered membrane fusion. The acrosome reaction of spermatozoa is a complex, calcium-dependent regulated exocytosis. Fusion at multiple sites between the outer acrosomal membrane and the cell membrane causes the release of the acrosomal contents and the loss of the membranes surrounding the acrosome. Not much is known about the molecules that mediate membrane docking in this particular fusion model. In neurons, the formation of the ternary RIM/Munc13/Rab3A complex has been suggested as a critical component of synaptic vesicles docking. Previously, we demonstrated that Rab3A localizes to the acrosomal region in human sperm, stimulates acrosomal exocytosis, and participates in an early stage during membrane fusion. Here, we report that RIM and Munc13 are also present in human sperm and localize to the acrosomal region. Like Rab3A, RIM and Munc13 participate in a prefusion step before the efflux of intra-acrosomal calcium. By means of a functional assay using antibodies and recombinant proteins, we show that RIM, Munc13 and Rab3A interplay during acrosomal exocytosis. Finally, we report by electron transmission microscopy that sequestering RIM and Rab3A alters the docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane during calcium-activated acrosomal exocytosis. Our results suggest that the RIM/Munc13/Rab3 A complex participates in acrosomal exocytosis and that RIM and Rab3A have central roles in membrane docking. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Munc13 are present in human sperm and localize to the acrosomal region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Munc13 are necessary for acrosomal exocytosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Munc13 participate before the acrosomal calcium efflux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM, Munc13 and Rab3A interplay in human sperm acrosomal exocytosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIM and Rab3A have critical roles in membrane docking.

  2. Bone Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into fossil hunting and identification. Groups of learners will sift through a commercially prepared owl pellet, looking for bone pieces that they will attempt to match to an identification chart and subsequently arrange into a rough skeleton. Learners use this exercise to consider how animal skeletons help researchers determine what kinds of animals live together in an ecosystem as well compare the bones they find to the bones in their own body. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Dinosaurs.

  3. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. ^ Back to top Ask a Laboratory Scientist Form temporarily unavailable Due to a dramatic increase ... Paget's Disease of Bone » See all Article Sources Article Sources « Return to Related Pages NOTE: This article ...

  4. Stability of revision acetabular components using the rim-fit technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E; Bono, James V; Whiddon, David R; Salyapongse, Aaron K; Moezzi, Darius M; Smith, Eric L

    2010-01-01

    Use of the rim-fit technique in revision acetabular surgery was reviewed for 20 hips in 18 patients. Defects at revision surgery included isolated medial segmental and global cavitary deficiencies with largely intact peripheral rim. A cementless acetabular component is placed to achieve a press-fit against the bony acetabular rim after morselized allograft and/or autograft was placed behind the cup. The average follow-up period was 68.3 months (5.7 years) (range, 27-112 months). Cup migration was assessed using digital radiography. Average vertical migration was 1.02 mm superiorly, and average horizontal migration was 0.8 mm medially. The abduction angle changed on average by 0.25 degrees. Use of the rim-fit technique for treatment of cavitary acetabular defects is associated with component stability and minimal component migration. PMID:19056229

  5. Search Efficient Representation of Healthcare Data based on the HL7 RIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razan Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Reference Information Model (RIM of Health Level Seven (HL7 standard is a conceptual information model for health care. Data of HL7 RIM Observation class are sparse, high dimensional, and require frequent schema change. Entity Attribute Value (EAV is the widely used solution to handle these above challenges of medical data, but EAV is not search efficient for knowledge extraction. In this paper, we have proposed a search efficient data model:  Optimized Entity Attribute Value (OEAV for physical representation of medical data as alternative of widely used EAV model. We have implemented EAV or OEAV individually to model RIM Observation class and used relational model for the remaining RIM classes. We have shown that OEAV is dramatically search efficient   and occupy less storage space compared to EAV.

  6. Three-dimensional microstructural analysis of human lumber vertebrae using microcomputed tomography in bone metastasis from prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, inducing osteosclerotic lesions. However, the morphological details of bone metastasis of prostate cancer have not been clarified. The trabecular bone structure of bone metastasis from prostate cancer was investigated in three dimensions using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). A total of 17 cubes of the lumber spine of a 77-year-old man with prostate cancer were excised post mortem: four of them from non-metastatic and the rest from metastatic sites. The samples were measured using micro-CT with a resolution of 23.2 ?m and the standard structural indices and degree of anisotropy were computed. After micro-CT measurement, the samples were tested in a destructive manner for the assessment of mechanical properties. Samples from the metastatic sites showed significantly higher values than those from non-metastatic sites for bone volume (BV), bone surface (BS), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular number (Tb.N) (p<0.005). Bone surface density (BS/BV) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were significantly higher in the samples from non-metastatic sites (p<0.001). Samples from metastatic sites showed a more isotropic arrangement of trabecular bone than those from non-metastatic sites. Three-dimensionally reconstructed images depicted several different patterns of sclerotic bone metastasis, and osteolytic appearance was observed in all of them. Structural parameters such as BV/TV were weluctural parameters such as BV/TV were well correlated with the mechanical properties (r=0.899). The present study clarified the trabecular microstructure of bone metastasis from prostate cancer and suggests that both osteolysis and osteogenesis progress while interacting with each other in all phases of bone metastasis. (author)

  7. Spinal metastatic lesion in cancer patients. Investigation based on statistical analysis by bone scintigrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of 2,216 cancer patients undergoing bone scintigraphy after diagnosis of the primary malignant tumor, 558 (25.2%) were found to have abnormal vertebral accumulation of radioactivity during the clinical course. Abnormal radioactivity in the vertebrae was frequently noted in patients with prostatic and renal cancer. The lumbar vertebrae were the most frequent sites but the cervical vertebrae were also affected with prostatic cancer, the thoracic vertebrae with lung and prostatic cancer, the lumbar vertebrae with breast and prostatic cancer and the sacral vertebrae with uterine cervical and prostatic cancer. Of the 558 patients with abnormal spinal radioactivity, 221 were examined by CT scan; the accumulated radioactivity was identified as a metastatic lesion in 170 patients (76.9%). Abnormal radioactivity was identified as a metastatic lesion most often in lung cancer patients. The CT-diagnosed metastases were classified into 3 types: sclerotic (51 patients, 30.0%), osteolytic (112, 65.9%), and mixed (46, 27.1%). The sclerotic type was relatively frequent in uterine cervical cancer, less frequent in lung cancer, and not seen in head and neck or renal cancer patients. The osteolytic type was relatively frequent in lung and renal cancer and less frequent in uterine cervical and prostatic cancer patients. Of the patients with CT-diagnosed vertebral metastasis, 87.3% survived for 3 months and 66.2% for 6 months after the detection of abnormal bone scintigraphy. detection of abnormal bone scintigraphy. Survival was shorter in patients with lung or gastrointestinal cancer than in those with other types of tumors. Since the pathology of vertebral metastasis of malignant tumors differs according to the primary lesion, the metastatic nature must be considered in the choice of treatment. (author)

  8. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity, nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; ...

  9. Noachian Impact Breccias on the Rim of Endeavour Crater, Mars: Opportunity APXS Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Farrand, W. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Ming, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Sullivan, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been investigating the geology of Meridiani Planum since January 2004, and is currently approx. 3830% into its primary mission. Opportunity reached the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavor crater at Spirit Point on the south end of Cape York on sol 2681 and began exploring the geology of Endeavour rim. She left Cape York on sol 3316 and arrived at the next rim remnant to the south, Solander Point, on sol 3387 to begin geological investigations at the contact and up onto Murray Ridge. The Burns fm. of Meridiani Planum lies near the top of the plains-forming unit of western Sinus Meridiani and onlaps onto the Endeavour rim rocks (hereafter rim rocks). Endeavour crater would have excavated approx. 4 km into the existing stratigraphy. Thus, the ejecta that form the rim rocks offer windows into the deeper lithologies of Sinus Meridiani. Here we discuss the polymict breccias of the Shoemaker fm. on Cape York and the breccias from Murray Ridge, with a focus on compositions determined by the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS).

  10. Aharonov-Bohm effect in non-uniform crater-like quantum dot with double rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, L. F.; Revinova, S. Yu.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2015-07-01

    We study electron energies in a double concentric quantum ring with anisotropy in the rims heights in the presence of the external magnetic field applied along the symmetry axis. To this end, we consider a model in which the thickness grows linearly from the axis up to the inner rim with a slope different from one between the inner and the outer rims. The anisotropy in the rims heights originated by the presence in the structure of various valleys we simulate by periodic dependence of the slope on the radial direction. We show that the wave functions of the electron confined in such structure can be found analytically if the slopes in all radial directions are the same, and by using a simple exact diagonalization procedure otherwise. The behavior of the electron energies as functions of the magnetic field, rings radii and rims heights, as well as the number of the valleys and their depths is consistently described with our formalism. The entanglement of the states with different radial and orbital quantum numbers, the period and the amplitude of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are very sensible to any variations of the rims heights.

  11. Magnetic-Field Amplification in the Thin X-ray Rims of SN1006

    CERN Document Server

    Ressler, Sean M; Reynolds, Stephen P; Long, Knox S; Petre, Robert; Williams, Brian J; Winkler, P Frank

    2014-01-01

    Several young supernova remnants (SNRs), including SN1006, emit synchrotron X-rays in narrow filaments, hereafter thin rims, along their periphery. The widths of these rims imply 50 to $100 \\mu$G fields in the region immediately behind the shock, far larger than expected for the interstellar medium compressed by unmodified shocks, assuming electron radiative losses limit rim widths. However, magnetic-field damping could also produce thin rims. Here we review the literature on rim width calculations, summarizing the case for magnetic-field amplification. We extend these calculations to include an arbitrary power-law dependence of the diffusion coefficient on energy, $D \\propto E^{\\mu}$. Loss-limited rim widths should shrink with increasing photon energy, while magnetic-damping models predict widths almost independent of photon energy. We use these results to analyze Chandra observations of SN 1006, in particular the southwest limb. We parameterize the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) in terms of energy as FW...

  12. 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT in comparison with CT for the detection of bone metastasis in patients with neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To retrospectively evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT and CT alone for the evaluation of bone metastasis in patients with neuroendocrine tumour (NET). From among patients with NET who underwent 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT between April 2006 and November 2008 in our centre, 223 were included in the study. Criteria for inclusion were pathological confirmation of NET and a follow-up period of at least 10 months. PET and CT images were retrospectively reviewed by two nuclear medicine specialists and two radiologists, respectively, without knowledge of the patient history or the findings of other imaging modalities. PET data were compared with the CT findings. Interobserver agreement was evaluated in terms of the kappa score. Clinical and imaging follow-up were used as the standard of reference to evaluate the PET findings. PET was performed for staging (49/223), unknown primary tumour detection (24/223), restaging (32/223), restaging before radioimmunotherapy (1/223), evaluation during therapy (12/223), equivocal findings on conventional imaging (4/223 at the bone level; 61/223 at sites other than bone), and follow-up (40/223). A very high interobserver agreement was observed. CT detected at least one bone lesion in only 35 of 44 patients with a positive PET scan. In particular, PET showed more lesions in 20/35 patients, a lower number of lesions in 8/35, and the same number in 7/35. The characteristics of the lesionsn 7/35. The characteristics of the lesions (sclerotic, lytic, mixed) on the basis of the CT report did not influence PET reading. PET revealed the presence of at least one bone metastasis in nine patients with a negative CT scan. Considering patients with a negative PET scan (179), CT showed equivocal findings at the bone level in three (single small sclerotic abnormality in two at the spine level, and bilateral small sclerotic abnormalities in the humeri, femurs and scapula). Clinical follow-up confirmed the PET findings in all patients; thus there were no false-positive or false-negative findings. Considering all patients, PET detected more lesions than CT (246 vs. 194). As compared to CT, on a patient basis PET showed a higher sensitivity (100% vs. 80%), specificity (100% vs. 98%), positive predictive value (100% vs. 92%), and negative predictive value (100% vs. 95%). In conclusion, 68Ga DOTA-NOC PET was more accurate than CT for the identification of bone lesions and led to a change in clinical management in nine patients with a negative CT scan. (orig.)

  13. Rim 2/Hipa CACTA transposon display ; A new genetic marker technique in Oryza species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ju

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposons constitute the major fractions of repetitive sequences in eukaryotes, and have been crucial in the shaping of current genomes. Transposons are generally divided into two classes according to the mechanism underlying their transposition: RNA intermediate class 1 and DNA intermediate class 2. CACTA is a class 2 transposon superfamily, which is found exclusively in plants. As some transposons, including the CACTA superfamily, are highly abundant in plant species, and their nucleotide sequences are highly conserved within a family, they can be utilized as genetic markers, using a slightly modified version of the conventional AFLP protocol. Rim2 /Hipa is a CACTA transposon family having 16 bp consensus TIR sequences to be present in high copy numbers in rice genome. This research was carried out in order to develop a Rim2/Hipa CACTA-AFLP or Rim2/Hipa CACTA-TD (transposon display, hereafter Rim2/Hipa-TD protocol for the study of genetic markers in map construction and the study of genetic diversity in rice. Results Rim2/Hipa-TD generated ample polymorphic profiles among the different rice accessions, and the amplification profiles were highly reproducible between different thermocyclers and Taq polymerases. These amplification profiles allowed for clear distinction between two different ecotypes, Japonica and Indica, of Oryza sativa. In the analysis of RIL populations, the Rim2/Hipa-TD markers were found to be segregated largely in a dominant manner, although in a few cases, non-parental bands were observed in the segregating populations. Upon linkage analysis, the Rim2/Hipa-TD markers were found to be distributed in the regions proximal to the centromeres of the chromosomes. The distribution of the Rim2/Hipa CACTA elements was surveyed in 15 different Oryza species via Rim2/Hipa-TD. While Rim2/Hipa-TD yielded ample amplification profiles between 100 to 700 bp in the AA diploid Oryza species, other species having BB, CC, EE, BBCC and CCDD, profiles demonstrated that most of the amplified fragments were larger than 400 bp, and that our methods were insufficient to clearly distinguish between these fragments. However, the overall amplification profiles between species in the Oryza genus were fully distinct. Phenetic relationships among the AA diploid Oryza species, as evidenced by the Rim2/Hipa-TD markers, were matched with their geographical distributions. Conclusion The abundance of the Rim2/Hipa TIR sequences is very informative since the Rim2/Hipa-TD produced high polymorphic profiles with ample reproducibility within a species as well as between species in the Oryza genus. Therefore, Rim2/Hipa-TD markers can be useful in the development of high-density of genetic map around the centromeric regions. Rim2/Hipa-TD may also prove useful in evaluations of genetic variation and species relationships in the Oryza species.

  14. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  15. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  16. Buried Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about paleontology with a hands-on activity. The activity opens with an explanation covering how fossilized bones are usually very delicate and buried deeply in rock fossils. Students are then given step-by-step directions for working with a friend to create two make-believe dig sites by burying bones in plaster of Paris. The activity ends with three discussion questions: What was surprising about excavating the bones? What strategies did you find worked well for removing the plaster? How would you have worked differently if you had no idea what was buried inside? Adult supervision is recommended.

  17. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands. PMID:16998521

  18. Behaviour of a rimmed elliptical inclusion in 2D slow incompressible viscous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancktelow, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    The shape preferred orientation of natural populations of inclusions (or "porphyroclasts") is often inconsistent with predictions from established analytical theory for inclusions with coherent boundaries (e.g., Pennacchioni et al. 2001). A totally incoherent or slipping interface can explain observed stable back-rotated (or antithetic) orientations but not the observed cut-off axial ratio, below which inclusions still rotate. However, this behaviour is reproduced by a rimmed inclusion with a rim viscosity that is not infinitely weak but still weaker than the matrix (e.g., Schmid and Podladchikov 2005; Johnson et al. 2009). In this study, finite-element numerical modelling (FEM) is employed to investigate this system in 2D over a very wide parameter space, from a viscosity ratio (relative to the matrix) of the inclusion from 106 to 1, the rim from 10-6 to 1, the axial ratio from 1.00025 to 20, and the rim thickness from 5% to 20%. Theoretical consideration of a concentric elliptical inclusion and ellipse reduces the number of scalar values to be determined to fully characterize the system to two: one for the rate of stretch of the inclusion and one for the rate of rotation. From these two values, the rotation and stretching rate can be calculated for any orientation and 2D background flow field. For effectively rigid particles, the cut-off axial ratio between rotation and stabilization is determined by the remaining two parameters, namely the rim viscosity and the thickness, with low rim viscosity or thick rims promoting stabilization. The shape fabric of a population of particles in a high strain shear zone, presented as a typical Rf/? plot, can be forward modelled using an initial value Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) approach. Because the rim does not remain elliptical to high strain, this method cannot accurately model the behaviour of individual inclusions. However, a statistical approach, allowing variation in rim viscosity, which is also a proxy for variation in rim thickness, reproduces the characteristics of the shape preferred orientation of natural clast populations remarkably well. Deformable inclusions with a very weak rim show very similar behaviour to rigid inclusions. As inclusion viscosity is decreased and rim viscosity is increased toward that of the matrix, there is an increasing tendency for inclusions to elongate, which promotes back-rotation and development of (quasi-) stable orientations, rather than the continued rotation of low axial ratio inclusions. Power-law rheology increases the effective viscosity ratios between inclusion, rim and matrix: the slowly deforming strong inclusion is stronger and generally nearly rigid, whereas high strain rate in (parts of) the rim lowers the effective viscosity, tending to stabilize the inclusion. Because of the range of controlling parameters involved, any attempt at "vorticity analysis" based on clast shape preferred orientation or on the "stable" orientation of individual clasts is not really practical. Measurement of apparently stable back-rotated angles or estimation of the cut-off axial ratio below which inclusions continuously rotate does not allow a unique determination of the vorticity of flow.

  19. Bone Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Exploratorium

    2011-12-07

    In this optics activity, learners examine how polarized light can reveal stress patterns in clear plastic. Learners place a fork between two pieces of polarizing material and induce stress by squeezing the tines together. Learners will observe the colored stress pattern in the image of the plastic that is projected onto a screen using an overhead projector. Learners rotate one of the polarizing filters to explore which orientations give the most dramatic color effects. This activity can be related to bones, as bones develop stress patterns from the loads imposed upon them every day.

  20. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  1. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  2. Bone scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present in detail the foundations and techniques of bone scintigraphy. Scintigraphic semiology in joint diseases is considered in full. Finally the limits and indications of this technique, which concerns many branches: rheumatology, cancerology, hematology, nephrology, traumatology, orthopedics, are outlined

  3. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  4. Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) Health Check Tools Healthy Bones (Agency for Healthcare Research ... the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases ... MedlinePlus links to health information from the National Institutes of Health and ...

  5. Bone: From planar imaging to SPECT & PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailovi? Jasna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction into clinical medicine 50 years ago, the radionuclide bone scan has played a key role in diagnosing a variety of osseous disorders; particularly metastatic disease. Using small diagnostic doses of Strontium-85 in the 1960’s, it was rapidly established that the study was much more sensitive than skeletal radiographs. The introduction of Technetium-99m phosphate agents in the early 1970’s, offered greatly improved resolution. Whole body imaging became the standard procedure. Interestingly, the positron-emitter, Fluorine 18-sodium fluoride was used by some investigators with the rectilinear scanner. Very recently, this radiotracer has been re-introduced and is witnessing considerable growth using modern PET/CT instrumentation. The cortical bone tracers, 99mTc-MDP and 18F-Fluoride assess osteoblastic response to the invading lesion. In the study of metastatic disease, it is superb for sclerotic blastic lesions. Although it detects most lytic lesions, many can be missed. This is due to a lack of osteoblastic response. The tumor may be slow growing, such as myeloma or conversely very rapidly growing and destructive, such as lung or kidney metastases. In these lesions, 18F-FDG is superior because it is concentrating in the tumor cells and does not depend on osteoblastic response to the tumor. In their early cause, many lytic lesions may be confined to the medullary portion of bone and not yet involve the cortex. Comparative studies of PET and CT have clearly shown the superior sensitivity of FDG in detecting metastatic bone lesions.

  6. Hypoechoic rim of chronically inflamed prostate, as seen at TRUS: histopathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to correlate the findings of peripheral hypoechoic rim, seen at transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in chronic prostatitis patients, with the histopthologic findings. Seven patients with pathologically proven chronic prostatitis were involved in this study. The conspicuity of the peripheral hypoechoic prostatic rim, seen at TRUS, was prominent and subtle, and to determine its histopathologic nature, the microscopic findings were reviewed. In five of seven cases (71%), TRUS demonstrated a prominent peripheral hypoechoic rim. Microscopic examination revealed that inflammatory cell infiltration of prostatic glandular tissue was severe in three cases (42.9%), moderate in two (28.6%), and minimal in two (28.6%). In all seven cases, the common histopathologic findings of peripheral hypoechoic rim on TRUS were loose stromal tissues, few prostatic glands, and sparse infiltration by inflammatory cells. The peripheral hypoechoic rim accompanying prostatic inflammation and revealed by TRUS reflects a sparsity of prostate glandular tissue and is thought to be an area in which inflammatory cell infiltration is minimal

  7. Seamless Rim-Functionalization of h-BN with Silica-Experiment and Theoretical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotti, Michele; Caputo, Riccarda; Krumeich, Frank; Nesper, Reinhard

    2015-05-18

    Boron nitride contains six-ring layers, which are isostructural to graphene, and it exhibits similar extraordinary mechanical strength. Unlike graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an insulator and has some polar features that make it a perfect material for those applications graphene is not suitable for, for example, purely ionic conductors, insulating membranes, transparent coatings, composite ceramics, high oxidation resistance materials. We report here a selective rim-functionalization of h-BN with SiO2 by using the Stöber process. A closed, protruding ring of SiO2 is formed covering all edges perpendicular to the [001] zones of the h-BN stacks and thus shield the most reactive centers of BN layers. SEM and HAADF-STEM images, X-ray spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy confirm the rim-functionalization by SiO2 . XRD demonstrates the absence of any intercalation phenomenon of BN and reveals the glassy nature of the SiO2 rims. Selected variations of synthesis and theoretical modeling both confirm that rim activation by water prior to the Stöber condensation is crucial. First-principles calculations also confirm that dangling bonds of clean BN edges merge to give interlayer bonds that make further functionalization much more difficult. The reported reaction pathway should allow for other new functionalizations of pure BN and of the rimmed SiO2 /h-BN composites. PMID:25873400

  8. Cratering motions and structural deformation in the rim of the Prairie Flat multiring explosion crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, D. J.; Ullrich, G. W.; Sauer, F. M.; Jones, G. H. S.

    1977-01-01

    Cratering motions and structural deformation are described for the rim of the Prairie Flat multiring crater, 85.5 m across and 5.3 m deep, which was formed by the detonation of a 500-ton TNT surface-tangent sphere. The terminal displacement and motion data are derived from marker cans and velocity gages emplaced in drill holes in a three-dimensional matrix radial to the crater. The integration of this data with a detailed geologic cross section, mapped from deep trench excavations through the rim, provides a composite view of the general sequence of motions that formed a transiently uplifted rim, overturned flap, inverted stratigraphy, downfolded rim, and deformed strata in the crater walls. Preliminary comparisons with laboratory experimental cratering and with numerical simulations indicate that explosion craters of the Prairie Flat-type generated by surface and near-surface energy sources tend to follow predictable motion sequences and produce comparable structural deformation. More specifically, central uplift and multiring impact craters with morphologies and structures comparable to Prairie Flat are inferred to have experienced similar deformational histories of the rim, such as uplift, overturning, terracing, and downfolding.

  9. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the joints: Radiological features of bone involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the joints is rare, benign and generally monoarticular tumour-like soft tissue lesion of the synovium. The secondary bone changes, seen in plain films of 25 patients with PVNS are described. The main radiological features were paraarticular erosions, often with a thin sclerotic border. As a late manifestation these erosions tended to coalesce and to form large multicystic areas. These defects were observed particularly in the more tightly encapsulated joints such as the hip, wrist, finger and toe. In 3 cases with involvement of the knee the lesions were monostotic. PVNS may be mistaken radiologically for other lesions such as malignant tumours or inflammatory disorders. The differential diagnosis is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Mechanical fracture study of nuclear fuel high burn-up structure (HBS or RIM) during annealing test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ceramics used in Power Water Reactors ar made of uranium dioxide. Irradiated at high Burn-up, they present a characteristic zone in periphery called High Burn-Up Structure or RIM zone with micrometer pores containing over-pressurized gas bubbles. Annealing texts simulating incidental or accidental reactor situations, a strong release of the RIM zone is observed. We have considered that the fission gas release mechanism is the mechanical fracture of the RIM grain boundaries. The we have compared the different types of mechanical stress applied to a grain boundary with the fracture stress of the oxide. The first stress is due to RIM over-pressurized gas bubbles, these bubbles apply a stress field determined at a microscopic level i.e. at the gas bubbles scale and its local environment. The second stress is generated by the Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction (PCMI). This stress applies a stress field on a microscopic scale i.e. at the RIM zone and its overall environment. The last stress is occurred by a strain due to the RIM structural evolution during annealing test. The experimental results show that microscopic and macroscopic stress fields to do not explain the RIM grain boundary fracture during annealing test. The stresses induced by the RIM structural evolution as a function of the temperature is a possible mechanism to explain the overall mechanical behavior of the RIM zone during annealing test. (author)

  11. Pinhole bone scan mapping of metabolic profiles in osteoarthritis of the knee: a radiographic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is mixture of damage to a joint and reaction induced therefrom. Heterogeneity, slow change and no proper means of assessing pathology make it a difficult disease to study. Diagnosis can be made by radiography when OA is established. But subtle metabolic change without radiographic alteration can only be detected by bone scan. Present study was performed to assess metabolic profiles of OA of the knee with various radiographic and preradiographic changes using pinhole bone scan (PBS). PBS and radiography were taken at the same time or a few days apart. We used single-head gamma camera and a 4-mm pinhole collimator. Patients were 9 men and 19 women (30-74 yr with mean being 55). PBS was correlated with radiography in each case. Increased tracer uptake was seen in 111 lesions in 28 knees. Intensity was arbitrarily graded into Grade 0-2. The results were divided into group with radiographic change (n=85; Table) and group without (n=26). Generally, tracer uptake was much intense in the sclerotic and cystic form. In radiographically normal group pathological uptake occurred mostly in subchondral bone (n=17) and some in the femoral condyle (n=9) denoting that subchondral bone is the most vulnerable. PBS is sensitive indicator of metabolic alternations in various disease processes of OA in both radiographically normal and abnormal cases

  12. Spinal metastatic lesion in cancer patients. Investigation based on statistical analysis by bone scintigrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Takashi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    In a series of 2,216 cancer patients undergoing bone scintigraphy after diagnosis of the primary malignant tumor, 558 (25.2%) were found to have abnormal vertebral accumulation of radioactivity during the clinical course. Abnormal radioactivity in the vertebrae was frequently noted in patients with prostatic and renal cancer. The lumbar vertebrae were the most frequent sites but the cervical vertebrae were also affected with prostatic cancer, the thoracic vertebrae with lung and prostatic cancer, the lumbar vertebrae with breast and prostatic cancer and the sacral vertebrae with uterine cervical and prostatic cancer. Of the 558 patients with abnormal spinal radioactivity, 221 were examined by CT scan; the accumulated radioactivity was identified as a metastatic lesion in 170 patients (76.9%). Abnormal radioactivity was identified as a metastatic lesion most often in lung cancer patients. The CT-diagnosed metastases were classified into 3 types: sclerotic (51 patients, 30.0%), osteolytic (112, 65.9%), and mixed (46, 27.1%). The sclerotic type was relatively frequent in uterine cervical cancer, less frequent in lung cancer, and not seen in head and neck or renal cancer patients. The osteolytic type was relatively frequent in lung and renal cancer and less frequent in uterine cervical and prostatic cancer patients. Of the patients with CT-diagnosed vertebral metastasis, 87.3% survived for 3 months and 66.2% for 6 months after the detection of abnormal bone scintigraphy. Survival was shorter in patients with lung or gastrointestinal cancer than in those with other types of tumors. Since the pathology of vertebral metastasis of malignant tumors differs according to the primary lesion, the metastatic nature must be considered in the choice of treatment. (author).

  13. Development of a New Resilience Scale: The Resilience in Midlife Scale (RIM Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ryan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Resilience, the ability to maintain or regain positive levels of functioning despite adversity, is one of several strengths that can assist people in positive life adaptation. Midlife (35 - 60 years is a period when individuals need to adapt to several major changes and challenges. However, no scale exists to measure resilience specifically in the midlife population. Therefore, this study develops a new scale to measure resilience in midlife. The RIM scale consists of 25 items, each self-rated on a 5-point scale (0-4, with higher scores reflecting greater resilience. The scale was administered to a sample of 130 men and women, aged 35 - 60 years, from the normal population. The reliability, validity and factor analytic structure of the scale were evaluated, and reference scores established. The RIM scale demonstrated sound psychometric properties and factor analysis yielded five factors. The RIM scale has potential utility in clinical and research settings.

  14. A FIB/TEM Study of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multilayered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Several processes have been proposed for WL rim formation, including condensation, flash-heating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these [e.g. 1-7], but no consensus exists. Our previous coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and NanoSIMS O isotopic measurements showed that a WL rim experienced flash heating events in a nebular environment with planetary O isotopic composition, distinct from the (16)O-rich formation environment [6]. Our efforts have focused on CAIs from the CV(sub red) chondrites, especially Vigarano, because these have escaped much of the parent body alteration effects that are common in CAIs from CV(sub ox) group.

  15. Cracking of an Aircraft Wheel Rim Made From Al-Alloy 2014-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kosec

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally failures of different aircraft components and parts are revealed and examined by the use of non-destructive examination methods. In further detailed explanation and interpretation of failures optical and scanning electron microscopy are used. This paper deals with a problem of a crack on aircraft wheel rim made from aluminium alloy 2014-T6.The crack was observed during regular control by the maintenance unit for non-destructive examination of the Slovenian air carrier Adria Airways. The crack on the rim of an aircraft wheel investigated was a typical fatigue crack. At same time a numerous pits were found which served as stress concentrations on the rim surface.

  16. Opportunity In Situ Geologic Context of Aqueous Alteration Along Offsets in the Rim of Endeavour Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Farrand, W. H.; Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J. A.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Parker, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed 7.9 km and 27 degrees of arc along the rim of the 22 km-diameter Noachian "Endeavour" impact crater since its arrival 1200 sols ago. Areas of aqueous and low-grade thermal alteration, and changes in structure, attitude, and macroscopic texture of outcrops are notable across several discontinuities between segments of the crater rim. The discontinuities and other post-impact joints and fractures coincide with sites of apparent deep fluid circulation processes responsible for thermal and chemical alteration of local outcrops.

  17. Dual-time-point FDG-PET/CT Imaging of Temporal Bone Chondroblastoma: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Toriihara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal bone chondroblastoma is an extremely rare benign bone tumor. We encountered two cases showing similar imaging findings on computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and dual-time-point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/CT. In both cases, CT images revealed temporal bone defects and sclerotic changes around the tumor. Most parts of the tumor showed low signal intensity on T2- weighted MRI images and non-uniform enhancement on gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. No increase in signal intensity was noted in diffusion-weighted images. Dual-time-point PET/CT showed markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increased from the early to delayed phase. Nevertheless, immunohistochemical analysis of the resected tumor tissue revealed weak expression of glucose transporter-1 and hexokinase II in both tumors. Temporal bone tumors, showing markedly elevated 18F-FDG uptake, which increases from the early to delayed phase on PET/CT images, may be diagnosed as malignant bone tumors. Therefore, the differential diagnosis should include chondroblastoma in combination with its characteristic findings on CT and MRI.

  18. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  19. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Food and Your Bones Food and Your Bones The food that you eat can affect your ... by taking multivitamins or supplements . Good-for-Your-Bones Foods Food Nutrient Dairy products such as low- ...

  20. Bone marrow biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - bone marrow ... A bone marrow biopsy may be done in the health care provider's office or in a hospital. The sample may be taken from the pelvic or breast bone. Sometimes, other areas are used. Marrow is removed ...

  1. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... Bone density testing can be done several different ways. The most common and accurate way uses a ...

  2. Osteoporosis: The Bone Thief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this makes your bones weaker. Who Has Osteoporosis? Ten million Americans have osteoporosis. They are mostly ... a bone. What Can I Do For My Osteoporosis? Treating osteoporosis means stopping the bone loss and ...

  3. Single stage reconstruction of alar rim defect using auricular composite graft: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of reconstruction of a post infective alar rim defect, in a girl of 13 years of age, occurring as a result of septic piercing of the nose, using a composite graft taken from the ear in a single stage is described.

  4. Single stage reconstruction of alar rim defect using auricular composite graft: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Soni A

    2005-01-01

    A case report of reconstruction of a post infective alar rim defect, in a girl of 13 years of age, occurring as a result of septic piercing of the nose, using a composite graft taken from the ear in a single stage is described.

  5. 29 CFR 1910.177 - Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...it. (4) If a tire on a vehicle is underinflated but has more...while the rim wheel is on the vehicle provided remote control inflation...correct the seating of side and lock rings by hammering, striking...a barrier or bolted on the vehicle with the lug nuts fully...

  6. Constraints on the height of the inner disk rim in pre-main-sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vinkovi?, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    The structure of inner region of protoplanetary disks around young pre-main-sequence stars is still poorly understood. This part of the disk is shaped by various forces influencing dust and gas dynamics and by dust sublimation, which creates abrupt drops in the dust density. This region also emits a strong near-infrared excess that cannot be explained by classical accretion disk models, which suggests the existence of some unusual dust distribution or disk shape. The most prevalent explanation to date is the puffed-up inner disk rim model, where the disk exhibits an optically thin cavity around the star up to the distance of dust sublimation. The critical parameter in this model is the inner disk rim height $z_{\\rm max}$ relative to the rim's distance from the star $R_{\\rm in}$. Observations often require $z_{\\rm max}/R_{\\rm in}\\gtrsim0.2$ to reproduce the near-infrared excess in the spectra. In this paper we put together a comprehensive list of processes that can shape the inner disk rim and combined them to...

  7. Frontispiece: Seamless Rim-Functionalization of h-BN with Silica-Experiment and Theoretical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotti, Michele; Caputo, Riccarda; Krumeich, Frank; Nesper, Reinhard

    2015-05-18

    Functionalization of Boron Nitride Platelets of hexagonal boron nitride were functionalized with a silicon oxide rim in a simple room-temperature process. The mechanism of this functionalization has been investigated by first principles calculations. More details of this research are reported by R. Nesper and co-workers in their Communication on page?7662?ff. PMID:25955726

  8. Opportunities for Partnership in the Pacific Rim: Reflections on a Visit to Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Abel B., Jr.

    Community colleges are poised to play a vital role in Vietnam and other Pacific Rim nations currently seeking to develop their business sectors and economies. Projects and partnerships with U.S. community colleges are currently in progress in India, Malaysia, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. In addition, the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and…

  9. The CT flare response of metastatic bone disease in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background New or worsening bone lesions in patients responding to treatment, known as the flare phenomenon is well described on 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy, but to our knowledge has not previously been described on CT. The appearance of new or worsening bone sclerosis on CT in patients with prostate cancer may therefore be erroneously classified as disease progression. Purpose To assess the incidence of osteoblastic healing flare response at 3-month CT assessment in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and to identify associated features that enable differentiation from progressive metastatic bone disease at 3 months. Material and Methods CT scans of 67 patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer undergoing treatment were reviewed by a radiologist blinded to clinical outcome. Changes in number, size, and density of metastatic bone lesions were documented and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) in soft tissue lesions, alkaline phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, and 99mTc-MDP bone scans were used for correlation. Results Of the 39 patients who had 3- and 6-month follow-up, eight patients (21%) demonstrated an increase in number, size, or density of sclerotic lesions on the 3-month CT scan despite improvement in PSA and soft tissue lesions. Three out of eight patients (8%) maintained partial response/remained stable at follow-up and were defined as showing a flare response: in this group bone metastases evidsponse: in this group bone metastases evident on CT showed a qualitative and quantitative increase in density and no lesions faded at 3 months. In contrast, in all patients who progressed at 3 months by PSA/RECIST criteria (n = 8) bone lesions showed a mixed pattern with some lesions increasing and others decreasing in density. Conclusion The incidence of flare response of metastatic bone disease evident at 3-month post-treatment CT in patients with prostate cancer undergoing systemic treatment is 8%. In patients with falling PSA and stable/responding soft tissue disease at 3 months an increase in bone sclerosis in the absence of fading bone metastases can be interpreted as flare and is likely to represent a response

  10. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors...

  11. Dinosaur Bone Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2005-01-01

    This activity features two connected hands-on activities about dinosaur bones. Using chicken or turkey bones and regular household items, learners explore the scientific process of studying fossilized bones. By exposing the bones to vinegar or heat, learners begin to understand how paleontologists use chemical processes to study the bones of animals long dead and gone. Use this bone-themed activity around the Thanksgiving holiday and repurpose some leftovers.

  12. Rim structure formation and high burnup fuel behavior of large-grained UO2 fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation-induced fuel microstructural evolution of the sub-divided grain structure, or rim structure, of large-grained UO2 pellets has been examined through detailed PIEs. Besides standard grain size pellets with a grain size range of 9-12 ?m, two types of undoped and alumino-silicate doped large-grained pellets with a range of 37-63 ?m were irradiated in the Halden heavy water reactor up to a cross-sectional pellet average burnup of 86 GWd/t. The effect of grain size on the rim structure formation was quantitatively evaluated in terms of the average Xe depression in the pellet outside region measured by EPMA, based on its lower sensitivity for Xe enclosed in the coarsened rim bubbles. The Xe depression in the high burnup pellets above 60 GWd/t was proportional to d-0.5-d-1.0 (d: grain size), and the two types of large-grained pellets showed remarkable resistance to the rim structure formation. A high density of dislocations preferentially decorated the as-fabricated grain boundaries and the sub-divided grain structure was localized there. These observations were consistent with our proposed formation mechanism of rim structure, in which tangled dislocation networks are organized into the nuclei for recrystallized or sub-divided grains. In addition to higher resistance to the microstructure change, the large-grained pellets showed a smaller swelling rate at higher burnups and a lower fission gas release during base irradiation gas release during base irradiation

  13. Iron-Manganese Redox Reactions in Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Peretyazhko, T.; Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farrand, W. H.; Grant, J. A., III; Jolliff, B. L.; Parker, T. J.; Schroder, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Noachian age rocks and outcrops on the rim of the 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since August 2011. The Cape York area is a low-lying rim of Endeavour that contains 3 distinct lithologies: 1) the stratigraphically lowest Matijevic fm of pre-impact lithology, 2) Shoemaker fm of impact breccias, and 3) the stratigraphically highest rim lithology Grasberg fm of post-impact sediments that drape the lower slopes of the rim. The sulfate-rich sediment of the Burns fm lies unconformably over the Grasberg fm. Ca-sulfate veins were discovered in Grasberg fm sediments; the sulfates precipitated from aqueous fluids flowing upward through these materials. Opportunity investigated the chemistry and morphology of outcrops in the Matijevic fm that have Fe(sup 3+)-rich smectite detected by orbital signatures returned by CRISM on MRO. Matijevic fm also contains "boxwork" fractures with chemistry consistent with an Al-rich smectite and veins that appear to be rich in Ca-sulfate. More recently on Cape Tribulation, Opportunity has characterized two S-, Mg- and Mn-rich rich rocks overturned and fractured by the rover's wheels on Cook Haven. Those rocks have been dubbed "Pinnacle Island" and "Stuart Island" and will be referred to as the "Island" rocks. The objectives of this study are to characterize the Fe and Mn contents in the Cape York materials, including the two Island rocks, and to provide a model for Mn mobilization and precipitation. Detailed geochemistry of Endeavour rim rocks is presented in a companion paper. Geochemical trends and elemental associations were obtained from data returned by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) on Opportunity.

  14. Functional Coupling of Rab3-interacting Molecule 1 (RIM1) and L-type Ca2+ Channels in Insulin Release*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, María A.; Sandoval, Alejandro; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Mori, Yasuo; de Waard, Michel; Felix, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Insulin release by pancreatic ?-cells is regulated by diverse intracellular signals, including changes in Ca2+ concentration resulting from Ca2+ entry through voltage-gated (CaV) channels. It has been reported that the Rab3 effector RIM1 acts as a functional link between neuronal CaV channels and the machinery for exocytosis. Here, we investigated whether RIM1 regulates recombinant and native L-type CaV channels (that play a key role in hormone secretion) and whether this regulation affects insulin release. Whole-cell patch clamp currents were recorded from HEK-293 and insulinoma RIN-m5F cells. RIM1 and CaV channel expression was identified by RT-PCR and Western blot. RIM1-CaV channel interaction was determined by co-immunoprecipitation. Knockdown of RIM1 and CaV channel subunit expression were performed using small interference RNAs. Insulin release was assessed by ELISA. Co-expression of CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 L-type channels with RIM1 in HEK-293 cells revealed that RIM1 may not determine the availability of L-type CaV channels but decreases the rate of inactivation of the whole cell currents. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed association of the CaV? auxiliary subunit with RIM1. The lack of CaV? expression suppressed channel regulation by RIM1. Similar to the heterologous system, an increase of current inactivation was observed upon knockdown of endogenous RIM1. Co-immunoprecipitation showed association of CaV? and RIM1 in insulin-secreting RIN-m5F cells. Knockdown of RIM1 notably impaired high K+-stimulated insulin secretion in the RIN-m5F cells. These data unveil a novel functional coupling between RIM1 and the L-type CaV channels via the CaV? auxiliary subunit that contribute to determine insulin secretion. PMID:21402706

  15. Forsterite-rich accretionary rims around Ca,Al-rich inclusions from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Ulyanov, Alexander A.; Meibom, Anders; Keil, Klaus

    2001-05-01

    It was suggested that multilayered accretionary rims composed of ferrous olivine, andradite, wollastonite, salite-hedenbergitic pyroxenes, nepheline, and Ni-rich sulfides around Allende Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are aggregates of gas-solid condensates which reflect significant fluctuations in physico-chemical conditions in the slowly cooling solar nebula and grain/gas separation processes. In order to test this model, we studied the mineralogy of accretionary rims around one type A CAI (E104) and one type B CAI (E48) from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka, which is less altered than Allende. In contrast to the Allende accretionary rims, those in Efremovka consist of coarse-grained (20-40 ?m), anhedral forsterite (Fa1-8), Fe,Ni-metal nodules, amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained CAIs composed of Al-diopside, anorthite, and spinel, forsterite. Although the fine-grained CAIs, AOAs and host CAIs are virtually unaltered, a hibonite-spinel-perovskite CAI in the E48 accretionary rim experienced extensive alteration, which resulted in the formation of Fe-rich, Zn-bearing spinel, and a Ca, Al, Si-hydrous mineral. Forsterites in the accretionary rims typically show an aggregational nature and consist of small olivine grains with numerous pores and tiny inclusions of Al-rich minerals. No evidence for the replacement of forsterite by enstatite was found; no chondrule fragments were identified in the accretionary rims. We infer that accretionary rims in Efremovka are more primitive than those in Allende and formed by aggregation of high-temperature condensates around host CAIs in the CAI-forming regions. The rimmed CAIs were removed from these regions prior to condensation of enstatite and alkalies. The absence of andradite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite from the Efremovka rims may indicate that these rims sampled different nebular regions than the Allende rims. Alternatively, the Ca, Fe-rich silicates rimmimg Allende CAIs may have resulted from late-stage metasomatic alteration, under oxidizing conditions, of original Efremovka-like accretionary rims. The observed differences in O-isotope composition between forsterite and Ca, Fe-rich minerals in the Allende accretionary rims (Hiyagon, 1998) suggest that the oxidizing fluid had an 16O-poor oxygen isotopic composition.

  16. FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A CAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2010-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as CAIs, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated CAIs or are a byproduct of CAI formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a CAI with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.

  17. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... help with blood clotting. If you have a bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  18. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains immature cells, called stem cells. The ... platelets, which help the blood to clot. A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that replaces a ...

  19. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  20. What Is Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of bones is a network of fibrous tissue called matrix onto which calcium salts are laid down. The hard outer layer of bones is made of compact (cortical) bone, which covers the lighter spongy ... layer of fibrous tissue called periosteum . Some bones are hollow and have ...

  1. Rim versus Non-Rim States in the Arctic Region: Prospects for a Zero-Sum Game or a Win-Win One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ghimi?

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to develop a critical approach on one of the most urgent energy security challenges: the Arctic region. Until recently, it was considered to be a frozen desert, upon which no one raised any legal demands or interests. The global warming, the technological development and the increased need for energy resources had transformed the frozen High North into a very hot spot, where states like US, Canada, Norway, Denmark or Russia started an energy race that threatens to escalate. The Arctic became a strategic area given its opportunities: besides the energy resources, new commercial routes could become available for a longer period of time. But, due to legal uncertainties, the lack of coherent and direct legal procedures of international law, the Arctic game is an open one, in which any state can intervene and ask for a solution that is suitable for its interests. This aspect complicates even further the already unstable region. Some of the actors see the region as an international area, as a common good, where everyone has the right to explore or exploit, while the rim states see the Arctic in sovereign rights terms. Therefore, the game tends to complicate as non-rim players (the EU, China, Japan, NATO and South Korea want to intervene in the region and try to influence its development.

  2. Paget's sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most sinister complication of Paget's disease is malignant degeneration. The true etiology of Paget's disease remains unproven and unknown. The relative incidence of sarcoma ranges from 0.9% to 20% depending upon the population source. The anatomical distribution of lesions is similar to that of uncomplicated Paget's disease except for the high incidence in the humerus and rare occurrence in the spine. Approximately 50% of the lesions histologically represent osteosarcomas, with fibrosarcoma, fibrous histiocytoma, chondrosarcoma and giant cell tumor rarely occurring. The radiographic presentation is most commonly lytic, but sclerotic and mixed patterns occur. Cortical destruction and soft tissue mass are the cardinal radiographic signs. Malignant periosteal response is seldom found associated with Paget's sarcoma. The most common sites are femur, humerus, pelvis, skull and tibia. The prognosis is fatal at a very rapid rate. There are but a few isolated cases of long-term survival reported. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of radiographic and metabolic changes in bone metastases in response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate radiographic and metabolic changes in bone metastases in response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT and determine their roles on the evaluation of therapy response. We retrospectively evaluated radiographic and metabolic characteristics of bone metastases in 30 patients who were referred for the evaluation of response to systemic therapy with 18FDG-PET/CT. All patients underwent integrated 18FDG-PET/CT before and after treatment. The baseline radiographic patterns of the target lesions in responders group were lytic, sclerotic, mixed and CT negative; after treatment the radiographic patterns of all target lesions changed to a sclerotic pattern and attenuation increased (p = 0.012) and metabolic activity decreased (p = 0.012). A correlation was found between decreasing metabolic activity and increasing attenuation of the target lesions (r = ?0.55) (p = 0.026). However, in nonresponders group, the baseline radiologic patterns of the target lesions were lytic, blastic, mixed and CT negative; after treatment all lytic target lesions remained the same and one CT negative lesion turned to lytic pattern and the attenuation of the target lesions decreased (p ± 0.12) and metabolic activity increased (p = 0.012). A correlation was found between increasing metabolic activity and decreasing attenuation (r = ?0.65) (p = 0.032). An exception of this rule was seen in baseline blastic metastases which progressed with increasing in size, metabolic activity and attenuation. This study shows that the metabolic activity of lesions is a more reliable parameter than the radiographic patterns for the evaluation of therapy response

  4. Bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Yilgor Huri; Nesrin Hasirci; Vasif Hasirci

    2008-01-01

    The requirement for new bone to replace or restore the function of damaged or lost bone is a major clinical and social need. Bone tissue engineering has been considered as the alternative strategy to produce artificial bone grafts. The strategy of the method is to combine progenitor or mature cells isolated from desired cell source with biodegradable scaffolds to produce 3-D viable artificial bone in the laboratory conditions. Incorporation of growth factors that are regulators of cellular ac...

  5. Nd and Sr isotope compositions in modern and fossil bones - Proxies for vertebrate provenance and taphonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tütken, Thomas; Vennemann, Torsten W.; Pfretzschner, Hans-U.

    2011-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REE), while not essential for the physiologic functions of animals, are ingested and incorporated in ppb concentrations in bones and teeth. Nd isotope compositions of modern bones of animals from isotopically distinct habitats demonstrate that the 143Nd/ 144Nd of the apatite can be used as a fingerprint for bedrock geology or ambient water mass. This potentially allows the provenance and migration of extant vertebrates to be traced, similar to the use of Sr isotopes. Although REE may be enriched by up to 5 orders of magnitude during diagenesis and recrystallization of bone apatite, in vivo143Nd/ 144Nd may be preserved in the inner cortex of fossil bones or enamel. However, tracking the provenance of ancient or extinct vertebrates is possible only for well-preserved archeological and paleontological skeletal remains with in vivo-like Nd contents at the ppb-level. Intra-bone and -tooth REE analysis can be used to screen for appropriate areas. Large intra-bone Nd concentration gradients of 10 1-10 3 are often measured. Nd concentrations in the inner bone cortex increase over timescales of millions of years, while bone rims may be enriched over millenial timescales. Nevertheless, ? Nd values are often similar within one ? Nd unit within a single bone. Larger intra-bone differences in specimens may either reflect a partial preservation of in vivo values or changing ? Nd values of the diagenetic fluid during fossilization. However, most fossil specimens and the outer rims of bones will record taphonomic 143Nd/ 144Nd incorporated post mortem during diagenesis. Unlike REE patterns, 143Nd/ 144Nd are not biased by fractionation processes during REE-uptake into the apatite crystal lattice, hence the ? Nd value is an important tracer for taphonomy and reworking. Bones and teeth from autochthonous fossil assemblages have small variations of ±1 ? Nd unit only. In contrast, fossil bones and teeth from over 20 different marine and terrestrial fossil sites have a total range of ? Nd values from -13.0 to 4.9 ( n = 80), often matching the composition of the embedding sediment. This implies that the surrounding sediment is the source of Nd in the fossil bones and that the specimens of this study seem not to have been reworked. Differences in ? Nd values between skeletal remains and embedding sediment may either indicate reworking of fossils and/or a REE-uptake from a diagenetic fluid with non-sediment derived ? Nd values. The latter often applies to fossil shark teeth, which may preserve paleo-seawater values. Complementary to ? Nd values, 87Sr/ 86Sr can help to further constrain the fossil provenance and reworking.

  6. Theoretical and experimental research of hammer forging process of RIM from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of theoretical analysis and experimental tests of hammer forging process of rim part from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. On the basis of numerical simulation results, the analysis of limiting phenomena was made. These phenomena include: possibility of overlapping presence, not filling of die impression, overheating of material and cracks. The results of theoretical analysis provided the support for planning of experimental tests in industrial conditions. Forging tests were conducted in one of Polish forming plants, applying steam-air hammer of blow energy 63 kJ. On the basis of experimental verification, it was stated that it is possible to obtain rim forging from AZ31 alloy of assumed quality in the hammer forging process.

  7. Asia/Pacific Rim renewable energy market assessments by the State of Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of Hawaii has begun to encourage its economic growth and diversification by increasing the export of U.S. energy, environment, ocean, and information technologies. Hawaii's Strategic Technology Market Assessment and Development (STMAD) program promotes the transfer of U.S. technology into Asia and the Pacific Rim, locations having phenomenal growth potential and vast technological infrastructure demands. The STMAD program is managed by the State's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT). Under the auspices of STMAD, the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii is assessing biomass energy resources of Asian and Pacific Rim countries to identify and investigate sustainable energy markets. This paper reviews the STMAD program and reports findings of renewable energy assessment performed by HNEI and DBEDT. (author)

  8. Iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim during frontal trephine irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Douglas; Zener, Rebecca; Rotenberg, Brian W

    2014-12-01

    Frontal sinus trephination (FST) has numerous applications in the treatment of acute and chronic sinus disease. This procedure involves making an incision at the medial aspect of the supraorbital rim and then drilling the sinus's anterior table. Placement of a frontal trephine allows for irrigation of the frontal recess in order to evacuate the frontal sinus in a minimally invasive manner. Orbital injury is a rare complication of FST. We present a case of previously unreported orbital compartment syndrome secondary to iatrogenic fracture of the superomedial orbital rim as a complication of frontal trephine irrigation. We also review the literature on the applications of FST and its associated complications, and we discuss orbital compartment syndrome as a complication of sinus surgery. PMID:25531843

  9. Development of SFR Research and Integration Management System (S-RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to the present, the management of research and development (R and D) for a sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) could be individually performed on each project without an organic relationship. However, a more systemic and effective integrated management of a project is required because the research and development environment is currently changing. Thus, we developed a Research and Integration Management System for SFR (S-RIMS) based on the enterprise project management (EPM) solution. The functional goals of the S-RIMS are as follows: 1. Provide data that show the progress and status of a project 2. Manage the design process and R and D products 3. Share the consistent design data between sub-projects

  10. Anorexia Nervosa and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk., Adolescents with AN have decreased rates of bone accrual compared with normal-weight controls, raising addition concerns of suboptimal peak bone mass and future bone health in this age group. Changes in lean mass and compartmental fat depots, hormonal alterations secondary to nutritional factors contribute to impaired bone metabolism in AN. The best strategy to improve bone density is to regain weight and menstrual function. Oral estrogen-progesterone combinations are not effective in increasing bone density in adults or adolescents with AN, and transdermal testosterone replacement is not effective in increasing bone density in adult women with AN. However, physiologic estrogen replacement as transdermal estradiol with cyclic progesterone does increase bone accrual rates in adolescents with AN to approximate that in normal-weight controls, leading to a maintenance of bone density Z-scores. A recent study has shown that risedronate increases bone density at the spine and hip in adult women with AN. However, bisphosphonates should be used with great caution in women of reproductive age given their long half-life and potential for teratogenicity, and should be considered only in patients with low bone density and clinically significant fractures when non-pharmacological therapies for weight gain are ineffective. Further studies are necessary to determine the best therapeutic strategies for low bone density in AN. PMID:24898127

  11. Sources of Tropospheric Ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An Analysis of Ozonesonde Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Yu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chan, Lo Yin; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Harris, Joyce M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2002-01-01

    The sources contributing to tropospheric ozone over the Asian Pacific Rim in different seasons are quantified by analysis of Hong Kong and Japanese ozonesonde observations with a global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM) driven by assimilated meteorological observations. Particular focus is placed on the extensive observations available from Hong Kong in 1996. In the middle-upper troposphere (MT- UT), maximum Asian pollution influence along the Pacific Rim occurs in summer, reflecting rapid convective transport of surface pollution. In the lower troposphere (LT) the season of maximum Asian pollution influence shifts to summer at midlatitudes from fall at low latitudes due to monsoonal influence. The UT ozone minimum and high variability observed over Hong Kong in winter reflects frequent tropical intrusions alternating with stratospheric intrusions. Asian biomass burning makes a major contribution to ozone at less than 32 deg.N in spring. Maximum European pollution influence (less than 5 ppbv) occurs in spring in the LT. North American pollution influence exceeds European influence in the UT-MT, reflecting the uplift from convection and the warm conveyor belts over the eastern seaboard of North America. African outflow makes a major contribution to ozone in the low-latitude MT-UT over the Pacific Rim during November- April. Lightning influence over the Pacific Rim is minimum in summer due to westward UT transport at low latitudes associated with the Tibetan anticyclone. The Asian outflow flux of ozone to the Pacific is maximum in spring and fall and includes a major contribution from Asian anthropogenic sources year-round.

  12. The insect-trapping rim of Nepenthes pitchers: Surface structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Ulrike; Federle, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes capture prey with a pitfall trap that relies on a micro-structured, slippery surface. The upper pitcher rim (peristome) is fully wettable and causes insects to slip by aquaplaning on a thin water film. The high wettability of the peristome is probably achieved by a combination of hydrophilic surface chemistry, surface roughness and the presence of hygroscopic nectar. Insect foot attachment could be prevented by the delayed drainage of the thin...

  13. Cracking of an Aircraft Wheel Rim Made From Al-Alloy 2014-T6

    OpenAIRE

    Kosec, G.; Kovac?ic?, G.; Hodolic?, J.; Kosec, B.

    2010-01-01

    Generally failures of different aircraft components and parts are revealed and examined by the use of non-destructive examination methods. In further detailed explanation and interpretation of failures optical and scanning electron microscopy are used. This paper deals with a problem of a crack on aircraft wheel rim made from aluminium alloy 2014-T6.The crack was observed during regular control by the maintenance unit for non-destructive examination of the Slovenian air carrier Adria Airways....

  14. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  15. Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles: Report on clinical characteristics in 23 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini A; Gayathri N; Dawn Rose

    2010-01-01

    Background: Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) is an autosomal recessive (AR) myopathy characterized clinically by the preferential involvement of the tibialis anterior and has been reported predominantly in the Japanese population. Materials and Methods: A case series of DMRV patients seen over a period of 3 years at a tertiary national referral center for neurological disorders in south India. Results: We describe the clinical characteristics, muscle magnetic resonance imaging...

  16. Superior orbital rim approach for anterior communicating artery aneurysms: a surgical series of 27 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Byung Chan; Chen, Si-Yuan; Zheng, Yong-Ri; Cho, Yong-Woon; Kwon, Ki-Young

    2003-01-01

    There are debatable claims in the optimal approach for clipping of the anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysm. The authors invented the superior orbital rim approach (SORA) as an alternative and minimally invasive approach for the treatment of AcomA aneurysm. The authors reviewed retrospectively all the medical records of 27 patients of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured AcomA aneurysm. who were admitted to Kosin University Gospel Hospital for last 2 yr. Fourteen women (51.9%) an...

  17. Determinants and structural development of FDI in Pacific-Rim developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Jamuna Prasad

    1989-01-01

    The movements of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the recent past are marked by a relatively very high growth in the Pacific Rim (PR) countries (Australia, Brunei, China, Hongkong, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand). The developing countries of this area were able to raise considerably their share of the total world outflows in the first half of this decade (Table Al) . In the following analysis an attempt is made to work out...

  18. Energy indicators series: analyzing the energy-related evidence of economic transition in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, much attention has been focused upon the Asian Pacific countries as constituting an economic 'miracle' over the last two decades. Economic growth in the Pacific Rim has been higher than in any other area of the world. The rapid industrialization process and its impact on the economies of these countries, at both macro and micro levels, are discussed widely in the economic literature. Of particular interest are the fundamental structural changes these countries have experienced in their transition to industrialized economies. This instalment of the annual 'Energy indicators' series concentrates on Pacific Rim countries, namely Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Similar to other experiences, rapid economic growth in these countries has been accompanied by 'spectacular' growth in demand for energy. Therefore, this year's paper not only underlines certain trends in these six energy markets but also attempts to test the phenomenon 'threshold country', i.e., shifting from the developing to the industrialized world by using common indicators and methodologies. The analysis starts with a comparison of energy intensities. Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic and energy indicators of the Pacific Rim countries. Section 3 introduces a standard econometric model on the most dynamic consuming sector, namely transport. Section 4 presents the projections of consumption in this sector and discusses policy issues. Sthis sector and discusses policy issues. Some concluding remarks in Section 6 complete the paper. (author)

  19. Does Oxygen Isotopic Heterogeneity in Refractory Inclusions and Their Wark-Lovering Rims Record Nebular Repressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2013-01-01

    Large systematic variations in O-isotopic compositions found within individual mineral layers of rims surrounding Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and at the margins of some CAIs imply formation from distinct environments [e.g., 1-3]. The O-isotope compositions of many CAIs preserve a record of the Solar nebula gas believed to initially be O-16-rich (delta O-17 less than or equal to -25%0) [4-5]. Data from a recent study of the compact Type A Allende CAI, A37, preserve a diffusion profile in the outermost 70 micrometers of the inclusion and show greater than 25%0 variations in delta O-17 within its 100 micrometer-thick Wark-Lovering rim (WL-rim) [3]. This and comparable heterogeneity measured in several other CAIs have been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a planetary-like isotopic composition, e.g., [1,2,3,6]. However, there is mineralogical and isotopic evidence from the interiors of CAIs, in particular those from Allende, for parent body alteration. At issue is how to distinguish the record of secondary reprocessing in the nebula from that which occurred on the parent body. We have undertaken the task to study a range of CAI types with varying mineralogies, in part, to address this problem.

  20. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Bone: Radiological Pattern and the Potential Role of CBCT in Early Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Olutayo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To systematize the clinico-radiological symptoms and course of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw bone and to evaluate the diagnostic potential of various radiological techniques to detect mild osteonecrosis in each stage of the disease.Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 22 patients previously diagnosed with extraoral malignant disease. Diagnosis was based on a clinical examination in conjunction to digital panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Two dentomaxillofacial radiologists reviewed all images.Results: Twenty patients showed mandibular involvement clinically, while two others had a maxillary involvement. Four stages of the disease were proposed based on the clinico-radiological findings. Subclinical cortical and lamina dura thickening was detected with only three-dimensional CBCT and periapical images, while ulceration and cortical bone thickening was detected only by three-dimensional CBCT. Mixed sclerotic, lytic bone destruction involving alveolar and basal bone with or without encroachment on the mandibular canal, pathological mandibular fractures were detected by two-dimensional panoramic and three-dimensional CBCT images. Other findings are non healing extraction sockets, periapical radiolucencies, osteolysis, sequestra, oroantral fistula, and periosteal new bone formation.Conclusions: The present study showed that bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw bone occurs in four distinct clinico-radiological stages. For mild cases, panoramic image diagnosis was much less obvious, whereas cone beam computed tomography was able to fully characterise the bony lesions and describe their extent and involvement of neighbouring structures in all cases. Thus cone beam computed tomography might better contribute to the prevention of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw bone as well to the disease management.

  1. MRI of degenerative bone marrow lesions in experimental osteoarthritis of canine knee joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the value of MRI in the detection of degenerative bone marrow abnormalities in an animal osteoarthritis model. Design. In 10 dogs with experimentally induced unilateral osteoarthritis of the knee, MRI was performed using two-dimensional spin-echo (2D-SE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D-GE) imaging. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted 2D-SE sequences were also obtained after injection of gadolinium-DTPA. The results were compared with the gross and histopathologic findings and with radiography. Results. Histopathologic specimens revealed 21 osteosclerotic lesions and 5 intraosseous cysts. On 2D-SE images, 24 of 26 lesions were detected, while 21 of 26 lesions were identified on 2D-GE sequences. Radiography, including conventional tomography, demonstrated 9 of 26 lesions. Regardless of the sequence weighting, all osteosclerotic lesions appeared hypointense on MRI. Signal loss in bone sclerosis resulted primarily from the reduction of intact fat marrow, the increased bone density being of secondary importance. Quantitative signal analysis allowed approximate estimation of the grade of sclerosis. On postcontrast images, sclerotic bone remained hypointense, although significant but non-specific enhancement relative to the normal fat marrow was observed. The extent of contrast enhancement did not correlate with the grade of osteosclerosis. All five cysts were readily diagnosed by MRI. Cysts displayed either central od by MRI. Cysts displayed either central or marginal contrast enhancement within their cavities. Conclusions. MRI provides a sensitive method for the diagnosis of osteoarthritic bone abnormalities, allowing their differentiation from most non-degenerative subarticular lesions. (orig.). With 1 tab

  2. Nat'l_Register, ContributingResources, The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_qrytrail)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 4 arcs representing the portion of The Rim Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona that occurs within the...

  3. Management of subtrochanteric femur fractures with internal fixation and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 in a patient with osteopetrosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Robert D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Osteopetrosis is a group of conditions characterized by defects in the osteoclastic function of the bone resulting in defective bone resorption. Clinically, the condition is characterized by a dense, sclerotic, deformed bone which, despite an increased density observable by radiography, often results in an increased propensity to fracture and delayed union. Case Presentation We report the case of a 27-year-old Asian man presenting with bilateral subtrochanteric femur fractures. He had a displaced right subtrochanteric femur fracture after a low-energy fall, which was treated surgically. The second fracture that our patient endured was diagnosed as a stress fracture ten weeks later when he complained of pain in the contralateral left thigh. By that time, the right-sided fracture exhibited no radiographic evidence of healing, and when the left-sided stress fracture was being treated surgically, bone grafting with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 was also performed on the right side. Conclusion While there are no data supporting the use of bone morphogenic proteins in the management of delayed healing in patients with osteopetrosis, no other reliable osteoinductive grafting options are available to treat this condition. Both fractures in our patient healed, but based on the serial radiographic assessment it is uncertain to what degree the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 may have contributed to the successful outcome. It may have also contributed to the formation of heterotopic bone around the fracture site. Further investigation of the effectiveness and indications of bone morphogenic protein use for the management of delayed fracture healing in patients with osteopetrosis is warranted.

  4. Roentgenological semiotics of bone and bone joints pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiologic and pathologic processes in bones followed by alternations of bone structure and reflected on roentgenograms are considered and described. Most frequent reasons for roentgenodiagnosis errors in diseases of bone and bone joint apparatus are presented

  5. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will remove the pin. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ... doctor says it's OK. Back Continue Preventing Broken Bones Although fractures are a common part of childhood, ...

  6. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proximal tibia. The first is a harder, outer shell of bone that can be removed as a strip. The second is the spongier bone within the proximal tibia. Tools such as drills, chisels and scoops are used ...

  7. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (217 ... Overtraining Risks for Women Oral Health Partner Resources Smoking: It’s Never Too Late to Stop (NIA)

  8. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small anima...

  9. Aneurysmal bone cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Rangachari P

    2005-01-01

    Back ground: Aneurysmal bone cysts have raised intra-cystic pressures which are dynamic and diagnostic in nature. Aneurysmal bone cysts could be diagnosed from other benign cystic lesions of bone by recording their intra-cystic pressures with a spinal manometer. Raised intra-cystic pressures in aneurysmal bone cysts are maintained as long as the periosteum over the cyst is intact even in those with pathological fractures. Even though its pathology is definite its aetio-pathology is not clear...

  10. Diffusion in Bone Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    In order to prevent or modify the processes of bone degeneration the modeling and remodeling of bone tissue must be better understood. In this thesis it is assumed that the primary condition leading to bone growth is a change of the chemical environment caused by transport of matter resulting from stress driven diffusion. The change in the chemical environment may consist of changes in the concentration of different substances stimulating, for example, bone building osteoblast ...

  11. Glutamate signaling in bone

    OpenAIRE

    DeborahMason; KarenBrakspear

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical loading plays a key role in the physiology of bone, allowing bone to functionally adapt to its environment, however characterisation of the signalling events linking load to bone formation is incomplete. A screen for genes associated with mechanical load-induced bone formation identified the glutamate transporter GLAST, implicating the excitatory amino acid, glutamate, in the mechanoresponse. When an osteogenic load (10N, 10Hz) was externally applied to the rat ulna, GLAST (EAAT1) ...

  12. Cloning and molecular characterization of the gene rimL which encodes an enzyme acetylating ribosomal protein L12 of Escherichia coli K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Matsushita, Y; Yoshikawa, A; Isono, K

    1989-06-01

    The rimL gene of Escherichia coli K12 encodes an enzyme catalyzing the acetylation of the N-terminal serine of ribosomal protein L12, thereby converting it into L7. Using a mutant strain defective in this acetylation reaction, we cloned the rimL gene into cosmid pHC79 and characterized it at the molecular level. From analysis by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins synthesized in maxi-cells containing derivatives of the rimL-harboring plasmid into which transposon gamma delta had been inserted at various sites, the product of this gene was identified as a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 20.3 kDa. The nucleotide sequence of the gene and the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence were compared with those of two other ribosomal protein acetylases encoded by the rimI and rimJ genes (Yoshikawa et al. 1987). A considerable degree of overall similarity was seen between rimL and rimJ, but the degree of similarity between rimL and rimI was very low. In addition, a short stretch of similar amino acid sequence was found in all three rim acetylases. The significance of these results with respect to other acetylating enzymes, in particular those involved in the acetylation of aminoglycoside antibiotics is discussed. PMID:2671655

  13. What's a Funny Bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Body Works Main Page What's a Funny Bone? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > What's a Funny Bone? Print A A A Text Size Have you ... prickly kind of dull pain? That's your funny bone! It doesn't really hurt as much as ...

  14. Radionuclide bone scan utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide imaging can supply formation about organs and systems function. The radionuclide bone scan have a sensibility greater than radiology, to demonstrate any functional bone change before that radiology, being an easy, sure, quick method. We review discuss applications more common in benign osseous disease, neoplasic, traumatic or metabolic by bone scan. (The author)

  15. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  16. Technical Efficiency and Port Competition: Revisiting the Bohai Economic Rim, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Economic Rim plays an important role in supporting China s economic growth. For this research, we selected nine main ports in the region to study whether intra-port competition or corporatization would improve efficiency. Using a panel fixed effect model and stochastic frontier model, we found that the technical efficiency of selected ports is significantly influenced by the time of the initial public offering than by regional competition. The results are supportive and encouraging for policy makers to move toward the decentralized port governance in China.

  17. Formation of upper rim acylated calix[4]arenes using a sacrifici al zinc anode

    OpenAIRE

    Louati, Alain; Vataj, Rame; Gabelica, Valérie; Lejeune, Manuel; Matt, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    A straightforward electrosynthetic method is described, which allows upper rim acylation of non-p-halogenated calix[4]-arenes. For example, a solution of tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene 4 was electrolysed in the presence of ZnBr2, in an undivided cell fitted with a sacrificial zinc anode using pure acetonitrile as solvent, yielding an organozinc species, which was then treated with acetyl chloride in the presence of a palladium catalyst to afford 5,11-diacety1-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene ...

  18. Positron emission tracking of individual particles in particle-laden rimming flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motion of a single tracer particle in particle-laden rimming flows is investigated experimentally by means of Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT). Semi-dilute suspensions, with a volume fraction of 8% of heavy particles are considered. The trajectory of the tracer particle is monitored for several thousand cylinder revolutions and related to the optically recorded drift of the large-scale granular segregation bands developing in the cylinder. Results of the data analysis provide first insights into the relation between behaviour of individual particles and the spatiotemporal dynamics displayed by the macroscopic particle-segregation patterns

  19. Positron emission tracking of individual particles in particle-laden rimming flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denissenko, P., E-mail: P.Denissenko@gmail.com; Thomas, P. J., E-mail: PJT1@eng.warwick.ac.uk [Fluid Dynamics Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Guyez, E., E-mail: Estelle.Guyez@cea.fr [CEA DEN, 17 rue des Martyrs, 380 Grenoble (France); Parker, D. J., E-mail: D.J.Parker@bham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Seville, J. P. K., E-mail: J.P.K.Seville@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The motion of a single tracer particle in particle-laden rimming flows is investigated experimentally by means of Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT). Semi-dilute suspensions, with a volume fraction of 8% of heavy particles are considered. The trajectory of the tracer particle is monitored for several thousand cylinder revolutions and related to the optically recorded drift of the large-scale granular segregation bands developing in the cylinder. Results of the data analysis provide first insights into the relation between behaviour of individual particles and the spatiotemporal dynamics displayed by the macroscopic particle-segregation patterns.

  20. Neutron beam research in the Pacific Rim region - an Australian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program of research in neutron scattering was established in Australia in the early 1960's, shortly after the reactor HIFAR commenced full power operation. The program has included elements of regional cooperation from the very early days. A report is given on the present status of australian neutron scattering research, and the activities (including several major new developments) in other Pacific Rim countries are briefly reviewed. Given the increasing sophistication of neutron scattering facilities and techniques, the case for regional cooperation is strongly advocated. 13 refs., 1 tab

  1. Radioisotopic measurement methods for determining the wear railway brake shoe and its rim wearing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under operating conditions the wear of brake shoe was tested by a measuring method based on the principle of radioisotopic thickness measurement. It is characteristic to the sensitivity of the method that the wear caused by the fast braking of a train (speed: 100 km/h) as well as the uneven wear distribution were determinable. Surface activating methods assuring the periodic and continuous evaluation were also developed. A test was performed with galvanic surface activation under operating conditions to determine the rim wearing effect of the brake shoe. Apart from the operational tests a new method based on activated wear measurement was also developed. (author)

  2. Detection of wheel rim by immersion scan of phased array ultrasonic flaw testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-He; Guo, Jian-qiang; Wang, Ze-yong; Gao, Xiao-rong; Jiang, Xiang-dong; Li, Xi

    2015-02-01

    In order to achieve the in-service detection to high speed train wheel rims, this article analyzed the effects of the number of array elements to image focusing and image quality using water immersion ultrasonic phased array technology. Also, the effects of the depth of water to detecting technique had been researched. According to the results of the experiments, the number of optimal array elements, the corresponding thickness of immersion layer, and the optimal range of water's depth had been obtained. Thus, appropriate references had been provided to water immersion ultrasonic phased array testing.

  3. Thickness of the rim of an expanding lamella near the splash threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiter, J.; Pepper, R. E.; Stone, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the ejected liquid sheet, or lamella, created after impact of a liquid drop onto a solid surface is studied using high-speed video in order to observe the detailed time evolution of the thickness of the rim of the lamella. Since it has been suggested that splashing behavior is set at very early times after impact, we study early times up to D-0/U-0, where D-0 and U-0 are the diameter and speed of the impacting drop, respectively, for different liquid viscosities and impact sp...

  4. Tumor misto do rim com estrutura de Miosarcoma Mipernefroma e blastema renal em individuo adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Penna de Azevedo

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available O A. descreve um caso de turmor misto do rim, em indivíduo do sexo masculino, com 58 anos de idade. A doença teve evolução lenta, somente sendo suspeitada, quando atingiu a fase final. O exame necroscópico revelou a existência de volumoso tumor do rim direito, apresentando forma bosselada, medindo 19 x 10 x 10 cm e pesando 940 g. A massa tumoral destrói quase completamente a estrutura renal, desta pouca restando reconhecivel. Fora do rim, encontra-se tambem tecido blastomatoso no figado, nos gânglios linfáticos mesentéricos, no peritônio e no epiploon. A estrutura do tumor, observada nos cortes histológicos, é variavel conforme o tecido examinado: no rim hipernefroma; fígado, gãnglios linfáticos, nos nódulos do peritônio e do epiploon, sarcoma mioblástico; em alguns gânglios do mesentério, alem da estrutura de sarcoma mioblástico, existe tecido nefrógeno, representado por formações pouco numerosas, constituidas por túbulos epiteliais, reproduzindo a estrutura de túbulo urinífero. casos desta natureza teem sido referidos com particular raridade, muito se aproximando o caso estudado do descrito por CHEVREL-BODIN e MARUELLE.The A. describes a case of mixed tumor of the kidney in a 58-year-old male individual. The disease underwent a slow evolution, only being suspected when it attained its final stage. The post mortem examination revealed the presence of a bulky tumor of the right kidney, of a bosselated surface, measuring 19 x 10 x 10 cms. and 940 grs. in weigtht. The tumoral mass destroys the whole kidney structure, of which but very little of recognizable tissue is left. Outside the kidney, blastomatous tissue is also met with in the liver, mesenteric lymphatic glands, peritoneum and apiploon. The tumor structura observed on histological section, varies in conformity with the tissue examined: hipernephroma in the kidney; myoblastic sarcoma in the liver, lymphatic glands, nodules of the peritoneum and epiploon; in some mesenteric glands, apart from the myoblasto-sarcomatous structure, there is nephrogenic tissue, represented by infrequent formations made up epithelial tubules reproducing the structure of uriniferous tubules. Cases of such a feature have been reported as being of particular rarity, and the case here studied approaches very much that described by CHEVREL-BODIN and MARUELLE.

  5. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  6. Cortical bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five cases of bone metastases involving the cortex alone are reviewed. Seven patients had primary lung carcinoma, while 18 had primary tumors not previously reported to produce cortical bone metastases (tumors of the breast, kidney, pancreas, adenocarcinoma of unknown origin, multiple myeloma). Radiographically, these cortical lesions were well circumscribed, osteolytic, and produced soft-tissue swelling and occasional periosteal reaction. A recurrent pattern of metadiaphyseal involvement of the long bones of the lower extremity (particularly the femur) was noted, and is discussed. Findings reported in the literature, review, pathophysiology, and the role of skeletal radiographs, bone scans, and CT scans in evaluating cortical bone metastases are addressed

  7. Usefulness of 18F fluoride PET/CT in breast cancer patients with osteosclerotic bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone metastasis is an important factor for the treatment and prognosis of breast cancer patients. Whole body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) can evaluate skeletal metastases, and 18F FDG PET/CT seems to exhibit high specificity and accuracy in detecting bone metastases. However, there is a limitation of 18F FDG PET in assessing sclerotic bone metastases because some lesions may be undetectable. Recent studies showed that 18F fluoride PET/CT is more sensitive than WBBS in detecting bone metastases. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of 18F fluoride PET/CT by comparing it with WBBS and 18F FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients with osteosclerotic skeletal metastases. Nine breast cancer patients with suspected bone metastases (9 females; mean age ± SD, 55.6±10.0 years) underwent 99mTc MDP WBBS, 18F FDG PET/CT and 18F fluoride PET/CT. Lesion based analysis of five regions of the skeletons(skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, pelvic bones and long bones of extremities) and patient based analysis were performed. 18F fluoride PET/CT, 18F FDG PET/CT and WBBS detected 49, 20 and 25 true metastases, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 18F fluoride PET/CT were 94.2%, 46.3%, 57.7% and 91.2%, respectively. Most true metastatic lesions of 18F fluoride PET/CT had osteosclerotic change (oride PET/CT had osteosclerotic change (45/49, 91.8%), and only four lesions showed osteolytic change. Most lesions on 18F FDG PET/CT also demonstrated osteosclerotic change (17/20, 85.0%) with three osteolytic lesions. All true metastatic lesions detected on WBBS and 18F FDG PET/CT were identified on 18F fluoride PET/CT. 18F FDG PET/CT in detecting osteosclerotic metastatic lesions. 18F fluoride PET/CT might be useful in evaluating osteosclerotic metastases in breast cancer patients

  8. Bone stress injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, M.J.; Pihlajamaeki, H.K.; Ahovuo, J.A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-05-01

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications.

  9. Stereological evolution of the rim structure in PWR-fuels at prolonged irradiation: Dependencies with burn-up and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spino, J.; Stalios, A. D.; Santa Cruz, H.; Baron, D.

    2006-08-01

    The stereology of the rim-structure was studied for PWR-fuels up to the ninth irradiation cycle, achieving maximum local burn-ups of 240 GWd/tM and beyond. At intermediate radial positions (0.55 < r/ r0 < 0.7), a small increase of the pore and grain size of recrystallized areas was found, which is attributed to the increase of the irradiation temperatures in the outer half-pellet-radius due to deterioration of the thermal conductivity. In the rim-zone marked pore coarsening and pore-density-drop occur on surpassing the local burn-up of 100 GWd/tM, associated with cavity fractions of ?0.1. Above this threshold the porosity growth rate drops and stabilizes at a value nearing the matrix-gas swelling-rate (?0.6%/10 GWd/tM). The rim-cavity coarsening shows ingredients of both Ostwald-ripening and coalescence mechanisms. Despite individual pore-contact events, no clusters of interconnected pores were observed up to maximum pore fractions checked (?0.24). The rim-pore-structure is found to be well represented in its lower bound by the model system of random penetrable spheres, with percolation threshold at ?c = 0.29. Rim-cavities are expected to remain closed at least up to this limit.

  10. Dinitrogen fixation by exposed communities on the rim of Tikehau atoll (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Larkum, A. W. D.

    2005-12-01

    Various types of sub-aerially exposed microbial mats, including emergent mats, beach sand, beach rock and Kopara mats, are widespread on the 78 km (25 km2) of rim surrounding the Tikehau atoll lagoon. These mats form laminated accretions or diffuse microbial communities growing under high insolation and temperatures, and are therefore subject to desiccation. Both heterocystous and non-heterocystous cyanobacteria occur in these mats. Using acetylene reduction techniques, nitrogenase activity was observed at all sites over a period of 5 years and was 3-17 times higher during daylight than at night in all communities except for beach rock. 15N2 measurements indicated a molar ratio of acetylene reduction to N2 fixed of 1.6 for all exposed communities. Estimated N2 fixation ranged from 1.44 to 8.0 mg N m-2 day-1 in these exposed communities (mean of 4.66 mg N m-2 day-1) with beachrock showing the highest rates. For the whole reef rim, daily N2 fixation amounted to 98.42 kg N day-1 which represents 28% of the rate of fixation in the entire lagoon (area 400 km2).

  11. A Radio and Mid-Infrared Survey of Northern Bright-Rimmed Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, L K; Urquhart, J S; Miao, G J; Miao, Glenn.J.White & J.

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out an archival radio, optical and infrared wavelength imaging survey of 44 Bright-Rimmed Clouds (BRCs) using the NRAO/VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) archive, images from the Digitised Sky Survey (DSS) and the Midcourse Space eXperiment (MSX). The data characterise the physical properties of the Ionised Boundary Layer (IBL) of the BRCs. A total of 25 clouds display 20 cm radio continuum emission that is associated with their bright optical rims. The ionising photon flux illuminating these clouds, the ionised gas pressure and the electron density of the IBL are determined. We derive internal molecular pressures for 9 clouds using molecular line data from the literature and compare these pressures to the IBL pressures to determine the pressure balance of the clouds. We find three clouds in which the pressure exerted by their IBLs is much greater than that measured in the internal molecular material. A comparison of external pressures around the remaining clouds to a global mean internal pressure shows th...

  12. Analysis of physical processes affecting restructuring of UO2 fuel in Rim-zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the presented paper is the analysis of the processes affecting so-called 'rim-zone' formation in UO2 and the development of the model describing isotope content profiles at extended burnup. The influence of rim-zone and extended burnup on fuel temperatures is also considered. A brief review of the worldwide models for fission rate and isotope content profiles at extended burnup is given. In this frame, a new model for for prediction of radial profiles of burnup, fission rate and plutonium isotopes have been developed in the TRINITY (Russia). The results from the comparison of the model predictions with experimental data show that the model has good predictability. A new model describing the conditions of dislocation loop nucleation from interstitial atom clusters on fission spikes is also proposed in this paper. The results of the model show that the fuel grain diameter significantly affects the concentration of point defects and dislocation loops. The paper presents the results from the RTOP code calculations of fuel temperature, taking into account non-uniform fission rate and thermal conductivity degradation as result of burnup increasing

  13. Detection of submicron rim growth on zircon using ion microprobe U-Pb age depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S. M.; Grove, M.; Whitney, D. L.; Teyssier, C.

    2006-12-01

    The rims of zircon commonly preserve crucial U-Pb age information for deciphering thermotectonic events in orogenic crust. In many cases, the rims recording the last phase of zircon growth are < 1 micron and are hence difficult or impossible to analyze using conventional methods, including ion probe spot analyses. In the migmatitic core of the Valhalla gneiss dome complex of British Columbia, rocks were variably affected by a partial melting and deformation event at 60-50 Ma. Some leucosomes in migmatites with variable melt fraction (5-30 percent) yield 60-50 Ma zircon and monazite U-Pb and Th-Pb ages that constrain when partial melting, extension, and exhumation of the dome occurred. In contrast, zircons from a granodiorite gneiss in the core of the dome contain no easily accessed record of the Eocene event and instead record its 100 Ma emplacement age. To enhance our ability to resolve the Eocene event, we performed "ion drilling" into zircon crystal faces to measure U-Pb age depth profiles with <100 nm spatial resolution with a CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. Zircon was analyzed from 3 samples: leucosome from a stromatic migmatite, leucosome crystallized in a boudin neck, and the granodiorite gneiss. The stromatic leucosome yielded a consistent age of ca. 51 Ma over 4 microns. Previous conventional spot analyses of the same grains (analyzed in polished grain mounts) showed ages from ca. 450 Ma to ca. 52.5 Ma. In the case of the boudin neck, previous spot analyses of zircon had yielded concordant ages of 62 and 59 Ma; however, with the depth profiling technique, most grain rims yielded age gradients from ca. 42 Ma to ca. 60 Ma over the outermost 1-2 microns of the crystals. Zircons from the ca. 100 Ma granodiorite gneiss revealed very high U (to 99805 ppm) rims developed over the outer 100-250 nm. Below the high U rim, the grains record ages that increased from ca. 50 to 90 Ma within the first 0.5 microns of the crystal face. The outermost high-U regions yielded very young and geologically unrealistic U-Pb ages (ca. 26 Ma) that directly correlate with U content and appear to reflect Pb loss. Even though the 3 samples are petrologically and structurally distinct, and represent different structural locations in the dome, all reveal some evidence for an Eocene thermotectonic event. Our results demonstrate the utility of the high- resolution, depth profiling capability of the ion microprobe, and its complementary role to conventional SIMS, LAICPMS, and TIMS U-Pb analyses. In some instances it may represent the only method capable of resolving crucial U-Pb age information preserved at the submicron scale at the outermost surfaces of zircon.

  14. Bone health in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The skeleton undergoes rapid change with respect to growth, modeling and remodeling processes in adolescence. Consequently, the effects of factors that affect bone health positively or negatively can be greater. Between 40% and 60% of, peak bone mass which serves as the bone bank for life, is accrued during adolescence. Lifetime risk of osteoporosis and fracture may be increased if optimal peak bone mass cannot be reached.Accrual of peak bone mass is affected by unmodifiable intrinsic factors and less important extrinsic factors. Higher body mass index and body fat and lower dietary calcium intake increase fracture risk in healthy adolescents. Bone mass was found to be 5% to 10% lower in adolescents with fracture than their peers. Adequate nutrition in amount and composition and life style factors are important for skeletal health. While diets rich in saturated fats and refined sugars and lower in protein may be detrimental to bone health, optimal quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids and complex carbohydrates may be beneficial to bone health. Dietary calcium and vitamin D are key factors in promoting bone health and preventing bone loss. Phosphorus and magnesium as well as other elements and especially vitamin C and K have been shown to play important roles in bone health. While weight bearing regular exercise and a healthy bodyweight are beneficial to bone health, alcohol consumption and smoking contribute to poor bone health. Adolescence may serve as a period of opportunity for reduction of the incidence of osteoporosis in adulthood through implication of effective intervention strategies. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 54-8

  15. Sclerotic atrophic plaques associated with a tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dawsari, Najla A; Croke, John; Yaar, Mina

    2014-07-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease, usually of the anogenital area, that causes intractable itching and soreness. Less commonly, it may have extragenital involvement in 15 to 20% of cases. Lichen sclerosus has been reported at sites of injury as a Koebner phenomenon. We report a case of lichen sclerosus at the site of a tattoo with simultaneous genital involvement. PMID:25046469

  16. Protein mutated in paroxysmal dyskinesia interacts with the active zone protein RIM and suppresses synaptic vesicle exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiguo; Ge, Woo-Ping; Li, Yulong; Hirano, Arisa; Lee, Hsien-Yang; Rohlmann, Astrid; Missler, Markus; Tsien, Richard W; Jan, Lily Yeh; Fu, Ying-Hui; Ptá?ek, Louis J

    2015-03-10

    Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is an autosomal dominant episodic movement disorder precipitated by coffee, alcohol, and stress. We previously identified the causative gene but the function of the encoded protein remains unknown. We also generated a PNKD mouse model that revealed dysregulated dopamine signaling in vivo. Here, we show that PNKD interacts with synaptic active zone proteins Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM)1 and RIM2, localizes to synapses, and modulates neurotransmitter release. Overexpressed PNKD protein suppresses release, and mutant PNKD protein is less effective than wild-type at inhibiting exocytosis. In PNKD KO mice, RIM1/2 protein levels are reduced and synaptic strength is impaired. Thus, PNKD is a novel synaptic protein with a regulatory role in neurotransmitter release. PMID:25730884

  17. A soluble bone morphogenetic protein type IA receptor increases bone mass and bone strength

    OpenAIRE

    Baud’huin, Marc; Solban, Nicolas; Cornwall-brady, Milton; Sako, Dianne; Kawamoto, Yoshimi; Liharska, Katia; Lath, Darren; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Underwood, Kathryn W.; Ucran, Jeffrey; Kumar, Ravindra; Pobre, Eileen; Grinberg, Asya; Seehra, Jasbir; Canalis, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    Diseases such as osteoporosis are associated with reduced bone mass. Therapies to prevent bone loss exist, but there are few that stimulate bone formation and restore bone mass. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF? superfamily, which act as pleiotropic regulators of skeletal organogenesis and bone homeostasis. Ablation of the BMPR1A receptor in osteoblasts increases bone mass, suggesting that inhibition of BMPR1A signaling may have therapeutic benefit. The aim of this s...

  18. Correlation between 3D microstructural and 2D histomorphometric properties of subchondral bone with healthy and degenerative cartilage of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, Andreas; Kasch, Richard; Spank, Heiko; Erggelet, Christoph; Esser, Jan; Merk, Harry; Mrosek, Eike

    2014-11-01

    Cartilage degeneration of the knee joint is considered to be a largely mechanically driven process. We conducted a microstructural and histomorphometric analysis of subchondral bone samples of intact cartilage and in samples with early and higher- grade arthritic degeneration to compare the different states and correlate the findings with the condition of hyaline cartilage. These findings will enable us to evaluate changes in biomechanical properties of subchondral bone during the evolution of arthritic degeneration, for which bone density alone is an insufficient parameter. From a continuous series of 80 patients undergoing implantation of total knee endoprosthesis 30 osteochondral samples with lesions macroscopically classified as ICRS grade 1b (group A) and 30 samples with ICRS grade 3a or 3b lesions (group B) were taken. The bone samples were assessed by 2D histomorphometry (semiautomatic image analysis system) and 3D microstructural analysis (high-resolution micro-CT system). The cartilage was examined using the semiquantitative real-time PCR gene expression of collagen type I and II and aggrecan. Both histomorphometry and microstructural and biomechanical analysis of subchondral bone in groups A and B consistently revealed progressive changes of both bone and cartilage compared with healthy controls. The severity of cartilage degeneration as assessed by RT PCR was significantly correlated with BV/TV (Bone Volume Fraction), Tb.Th (Trabecular Thickness) showed a slight increase. Tb.N (Trabecular Number), Tb.Sp (Trabecular separation) SMI (Structure Model Index), Conn.D (Connectivity Density) and DA (Degree of Anisotropy) were inversely correlated. We saw sclerotic transformation and phagocytic reticulum cells. Bone volume fraction decreased with an increasing distance from the cartilage with the differences compared with healthy controls becoming greater in more advanced cartilage damage. The density of subchondral bone alone is considered an unreliable parameter for classifying changes evolving over time. The progressive damage of subchondral bone seen in the present study correlates well with cartilage changes. Trabecular orientation is also impaired, which explains the changes in biomechanical parameters and the inadequate load transfer and excessive loading of cartilage. Besides subchondral bone density, which in turn correlates with cartilage thickness, other parameters such as structure model index and grade of anisotropy best reflect mechanical properties such as Young modulus, compressive strength, tensile stress, and failure energy. However, it remains unclear whether the mechanical interaction of the mineralized subchondral tissues with articular cartilage works vice versa. The possibility of a biochemical signalling from the degenerating cartilage via the synovial fluid and bone- cartilage crosstalks via subchondral pores may indeed explain a certain depth-dependency of subchondral bone changes. PMID:24828695

  19. Bone tumors: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone tumors represent approximately 5% of childhood malignancies. osteosarcoma is the primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 60% of cancer with peak incidence in the 2nd decade of life. Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone cancer with peak at a slightly younger age. This presentation discusses similarities and differences in the diagnosis and treatment of these two malignancies. Diagnostic procedures include plain radiographs, CT and MRI of the primary site, plain x-ray and CT of the chest, bone scan, and biopsy of the primary tumor. For patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma, a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy will also be required. Our current approach to the treatment of bone tumors includes preoperative combination chemotherapy and en bloc surgical removal of the tumor followed by postoperative chemotherapy. In the case of Ewing's sarcoma, radiation therapy may be employed in addition to surgery, if margins are questionable of instead of surgery, if the tumor is not resectable

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Play Video Clip (00:04:40) Your Radiologist Explains Bone X-ray What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Play Video Clip (00:04:40) Your Radiologist Explains Bone X-ray What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  2. Crack initiation in hydro power plant rotor rim sheets : A failure case study for Juktan hydro power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Altzar, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, cracks were found in the radius of the dovetail slots of the rotor rim sheets in generator 1 of Juktan hydro power plant in Västerbotten, Sweden. The cracks were estimated to be too deep to be able to repair and Alstom conducted an investigation on the cause of fracture. The investigation came to the conclusion that the radius was too small and that the new rotor rim sheets should have a six times greater fillet radius. However, it has not been investigated whether the material stru...

  3. FeO-rich rims and veins in Allende forsterite - Evidence for high temperature condensation at oxidizing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents new data on trace elements in fayalite-rich rims, veins, halos, and matrix olivines in the Allende meteorite. On the basis of new evidence, it is argued that the fayalitic rims were formed by condensation from a gas, and not by thermal equilibration of forsterite with FeO-rich metal or FeO-rich olivine in the interior of a parent body. A similar origin is inferred for fayalitic veins within forsterite crystals. Condensation calculations showed that FeO-rich olivine can be formed by condensation from a gas with enhanced oxygen fugacity. 29 refs

  4. Osteoinduction by demineralised bone

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, E.

    1998-01-01

    Bone contains several growth factors, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic and acidic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF and aFGF). The BMPs are the only factors known to provoke bone formation heterotopically by making undifferentiated mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts (osteoinduction). Much of our knowledge of osteoinduction d...

  5. Bone stress injuries; Stressfrakturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Julia [Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Rottenburger, Christof [Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Uhl, Markus [Regionalverbund kirchlicher Krankenhaeuser (RkK), Freiburg (Germany). St. Josefskrankenhaus, Abt. Radiologie

    2010-03-15

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of skeleton. Stress-related bone injuries are quite common among otherwise healthy persons who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis is based on a typical patient's history and imaging findings. Conventional radiography serves as the primary imaging modality when a stress injury is suspected clinically. In the case of negative or atypical findings, the diagnosis should be confirmed with MRI rather than with bone scintigraphy. (orig.)

  6. Pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifah, MIA; Nor Hazla, MH; A Suraya; Tan, SP

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an extremely rare case of a huge aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the pelvis, occurring in the patient’s 5th decade of life. The patient presented with a history of painless huge pelvic mass for 10 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography showed huge expansile lytic lesion arising from the right iliac bone. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to profuse bleeding from the tumour.

  7. Growth and bone development.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C.; Harvey, N.; Javaid, K.; Hanson, M.; Dennison, E.

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss, and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. The normal patterns of skeletal growth have been well characterized in cross-sectional and longitudina...

  8. Modelo de tumor experimental em rim de ratos / Experimental tumor model in rats kidney

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lúcio Flávio Gonzaga, Silva; Felipe dos Santos Dias, Soares; José Nilson Nunes, Anselmo; Daniel Mota Moura, Fé; João Luiz Barbosa Gurgel, Cavalcante; Manoel Odorico de, Moraes; Paulo Roberto Leitão de, Vasconcelos.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker tem despertado o interesse de muitos pesquisadores como modelo experimental para estudo da biologia tumoral. OBJETIVO: estabelecer um modelo de tumor renal que possa ser usado para estudar in vivo e in vitro, as alterações impostas pelas neoplasias. MÉTODOS: utilizado [...] s vinte ratos Wistar, machos, adultos, pesando entre 250-300 g, oriundos do Laboratório de Cirurgia Experimental da Universidade Federal do Ceará. Sob anestesia inalatória procedia-se uma pequena incisão supraumbilical, e com manobra delicada fazia-se a exposição do rim direito. Neste órgão eram inoculadas 3x10(5) células tumorais viáveis. Os animais então eram mantidos em gaiolas individuais com as mesmas condições ambientais e com água e dieta ad libitum. RESULTADOS: o Carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker, implantado no parênquima do rim direito de ratos Wistar apresentou índice de pega de 100%, e crescimento rápido, invadiu por contiguidade as estruturas vizinhas, porém sem apresentar metástases, no entanto, levando os animais a óbito no curso médio de 14 dias. CONCLUSÃO: o modelo de implante de tumor de Walker no parênquima do rim direito de ratos Wistar é eficiente, tem reprodutibilidade, apresentando um índice de pega de 100%, e permitindo seu uso em linhas de pesquisa. Abstract in english Walker carcinossarcoma 256 has a great interest as experimental model for studies on tumoral biology. OBJECTIVE: develop a kidney tumor model to be used in the evaluation of the biological behavior of neoplasms in vitro and in vivo environments. METHODS: twenty adult male Wistar rats weighting betwe [...] en 250-300 g were obtained from the Federal University of the Ceará Experimental Surgery Laboratory. Upon ether anesthesia, the right kidney of each animal was accessed through a supraumbelical incision and inoculated with a solution containing 3 x 10(5) tumor cells (Walker 256 carcinossarcoma tumor cells). Following anesthetic recovery the rats were returned to their cages, housed individually and allowed to eat and drink ad libitum. RESULTS: the post-operative average survival was 14 days. Tumor growth was encountered in all animals. The rats exhibited destruction of the kidney, invasion of the adjacent structures, but absence of metastasis. CONCLUSION: the kidney Walker tumor model proved to be an excellent tool for experimental studies on tumor behavior, due to its rapid growth and its easy reproduction.

  9. Dinosaur Flesh and Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Crosslin

    2004-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore dinosaur skeletons. First, learners listen to "Bones, Bones, Dinosaur Bones" by Byron Barton to learn about the difference between pictures of dinosaurs that have skin and muscle (fleshed-out) and those that show skeletons. Then, learners match pictures of dinosaurs to pictures of the dinosaurs' skeletons. Learners can also explore other animal bones and skeletons online and/or reassemble paper dinosaur skeletons. This activity can also be used to help learners explore scale as they realize that large dinosaurs had large skeletons and small dinosaurs had small skeletons. This activity is featured on page 37 of the "Dinosphere" unit of study for K-2 learners.

  10. MRI of bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, D.; Tardivon, A. [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France)]|[CIERM, Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, Kremlin Bicetre (France); Bittoun, J. [CIERM, Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, Kremlin Bicetre (France)

    1998-10-01

    Some knowledge of MR theory is required to be able to achieve high contrast between bone metastases and normal marrow. Three factors are used in MR to diagnose bone metastases: fat-water distribution, artifacts induced by bone trabeculae, and uptake of contrast medium. Using MR-histological correlations based on specimens of the lumbar spine, and studies of patients, we explain the advantages and limitations of sequences studying fat and water (spin-echo T1, STIR, in- and out-of-phase gradient echo, fat presaturation), bone trabeculae (gradient echo with long TE), and the injection of contrast medium. (orig.) (orig.) With 9 figs., 23 refs.

  11. Hypercalciuric Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favus, Murray J.

    2008-09-01

    Hypercalciuria plays an important causal role in many patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. The source of the hypercalciuria includes increased intestinal Ca absorption and decreased renal tubule Ca reabsorption. In CaOx stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH), Ca metabolic balance studies have revealed negative Ca balance and persistent hypercalciuria in the fasting state and during low dietary Ca intake. Bone resorption may also contribute to the high urine Ca excretion and increase the risk of bone loss. Indeed, low bone mass by DEXA scanning has been discovered in many IH patients. Thiazide diuretic agents reduce urine Ca excretion and may increase bone mineral density (BMD), thereby reducing fracture risk. Dietary Ca restriction that has been used unsuccessfully in the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis in the past may enhance negative Ca balance and accelerate bone loss. DEXA scans may demonstrate low BMD at the spine, hip, or forearm, with no predictable pattern. The unique pattern of bone histologic changes in IH differs from other causes of low DEXA bone density including postmenopausal osteoporosis, male hypogonadal osteoporosis, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Hypercalciuria appears to play an important pathologic role in the development of low bone mass, and therefore correction of urine Ca losses should be a primary target for treatment of the bone disease accompanying IH.

  12. Equilibrium and Stability of a Rim of High--Pressure Phase on an Elastic Sphere subject to External Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S.

    2012-12-01

    : In their study of the kinetics of the ?-? transformation in olivine, Kubo et al. (1998) report that a rim of ? phase formed on the sample and grew into the ? phase core, but that growth ceased creating a stable rim. The phases are then in thermodynamic equilibrium across the rim-core interface, even though the applied pressure exceeds the pressure at which the phases would coexist in a common hydrostatic state. In the observed equilibrium, deviatoric stresses must exist within the phases; their presence means that the equilibrium can only be described by a model coupling interfacial conditions to the mechanics of the bulk phases. Existing models (a) incorrectly describe the strain within the rim, and (b) incorrectly account for the effect of strain energy on the thermodynamics. The underlying errors are conceptual, not algebraic. To illustrate items (a) and (b), I simplify by assuming the individual phases to be incompressible. Because models in which the phases are allowed to be compressible must correctly describe the incompressible case, this simple model provides a test of more complex ones. The model sample is a sphere subject at its surface to a constant pressure; the sphere consists initially of pure ? phase. The displacement u is purely radial; the phase interface propagates inwards. Because u is determined purely by mass conservation, its calculation is elementary. Within the dense rim, the deviatoric radial strain proves to be negative, but the corresponding strain--rate is positive. I will explain how these two statements are consistent. So far, only kinematics has been used, but to determine stresses, a constitutive equation must be assumed. The significance of the italicized words now emerges. In the extremes in which radial deviatoric stress is assumed to depend either on deviatoric strain alone or on deviatoric strain-rate alone, the sign of the deviatoric stress is different. This has implications for the pressure field within the sample. When rim growth has ceased, the strain-rate is necessarily zero: the deviatoric stress field must be determined by the strain. If with this motivation, we assume Hooke's law, we find that the pressure within the core exceeds the applied pressure. This is not consistent with the usual view that transformation stresses cause the pressure within the core to fall to the coexistence pressure. Although published studies of the elastic case do predict a stable equilibrium, they do so only because their authors incorrectly calculate the strain within the rim. By contrast, if we add to the present calculation of the strain, a correct discussion of the effect of strain energy on the coexistence condition, we find that equilibrium of a rim and core is possible, but unstable. I will interpret this unstable equilibrium, and explain how the model system actually transforms in this case. I conclude that the elastic model can not explain the Kubo observations if the applied pressure is constant. Microstructure in the rim suggests that creep may have occurred during rim formation, and it is tempting to speculate that adding enough creep may change the sign of the deviatoric stress, so that core pressure falls rather than rises as the rim grows. The details of that have to be worked out.

  13. Multiple soft tissue aneurysmal cysts: An occurrence after resection of primary aneurysmal bone cyst of fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkuzhali P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of multiple extraosseous aneurysmal cysts occurring in the muscle and subcutaneous plane of postero-lateral aspects of the upper right leg. They appeared about 15 months after resection of aneurysmal bone cyst of the upper end of the fibula. They varied in size from 2 cm to 5 cm. Radiologically they were well-defined lesions with central septate areas surrounded by a rim of calcification. Histologically they showed central cystic spaces separated by septa consisting of fibroblasts, osteoclast type of giant cells and reactive woven bone. Thus they showed histological similarity with aneurysmal bone cysts, but did not show any connection with the bone. Only very few examples of aneurysmal cysts of soft tissue had been described in the past one decade and they were reported in various locations including rare sites such as arterial wall and larynx. Recent cytogenetic analyses have shown abnormalities involving 17p11-13 and/or 16q22 in both osseous and extraosseous aneurysmal cysts indicating its probable neoplastic nature. Our case had unique features like multiplicity and occurrence after resection of primary aneurysmal bone cyst of the underlying bone.

  14. Environmentally assisted cracking of low pressure steam turbine disk-rim material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, H.; Sugita, Y. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Midoriku, Nagoya (Japan); Kondo, Y.; Bodai, M.; Takel, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Arai, Takasago (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    At the last stage disk-rim blade attachments of low pressure steam turbines for fossil power units which are subjected to increasing number of start-stop operations, the frequent start-stop operations can be a potential problem in the integrity of the rotor. Environmentally assisted cracking of 3.5 NiCrMoV low alloy steel under cyclic straining was investigated in both the water environment at 60 C in the laboratory and the actual steam environment of a low pressure steam turbine. Effects of strain rate, strain holding time, superposed vibratory stress, impurities and dissolved oxygen in the water environment, on crack initiation life and crack propagation rate were investigated using trapezoidal strain wave form.

  15. Infrared observations of Barnard 35: Heat sources for bright-rimmed molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted a deep 2 mm wavelength infrared survey of an extended region of enhanced 12CO emission in the bright-rimmed molecular cloud Barnard 35 in order to search for embedded heat sources. Twelve infrared sources were detected, all of which have been identified with visible, apparently foreground stars. Optical spectra were obtained for most of these sources, and we found them to be of relatively late spectral type (i.e., F8 and later). Two of the sources we detected are Ha emission-line, Orion population stars, one of which had been previously classified as Gea. However, we found no evidence for an embedded population of either early type (i.e., B and earlier) or intermediate type (F and earlier) stars in the cloud

  16. Calc-alkaline plutonism along the Pacific rim of southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Travis

    1979-01-01

    Field, petrology, and age data on southern Alaska plutonic rocks now enable the delineation of eight calc-alkaline plutonic belts. These belts of plutons or batholithic complexes are curvilinear to linear and trend parallel or subparallel to the continental margin. The belts represent the principal loci of emplacement for plutons of specific ages and although there is spatial or temporal overlap in some cases, they are more commonly spatially and temporally distinct. Intermediate lithologies such as quartz diorite, tonalite, and granodiorite dominate in most of the Belts but granodiorite and granite characterize one. The belts are of Mesozoic or Cenozoic age and plutonism began in six of them at about 195, 175, 120, 75, 60, and 40 m.y. ago; age relations in two are poorly known. Recognition of the belts is important for future studies of regional geology, tectonism, and magmatism along the Pacific rim of southern Alaska.

  17. Growth and instability of the liquid rim in the crown splash regime

    CERN Document Server

    Agbaglah, G

    2014-01-01

    We study the formation, growth, and disintegration of jets following impact of a drop on a thin film of the same liquid for We < 1000 and Re < 2000 using a combination of numerical simulations and linear stability theory (Agbaglah et al. 2013). Our simulations faithfully capture this phenomena and are in good agreement with experimental profiles obtained from high-speed X-ray imaging.We obtain scaling relations from our simulations and use these as inputs to our stability analysis. The resulting prediction for the most unstable wavelength are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Our calculations show that the dominant destabilizing mechanism is a competition between capillarity and inertia but that deceleration of the rim provides an additional boost to growth. We also predict over the entire parameter range of our study the number and timescale for formation of secondary droplets formed during a splash, based on the assumption that the most unstable mode sets the droplet number.

  18. Comparative analysis of environmental carrying capacity of the Bohai Sea Rim area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining; Zhang, Tianzhu; Zeng, Siyu

    2011-11-01

    Environmental carrying capacity is an essential metric for measuring regional sustainability. Although the term "carrying capacity" has been applied for over a century, the concept definition, quantitative methods and comprehensive evaluation remain arguable. This study analyzed the carrying capacity of four environmental elements, including water resources, air, surface water and offshore sea, and integrated them into a comprehensive index to represent overall regional profiles of resources and environment. The method was then applied to thirteen municipalities in the Bohai Sea Rim area, one of the most rapidly developing regions in transition China. The results show that the comprehensive environmental carrying capacity of the municipalities in the south sub-region were largest in 2007, while that of the west municipalities were lowest. The regional economic development exceeded the overall environmental carrying capacity by 36% and the west sub-region area deserves overwhelming attention for future industrial allocation. PMID:22009177

  19. Using the DP-190 glue for adhesive attachment of a large space mirror and its rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, Oleg; Zverev, Alexey; Sachkov, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    The glue DP-190 is widely used for adhesive attachment of astrositall (zerodur) lightweight large-size space astronomical mirrors (diameter of 1.7 m and more) with elements of their frames of invar. Peculiarities of physicalmechanical behavior of the glue DP-190 when exposed to the environment during the ground operation and in orbit cause instability of the reflective surface quality of mirrors. In this report we show that even a small (around 1%-5%) volumetric deformation of a cylindrical adhesive layer with a thickness of 0.8 mm between the mirror and the rim element causes significant mirrors deformation. We propose to use adhesive layer of special form that allows to reduce volumetric deformations of the glue DP-190 up to three times. Here we present results based on primary mirror tests of the WSO-UV project.

  20. How Is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may find disturbing. Some places provide headphones with music to block this out. Radionuclide bone scans This ... bone will be seen on the bone scan image as dense, gray to black areas, called “hot ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page ... Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow ...

  2. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Share: Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  3. Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles: Report on clinical characteristics in 23 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV is an autosomal recessive (AR myopathy characterized clinically by the preferential involvement of the tibialis anterior and has been reported predominantly in the Japanese population. Materials and Methods: A case series of DMRV patients seen over a period of 3 years at a tertiary national referral center for neurological disorders in south India. Results: We describe the clinical characteristics, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings and classical histopathological feature in 23 patients. There were 12 men and 11 women. Mean age of onset was 27.04 ± 6.35 years (10-39 years. Onset was in the second or third decade in a majority. Mean age at presentation was 33.95 ± 6.35 years (25-48 years. Mean duration of illness was 6.74 ± 4.8 years (1-18 years. Consanguinity was reported in eight (34.8% patients. The predominant and initial manifestation was bilateral foot drop in all patients. Muscle MRI demonstrated classical involvement of the anterior compartment muscles of the lower legs and the posterior compartment muscles of the thighs and the quadriceps was normal in all. Muscle histopathology showed numerous fibers containing rimmed vacuoles. Necrotic fibers or phagocytosis or regenerating fibers were rarely noted or were absent. Conclusions: DMRV is a rare AR myopathy. The disorder presents as progressive foot drop and hence has many differential diagnoses. It is easily mistaken as neuropathy of hereditary nature and hence it is extremely important to recognize the preferential muscle involvement and characterize the phenotype. This is the first report from India with patients having characteristic phenotype of Nonaka?s/AR hereditary inclusion body myopathy with quadriceps sparing, and all were confirmed by histopathology.

  4. RPPAML/RIMS: A metadata format and an information management system for reverse phase protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessy Bryan T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA are convenient assay platforms to investigate the presence of biomarkers in tissue lysates. As with other high-throughput technologies, substantial amounts of analytical data are generated. Over 1000 samples may be printed on a single nitrocellulose slide. Up to 100 different proteins may be assessed using immunoperoxidase or immunoflorescence techniques in order to determine relative amounts of protein expression in the samples of interest. Results In this report an RPPA Information Management System (RIMS is described and made available with open source software. In order to implement the proposed system, we propose a metadata format known as reverse phase protein array markup language (RPPAML. RPPAML would enable researchers to describe, document and disseminate RPPA data. The complexity of the data structure needed to describe the results and the graphic tools necessary to visualize them require a software deployment distributed between a client and a server application. This was achieved without sacrificing interoperability between individual deployments through the use of an open source semantic database, S3DB. This data service backbone is available to multiple client side applications that can also access other server side deployments. The RIMS platform was designed to interoperate with other data analysis and data visualization tools such as Cytoscape. Conclusion The proposed RPPAML data format hopes to standardize RPPA data. Standardization of data would result in diverse client applications being able to operate on the same set of data. Additionally, having data in a standard format would enable data dissemination and data analysis.

  5. Miocene to Present Sea Level and the Origin of Modern Rimmed Atoll Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, M.; Perron, J. T.; Raymo, M. E.; Ashton, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Rising sea-level over the next century will reshape our coastlines and make low-lying islands more vulnerable to extreme events. Atolls could potentially provide unique geologic records from periods of high sea level analogous to those we might experience over the coming centuries. However, sea-level records from atolls have been largely overlooked, in part because the processes that shape coral reef and atoll form are often complex and, in many cases, remain unexplored. Darwin's canonical model, which proposes an evolution from fringing reef to barrier reef to atoll as an ocean island ages and subsides, cannot explain the stratigraphy or morphology of many island reefs. We will present a study that combines a numerical model of reef development with existing stratigraphic records from Pacific atolls. The model, driven by sea level, simulates the evolution of atoll morphology using parameterizations of coral growth, rim derived sediment and in situ production, dissolution, and subsidence. We use it to solve for late-Miocene to present sea level by iteratively changing the ice volume and deep-ocean temperature corrections for converting deep-ocean, benthic, ?18O to sea level and finding the best-fit between the model output and corelog stratigraphy from Enewetak Atoll. We then compare lagoon depths produced by the model for different island sizes and dissolution rates (but the same subsidence and sediment production rates) to an independent dataset of real-world observations from the Marshall, Gilbert and Caroline Island chains. Our model results suggest that a period of sustained low sea level occurred during the late Miocene before rising above present moving into the Pliocene. We propose that it was atoll exposure and enhanced lagoon dissolution during the subsequent sea-level fall since the late Pliocene, ~2.7 Ma - not crustal subsidence, as Darwin's canonical model of atoll evolution presumes - that likely drove the development of modern rimmed atoll morphology.

  6. Monofunctionalization of Calix[4]arene Tetracarboxylic Acid at the Upper Rim with Isothiocyanate Group: First Bifunctional Chelating Agent for Alpha-Emitter Ac-225

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Ji, Min; Fisher, Darrell R.; Wai, Chien M.

    1999-01-01

    A procedure is reported for synthesizing a novel, water-soluble bifunctional chelating agent derived from calix[4]arene. This chelate features tetracarboxylic acid groups at the lower rim as an actinium-225 ionophore, and an isothiocyanate functional group at the upper rim for labeling of the N-terminus of monoclonal antibodies through thiourea linkage.

  7. Normal Bone Anatomy and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Bart

    2008-01-01

    This review describes normal bone anatomy and physiology as an introduction to the subsequent articles in this section that discuss clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy. The normal anatomy and functions of the skeleton are reviewed first, followed by a general description of the processes of bone modeling and remodeling. The bone remodeling process regulates the gain and loss of bone mineral density in the adult skeleton and directly influences bone strength. Thorough understandin...

  8. Heterogenous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim and the Margin of a Refractory Inclusion from Leoville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2014-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims [1] surrounding many refractory inclusions represent marker events in the early evolution of the Solar System in which many inclusions were exposed to changes in pressure [2], temperature [3], and isotopic reservoirs [4-7]. The effects of these events can be complex, not only producing mineralogical variability of WL rims [2], but also leading to mineralogical [8-10] and isotopic [7, 11, 12] changes within inclusion interiors. Extreme oxygen isotopic heterogeneity measured in CAIs has been explained by mixing between distinct oxygen gas reservoirs in the nebula [13]. Some WL rims contain relatively simple mineral layering and/or are isotopically homogeneous [14, 15]. As part of a larger effort to document and understand the modifications observed in some CAIs, an inclusion (L6) with a complex WL rim from Leoville, a member of the reduced CV3 subgroup was studied. Initial study of the textures and mineral chemistry was presented by [16]. Here we present NanoSIMS oxygen isotopic measurements to complement these petrologic observations.

  9. Thermodynamic model for diffusion controlled reaction rim growth in a binary system: application to the forsterite-enstatite-quartz system.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abart, R.; Pertischeva, E.; Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, Ji?í

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 309, ?. 2 (2009), s. 114-131. ISSN 0002-9599 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Thermodynamic model * diffusion * rim growth Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.284, year: 2009

  10. Repairing Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

    Students learn about how biomedical engineers aid doctors in repairing severely broken bones. They learn about using pins, plates, rods and screws to repair fractures. They do this by designing, creating and testing their own prototype devices to repair broken turkey bones.

  11. CARTILAGE, BONES, AND JOINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartilage is a special type of connective tissue that is of extreme importance in embryonic development, serving as the model upon which true bone is later formed. Cartilage also persists in adult animals, primarily as articular cartilage which cushions the interface between adjacent bones or joint...

  12. Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Francisco; Cassibba, Sara

    2015-07-01

    Bone pain, proximal muscle weakness, skeletal deformities, and pathological fractures are features of osteitis fibrosa cystica which occur in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). In this condition, bone mineral density is usually extremely low, but may be reversible after parathyroidectomy. On X-ray, bone abnormalities are described as having a salt-and-pepper appearance in the skull, with bone erosions and resorption of the phalanges, brown tumors and cysts, as well as diffuse demineralization, along with pathological fractures, particularly in the long bones of the extremities. A marked elevation of the serum calcium and PTH concentrations is seen, and renal involvement is manifested by nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. In asymptomatic PHPT, the absence of clinically significant bone involvement has led to much more data on bone mineral density becoming available by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and also on new technologies such as trabecular bone score (TBS), which is a gray-level textural analysis of DXA images that provides an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture. In addition, high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HRpQCT), which has a low radiation exposure, provides further understanding of the microstructural skeletal features at both trabecular and cortical sites. PMID:26105042

  13. Osteoinduction by demineralised bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, E

    1998-01-01

    Bone contains several growth factors, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic and acidic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF and aFGF). The BMPs are the only factors known to provoke bone formation heterotopically by making undifferentiated mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts (osteoinduction). Much of our knowledge of osteoinduction derives from studies in rodents of heterotopically implanted demineralised bone which contains various growth factors, including BMPs. This model has been used to examine the effect on osteoinduction of different factors, including the type of host soft tissue, age and species of donor and recipient, demineralisation procedure, storage and sterilisation procedures, experimental diabetes, dietary factors, hormones, growth factors, caffeine, biphosphonates, indomethacin and biomaterials. Demineralised bone enhances bone formation experimentally in various animal models, including cranio-maxillofacial reconstructions, healing of diaphyseal defects, and spinal fusion; demineralised bone has also been used in a limited way clinically. However, sufficient osteoinduction in humans may require a higher concentration of BMPs and other growth factors than those found in demineralised bone. PMID:9914941

  14. Bone Fractures and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

    Students learn about the role engineers and engineering play in repairing severe bone fractures. They acquire knowledge about the design and development of implant rods, pins, plates, screws and bone grafts. They learn about materials science, biocompatibility and minimally-invasive surgery.

  15. Metastatic Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metastasis from an unknown primary carcinoma or a primary bone cancer (sarcoma). For example, if an area of bone has ... the levels of hormones or blocking hormone production. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are examples of primary cancers that are o en treated with endocrine ...

  16. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  17. Ear and temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioanatomy of ear and temporal bone is described. Problems of X-ray examination of the diseases of ear and mastoid process (disturbance of ear development, inflammatory diseases, otosclerosis, tumors) are considered. Roentgenoframs of temporal bone of healthy people and that in some diseases are presented and aanalyzed

  18. Bone scanning in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on bone scanning in osteoporosis a diagnosis of osteoporosis most often follows fracture, and clearly this should be confirmed by x-ray. The bone scan therefore does not have an important role to play in the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis. While the exact mechanism by which the 99mTc-labeled diphosphonates localize in the skeleton is not fully understood, it is believed that they adsorb onto bone surfaces most probably via the calcium of hydroxyapatite crystals. Because the major factors that affect adsorption are osteoblastic activity and to a lesser extent skeletal vascularity, it is apparent that a bone scan image presents a functional display of skeletal metabolic activity. However, osteoporosis is a disorder in which gradual change in bone mass may occur over many years and, in keeping with this minor imbalance in skeletal metabolism, the bone scan appearances are usually normal. However, the scan images may appear of poor quality because of relatively low bone uptake of tracer with, on occasion, a washed-out pattern of activity in the axial and appendicular bone. It has been suggested that such a pattern occurs in severe or end-stage osteoporosis caused by markedly reduced osteoblastic activity. If kyphosis is observed on the bone scan or if there appears to be loss of spinal height with proximity of ribs to each other or increased closeness of rib cage to pelvis, then appearances suggest vertebral collapse and would be in keepin vertebral collapse and would be in keeping with a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Such evidence is, however, indirect and in practice a bone scan is an extremely unreliable means of diagnosing osteoporosis

  19. Evaluation of sequential FDG-PET/CT for monitoring bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Correlation between morphological and metabolic changes with tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the significance of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) findings for evaluating the bone metastasis of breast cancer during therapy. Forty-seven patients with bone metastases from breast cancer who underwent sequential 18F-flourodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT studies during therapy were enrolled. A total of 771 lesions were identified. The changes in the PET and CT findings were compared with the tumor marker levels in each patient by calculating the weighted kappa value. The correlation between the PET and CT findings was examined for each lesion by an adjusted Chi-square test. The change in the tumor marker levels was substantially correlated with the PET findings and moderately correlated with the CT findings (weighted kappa=0.780 and 0.585 for quadratic weighting, respectively). An increase in FDG uptake was correlated with lytic changes on the CT images (62/65, 95.4%, p<0.05). Sclerotic changes suggested improvement, but sclerosis and progression occurred at the same time in some lesions. Changes of FDG uptake are useful for evaluating individual bone metastases in cases of breast cancer during therapy. Lytic change on CT images suggests progression of bone metastasis. The lysis-progression/sclerosis-improvement pattern was observed in the majority of subjects, but a sclerosis-progression pattern was also observed. The hybrid pattern of increase of FDG uptake on PET/lytic change on CT is m FDG uptake on PET/lytic change on CT is most accurate to show progression of bone metastases. Assessments of these processes during therapy are necessary for the precise evaluation of bone metastases. (author)

  20. RIM-DB: a taxonomic framework for community structure analysis of methanogenic archaea from the rumen and other intestinal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Seedorf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methane is formed by methanogenic archaea in the rumen as one of the end products of feed fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract. To develop strategies to mitigate anthropogenic methane emissions due to ruminant farming, and to understand rumen microbial differences in animal feed conversion efficiency, it is essential that methanogens can be identified and taxonomically classified with high accuracy. Currently available taxonomic frameworks offer only limited resolution beyond the genus level for taxonomic assignments of sequence data stemming from high throughput sequencing technologies. Therefore, we have developed a QIIME-compatible database (DB designed for species-level taxonomic assignment of 16S rRNA gene amplicon data targeting methanogenic archaea from the rumen, and from animal and human intestinal tracts. Called RIM-DB (Rumen and Intestinal Methanogen-DB, it contains a set of 2,379 almost full-length chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene sequences, including 20 previously unpublished sequences from isolates from three different orders. The taxonomy encompasses the recently-proposed seventh order of methanogens, the Methanomassiliicoccales, and allows differentiation between defined groups within this order. Sequence reads from rumen contents from a range of ruminant-diet combinations were taxonomically assigned using RIM-DB, Greengenes and SILVA. This comparison clearly showed that taxonomic assignments with RIM-DB resulted in the most detailed assignment, and only RIM-DB taxonomic assignments allowed methanogens to be distinguished taxonomically at the species level. RIM-DB complements the use of comprehensive databases such as Greengenes and SILVA for community structure analysis of methanogens from the rumen and other intestinal environments, and allows identification of target species for methane mitigation strategies.

  1. Recombined Xenograft of Cancellous Bone and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yun-yu; Liu, Wei; Lu, Yu-pu

    1991-01-01

    A new bone xenograft was reconstituted using treated calf cancellous bone and bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Bioassay in mice showed that the graft had high osteoinductive ability with 0.5 mg BMP, while control implants using the same dose of BMP, or cancellous bone alone, failed to induce any osseous tissue. Immune rejection was absent in all implantations.

  2. Pathogenetic differentiation of the bone superscan using bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of a 54-year old patient suffering from a prostatic carcinoma is presented. At the time of diagnosis multiple bone metastases were detected by bone scintigraphy. An initial improvement was observed following antiandrogenic therapy. After three years the patient presented with increasing bone pain, which was most prominent in the knee joints. A 'superscan' was found in bone scintigraphy with an unusually high uptake in the peripheral skeleton. Bone marrow scintigraphy showed a nearly complete metastatic displacement of central bone marrow and a peripheral marrow extension as explanation for the bone scan findings. (orig.)

  3. Chemical Analysis of Reaction Rims on Olivine Crystals in Natural Samples of Black Dacite Using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Lassen Peak, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Lassen Volcanic Center is the southernmost volcanic region in the Cascade volcanic arc formed by the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Lassen Peak last erupted in 1915 in an arc related event producing a black dacite material containing xenocrystic olivine grains with apparent orthopyroxene reaction rims. The reaction rims on these olivine grains are believed to have formed by reactions that ensued from a mixing/mingling event that occurred prior to eruption between the admixed mafic andesitic magma and a silicic dacite host material. Natural samples of the 1915 black dacite from Lassen Peak, CA were prepared into 15 polished thin sections and carbon coated for analysis using a FEI Quanta 250 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to identify and measure mineral textures and disequilibrium reaction rims. Observed mineralogical textures related to magma mixing include biotite and amphibole grains with apparent dehydration/breakdown rims, pyroxene-rimmed quartz grains, high concentration of microlites in glass matrix, and pyroxene/amphibole reaction rims on olivine grains. Olivine dissolution is evidenced as increased iron concentration toward convolute edges of olivine grains as observed by Backscatter Electron (BSE) imagery and elemental mapping using NSS spectral imaging software. In an attempt to quantify the area of reaction rim growth on olivine grains within these samples, high-resolution BSE images of 30 different olivine grains were collected along with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) of different phases. Olivine cores and rims were extracted from BSE images using Photoshop and saved as separate image files. ImageJ software was used to calculate the area (?m2) of the core and rim of these grains. Average pyroxene reaction rim width for 30 grains was determined to be 11.68+/-1.65 ?m. Rim widths of all 30 grains were averaged together to produce an overall average rim width for the Lassen Peak black dacite. By quantifying the reaction rims on olivine grains in the natural samples of Lassen Peak dacite as well as the bulk chemistry of the rock, this provides insight into the storage conditions of the magma chamber and the timing necessary for reactions to form these specific volcanic textures which in turn can be used as a basis for better understanding future experimental reconstruction of this magmatic system.

  4. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  5. Aneurysmal bone cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangachari P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Aneurysmal bone cysts have raised intra-cystic pressures which are dynamic and diagnostic in nature. Aneurysmal bone cysts could be diagnosed from other benign cystic lesions of bone by recording their intra-cystic pressures with a spinal manometer. Raised intra-cystic pressures in aneurysmal bone cysts are maintained as long as the periosteum over the cyst is intact even in those with pathological fractures. Even though its pathology is definite its aetio-pathology is not clear Method: Fourteen out of 16 radiologically benign cystic lesions of bone were subjected to intra-cystic pressure recordings with spinal manometer. Other two cysts had displaced unimpacted pathological fractures and so their intra-cystic pressures could not be recorded. All 16 cysts were subjected to histo-pathological examination to confirm their diagnosis and to find out for any pre-existing benign pathology. All the cysts were surgically treated. Results: Fourteen benign cystic lesions of bone were diagnosed as aneurysmal bone cysts preoperatively by recording raised intra-cystic pressures and confirmed by histo-pathology. In addition, histo-pathology revealed pre-existing benign pathology. All cysts were successfully treated surgically. Conclusions: Since, there is appreciable rise in intra-cystic dynamic pressures, the aneurysmal bone cyst is considered to be due to either sudden venous obstruction or arterio-venous shunt. Pre-operative intra-cystic pressure recordings help not only to diagnose aneurysmal bone cysts but also to assess the quantum of blood loss and its replacement during surgery.

  6. Hidden bone erosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salaffi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pictorial essay was to demonstrate the diagnostic efficacy of high-resolution sonography in detecting bone erosions in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Standard X-Ray of the feet did not reveal clearly evident erosions. Ultrasonography was able to detect the presence of bone erosions of the metatarsal heads of both the first toes and of the V toe of the left foot. Because the appearance of bone erosions on radiographs of a patient with a recent onset arthritis indicates a poor prognosis, the possibility of demonstrating small hidden erosions at the level of the early targets of the disease is of relevant practical value.

  7. Bone scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-polyphosphate or sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate was carried out in 54 children suspected of bone disease. Signals of skeletal metastases were recognized in 13 children by scintigraphy whereas X-ray examination showed lesions in only 10 of these. In 5 children with primary osteosarcoma, three cases of fibrous dysplasia, and 4 cases of osteomyelitis, the lesions were clearly demonstrated by scintigraphy. Abnormal accumulation of radioactivity in soft tissue lesions was observed in primary adrenal neuroblastoma, Hodgkin's granuloma, and metastatic Burkitt's lymphoma. Several cases are reported, and the value of bone scintigraphy in children is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  9. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  10. Interparietal bones in Nigerian skulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, S K; Chowdhary, D S; Jain, S P

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted on 40 adult Nigerian skulls which were examined for the presence of interparietal and pre-interparietal bones. Only one interparietal bone was found (2.5% of the present series) while a single pre-interparietal bone was found in four skulls (10%) and multiple pre-interparietal bones in one skull (2.5%).

  11. What Makes our Bones Strong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    Students will use this activity to determine what keeps our bones strong. Soaking the bones in vinegar will remove the calcium from the bones causing them to become soft and rubbery. Students will find that when we age, calcium is depleted from our bones faster than we can restore it. They will then determine what complications can arise from it.

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Play Video Clip (00:04:40) Your Radiologist Explains Bone X-ray What is Bone X-ray ( ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  13. Bone scan indications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scintigraphic method is described and a critical analysis of its value in the research of bone metastases is presented. The method validity, the positivity of bone scan for metastases at the first examination and the preferencial distribution metastases in skeleton are related.Bone pain and the results of bone scintigram are correlated. (M.A.C.)

  14. Interactive Mapping on Virtual Terrain Models Using RIMS (Real-time, Interactive Mapping System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, T.; Cowgill, E.; Gold, R. D.; Hamann, B.; Kreylos, O.; Schmitt, A.

    2006-12-01

    Recent and ongoing space missions are yielding new multispectral data for the surfaces of Earth and other planets at unprecedented rates and spatial resolution. With their high spatial resolution and widespread coverage, these data have opened new frontiers in observational Earth and planetary science. But they have also precipitated an acute need for new analytical techniques. To address this problem, we have developed RIMS, a Real-time, Interactive Mapping System that allows scientists to visualize, interact with, and map directly on, three-dimensional (3D) displays of georeferenced texture data, such as multispectral satellite imagery, that is draped over a surface representation derived from digital elevation data. The system uses a quadtree-based multiresolution method to render in real time high-resolution (3 to 10 m/pixel) data over large (800 km by 800 km) spatial areas. It allows users to map inside this interactive environment by generating georeferenced and attributed vector-based elements that are draped over the topography. We explain the technique using 15 m ASTER stereo-data from Iraq, P.R. China, and other remote locations because our particular motivation is to develop a technique that permits the detailed (10 m to 1000 m) neotectonic mapping over large (100 km to 1000 km long) active fault systems that is needed to better understand active continental deformation on Earth. RIMS also includes a virtual geologic compass that allows users to fit a plane to geologic surfaces and thereby measure their orientations. It also includes tools that allow 3D surface reconstruction of deformed and partially eroded surfaces such as folded bedding planes. These georeferenced map and measurement data can be exported to, or imported from, a standard GIS (geographic information systems) file format. Our interactive, 3D visualization and analysis system is designed for those who study planetary surfaces, including neotectonic geologists, geomorphologists, marine geophysicists, and planetary scientists. The strength of our system is that it combines interactive rendering with interactive mapping and measurement of features observed in topographic and texture data. Comparison with commercially available software indicates that our system improves mapping accuracy and efficiency. More importantly, it enables Earth scientists to rapidly achieve a deeper level of understanding of remotely sensed data, as observations can be made that are not possible with existing systems.

  15. Temporal bone CT findings of tuberculous otitis media : comparison with chronic otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the differential findings of tuberculous otitis media(TOM) with those of chronic sup purative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, as seen on high resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed 14 cases of TOM, 30 cases of chronic suppurative otitis media(CSOM), and 30 cases of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma(Chole). All had been pathologically confirmed. We evaluated the preservation of mastoid cells without sclerotic change, the location and extension of soft tissue to the external auditary canal, and erosion of ossicles, the tegmen tympani, scutum, bony labyrinth, facial nerve canal and sigmoid sinus, and the presence of intracranial complications. Soft tissue in the mastoid antrum was seen in all cases of TOM(100%), 29 cases of CSOM(96.7%), and 26 cases of Chole(86.7%). In contrast, the soft tissue in the entire middle ear cavity was noted in 13 cases of TOM(92.8%), 7 cases of CSOM(23.3%), and 12 cases of Chole(40%). Soft tissue extended to the superior aspect of the external auditory canal in 4 cases of TOM (28.6%) and 5 cases of Chole (16.7%). Mastoid air cells were seen in 9 cases of TOM (64.3%), 4 cases of CSOM (13.3%), and 3 cases of Chole(10%). Ossicular erosion was noted in 6 cases of TOM (42.9%), 12 cases of CSOM (40%), and 26 cases of Chole(86.7%), while in one case of TOM (7.1%), 5 cases of CSOM (16.7%), and 15 cases of Chole(50%) there was erosion of the scutum. In one case of TOM, follow-up CT study after 9 months of TOM, follow-up CT study after 9 months of antituberculous medication without surgery revealed complete clearing of previously noted soft tissue in the middle ear cavity. Specific CT findings of TOM were not seen, but if there were findings of soft tissue in the entire middle ear cavity, soft tissue extension to the external auditory canal, preservation of mastoid air cells without sclerotic change, and intact scutum, TOM may be differentiated from other chronic otitis media

  16. Temporal bone CT findings of tuberculous otitis media : comparison with chronic otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jeong A; Rho, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Min; Lee, Ho Seung; Choi, Pil Yeob; Seong, Young Soon; Kwon, Jae Soo; Lee, Sang Wook [Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Keon Sik [Pohang Sunrin Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    To compare the differential findings of tuberculous otitis media(TOM) with those of chronic sup purative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, as seen on high resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed 14 cases of TOM, 30 cases of chronic suppurative otitis media(CSOM), and 30 cases of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma(Chole). All had been pathologically confirmed. We evaluated the preservation of mastoid cells without sclerotic change, the location and extension of soft tissue to the external auditary canal, and erosion of ossicles, the tegmen tympani, scutum, bony labyrinth, facial nerve canal and sigmoid sinus, and the presence of intracranial complications. Soft tissue in the mastoid antrum was seen in all cases of TOM(100%), 29 cases of CSOM(96.7%), and 26 cases of Chole(86.7%). In contrast, the soft tissue in the entire middle ear cavity was noted in 13 cases of TOM(92.8%), 7 cases of CSOM(23.3%), and 12 cases of Chole(40%). Soft tissue extended to the superior aspect of the external auditory canal in 4 cases of TOM (28.6%) and 5 cases of Chole (16.7%). Mastoid air cells were seen in 9 cases of TOM (64.3%), 4 cases of CSOM (13.3%), and 3 cases of Chole(10%). Ossicular erosion was noted in 6 cases of TOM (42.9%), 12 cases of CSOM (40%), and 26 cases of Chole(86.7%), while in one case of TOM (7.1%), 5 cases of CSOM (16.7%), and 15 cases of Chole(50%) there was erosion of the scutum. In one case of TOM, follow-up CT study after 9 months of antituberculous medication without surgery revealed complete clearing of previously noted soft tissue in the middle ear cavity. Specific CT findings of TOM were not seen, but if there were findings of soft tissue in the entire middle ear cavity, soft tissue extension to the external auditory canal, preservation of mastoid air cells without sclerotic change, and intact scutum, TOM may be differentiated from other chronic otitis media.

  17. Clinical data integration of distributed data sources using Health Level Seven (HL7 v3-RIM mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viangteeravat Teeradache

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information exchange and health information integration has become one of the top priorities for healthcare systems across institutions and hospitals. Most organizations and establishments implement health information exchange and integration in order to support meaningful information retrieval among their disparate healthcare systems. The challenges that prevent efficient health information integration for heterogeneous data sources are the lack of a common standard to support mapping across distributed data sources and the numerous and diverse healthcare domains. Health Level Seven (HL7 is a standards development organization which creates standards, but is itself not the standard. They create the Reference Information Model. RIM is developed by HL7's technical committees. It is a standardized abstract representation of HL7 data across all the domains of health care. In this article, we aim to present a design and a prototype implementation of HL7 v3-RIM mapping for information integration of distributed clinical data sources. The implementation enables the user to retrieve and search information that has been integrated using HL7 v3-RIM technology from disparate health care systems. Method and results We designed and developed a prototype implementation of HL7 v3-RIM mapping function to integrate distributed clinical data sources using R-MIM classes from HL7 v3-RIM as a global view along with a collaborative centralized web-based mapping tool to tackle the evolution of both global and local schemas. Our prototype was implemented and integrated with a Clinical Database management Systems CDMS as a plug-in module. We tested the prototype system with some use case scenarios for distributed clinical data sources across several legacy CDMS. The results have been effective in improving information delivery, completing tasks that would have been otherwise difficult to accomplish, and reducing the time required to finish tasks which are used in collaborative information retrieval and sharing with other systems. Conclusions We created a prototype implementation of HL7 v3-RIM mapping for information integration between distributed clinical data sources to promote collaborative healthcare and translational research. The prototype has effectively and efficiently ensured the accuracy of the information and knowledge extractions for systems that have been integrated

  18. Can bone scintigraphy predict the final outcome of pasteurized autografts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, Ahmed Shawky [Ain Shams University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Jeon, Dae-Geun; Cho, Wan Hyeong [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    As pasteurization is becoming more widely used in limb salvage reconstruction, more study is required to understand about host-graft junction healing, graft revascularization and incorporation, and the incidence and type of complications among pasteurized autografts. This was mainly achieved by follow-up radiography. We aimed to clarify whether Tc99m bone scanning can be considered a reliable method in determining these three parameters. Twenty-seven osteosarcoma patients with pasteurized autograft reconstructions were retrospectively reviewed using available scintigraphic and radiographic follow-up every 6 months postoperatively for 36 months. Follow-up of the unhealed cases was continued for the maximum follow-up period available for each case beyond the original study period, ranging from 1 to 15 months. Tc99m uptake was classified as cold, faint, moderate and high uptake. Junction healing was classified as none, partial and complete healing. Seventy percent of junctions united with a mean of 22 months. Ninety to 100% of junctions showed increased uptake (high or moderate) at one time of the study regardless of final outcome. 85% of the pasteurized grafts showed the characteristic ''tramline appearance''. Four grafts (15%) were complicated: pseudoarthrosis and implant failure (1), fractured plate (1), intramedullary nail (IMN) fracture (1), and prosthesis stem loosening in the host bone (1), with underlying unhealed junctions in all cases. Bone scanning can determine the stages of the graft's rim revascularization and incorporation; however, it cannot detect or predict junction healing or occurrence of complications. Supplementary treatment of unhealed junctions showing either decreased junctional uptake or graft quiescence may be warranted. Otherwise, detection of distant metastasis and early local recurrence remains the main application of Tc99m scanning in the management of bone sarcomas. (orig.)

  19. Targeted therapies for bone sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Heymann, Dominique; Rédini, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Bone sarcomas include a very large number of tumour subtypes, which originate form bone and more particularly from mesenchymal stem cell lineage. Osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, the three main bone sarcoma entities develop in a favourable microenvironment composed by bone cells, blood vessels, immune cells, based on the ‘seed and soil theory'. Current therapy associates surgery and chemotherapy, however, bone sarcomas remain diseases with high morbidity and mortality espec...

  20. Fossilized Dinosaur Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide show presents images of dinosaur bones and shows paleotologists at work excavating and preserving these fossils, the best evidence remaining of these long-lost creatures. A background essay and discussion questons are included.

  1. Bone building with bortezomib

    OpenAIRE

    Roodman, G. David

    2008-01-01

    In this issue of the JCI, Mukherjee et al. report that bortezomib, a clinically available proteasome inhibitor active against myeloma, induces the differentiation of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) — rather than mature osteoprogenitor cells — into osteoblasts, resulting in new bone formation (see the related article beginning on page 491). These results were observed when MSCs were implanted subcutaneously in mice or were used to treat a mouse model of postmenopausal bone loss. O...

  2. Bone changes in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone lesions is a frequent organic manifestation in leprosy. Osseal destructions caused by granulomatous process induced by M. leprae are so-called specific lesions in contrast to non specific lesions based on nerval or arterial diseases. The specific osseal alterations are characterized by cystic brightenings in roentgenograms while non specific osseal changes show absorption to bone structure as akroosterolysis and osteoporosis. Typical radiologic findings in different stages of mutilation are demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Uranium in fossil bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to determine the uranium content and thus the age of certain fossil bones from Haritalyangarh (Himachal Pradesh), India. The results indicate that bones rich in apatite are also rich in uranium, and that the radioactivity is due to radionuclides in the uranium series. The larger animals apparently have a higher concentration of uranium than the small. The dating of a fossil jaw (elephant) places it in the Pleistocene. (author)

  4. Impact of ionic liquids on europium and americium extraction by an upper rim phosphorylated calixarene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of europium and americium using the calixarene 5,11,17,23-tetrakis[dipropylphosphinylmethyl] 25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxycalix[4]arene (conical conformation) in the presence of ionic liquids with different natures was studied. It was shown that upper rim phosphorylated calixarene is able to extract europium and americium from nitric acid to dichloroethane by forming a 1:1 complex without the addition of ionic liquids. The distribution coefficients of americium are higher than those of europium in this case, but the isolation degrees of both elements are insufficient for this system to be useful in extraction technologies. The addition of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate increases the europium distribution coefficient by values ranging from twofold to more than two orders of magnitude at ionic liquid concentrations of 1 and 50 %, respectively. The values of the distribution coefficients for americium are increased by approximately 25-fold after a 50 % addition of the ionic liquid. (author)

  5. UPb ages of zircon rims: A new analytical method using the air-abrasion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Winegarden, D.L.; Walter, M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a new technique for directly dating, by conventional techniques, the rims of zircons. Several circumstances, such as a xenocrystic or inherited component in igneous zircon and metamorphic overgrowths on igneous cores, can result in grains with physically distinct age components. Pneumatic abrasion has been previously shown by Krogh to remove overgrowths and damaged areas of zircon, leaving more resistant and isotopically less disturbed parts available for analysis. A new abrader design, which is capable of very gently grinding only tips and interfacial edges of even needle-like grains, permits easy collection of abraded material for dating. Five examples demonstrate the utility of the "dust-collecting" technique, including two studies that compare conventional, ion microprobe and abrader data. Common Pb may be strongly concentrated in the outermost zones of many zircons and this Pb is not easily removed by leaching (even in weak HF). Thus, the benefit of removing only the outermost zones (and avoiding mixing of age components) is somewhat compromised by the much higher common Pb contents which result in less precise age determinations. A very brief abrasion to remove the high common Pb zones prior to collection of material for dating is selected. ?? 1990.

  6. Spitzer-Selected Young Stellar Objects in Two Bright Rimmed Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Rebull, L. M.; Gibbs, J. C.; Linahan, M.; Sartore, D. C.; Legassie, M.; Laher, R.; Killingstad, N. G.; McCanna, T. S.; O'Bryan, A. M.; Carlson, S. D.; Clark, M. L.; Koop, S. M.; Ravelomanantsoa, T. A.; Nuthmann, T. R.; Canakapalli, T. S.; Aryal, S.; Nishida, M. M.; Ramswaram, A.; Sprow, H. N.; Pullinger, A.; Ezyk, N. J.; Fagan, J. R.; Tilley, C. M.; Badura, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Found near the edges of HII regions, bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are thought to be home to triggered star formation. Using Spitzer Space Telescope archival data, we investigated two BRCs, BRC 27 and BRC 34, to search for previously known and new candidate additional young stellar objects (YSOs). BRC 27 is located in the molecular cloud Canis Majoris R1, a known site of star formation. BRC 34 has a variety of features worthy of deeper examination: dark nebulae, molecular clouds, emission stars, and IR sources. Our team used archival Spitzer InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), combined with 2-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) data. We investigated the infrared properties of previously known YSOs and used infrared colors to identify additional new candidate YSOs in these regions. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program and Archive Outreach funds.

  7. Mixed multiplicities for arbitrary ideals and generalized Buchsbaum-Rim multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce first the notion of mixed multiplicities for arbitrary ideals in a local d-dimensional noetherian ring (A, m) which, in some sense, generalizes the concept of mixed multiplicities for m-primary ideals. We also generalize Teissier's Product Formula for a set of arbitrary ideals. We also extend the notion of the Buchsbaum-Rim multiplicity (in short, we write BR-multiplicity) of a submodule of a free module to the case where the submodule no longer has finite colength. For a submodule M of Ap we introduce a sequence eBRk(M), k = 0,...,d + p - 1 which in the ideal case coincides with the multiplicity sequence c0(I, A),...,cd(I, A) defined for an arbitrary ideal I of A by Achilles and Manaresi in [AM]. In case that M has finite colength in Ap and it is totally decomposable we prove that our BR-multiplicity sequence essentially falls into the standard BR-multiplicity of M. (author)

  8. Personalized Message Routing Policy in Pervasive eHealth Applications Based on HL7 RIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizani, Nachoua; Fayn, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    The design of relevant message routing strategies that provide reliable communications between different healthcare actors is deemed among one of the most challenging requirements to enhance QoS in eHealth applications. In this paper, we propose a data and context-driven model that aims to support the design of personalized, intelligent and adaptive eHealth message routing policies. Our model is suitably complying with HL7 v3, an international standard for healthcare information exchange. In the proposed model, we highlight the sensitivity of routing services applications to message, source and target ecosystems contextual information. We point out the relevant HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) elements that are related to our research objective which is to deliver the message to the right healthcare provider with respect to the required delays for message reception, reading and reply, according to the content of the message and to the clinical and social situation of the patient. Moreover, we include AmI to make the routing policy intelligently adaptive to context changes at run-time. PMID:25980880

  9. Ascaridíase das vias urinárias: um caso de penetração de Ascaris lumbricoides através do rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caymmi Gomes

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma criança de 2 anos com desnutrição grave e infestação intestinal maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides, apresentou como complicação, documentada em necrópsia, a migração de vermes adultos para a cavidade peritonial e penetração aberrante de dois parasitos através do rim esquerdo. Os Ascaris ficaram alojados no sistema pielo-ureteral, determinando grave infecção purulenta e obstrução ureteral. Esta complicação demonstra a capacidade agressiva de vermes erráticos na cavidade peritonial, com possibilidade de perfurar mesmo uma víscera sólida. São comentados os fatores que facilitaram a migração dos vermes por aqueles órgãos.The author reports an autopsy case of a two year old child with massive intestinal ascariasis and malnutrition, presenting the migration of two adult Ascaris lumbricoides through the left kidney into the pyelo-ureteral system. As a result she developed acute pyelonephritis and ureteral obstruction. Previously the worms left the intestine into the peritoneal cavity (lesser sac through a duodenal cleft. Factors contributing to the migration of the roundworms by those pathways are discussed.

  10. Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) with Pulsed and CW-Lasers on Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of long-lived plutonium isotopes in ultra-trace amounts by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) is a well-established routine method. Detection limits of 106 to 107 atoms and precise measurements of the isotopic composition have been achieved. In this work multi-step resonance ionization of plutonium atoms has been performed with tunable lasers having very different output intensities and spectral properties. In order to compare different ways for the resonance ionization of plutonium broadband pulsed dye and titanium:sapphire lasers as well as narrow-band cw-diode and titanium:sapphire lasers have been applied for a number of efficient excitation schemes. It has been shown, that for identical excitation schemes the optical isotope selectivity can be improved by using cw-lasers (bandwidths 2 GHz). Pulsed and cw-laser systems have been used simultaneously for resonance ionization enabling direct comparisons of pulsed and continuous ionization processes. So far, a three-step, three-color laser excitation scheme has been proven to be most practical in terms of efficiency, selectivity and laser wavelengths. Alternatively a newly discovered three-step, two-color excitation scheme which includes a strong two-photon transition from an excited state into a high-lying autoionizing state yields similar ionization efficiencies. This two-photon transition was characterized with respect transition was characterized with respect to saturation behavior and line width.

  11. Bioclimate-Vegetation Interrelations along the Pacific Rim of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Peinado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine relationships between climate and vegetation of the Pacific rim of North America, from the Mediterranean deserts of California to Alaska’s boreal taiga. Relations were inferred from temperature and rainfall data recorded at 457 weather stations and by sampling the vegetation around these stations. Climate data were used to construct climatograms, calculate forty one variables and detect main latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. In order to identify the best functions able to relate our variables, polynomial and non-polynomial regressions were performed. The k-means algorithm was the clustering method used to validate the variables that could best support our bioclimatic classification. The variable that best fitted our classification was finally used to prepare a discriminatory key for bioclimates. Across this extensive area three macrobioclimates were identified, Mediterranean, Temperate and Bo- real, within which we were able to distinguish nine bioclimates. Finally, we relate the different types of potential natural vegetation to each of these bioclimates and describe their floristic composition and physiognomy.

  12. Ciclamato de sódio e rim fetal Sodium cyclamate and fetal kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Germano Ferraz de Arruda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O ciclamato é usado como adoçante artificial não calórico em diversos alimentos e bebidas, sendo 30 vezes mais doce que a sacarose sem o sabor amargo da sacarina. Aparece na composição dos produtos como ciclamato de sódio, ciclamato de cálcio e ácido ciclâmico. O ciclamato e a ciclohexilamina, seu principal metabólito, atravessam a barreira placentária em humanos e desse modo podem ser expostos ao feto. O rim de ratos pode ser afetado por elevadas doses de ciclamato de sódio. Estudos sobre efeitos do ciclamato de sódio na espécie humana são necessários, pois, além de poder substituir a sacarose - prejudicial em casos de diabetes ou quando o controle e a redução do peso corporal são essenciais para a saúde dos pacientes - não propicia desenvolvimento de cárie dentária.Cyclamate is used as an artificial non-caloric sweetener in a variety of foods and beverages, being 30 times as sweet as sugar without the bitter after-taste of saccharin. It is present in the formula of products such as sodium and calcium cyclamates and cyclamic acid. Cyclamate and cyclohexylamine, its principal metabolite, can cross the human placenta exposing the fetus. It has been demonstrated in rats that the kidney may be adversely affected by high doses of cyclamate. Studies on the effects of sodium cyclamate in the human species are necessary, because in addition to replacing saccharose - harmful in individuals with diabetes or patients in whom weight reduction and control are essential for health - it does not cause dental caries.

  13. Ciclamato de sódio e rim fetal / Sodium cyclamate and fetal kidney

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Germano Ferraz de, Arruda; Alex Tadeu, Martins; Reinaldo, Azoubel.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O ciclamato é usado como adoçante artificial não calórico em diversos alimentos e bebidas, sendo 30 vezes mais doce que a sacarose sem o sabor amargo da sacarina. Aparece na composição dos produtos como ciclamato de sódio, ciclamato de cálcio e ácido ciclâmico. O ciclamato e a ciclohexilamina, seu p [...] rincipal metabólito, atravessam a barreira placentária em humanos e desse modo podem ser expostos ao feto. O rim de ratos pode ser afetado por elevadas doses de ciclamato de sódio. Estudos sobre efeitos do ciclamato de sódio na espécie humana são necessários, pois, além de poder substituir a sacarose - prejudicial em casos de diabetes ou quando o controle e a redução do peso corporal são essenciais para a saúde dos pacientes - não propicia desenvolvimento de cárie dentária. Abstract in english Cyclamate is used as an artificial non-caloric sweetener in a variety of foods and beverages, being 30 times as sweet as sugar without the bitter after-taste of saccharin. It is present in the formula of products such as sodium and calcium cyclamates and cyclamic acid. Cyclamate and cyclohexylamine, [...] its principal metabolite, can cross the human placenta exposing the fetus. It has been demonstrated in rats that the kidney may be adversely affected by high doses of cyclamate. Studies on the effects of sodium cyclamate in the human species are necessary, because in addition to replacing saccharose - harmful in individuals with diabetes or patients in whom weight reduction and control are essential for health - it does not cause dental caries.

  14. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  15. Crosstalk between cancer cells and bone microenvironment in bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, as well as lung and liver, is one of the most preferential metastatic target sites for cancers including breast, prostate, and lung cancers. Although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this preference need to be elucidated, it appears that bone microenvironments possess unique biological features that enable circulating cancer cells to home, survive and proliferate, and destroy bone. In conjunction, cancers that develop bone metastases likely have the capacity to utilize these unique bone environments for colonization and bone destruction. This crosstalk between metastatic cancer cells and bone is critical to the development and progression of bone metastases. Disruption of this interaction will allow us to design mechanism-based effective and specific therapeutic interventions for bone metastases

  16. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 ?g of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  17. A degradable soybean-based biomaterial used effectively as a bone filler in vivo in a rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'gold standard' for bone filling is currently the bone autograft, but its use is limited by material availability and by the possible risks of infection or other donor site morbidity. Materials proposed so far as bone fillers do not show all the characteristics which are desirable. These are (a) osteoconductivity, (b) controlled biodegradation and (c) ease of adaptation to the implantation site. Recently, a new class of biodegradable material based on soybeans has been presented which shows good mechanical properties and an intrinsic bioactivity on inflammatory and tissue cells in vitro. The authors investigated the morphology in vivo of bone response in repairing a surgical lesion in the presence of granules of a novel soybean-based biomaterial (SB), comparing it with a sham-operated contralateral lesion of critical size (non-healing model); 26 operations were performed in New Zealand White rabbits, with back scattered electron microscopy as the analysis technique of choice. Implantation of SB granules over 8 weeks produced bone repair with features distinct from those obtained by healing in a non-treated defect. New and progressively maturing trabeculae appeared in the animal group where SB granules were implanted, while sham operation produced only a rim of pseudo-cortical bone still featuring a large defect. The trabeculae forming in the presence of SB granules had features typical of reticular bone. These findings suggest that the bone regeneration potential gest that the bone regeneration potential of SB granules and their intrinsic bioactivity, combined with their relatively easy and cost-effective preparation procedures, make them suitable candidates as a bone filler in clinical applications.

  18. Deep Drawing for high LDR by a new Hydro-rim Forming Process with Differential Temperature- Analysis and Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and test a possible increase of the Limit Drawing Ratio (LDR) in Deep Drawing by Hydro-rim process (a certain subset of the classical Hydroforming) which includes the newly differential temperature effect. The idea is to facilitate the plastic flow by local heating along the flange and to cool the area where strength is needed. The suggested analysis is based on the dual bounds approach (upper and lower bounds simultaneously) using the highly versatile Johnson-Cook constitutive material model. The advantage of combined high hydraulic pressure (about 1000 bar) with relatively high blank temperature (with magnitude of about one third the melting temperature of the considered material) in the same operation is discussed. Emphasis is given to the rule of blank temperature difference (between the flange and the wall of the product) conjugate with optimal hydro rim pressure in increasing the limit drawing ratio of the products (Aluminum, Copper and various Steels)

  19. On computing the instability index of a non-selfadjoint differential operator associated with coating and rimming flows

    OpenAIRE

    Burchard, Almut; Chugunova, Marina

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of finding the instability index of certain non-selfadjoint fourth order differential operators that appear as linearizations of coating and rimming flows, where a thin layer of fluid coats a horizontal rotating cylinder. The main result reduces the computation of the instability index to a finite-dimensional space of trigonometric polynomials. The proof uses Lyapunov's method to associate the differential operator with a quadratic form, whose maximal po...

  20. RC-IAL: linhagem celular contínua de rim de coelho - características e substrato para replicação de vírus

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Aurea Silveira; Figueiredo Cristina Adelaide; Barbosa Maria Luisa; Martinez Clelia Helena de O.; Salles-Gomes Luís Florêncio de

    1992-01-01

    Uma linhagem celular de rim de coelho (denominada RC-IAL), que foi isolada em 1976, e que atualmente está na 150ª passagem, teve suas características analisadas. As células apresentaram morfologia semelhante aos fibroblastos desde o início de seu cultivo. A proporção de crescimento celular não se alterou desde seu isolamento, com uma eficiência de clonagem ao redor de 9%. A linhagem mostrou crescimento dependente de ancoragem, e a análise cromossômica apresentou o número modal da ...

  1. Combination of surgical excision and custom designed silicon pressure splint therapy for keloids on the helical rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmeyer Peter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Keloids are defined as dermal fibrotic lesions which are considered an aberration of the wound healing process. Their etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Different treatment modalities are described in the literature depending on the morphology and size of the keloid. We report a case of a large ear keloid on the helical rim which was successfully treated with surgery and a custom designed silicon pressure clip.

  2. Combination of surgical excision and custom designed silicon pressure splint therapy for keloids on the helical rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Boorboor, Pejman; Mann, Benno; Altmeyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Klaus; Bechara, Falk G

    2007-01-01

    Keloids are defined as dermal fibrotic lesions which are considered an aberration of the wound healing process. Their etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Different treatment modalities are described in the literature depending on the morphology and size of the keloid. We report a case of a large ear keloid on the helical rim which was successfully treated with surgery and a custom designed silicon pressure clip. PMID:17352809

  3. New Horizons for the Next Era of Human Brain Imaging, Cognitive, and Behavioral Research: Pacific Rim Interactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Bandettini, Peter A; Cheng, Kang; Egan, Gary F; Stenger, V Andrew; Strother, Stephen; Toga, Arthur W

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in the 1990's, substantial advances have been made in the ability to image the living human brain. Functional MRI, PET, and other modalities have been developed to provide a rich means for assessing brain function and structure across spatial and temporal dimensions. Such methods are now the preferred means to examine the brain in vivo, with several thousand articles now appearing in the literature each year. The next era of human brain imaging is upon us now as technological developments reach a level where data can be processed quickly and combined with other biological information to provide fundamentally new applications and insights. This new era will involve and require the collaborative participation of leading research groups from around the world to share information and expertise for understanding observed effects and synthesizing these into new knowledge. One particular community that is gaining in its prominence in the field is that of the Pacific Rim, whose collective research efforts present an important corpus of research effort into brain structure and function. The Pacific Rim represents an important collection of researchers interested in the greater sharing of ideas. In this special issue of Brain Imaging and Behavior, we focus on emerging areas of research that utilize brain imaging methodology, and discuss how current developments are driving the expansion of functional imaging research. Moreover, we focus on the robust interaction of researchers from around the Pacific Rim whose collaborations are significantly shaping the future of brain imaging. PMID:20169011

  4. Challenges, solutions, and best practices in telemental health service delivery across the pacific rim-a summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R; Shore, Jay; Ferguson, Stewart; Jordan, Patricia J; Saiki, Stanley; Poropatich, Ronald K

    2012-10-01

    The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, in conjunction with the American Telemedicine Association's Annual Mid-Year Meeting, conducted a 1-day workshop on how maturing and emerging processes and applications in the field of telemental health (TMH) can be expanded to enhance access to behavioral health services in the Pacific Rim. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together experts in the field of TMH from the military, federal agencies, academia, and regional healthcare organizations serving populations in the Pacific Rim. The workshop reviewed current technologies and systems to better understand their current and potential applications to regional challenges, including the Department of Defense and other federal organizations. The meeting was attended by approximately 100 participants, representing military, government, academia, healthcare centers, and tribal organizations. It was organized into four sessions focusing on the following topic areas: (1) Remote Screening and Assessment; (2) Post-Deployment Adjustment Mental Health Treatment; (3) Suicide Prevention and Management; and (4) Delivery of Training, Education, and Mental Health Work Force Development. The meeting's goal was to discuss challenges, gaps, and collaborative opportunities in this area to enhance existing or create new opportunities for collaborations in the delivery of TMH services to the populations of the Pacific Rim. A set of recommendations for collaboration are presented. PMID:23061646

  5. Postradiation sarcomas of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-nine patients with osteogenic sarcomas arising in bones following exposure to x rays and 20 patients with postradiation malignant fibrous histiocytomas of bone arising as a direct consequence of irradiation were studied. These represent 5.5% of all osteogenic sarcomas and 4.9% of all malignant fibrous histiocytomas of bones. The sarcomas may affect any skeletal site, but most commonly they arose in bones of the pelvic and shoulder girdles or the distal end of the femur. Grounds for irradiation were either nonosseous conditions or preexistent skeletal lesions. Reasons for incidental osseous irradiation included Hodgkin's disease, carcinoma of cervix, breast or lung; bilateral retinoblastoma and others, and giant cell tumor predominated among the irradiated skeletal lesions. The mean and the median radiation doses were 6040 cGy (rad) and 5700 cGy (rad), respectively. The period of latency between irradiation and the appearance of the bone sarcoma ranged from 3.5 to 47 y with a mean of 16.5 and median of 14.5, respectively. The cumulative disease-free survival rate for malignant fibrous histiocytoma patients at 3 y was 58%. The cumulative disease-free survival rate at 5 y for patients with osteogenic sarcoma was 17%, with a median survival estimate of 1 y. Although all patients with malignant fibrous histiocytoma who received their radiation therapy for a preexistent bone lesion survived, only 27% of the patients whose bone was normal at the time of irradiation are was normal at the time of irradiation are alive and well at the 3-y mark

  6. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the acromium with soft tissue extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is an unusual, benign tumor of cartilaginous origin and represents less than 1% of all primary bone tumors. It usually involves the long bones around the knee joint or the flat bones of the pelvis or ribs. Soft tissue extension is also thought to be rare in these lesions. They are usually eccentrically located in the metaphyses of the long bones and centrally in the flat bones. The radiographic appearances are characteristically those of a single, lytic lesion with lobulated margins, septations, cortical expansion and a sclerotic rim. Histologically, they display a lobulated pattern with spindle-shaped cells lying within a myxoid matrix with areas of hyaline cartilage. The differential diagnosis includes giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma or enchondroma as well as chondrosarcoma. The rarity of these lesions may render the diagnosis difficult to make, especially when the lesion involves an unusual site such as the acromium. (orig.)

  7. Microarchitecture of irradiated bone: comparison with healthy bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bléry, Pauline; Amouriq, Yves; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Pilet, Paul; Normand, Nicolas; Durand, Nicolas; Espitalier, Florent; Arlicot, Aurore; Malard, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract represent about ten percent of cancers. External radiation therapy leads to esthetic and functional consequences, and to a decrease of the bone mechanical abilities. For these patients, the oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including possibilities of dental implant placement, is difficult. The effects of radiotherapy on bone microarchitecture parameters are not well known. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of external radiation on bone micro architecture in an experimental model of 25 rats using micro CT. 15 rats were irradiated on the hind limbs by a single dose of 20 Grays, and 10 rats were non irradiated. Images of irradiated and healthy bone were compared. Bone microarchitecture parameters (including trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, connectivity density and tissue and bone volume) between irradiated and non-irradiated bones were calculated and compared using a Mann and Whitney test. After 7 and 12 weeks, images of irradiated and healthy bone are different. Differences on the irradiated and the healthy bone populations exhibit a statistical significance. Trabecular number, connectivity density and closed porosity are less important on irradiated bone. Trabecular thickness and separation increase for irradiated bone. These parameters indicate a decrease of irradiated bone properties. Finally, the external irradiation induces changes on the bone micro architecture. This knowledge is of prime importance for better oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including implant placement.

  8. The “Rügener Inklusionsmodell” (RIM – Effects of a school concept based on the Response to Intervention approach on the mathematics and reading achievement of German elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Voß

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the school year 2010/2011 on the Isle of Rügen every child starting school gets enrolled at the regular elementary school whether it has special needs or not. Framework for the structure and organization of these preventive and inclusive schools is the concept “Rügener Inklusionsmodell” (RIM which is an adaption of the US-american Response to Intervention approach (RTI. The RIM is the first large-scale implementation of a school concept in Germany which is based on RTI. This study analyses the effects of the RIM after two school years in comparison to the conventional school concept. The positive effects of RTI reported in US literature could not be replicated however findings do indicate that the RIM provides an appropriate inclusive school setting. Results for children with learning disabilities are not reliable at this point but will be presented later at the end of grade three.

  9. Bone disease after transplantation: osteoporosis and fractures risk / Doença óssea pós-transplante: risco de osteoporose e fraturas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina A. M., Kulak; Victoria Z. C., Borba; Jaime, Kulak Júnior; Melani Ribeiro, Custódio.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transplantes de órgão é terapia padrão-ouro para várias doenças em estágio terminal. Perda óssea é uma complicação comum que ocorre em pacientes transplantados. Osteoporose e fraturas por fragilidade são complicações sérias, principalmente no primeiro ano pós-transplante. Muitos fatores podem contri [...] buir para patogênese da doença óssea nesses pacientes. Esta revisão aborda os mecanismos de perda óssea incluindo o papel dos agentes imunossupressores, bem como os fatores específicos da perda óssea após rim, pulmão, fígado, coração e transplante de medula óssea. A prevenção e o tratamento da perda óssea nos pacientes transplantados devem ser realizados para evitar fraturas. Abstract in english Organ transplantation is the gold standard therapy for several end-stage diseases. Bone loss is a common complication that occurs in transplant recipients. Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are serious complication, mainly in the first year post transplantation. Many factors contribute to the pat [...] hogenesis of bone disease following organ transplantation. This review address the mechanisms of bone loss including the contribution of the immunosuppressive agents as well as the specific features to bone loss after kidney, lung, liver, cardiac and bone marrow transplantation. Prevention and management of bone loss in the transplant recipient should be included in their post transplant follow-up in order to prevent fractures.

  10. Calcar bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans

  11. Fibrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general clinical-radiological description of fibrosarcoma of bone, including tumours with features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma is presented. 104 patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are analysed in terms of age and sex distribution, symptoms, duration of symptoms and tumour localization. The radiological findings obtained in patients with fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. The treatment and course of fibrosarcoma of the long bones are discussed. Data on the type of therapy given were available on 103 patients: 67 were treated by ablative surgery either immediately or within three months of preceding local surgery and/or radiotherapy. In the remaining 36 cases treatment consisted of local surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of these, or non-curative (palliative) treatment. In a few cases ablative surgery was performed at a later stage. 13 patients with fibrosarcoma of the axial skeleton and 14 with fibrosarcoma of the jaws are considered. A causistic discussion of patients with a secondary fibrosarcoma is presented. Secondary fibrosarcoma was found in a total of 19 patients (14%); 4 after irradiation. The features of significance for the course of the disease are discussed: general features such as age and sex, tumour localization in the long bones, presence or absence of a pathological fracture, and the radiological and histological characteristics of the tumour. The type of therapy and the occurrence of lung metastases in relation to the course of the disease is also discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Lymphomas of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone investigations are not systematic, nor are radionuclide bone scans or complete skeletal surveys. Specific studies are performed as a function of clinical findings. During the course of the disease, multiple sites are the rule (two-thirds of cases); the radiological appearance is often heterogeneous. By contrast, pathognomonic lesions are solitary in approximately two-thirds of cases. Bone lesions generally appear during the course of recognized HD. Lesions of the femoral and humeral heads can simulate osteonecrosis, and the patient's history must therefore be consulted as to any previous corticosteroid therapy, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. The role of relevant associated trauma has also recently been emphasized. The differential diagnosis for diagnostic lesions depends on the site. Histiocytosis and benign tumors, for example, are rarely envisaged for spinal lesions. Infection can be entertained when involvement is confined to a vertebra and does not affect the disks. The most difficult problem is differentiation from bone metastases. Radiation-induced bone sarcomas have been described, but are very rare

  13. [Osteostimulating effect of bone xenograft on bone tissue regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, V N; Balin, D V; Iordanishvili, A K; Musikin, M I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of experimental case-control study performed in 28 dogs divided in 2 groups was to assess local tissue reactions on bone xenograft transplantation; dynamics of bone remodeling and formation at the site of bone defect wall contacting with bone xenograft; dynamics and mechanisms of xenograft remodeling. Transplantation of xenograft in conventional bone defects did not cause inflammatory of destructive reactions because of high biocompatibility of the material. At transplantation site active fibrous bone trabeculae formation filling the spaces between xenograft participles was observed. On the 90th day newly formed bone showed lammelar structure. Simultaneously from the 42d day the invasion of cell elements from recipient bed into the material was seen leading to xenograft resorption. The observed dynamics may be assessed as gradual substitution of xenograft with newly formed host bone structures. PMID:26145467

  14. Bone cells and bone turnover in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mishaela R

    2015-06-01

    Substantial evidence exists that in addition to the well-known complications of diabetes, increased fracture risk is an important morbidity. This risk is probably due, at least in part, to altered bone remodeling and bone cell function in diabetes. Circulating biochemical markers of bone formation, including P1NP, osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase have been found to be decreased in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and may be predictive of fractures independently of bone mineral density (BMD). These findings have been corroborated by preliminary histomorphometric data. Reductions in the bone resorption marker serum CTx in T2D have also been reported. Serum sclerostin levels have been found to be increased in T2D and appear to be predictive of fracture risk independent of BMD. Other factors such as bone marrow fat saturation, advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) accumulation, and microarchitectural changes might also relate to bone cell function and fracture risk in diabetes. PMID:25740570

  15. Vascularized bone grafts for the treatment of carpal bone pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Derby, Brian M.; Murray, Peter M.; Shin, Alexander Y.; Bueno, Reuben A.; Mathoulin, Christophe L.; Ade, Tim; Neumeister, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary bone healing fails to occur in 5–15 % of scaphoid bones that undergo fracture fixation. Untreated, occult fractures result in nonunion up to 12 % of the time. Conventional bone grafting is the accepted management in the treatment algorithm of scaphoid nonunion if the proximal pole is vascularized. Osteonecrosis of the proximal scaphoid pole intuitively suggests a need for transfer of the vascularized bone to the nonunion site. Scaphoid nonunion treatment aims to prevent biological...

  16. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SITE › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Share: Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  17. Fibromyxoma of the bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcove, R C; Lindeque, B G; Huvos, A G

    1989-08-01

    Fourteen patients with fibromyxoma of the bone, a rare but relatively overlooked entity, are described. This tumor is different from a chondromyxoid fibroma in age distribution, clinical behavior and histologic appearance. Fibromyxoma occurs frequently in later life (after 50 years of age). It is usually not clinically aggressive and lacks the lobular pattern, chondroid matrix and cell variety of chondromyxoid fibroma. Secondary aneurysmal bone cysts developed in three patients. It behooves the pathologist to screen patients with aneurysmal bone cysts for evidence of pre-existing fibromyxoma, especially if the patient is less than 40 years of age. Treatment consists of curettage with or without cryosurgical procedures. Marginal excision may be necessary for an occasional aggressive lesion. PMID:2756459

  18. [Radioactivity of bone cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, M A; Winkler, R; Ascherl, R; Lenz, E

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between limit of detection (detected in the amount of Ra-226, Pb-210, and Ra-228 detected between different samples of the same product from the same manufacturer, as well as between various types of cements. The highest radioactivity level was measured for Ra-226. Although stochastic radiation effects can not totally be excluded, it is extremely unlikely that the small amount of radioactive substances additionally transferred into the body by the bone cement has negative effects on the recipient's organism or on the fate of the alloplastic implant: "The risk factor and extrapolation in a low dosage range ... do not lead to an underestimation but more likely to an overestimation of the radiation hazard" [18]. PMID:8441806

  19. Malignant bone tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kristy; Damron, Timothy A; Frassica, Frank J; Sim, Franklin H

    2008-01-01

    Malignant bone tumors represent a small percentage of cancers nationwide and also are much less common than malignant soft-tissue tumors. The rarity of the condition makes it imperative that orthopaedic surgeons in nononcologic practices are able to recognize the symptoms that suggest a possible bony malignancy to avoid inappropriate or delayed treatment. The most common primary malignant bone tumors, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma, occur in childhood. Chondrosarcoma occurs more frequently in older adults. Rare tumors such as chordoma and adamantinoma have anatomic predilections for the sacrum and tibia, respectively. The primary symptom of a patient with a malignant bone tumor is pain, which often occurs at rest or at night. There are also characteristic findings on physical examination such as swelling or decreased joint range of motion. Patients with a likely malignancy require thorough staging to determine the extent of disease and a well-planned biopsy for accurate diagnosis. The biopsy can be an image-guided needle biopsy or an open incisional biopsy. Knowledge of specific tumor characteristics and treatment options for osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, chordoma, and adamantinoma is important. Patients with osteosarcoma and resectable Ewing's sarcoma are treated with chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. Secondary sarcomas can occur in previously benign bone lesions and require aggressive treatment. Specific techniques are available for the resection of malignant bone tumors from the upper extremities, lower extremities, pelvis, and spine. Reconstruction options include the use of allografts, megaprostheses, and vascularized autografts. There has been a trend toward more prosthetic reconstructions because of early complications with allografts. The care of patients with primary malignant bone tumors requires a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. The orthopaedic oncologist is a vital member of a team composed of musculoskeletal radiologists and pathologists, radiation oncologists, medical and pediatric oncologists, and microvascular surgeons. PMID:18399615

  20. Fibrous dysplasia of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a skeletal development anomaly of unknown etiology characterized by single or multiple areas of fibrous tissue replacement of medullary cavity of one or more bones. The disease may be localized to single bone (monostotic form) or may affect multiple bones (polyostotic form). Eighteen cases of fibrous dysplasia diagnosed by roentgenlogic or histologic assessment at Chosun University Hospital, Chosun University Hospital and Kwangju Christian Hospital during recent ten tears were analyzed clinically and radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. 16 case of them had monostotic involvement, and 2 cases showed polyostotic disease, but none of our series presented Albright's syndrome. 2. The male to female ratio in this series was 10 : 8, but then 2 polyostotic forms of them were females. In age distribution, peak incidence at the time of diagnosis was in the age group of second decade (10 cases). 3. Maxilla (6 cases) and femur (4 case) were frequently involved sites in patients with monostotic lesion, whereas polyostotic lesions diffusely affected skull, pelvis, ribs and limb bones. 4. The clinical symptoms according to the extent and site of disease were very variable, which were localized painless or painful swelling, nasal obstruction, deformity of face or extremity and incidentally during routine roentgen study. 5. The chemical abnormality of blood serum was moderate degree of elevated serum alkaline phosphatase in only one patients witaline phosphatase in only one patients with monostotic lesion. 6. The main radiologic findings of fibrous dysplasia were relatively well circumscribed single or multiloculated cystilike appearance, bone expansion, cortical thinning and/or erosion, bony deformity and pathologic fracture, but especially in maxilla, dense homogenous area with expanding lesion was observed in our series

  1. A degradable soybean-based biomaterial used effectively as a bone filler in vivo in a rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merolli, Antonio [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Catholic University in Rome, Complesso Columbus, via Moscati 31, 00168 Rome (Italy); Nicolais, Luigi; Ambrosio, Luigi [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80130 Napoli (Italy); Santin, Matteo [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Cockcroft Building, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4 GJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The 'gold standard' for bone filling is currently the bone autograft, but its use is limited by material availability and by the possible risks of infection or other donor site morbidity. Materials proposed so far as bone fillers do not show all the characteristics which are desirable. These are (a) osteoconductivity, (b) controlled biodegradation and (c) ease of adaptation to the implantation site. Recently, a new class of biodegradable material based on soybeans has been presented which shows good mechanical properties and an intrinsic bioactivity on inflammatory and tissue cells in vitro. The authors investigated the morphology in vivo of bone response in repairing a surgical lesion in the presence of granules of a novel soybean-based biomaterial (SB), comparing it with a sham-operated contralateral lesion of critical size (non-healing model); 26 operations were performed in New Zealand White rabbits, with back scattered electron microscopy as the analysis technique of choice. Implantation of SB granules over 8 weeks produced bone repair with features distinct from those obtained by healing in a non-treated defect. New and progressively maturing trabeculae appeared in the animal group where SB granules were implanted, while sham operation produced only a rim of pseudo-cortical bone still featuring a large defect. The trabeculae forming in the presence of SB granules had features typical of reticular bone. These findings suggest that the bone regeneration potential of SB granules and their intrinsic bioactivity, combined with their relatively easy and cost-effective preparation procedures, make them suitable candidates as a bone filler in clinical applications.

  2. Role of carotenoid ?-cryptoxanthin in bone homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Bone homeostasis is maintained through a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Aging induces bone loss due to decreased osteoblastic bone formation and increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Nutritional factors may play a role in the prevention of bone loss with aging. Among various carotenoids (carotene and xanthophylls including be...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any bone in the body, including the ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x- ...

  4. Vitamin A and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Nutrition Vitamin A and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (236 KB) Related Resources Calcium and Vitamin D El calcio y la vitamina D (Calcium ...

  5. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using bone conduction. The Baha device uses sound vibrations, and those vibrations then are passed from the side with no ... from a normal soundwave into a bone conduction vibration, and that is what is passed then through ...

  6. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Baha system consists of a bone-anchored titanium fixture that is implanted in the mastoid bone, ... the -- great. I'm going to grab the titanium implant. And what I want you to notice ...

  7. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... ??) Related Resources Alcoholism Bed Rest and Immobilization Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Oral ...

  8. Meniere's disease, petrous bone tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements on tomograms of the petrous bone in Meniere's disease revealed a decreased thickness of the retrolabyrinthine part of the petrous bone. This could help to confirm previous theories that the cause of Meniere's disease is developmental. (orig.)

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more useful in identifying bone and ... bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle or occult fractures or ...

  10. Bone cement implantation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuin, R; Effat, O; Shahidan, M N; Shama, D V; Miswan, M F M

    2013-06-01

    Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is characterized by hypoxia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac arrest. It is a known cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cemented orthopaedic surgeries. The rarity of the condition as well as absence of a proper definition has contributed to under-reporting of cases. We report a 59-year-old woman who sustained fracture of the neck of her left femur and underwent an elective hybrid total hip replacement surgery. She collapsed during surgery and was revived only to succumb to death twelve hours later. Post mortem findings showed multiorgan disseminated microembolization of bone marrow and amorphous cement material. PMID:23817399

  11. Joint bone radiobiology workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Bone Radiobiology Workshop was held on July 12--13, 1991 in Toronto, Canada. This document contains the papers presented at the meeting. The five sections were: Dose-effects, Endogenous Cofactors, Tumorigenesis, New Methods and Medical Implications. The papers covered risk assessment, tissue distribution of radionuclides, lifetime studies, biological half-lifes, the influence of age at time of exposure, tumor induction by different radionuclides, microscopic localization of radionuclides, and nuclear medicine issues including tissue distribution in the skeleton and bone marrow transplantation

  12. Bone - marrow postirradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in haemopoietic cells in chicken bone Marrow were investigated after acute single irradiation with doses 4.5 Gy and 5 Gy. Samples of bone marrow were obtained from proximal femoral epiphysis of decapitated chickens. Marrow smears were prepared and stained according to Pappenheim. Qualitative examination of myelogram showed proliferation of adipose tissue, hypocellularity, caryolyosis, caryorexis, disintegration of cells and proliferation of cells which could not be differentiated. Quantitative examination revealed high radiosensitivity of blast cells and lymphocytes shortly after irradiation. (authors)

  13. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination

  14. Cancellous structure of tarsal bones.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, D N

    1985-01-01

    The internal structure of the tarsal bones has been studied to investigate their cancellous architecture. It is revealed that these bones have fine and coarse meshworks and even a tendency for obliteration of the trabecular pattern in the bones lying distal to this midtarsal joint. Internal structure of the talus does not show an arched pattern of bony lamellae. An increased density of bony lamellae in the internal structure of the navicular bone could result from excessive stress, enforced b...

  15. Dilatational band formation in bone

    OpenAIRE

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microsc...

  16. Peripheral Leptin Regulates Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Russell T.; Kalra, Satya P.; Wong, Carmen P.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Boghossian, Stephane; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence does not support the prevailing view that leptin, acting through a hypothalamic relay, decreases bone accrual by inhibiting bone formation. To clarify the mechanisms underlying regulation of bone architecture by leptin, we evaluated bone growth and turnover in wild type (WT) mice, leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and ob/ob mice treated with leptin. We also performed hypothalamic leptin gene therapy to determine the effect of elevated hypot...

  17. Proteasome inhibitors and bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Ya-wei; Heuck, Christoph J.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by increase in the numbers and activity of bone-resorpting osteoclasts and decrease in the number and function of bone-formation osteoblasts. MM-triggered inhibition of bone formation may stem from suppression of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, a pivotal pathway in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into osteoblasts, and regulating production of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegeri...

  18. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Periodontal Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Subramaniam M.; Ugale, Gauri M; Warad, Shivaraj B

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic pr...

  19. Space Stations: Bones of Contention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Diane Byerly

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, learners make models representing bones on Earth and bones that have been in space. They discover what happens to bones without proper exercise and nutrition. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners explore how space affects the human body and why.

  20. Bone bruising of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandalia, V. [Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Fogg, A.J.B. [Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Chari, R. [Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Murray, J. [Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Beale, A. [Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Henson, J.H.L. [Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: john.henson@smnhst.swest.nhs.uk

    2005-06-01

    Bone bruising demonstrated by MRI is discussed with histological findings and proposed classifications. The effects of the mechanism of injury on bone bruising at the knee and the natural history of the process are reviewed. The relationship of bone bruising to osteochondral sequelae and to osteoarthritis are considered.

  1. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, E. A.; Rosen, V.; D Alessandro, J. S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D. I.; Hewick, R. M.; Kerns, K. M.; Lapan, P.

    1990-01-01

    We have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 micrograms of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependen...

  2. Lrp5 functions in bone to regulate bone mass

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yajun; Niziolek, Paul J.; Macdonald, Bryan T.; Zylstra, Cassandra R.; Alenina, Natalia; Robinson, Daniel R.; Zhong, Zhendong; Matthes, Susann; Jacobsen, Christina M.; Conlon, Ronald A.; Brommage, Robert; Liu, Qingyun; Mseeh, Faika; Powell, David R.; Yang, Qi

    2011-01-01

    The human skeleton is affected by mutations in Low-density lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein 5 (LRP5). To understand how LRP5 influences bone properties, we generated mice with inducible Lrp5 mutations that cause high bone mass and low bone mass phenotypes in humans. We conditionally-induced Lrp5 mutations in osteocytes and found that bone properties in these mice were comparable to bone properties in mice with inherited mutations. We also conditionally-induced an Lrp5 mutation in cells th...

  3. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION IN A BRIGHT-RIMMED CLOUD (BRC 5) OF IC 1805

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Naoya [Faculty of Biosphere-Geosphere Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-chou, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Miao, Jingqi [Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Sugitani, Koji [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan); Kawahara, Kentaro [Faculty of Informatics, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-chou, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Watanabe, Makoto [Department of Cosmosciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Nakano, Makoto [Faculty of Education and Welfare Science, Oita University, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Pickles, Andrew J., E-mail: fukudany@big.ous.ac.jp [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We report recent optical, near-infrared (NIR), and millimeter observations which have revealed some new features of the bright-rimmed cloud BRC 5 associated with W4. With slitless spectroscopy, we detected 17 H{alpha} emission stars around the cloud; 4 are near the surface of the cloud, and 1 is toward IRAS 02252+6120. NIR photometry shows that the central H{alpha} emission star, together with one bright infrared source, has large NIR excesses and Class I spectral energy distributions. These two Class I objects are associated with the 2.9 mm continuum peaks and with a bipolar outflow, and are in between two separate, elongated C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) cores. The C{sup 18}O cores and the two Class I sources are aligned along a line at position angle {approx}240 Degree-Sign , somewhat less than perpendicular to the direction of UV radiation from the OB stars. Most of the detected H{alpha} emission stars, all T Tauri candidates, are located within {approx}3' of the cloud on the exciting star side. An estimate of the age of the stars based on a color-magnitude diagram suggests that these T Tauri candidates have ages of {approx}1 Myr or less, but are more evolved objects than the central young stellar objects. This age sequence suggests sequential star formation within the BRC 5 cloud. The {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) emission shows three elongated structures, which indicates the asymmetric structure toward the UV incident axis. We present our exploratory simulation results by using a smoothed particle hydrodynamic code that suggests that the asymmetrical BRC 5 structure could possibly result from the evolution of a preexisting prolate molecular cloud subject to radiation-driven implosion (RDI). Our best-fit prolate cloud has an initial mass of {approx}400 M{sub Sun }, an axial ratio of {approx}1.7, and a semi-major axis of {approx}1.6 pc, pointing away from the ionization flux by an angle of 15 Degree-Sign . The simulated cloud structure not only closely matches the observed asymmetric morphological structure of BRC 5, but also reveals the possibility of the development of two major cores at the head of BRC 5. For the first time, the possibility of forming two stars by an RDI mechanism in a BRC is investigated.

  4. Are Bones Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Silvia; Falchetti, Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the classification of living things. Our study deals with a different problem: the attribution of life to one component of a living organism, specifically the bones. The task involves not only specifying what we mean by "alive", but also requires "informed thinking" leading to an understanding of the concept of life…

  5. Temporal bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  6. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.)

  7. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  8. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  9. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  10. Bone pain or tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi L. Overuse injuries. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez’s Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap 14. Lorenzo JA, Canalis E, Raisz LG. Metabolic bone ...

  11. Bone scintigraphy in detection of bone invasion by oral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting osseous involvement is clinically important in the management of oral carcinoma. Thirty-one patients with osseous involvement due to oral carcinoma who underwent panoramic radiography and bone scintigraphy were evaluated retrospectively. Bone scintigraphy confirmed osseous involvement in all 31 (100%) of these patients. In 27 (87%) of 31 patients with osseous involvement, both the panoramic radiogram and bone scintigram were positive. In the remaining four patients (13%), bone scintigram was positive for mandibular or maxillary invasion, while panoramic radiogram was negative. There were no instances of an abnormal radiogram with a normal bone scintigram. These findings strongly suggest that bone scintigraphy is more sensitive than panoramic radiography in detecting osseous involvement of the mandible and maxilla due to oral carcinoma. Furthermore, bone scintigraphy was a critical pre-surgical tool in determining the extent of the osseous involvement. (author)

  12. Bone mineral density for bone metastatic regions of prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a purpose of investigation, we explored to the lumbar vertebras of 25 patients with prostatic cancer. The methods of investigation measured the content of bone mineral density between normal bone and metastasis of cancer to the bone using QDR-2000 apparatus with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The content of bone mineral density of lumbar vertebras metastasized through the blood circulation were increased to the average 32% than normal bone. In comparison with measured results and the data of the standard bone mineral density, 40% of normal lumbar vertebras were under than the range of the data of the standard bone mineral density. There is a significant difference between metastases to the lumbar vertebra of the prostatic cancer and the osteoarthritis of spine. The risk on statistical calculation is P<0.02. (author)

  13. Treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts by introduction of demineralized bone and autogenous bone marrow.

    OpenAIRE

    Docquier, Pierre-louis; Delloye, Christian

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On the assumption that an aneurysmal bone cyst has an intrinsic potential to heal by ossification, a new, minimally invasive protocol was developed. Demineralized bone powder mixed with bone-marrow aspirate was introduced into the cyst to halt the expansion phase and to allow the cyst to ossify. We hypothesized that, in order to induce bone-healing, cells from the cyst are needed to respond to the inductive material but that curettage or extensive surgery is not necessary. The goa...

  14. In situ SUMOylation analysis reveals a modulatory role of RanBP2 in the nuclear rim and PML bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUMO modification plays a critical role in a number of cellular functions including nucleocytoplasmic transport, gene expression, cell cycle and formation of subnuclear structures such as promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies. In order to identify the sites where SUMOylation takes place in the cell, we developed an in situ SUMOylation assay using a semi-intact cell system and subsequently combined it with siRNA-based knockdown of nucleoporin RanBP2, also known as Nup358, which is one of the known SUMO E3 proteins. With the in situ SUMOylation assay, we found that both nuclear rim and PML bodies, besides mitotic apparatuses, are major targets for active SUMOylation. The ability to analyze possible SUMO conjugation sites would be a valuable tool to investigate where SUMO E3-like activities and/or SUMO substrates exist in the cell. Specific knockdown of RanBP2 completely abolished SUMOylation along the nuclear rim and dislocated RanGAP1 from the nuclear pore complexes. Interestingly, the loss of RanBP2 markedly reduced the number of PML bodies, in contrast to other, normal-appearing nuclear compartments including the nuclear lamina, nucleolus and chromatin, suggesting a novel link between RanBP2 and PML bodies. SUMOylation facilitated by RanBP2 at the nuclear rim may be a key step for the formation of a particular subnuclear organization. Our data imply that SUMO E3 proteins like RanBP2 facilitate spatio-temporal SUMOylation for certain nuclear structure and functionrtain nuclear structure and function

  15. Computer Calculations of Eddy-Current Power Loss in Rotating Titanium Wheels and Rims in Localized Axial Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed preliminary computer-based, transient, magnetostatic calculations of the eddy-current power loss in rotating titanium-alloy and aluminum wheels and wheel rims in the predominantly axially-directed, steady magnetic fields of two small, solenoidal coils. These calculations have been undertaken to assess the eddy-current power loss in various possible International Linear Collider (ILC) positron target wheels. They have also been done to validate the simulation code module against known results published in the literature. The commercially available software package used in these calculations is the Maxwell 3D, Version 10, Transient Module from the Ansoft Corporation

  16. Computer Calculations of Eddy-Current Power Loss in Rotating Titanium Wheels and Rims in Localized Axial Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhall, D J; Stein, W; Gronberg, J B

    2006-05-15

    We have performed preliminary computer-based, transient, magnetostatic calculations of the eddy-current power loss in rotating titanium-alloy and aluminum wheels and wheel rims in the predominantly axially-directed, steady magnetic fields of two small, solenoidal coils. These calculations have been undertaken to assess the eddy-current power loss in various possible International Linear Collider (ILC) positron target wheels. They have also been done to validate the simulation code module against known results published in the literature. The commercially available software package used in these calculations is the Maxwell 3D, Version 10, Transient Module from the Ansoft Corporation.

  17. The application and implementation of optimized mine ventilation on demand (OMVOD) at the Xstrata Nickel Rim South Mine, Sudbury, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Optimized Mine Ventilation on Demand (OMVOD) system has been installed at the Xstrata Nickel Rim South Mine in Sudbury. Developed by Simsmart Technologies, the OMVOD system monitors and controls air quality and quantity through real time dynamic automation. A ventilation on demand (VOD) system was needed to remove diesel particulate matter (DPM), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). This paper described the real-time tracking and monitoring of the OMVOD system and optimization of ventilation equipment. Simsmart's OMVOD system was shown to reduce energy costs while improve air quality in the underground mine. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. Evidences of a contractional pattern along the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau (Sicily, Italy) from GPS data

    OpenAIRE

    De Mattia, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the main results inferred from GPS data collected between 1998.00 and 2009.78 along the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau from 9 continuous and 23 survey-mode sites. From a geological point of view, this area is of great interest because 1) it represents an important piece of the collision front between Nubia and Eurasia 2) it is very close to the biggest European volcano Mount Etna and 3) it has been hit by strong earthquakes in the past (1169 and 1693) that strugg...

  19. Development of high sensitive and reliable FFD and sodium leak detection technique for fast reactor using RIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An early detection of fuel failure and subsequent precise identification of the failed fuel subassemblies are important and indispensable for operational safety of sodium cooled fast reactors. They help to prevent radioactive contamination in the primary cooling system, to reduce the personnel radiation dose and also to improve the plant availability factor as well. The artificially blended xenon and krypton gas (tag gas) is used as the failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) of the prototype fast breeder reactor Monju. The tag gas with different isotopic ratio was enclosed in each Monju fuel cladding tube and is measured by means of the mass spectrometry in the event of fuel failure. Since the tag gas released in the argon cover gas region is eventually diluted under the ppb level, it needs to concentrate at about 105 times using cryogenic charcoal bed which requires an elaborate operation and time. The high sensitive FFDL system is developed using laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) method. The RIMS is suitable for the isotope analysis of the element of ultra trace level, since there is no increase of the background by interfering ion and isobaric interference except for measuring element, because the measuring element is selectively ionized. Developed RIMS system (as shown) consists of the variable wavelength laser system with pulsed optical parametric oscillator and reflectron type time of flight mass spectrometer (RETOFMS). Employing ht mass spectrometer (RETOFMS). Employing a pulsed supersonic valve for sample gas injection enhanced the sensitivity. In order to suppress the unwanted peaks, the mass gating unit was adopted to prevent the argon ions from reaching the detector of RE-TOFMS. The RIMS was applied to measure the tag gas which is used for the pressurized steel capsule of on-line creep rupture experiment in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. As a result, this system could analyze the tag gas isotopic ratios of about 100 ?102 ppb level and the measured results could identify tag gas. An in-pile fuel failure simulation test was conducted in the experimental fast reactor Joyo to evaluate the fission products behavior in the primary cooling system and cover gas, and to confirm the plant operation procedure in the event of fuel failure.During the sodium sipping operation for FFDL, the sample of cover gas was taken into the stainless steel container and xenon nuclides were analyzed by the RIMS system . The RIMS system has detected stable xenon nuclides and 133Xe of which absolute value was evaluated to be a few ppt using the germanium semiconductor detector. This is the first measured data of actual fission gas in the sodium cooled fast reactor plant, and it shows the a applicability of the RIMS system for the fuel failure detection using the stable radioactive xenon isotopes. In a demonstration fast reactor designed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA,) the gap volume between a reactor vessel and its guard vessel increases in proportional to the reactor size and nitrogen gas is filled the space in the double walled piping, resulting in the decrease of the sodium density. An innovative technology has been developed to selectively detect the sodium isotopes in the primary cooling system using RIMS. The target in this study is to improve the detection sensitivity of sodium isotopes up to two to three orders of magnitude lower than the current methods. This research and development program consists of (1) investigating the detection process of sodium aerosol by RIMS, (2) manufacturing the prototype sodium detection system, and (3) testing its detection efficiency. The aerodynamic lens was newly introduced, which can transfer aerosols at atmospheric pressure into a vacuum chamber while increasing the aerosol density at the same time. Furthermore, the ionization process was applied by using the external electric field after resonance exciting from the ground level to the Rydberg level in order to increase the ionization efficiency. We performed the experiments using stable isotope 23Na to eval

  20. Influence of bone environment on ceramic osteointegration in spinal fusion: comparison of bone-poor and bone-rich sites

    OpenAIRE

    Delécrin, Joël; Deschamps, Cédric; Romih, Mostafa; Heymann, Dominique; Passuti, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative experimental data showed differences in bone quality and ceramic incorporation between bone-rich and bone-poor implantation sites. Bone in-growth was significantly lower for ceramic implanted at a lumbar intertransverse than a laminar site. Bone-marrow enrichment of the lumbar intertransverse site (regarded as bone-poor) greatly facilitated ceramic osteointegration. The vertebral interbody site, despite theoretical richness in osteogenic precursor cells, might be bone-poor at the...

  1. Aging and bone. X-ray bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone mass at all ages of the individuals is the integration of genetic factors, nutrition, physical exercise, hormonal environments, and other factors influencing the bone. It is also a measurable risk factor for osteoporosis which may subsequently cause bone fractures. Thus measuring bone mass is required to predict the probability of developing bone fractures subsequent to osteoporosis, and to diagnose osteoporosis, and to manage the osteoporosis patient. This paper discusses bone mineral measurements according to their characteristics and clinical application. Methodology for measuring bone mass has rapidly progressed during the past 15 years, which covers photodensitometry, photon absorptiometry (single energy X-ray absorptiometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative CT, and ultrasound. These techniques have allowed noninvasive measurement of bone mineral density in any site of the skeleton with high accuracy and precision, although a single use of the technique cannot satisfy the complete clinical requirements. Thus the most appropriate method for measuring bone mineral density is important to monitor bone mass change and according to the specific site. (N.K.)

  2. Bone Metabolism in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are at risk for low bone mass at multiple sites, associated with decreased bone turnover. Bone microarchitecture is also affected, with a decrease in bone trabecular volume and trabecular thickness, and an increase in trabecular separation. The adolescent years are typically the time when marked increases occur in bone mass accrual towards the attainment of peak bone mass, an important determinant of bone health and fracture risk in later life. AN often ...

  3. Bone marrow immunoscintigraphy compared with conventional bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoscintigraphy of haematopoetic bone marrow was compared to conventional bone scanning in 141 patients with malignant disease. Forty patients had breast cancer, 25 prostatic carcinoma, 14 kidney or bladder cancer, 13 bronchial carcinoma, 39 malignant lymphoma and 10 multiple myeloma. A total of 18800 sceletal regions were evaluated. Marrow scans showed more metastatic lesions than bone scanning in all patient subgroups. Computerized tomography was concordant with bone marrow scintigraphy in 83.3% of 323 skeletal sites. Bone marrow scans in 30 control patients with fever of unknown origin were abnormal only in 3 patients and in only 7 out of 2135 skeletal regions examined. In patients with malignant lymphoma, bone marrow histology or aspiration cytology was concordantly positive in 14 and concordantly negative in 17 patients. We conclude that immunoscintigraphy of haematopoetic bone marrow provides a reliable, sensitive and safe novel approach for non-invasive detection of metastatic spread to the skeleton. (orig.)

  4. 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Japan's Nuclear Disaster - Implications for Indian Ocean Rim countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Nuclear disaster in Japan after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 has elicited global response to have a relook at the safety aspects of the nuclear power plants from all angles including natural hazards like earthquakes and tsunami. Several countries have gone into safety audits of their nuclear programs in view of the experience in Japan. Tectonically speaking, countries located close to subduction zones or in direct line of impact of the subduction zones are the most vulnerable to earthquake or tsunami hazard, as these regions are the locale of great tsunamigenic earthquakes. The Japan disaster has also cautioned to the possibility of great impact to the critical structures along the coasts due to other ocean processes caused by ocean-atmosphere interactions and also due to global warming and sea level rise phenomena in future. This is particular true for island countries. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan will be remembered more because of its nuclear tragedy and tsunami rather than the earthquake itself. The disaster happened as a direct impact of a tsunami generated by the earthquake 130 km off the coast of Sendai in the Honshu region of Japan. The depth of the earthquake was about 25 km below the ocean floor and it occurred on a thrust fault causing a displacement of more than 20 meters. At few places, water is reported to have inundated areas up to 8-10 km inland. The height of the tsunami varied between 10 and 3 meters along the coast. Generally, during an earthquake damage to buildings or other structures occur due to strong shaking which is expressed in the form of ground accelerations 'g'. Although, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) consistently exceeded 2g at several places from Sendai down south, structures at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant did not collapse due to the earthquake. In the Indian Ocean Rim countries, Indian, Pakistan and South Africa are the three countries where Nuclear power plants are operational, few of them along the coasts. There are a few countries where nuclear installations are planned and hence, a critical analysis is required to know the realistic hazard due to earthquakes and tsunami in these countries. The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami generated due to Sumatra earthquake of M9.3 claimed more than 250,000 lives but did not caused a situation like in Japan. We studied the tsunami run-up heights and inundation along the east coast of India. The maximum run-up height of 5.2 meters was observed at Nagapattinam with lateral inundation up to 800 meters and the minimum was at Devanaampatnam with a lateral inundation up to 340 meters. At Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, the tsunami run-up height was 4.1 meters and water entered up to 360 meters inside the campus. Using the observed data we modeled several scenarios for Indian coast line for different earthquakes along the subduction zone of Andaman-Sumatra in the east and Makran in south Pakistan in the western side using N2 Tsunami Model. The results obtained for few critical structures will be presented with an overview of scenarios for other countries.

  5. Ultratrace analysis of long-lived radionuclides by resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For long-lived radionuclides such as actinides, conventional radioanalyses by ? spectroscopy suffer from unsatisfactory limits of detection (LOD). Resonance ionization mass spectrometry, on the contrary, achieves limits of detection of 106 atoms and is free from isobaric interferences. The multiple step resonant excitation of evaporated atoms with laser light and the mass selective detection is presented for isotopes of plutonium as an example. We use a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 10 kHz to pump three titanium-sapphire lasers delivering wave lengths of 420.76 nm, 847.28 nm, and 767.53 nm to resonantly excite plutonium into a Rydberg state from where ionization is achieved by applying an electric field. For isotopic composition measurements, the wavelengths of lasers 1 and 2 must be readjusted for each isotope while laser 3 can be maintained at the same wavelength. The accuracy of isotopic ratios determined this way is demonstrated with a certified NIST standard. Applications are presented for fallout plutonium, reactor plutonium, samples from the Chernobyl area, wapons plutonium from the Mururoa island, seawater plutonium from the Northern Sea, and from the Irish Sea. Migration of plutonium through a granite fracture in the Grimsel underground laboratory has also been investigated. By detecting ionization thresholds as a function of the applied electric field, accurate ionization potentials IP of Ac, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, and Es have been determined by extrapolation to zero field strength. In a first attempt to determine also the IP of Fm, a sample of 20.1-h 255Fm produced at the HFIR at Oak Ridge has been investigated. By resonance excitation with a dye laser and ionization with an excimer laser in a buffer gas cell, two excited states of Fm (5f12 7s 7p) have been identified and mass spectra of 255Fm+ and the daughter 251Cf+ have been measured by a quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a channeltron detector. By measuring the drift times of these ions and of 238UO+, ion mobilities in the electric field could be determined. These are potentially useful to determine ionic radii of the heavy actinides and superheavy elements. By using a commercial IONTOF-SIMS apparatus, analyses of hot micro particles with high lateral resolution in the sub-micron range have been exploited. For the determination of the location of these hot particles (x,y coordinate on the target holder) their content of fissile material via fission track analysis has been used. In order to avoid isobaric interferences, the sputtered ions (SIMS) were suppressed by a pulsed counter voltage applied to the target holder, and the abundantly sputtered neutral particles were resonantly excited and ionized by RIMS. The resulting ions were directed by an alternating acceleration voltage into the TOF mass spectrometer. (author)

  6. [Primary malignant bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eisenhart-Rothe, R; Toepfer, A; Salzmann, M; Schauwecker, J; Gollwitzer, H; Rechl, H

    2011-12-01

    Among human neoplasms, primary malignant bone tumors are fairly rare. They present an incidence rate of roughly 10 cases per 1 million inhabitants per year. During childhood (adamantinoma are very rare. Staging of the lesion is essential for systemic therapeutic decision-making and includes complete imaging and histo-pathological confirmation of the suspected entity. In most cases, this is established by open- or image-guided biopsy. Based on this information, an interdisciplinary tumor board will determine the individual therapeutic approach. Endoprosthetic or biological reconstruction following wide tumor resection is the most common surgical therapy for primary malignant bone tumors. There is vital importance in a thorough postoperative follow-up and continous after-care by a competent tumor center which is permanentely in charge of therapy. PMID:22130624

  7. Radiotherapy for bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painful bone metastases are a common problem for cancer patients. Although current evidence supports the use of a single fraction of radiotherapy as the treatment of choice, many radiotherapists continue to use fractionated regimens. Over one six month period 105 patients received external beam irradiation for painful bone metastases at the Royal London Hospital (RLH). Thirty-one per cent of the patients were aged 70 or over. The treatment of 97 of these patients was assessed. They had a total of 280 sites treated over the course of their disease. Fifty-nine per cent of sites treated received a fractionated course of radiotherapy. Site significantly influenced fractionation. Overall response rates of 82% were achieved. Fractionation did not appear to influence this. Ten patients received large field irradiation. Fifteen patients had five or more sites irradiated, of whom only one received hemibody irradiation. (author)

  8. Bone disease in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Francisco; Cusano, Natalie E; Silva, Barbara C; Cassibba, Sara; Almeida, Clarissa Beatriz; Machado, Vanessa Caroline Costa; Bilezikian, John P

    2014-07-01

    Bone disease in severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is described classically as osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC). Bone pain, skeletal deformities and pathological fractures are features of OFC. Bone mineral density is usually extremely low in OFC, but it is reversible after surgical cure. The signs and symptoms of severe bone disease include bone pain, pathologic fractures, proximal muscle weakness with hyperreflexia. Bone involvement is typically characterized as salt-and-pepper appearance in the skull, bone erosions and bone resorption of the phalanges, brown tumors and cysts. In the radiography, diffuse demineralization is observed, along with pathological fractures, particularly in the long bones of the extremities. In severe, symptomatic PHPT, marked elevation of the serum calcium and PTH concentrations are seen and renal involvement is manifested by nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. A new technology, recently approved for clinical use in the United States and Europe, is likely to become more widely available because it is an adaptation of the lumbar spine DXA image. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural analysis that provides an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture. Newer technologies, such as high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), have provided further understanding of the microstructural skeletal features in PHPT. PMID:25166047

  9. Posttraumatic Frontal Bone Osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, S. Heredero; Aniceto, G. Sa?nchez; Rodri?guez, I. Zubillaga; Diaz, R. Gutie?rrez; Recuero, I. I. Garci?a

    2009-01-01

    We present the clinical case of a patient with open bilateral frontal sinus fractures who developed a frontal osteomyelitis. A review of the problem and management ascending to the different alternatives for central anterior skull base defects and fronto-orbital reconstruction is also presented. After extensive radical debridement of the necrotic bone, final reconstruction of the skull base was performed by using a rectus abdominis free flap. A custom-made hard tissue replacement implant was ...

  10. Bones of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-01-01

    The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five inte...

  11. Vitamin D: beyond bone

    OpenAIRE

    Christakos, Sylvia; Hewison, Martin; Gardner, David G.; Wagner, Carol L.; Sergeev, Igor N; Rutten, Erica; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Boland, Ricardo; FERRUCCI, LUIGI; Daniel D. Bikle

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, vitamin D has been received increased attention due to the resurgence of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in developed countries and the identification of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, suggesting unexpected benefits of vitamin D in health and disease, beyond bone health. The possibility of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D was first noted with the discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in tissues and cells that are not involved in maintaining mineral homeostasis and...

  12. Mesoscale Raised Rim Depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A Review of the Characteristics, Processes, and Spatial Distributions of Analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Devon M.; Bruno, Barbara C.; Lanagan, Peter D.; Glaze, Lori; Jaeger, Windy L.; Soare, Richard J.; Tseung, Jean-Michel Wan Bun; Skinner, James A. Jr.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach.

  13. Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 in a cat with a supernumerary kidney / Dioctophyme renale Goeze, 1782 em gata com rim supranumerário

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, Pedrassani; Hamilton, Wendt; Erley Alexandre, Rennau; Samuel Tibes, Pereira; Simone Balão Taques, Wendt.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um caso de parasitismo por Dioctophyme renale em rim supranumerário e em cavidade abdominal de um gato do Brasil. Uma fêmea adulta, não castrada, sem raça definida e com aproximadamente três anos de idade, foi encaminhada ao Hospital Veterinário da Universidade do Contestado, em Canoinhas- [...] SC, com aumento de volume abdominal e o proprietário suspeitava de gestação. Após ultrassonografia foi descartada a gestação e foi detectado parasitismo em rim. Como gatos domésticos são considerados hospedeiros incomuns desse parasita, relata-se o presente caso. Abstract in english This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyme renale in a supernumerary kidney and abdominal cavity of a female cat in Brazil. The three-year-old cat of indeterminate breed presented abdominal distension and was taken to the University of Contestado Veterinary Hospital in Canoinhas, state o [...] f Santa Catarina, since the owner suspected pregnancy. An ultrasound scan did not confirm pregnancy but revealed parasitism in the kidney. This case is worth reporting because domestic cats are rarely hosts of this nematode species.

  14. Mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A review of the characteristics, processes, and spatial distributions of analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, D.M.; Bruno, B.C.; Lanagan, P.D.; Glaze, L.S.; Jaeger, W.L.; Soare, R.J.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.; Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Baloga, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Battling Brittle Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The accuDEXA(R) Bone Mineral Density Assessment System, manufactured by Schick Technologies, Inc., utilizes "camera on a chip" sensor technology invented and developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Schick's accuDEXA system offers several advantages over traditional osteoporosis tests, which assess bone density loss in the hip and spine, and require specialized personnel to conduct. With accuDEXA, physicians can test the entire body's bone density at a peripheral site, such as the finger, without applying gels or having patients remove garments. Results are achieved in 30 seconds and printed out in less than a minute, compared to the estimated exam time of 15 minutes for hip and spine density analyses. Schick has also applied the CMOS APS technology to a new software product that performs dental radiography using up to 90 percent less radiation exposure than conventional X-rays. Called Computed Dental Radiography(R), the new digital imaging product utilizes an electronic sensor in place of X-ray film to generate sharp and clear images that appear on a computer screen within 3 seconds, and can be enlarged and enhanced to identify problems.

  16. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between <1 and 100 Bq/kg. The content of U-238 and K-40 always was below the limit of detection (<1-<10 Bq/kg). Significant differences were detected in the amount of Ra-226, Pb-210, and Ra-228 detected between different samples of the same product from the same manufacturer, as well as between various types of cements. The highest radioactivity level was measured for Ra-226. Although stochastic radiation effects can not totally be excluded, it is extremely unlikely that the small amount of radioactive substances additionally transferred into the body by the bone cement has negative effects on the recipient's organism or on the fate of the alloplastic implant: 'The risk factor and extrapolation in a low dosage range ... do not lead to an underestimation but more likely to an overestimation of the radiation hazard'. (orig.)

  17. Bone composition: relationship to bone fragility and antiosteoporotic drug effects

    OpenAIRE

    Boskey, Adele L.

    2013-01-01

    The composition of a bone can be described in terms of the mineral phase, hydroxyapatite, the organic phase, which consists of collagen type I, noncollagenous proteins, other components and water. The relative proportions of these various components vary with age, site, gender, disease and treatment. Any drug therapy could change the composition of a bone. This review, however, will only address those pharmaceuticals used to treat or prevent diseases of bone: fragility fractures in particular...

  18. CD47 Regulates Bone Mass and Tumor Metastasis to Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Uluc?kan, O?zge; Becker, Stephanie N.; Deng, Hongju; Zou, Wei; Prior, Julie L.; Piwnica-worms, David; Frazier, William A.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2009-01-01

    CD47, also called integrin-associated protein, plays a critical role in the innate immune response and is an atypical member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with and activates ?3 integrins. ?3 integrin?/? mice have defective platelet and osteoclast function and are protected from bone metastasis. The role of CD47 in skeletal homeostasis and bone metastasis has not been described. CD47?/? mice had increased bone mass and defective osteoclast function in vivo. Althoug...

  19. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  20. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Takao; Iizuka, Tadashi; Kanamori, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsuro [Department of Oral Functional Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586 (Japan); Matsumura, Sachiko; Shiba, Kiyotaka [Division of Protein Engineering, Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31, Ariake, koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: tkasai@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 5, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-02-11

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  1. Clinical research of bone scan characteristics for metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic images of 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy in patients with metabolic bone diseases (MBD) were analyzed and compared, in an attempt to improve the capability of differential diagnosis in this aspect. A total of 142 cases, clinically confirmed as (MBD), were categorized into six groups: hyperparathyroidism (117), renal osteodystrophy (4), Paget's disease (16), hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2), Albers-Schonberg disease (2), and Brittle bone disease (1). They were diagnosed clinically or pathologically, and scanned with 99mTc-MDP bone scintegraphy, from which the 142 MBD cases were classified into 4 types. The cases of Type I had increased amount of 99mTc-MDP uptake in whole body bones, including hyperparathyroidism, Albers-Schonberg disease, brittle bone disease and renal osteodystrophy. The cases of Type II had high uptake of 99mTc-MDP in local region of bones, including paget's disease, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and hyperparathyroidism. A Type I case with pathological fracture or secondary osteopathy was classified as Type III. Type IV cases were in early stage of hyperparathyroidism, with normal bone scan image. Analysis of the characteristics of 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphic findings (locations, morphology and intensities) in patients with MBD may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of MBD, in association with the patient's history and X-ray data altogether. (authors)ether. (authors)

  2. Carbon nanohorns accelerate bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study showed that carbon nanohorns (CNHs) have biocompatibility and possible medical uses such as in drug delivery systems. It was reported that some kinds of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes were useful for bone formation. However, the effect of CNHs on bone tissue has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNHs on bone regeneration and their possible application for guided bone regeneration (GBR). CNHs dispersed in ethanol were fixed on a porous polytetrafluoroethylene membrane by vacuum filtration. Cranial defects were created in rats and covered by a membrane with/without CNHs. At two weeks, bone formation under the membrane with CNHs had progressed more than under that without CNHs and numerous macrophages were observed attached to CNHs. At eight weeks, there was no significant difference in the amount of newly formed bone between the groups and the appearance of macrophages was decreased compared with that at two weeks. Newly formed bone attached to some CNHs directly. These results suggest that macrophages induced by CNHs are related to bone regeneration. In conclusion, the present study indicates that CNHs are compatible with bone tissue and effective as a material for GBR.

  3. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, becauipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate. Combinations of allografts and autografts for mandibular reconstruction have enjoyed great success since their introduction in the late 1960's and early 1970's. Due to its high osteogenic potential, marrow and cancellous bone was used for reconstruction of the mandible. For reconstruction of large defects, surgeons used a scaffold to support the cancellous bone. This practice led to the use of allogeneic bone crib in which the cancellous bone could be packed. Reconstruction of the mandible by this combination is now very commonplace

  4. Development of the isotope analysis technique for inorganic trace elements using laser ablation assisted resonance ionization mass spectrometry (LA-RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed and assessed LA-RIMS as the isotope analysis method for trace inorganic elements in agricultural products. We used magnesium isotope analysis to verify that LA-RIMS had the capability to identify the production areas with the required precision of 0.3%. We demonstrated direct measurements of trace strontium (sub ppm level) in brown rice and confirmed that the isotope analysis precision was improved through the signal intensity enhancement by increasing the ablation power and expanding the laser spot. For the present system, we estimated the strontium isotope ratio of 87Sr/86Sr to be 0.69±0.10 (14%). We concluded that the direct isotope analysis for trace inorganic elements such as strontium in brown rice using LA-RIMS had an advantage under the serious situation of isobaric interference and had sufficient capability to identify agricultural production areas. (author)

  5. Tarsal bone disintegration in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarsal bone disintegration is characterised by fragmentation and progressive collapse of one or more tarsal bones. It occurs in 10% of leprosy patients, and is responsible for many severe foot deformities associated with this disease. The main cause is micro-traumata, but sensory impairment, sepsis and osteoporosis are predisposing factors. In this series of 400 consecutive patients the talus and navicular were involved most frequently (72% of 119 tarsal lesions). Treatment, including prolonged immobilisation of the foot, results in dense sclerosis of the affected bone, and leaves a functional limb. Initial radiological features include bone fragmentation, calcified fragments in adjacent soft tissues, linear fractures, progressive compression and deformity of the affected bone, loss of density of the affected bone and flattening of the longitudinal plantar arch. Illustrative case histories are presented, and the differential diagnosis discussed. (author)

  6. Fabric dependence of bone ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Stephen C; Cardoso, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Current diagnosis of bone loss and osteoporosis is based on the measurement of the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) or the apparent mass density. Unfortunately, in most clinical ultrasound densitometers: 1) measurements are often performed in a single anatomical direction, 2) only the first wave arriving to the ultrasound probe is characterized, and 3) the analysis of bone status is based on empirical relationships between measurable quantities such as Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and the density of the porous medium. However, the existence of a second wave in cancellous bone has been reported, which is an unequivocal signature of poroelastic media, as predicted by Biot's poroelastic wave propagation theory. A fabric-dependent anisotropic poroelastic approach is empolyed as a theoretical framework to describe the microarchitectural-dependent relationship between measurable wave properties and the elastic constants of trabecular bone, and thus represents an alternative for bone quality assessment beyond BMD alone. PMID:20882938

  7. Distribution Principle of Bone Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu

    2009-01-01

    Using the analytic and experimental techniques we present an exploratory study of the mass distribution features of the high coincidence of centre of mass of heterogeneous bone tissue in vivo and its centroid of geometry position. A geometric concept of the average distribution radius of bone issue is proposed and functional relation of this geometric distribution feature between the partition density and its relative tissue average distribution radius is observed. Based upon the mass distribution feature, our results suggest a relative distance assessment index between the center of mass of cortical bone and the bone center of mass and establish a bone strength equation. Analysing the data of human foot in vivo, we notice that the mass and geometric distribution laws have expanded the connotation of Wolff's law, which implies a leap towards the quantitative description of bone strength. We finally conclude that this will not only make a positive contribution to help assess osteoporosis, but will also provide...

  8. Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Suresh C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are utilized on the basis of the radionuclide?s particulate emissions (primarily low to intermediate beta emission. The requirements therefore are different from those of bone imaging agents that consist mainly of short-lived single photon emitters. Lately, the therapeutic bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have attained increasing importance due to their potential role in alleviating pain from osseous metastases in cancer patients, for the treatment of joint pain resulting from inflamed synovium (radiosynoviorthesis, or radiosynovectomy, or from various other forms of arthritic disease. There is, however, a paucity of published data on the bio-pharmacokinetics of these agents when used following intravenous administration for bone pain palliation. This paper will briefly review and summarize the presently available chemical and biopharmacokinetic information on the various clinically approved as well as experimental bone-localizing therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, and make projections on their clinical application for the treatment of primary/metastatic cancer in bone.

  9. Targeted therapies for bone sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Dominique; Rédini, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Bone sarcomas include a very large number of tumour subtypes, which originate form bone and more particularly from mesenchymal stem cell lineage. Osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, the three main bone sarcoma entities develop in a favourable microenvironment composed by bone cells, blood vessels, immune cells, based on the ‘seed and soil theory'. Current therapy associates surgery and chemotherapy, however, bone sarcomas remain diseases with high morbidity and mortality especially in children and adolescents. In the past decade, various new therapeutic approaches emerged and target the tumour niche or/and directly the tumour cells by acting on signalling/metabolic pathways involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis or drug resistance. The present review gives a brief overview from basic to clinical assessment of the main targeted therapies of bone sarcoma cells. PMID:24422100

  10. ASPECTS OF BONE TISSUE IN OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica TÖRÖK-OANCE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease and its prevalence is increasing as the population grows older. The aim of this study is to highlight changes of the bone tissue which occur in osteoporosis and which affect bone quality. We identified several aspects of the bone tissue in osteoporosis such as abundant cement lines, endosteal bone resorption, the presence of thinned bone trabeculae, the presence of trabecular microfractures, the disruption of intertrabecular connectivity and marked cortical porosity. These changes influence bone quality and may contribute to increased bone fragility in osteoporosis. We also revealed periosteal apposition, which in contrast with the aspects mentioned above, has a beneficial effect on bone strength due to the addition of bone material. Osteoporosis is the most common bone disease and its prevalence is increasing as the population grows older. The aim of this study is to highlight changes of the bone tissue which occur in osteoporosis and which affect bone quality. We identified several aspects of the bone tissue in osteoporosis such as abundant cement lines, endosteal bone resorption, the presence of thinned bone trabeculae, the presence of trabecular microfractures, the disruption of intertrabecular connectivity and marked cortical porosity. These changes influence bone quality and may contribute to increased bone fragility in osteoporosis. We also revealed periosteal apposition, which in contrast with the aspects mentioned above, has a beneficial effect on bone strength due to the addition of bone material.

  11. Expansion of the CHR bone code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the coding system used in the Center for Human Radiobiology (CHR) to identify individual bones and portions of bones of a complete skeletal system. It includes illustrations of various bones and bone segments with their respective code numbers. Codes are also presented for bone groups and for nonbone materials

  12. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 expression is decreased in human hypertensive nephrosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Clemens D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 is protective in different animal models of acute and chronic kidney disease. Its role in human kidneys, and in particular hypertensive nephrosclerosis, has thus far not been described. Methods BMP-7 mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR and localised by immunostaining in tissue samples from normal and nephrosclerotic human kidneys. The impact of angiotensin (AT-II and the AT-II receptor antagonist telmisartan on BMP-7 mRNA levels and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8 (pSmad 1/5/8 expression was quantified in proximal tubular cells (HK-2. Functional characteristics of BMP-7 were evaluated by testing its influence on TGF-? induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, expression of TGF-? receptor type I (TGF-?RI and phosphorylated Smad 2 (pSmad 2 as well as on TNF-? induced apoptosis of proximal tubular cells. Results BMP-7 was predominantly found in the epithelia of the distal tubule and the collecting duct and was less abundant in proximal tubular cells. In sclerotic kidneys, BMP-7 was significantly decreased as demonstrated by real-time PCR and immunostaining. AT-II stimulation in HK-2 cells led to a significant decrease of BMP-7 and pSmad 1/5/8, which was partially ameliorated upon co-incubation with telmisartan. Only high concentrations of BMP-7 (100 ng/ml were able to reverse TNF-?-induced apoptosis and TGF-?-induced EMT in human proximal tubule cells possibly due to a decreased expression of TGF-?RI. In addition, BMP-7 was able to reverse TGF-?-induced phosphorylation of Smad 2. Conclusions The findings suggest a protective role for BMP-7 by counteracting the TGF-? and TNF-?-induced negative effects. The reduced expression of BMP-7 in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis may imply loss of protection and regenerative potential necessary to counter the disease.

  13. Bone imaging in sports medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Shikare S; Samsi A; Tilve G

    1997-01-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public leads to increase in sports induced injuries including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis and host of musculotendenous maladies. We have studied twenty patients referred from sports clinic for bone scanning to evaluate clinically difficult problems. It showed stress fracture in twelve patients, bilateral shin splint in five patients and normal bone scan in three patients. Present study highlights the utility of bone imaging for th...

  14. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implications relevant to osteoporosis and regenerative medicine.

  15. Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Suresh C.

    2002-01-01

    Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are utilized on the basis of the radionuclide’s particulate emissions (primarily low to intermediate beta emission). The requirements therefore are different from those of bone imaging agents that consist mainly of short-lived single photon emitters. Lately, the therapeutic bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have attained increasing importance due to their potential role in alleviating pain from osseous metastases in cancer patients, for the trea...

  16. TARGETING POLYMER THERAPEUTICS TO BONE

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Stewart; Kopec?ek, Jindr?ich

    2012-01-01

    An aging population in the developing world has led to an increase in musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and bone metastases. Left untreated many bone diseases cause debilitating pain and in the case of cancer, death. Many potential drugs are effective in treating diseases but result in side effects preventing their efficacy in the clinic. Bone, however, provides an unique environment of inorganic solids, which can be exploited in order to effectively target drugs to diseased tissu...

  17. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to evaluate bone involvement in 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal 99mTc-suffer colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose bone scan showed cold defects, bone-marrow scintigraphy delineated clearly the areas of tumor-cell invasion. On the other hand, in all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but on bone-marrow scintigram abnormalities were not recognized. In conclusion, the combination scintigraphy of bone and bone-marrow was a useful method in evluating bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  18. Ectopic bone induction by equine bone protein extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Haisheng; Springer, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Demineralized bone matrix from horse has been reported to be osteoinductive. However, its performance was inferior to autogenous bone graft in terms of new bone formation. In the present experiment, an equine bone protein extract-COLLOSS E was investigated for its osteoinductivity in a rat model. At the mean time, carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) was tested as a potential carrier for the protein extract. 18 male Wistar rats (8 weeks) were employed in the experiment. Each rat was implanted randomly with the 2 of the following implants, one on each side of the abdominal muscle. 1) COLLOSS E lyophilisate. 2) PEEK ring holder. 3) 3% or 10% CMC .in gel or lyophilized form 4) COLLOSS E lyophilisate with 3% CMC, implanted as gel or in lyophilized form. 5) COLLOSS E suspension with 10% CMC, implanted as gel or in lyophilized form. The rats were followed up for 21 days. After termination, samples were subjected to macroscopic examination, plain radiograph, micro-CT and histological evaluations. The results showed that PEEK ring or CMC alone could not induce ectopic bone formation. COLLOSS E lyophilisate has a slightly higher (6 out of 7) positive bone formation rate over COLLOSS E/3% CMC (3 out of 5, both gel and lyophilized form), however, the difference is non-significant (p=0.36, Fisher's exact test). 10% CMC with COLLOSS E did not show ectopic bone formation when implanted as gel form (0/8), while 1 positive bone formation was found when implanted as the lyophilized form (1/4). Bone tissue volume ranged from 0 mm(3) to 23.1mm(3) for COLLOSS-E lyophilisate alone and 0 to 29.7mm(3) for COLLOSS E/3%CMC (gel or lyophilized form). We concluded that equine bone protein extract has the ability to induce ectopic bone formation in the rat model. CMC could be a potential carrier, however, further studies are needed to verify the proportion and efficacy.

  19. Ectopic bone induction by equine bone protein extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haisheng; Springer, Marco; Zou, Xuenong; Briest, Arne; Bünger, Cody

    2006-01-01

    Demineralized bone matrix from horse has been reported to be osteoinductive. However, its performance was inferior to autogenous bone graft in terms of new bone formation. In the present experiment, an equine bone protein extract-COLLOSS E was investigated for its osteoinductivity in a rat model. At the mean time, carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) was tested as a potential carrier for the protein extract. 18 male Wistar rats (8 weeks) were employed in the experiment. Each rat was implanted randomly with the 2 of the following implants, one on each side of the abdominal muscle. 1) COLLOSS E lyophilisate. 2) PEEK ring holder. 3) 3% or 10% CMC .in gel or lyophilized form 4) COLLOSS E lyophilisate with 3% CMC, implanted as gel or in lyophilized form. 5) COLLOSS E suspension with 10% CMC, implanted as gel or in lyophilized form. The rats were followed up for 21 days. After termination, samples were subjected to macroscopic examination, plain radiograph, micro-CT and histological evaluations. The results showed that PEEK ring or CMC alone could not induce ectopic bone formation. COLLOSS E lyophilisate has a slightly higher (6 out of 7) positive bone formation rate over COLLOSS E/3% CMC (3 out of 5, both gel and lyophilized form), however, the difference is non-significant (p=0.36, Fisher's exact test). 10% CMC with COLLOSS E did not show ectopic bone formation when implanted as gel form (0/8), while 1 positive bone formation was found when implanted as the lyophilized form (1/4). Bone tissue volume ranged from 0 mm(3) to 23.1mm(3) for COLLOSS-E lyophilisate alone and 0 to 29.7mm(3) for COLLOSS E/3%CMC (gel or lyophilized form). We concluded that equine bone protein extract has the ability to induce ectopic bone formation in the rat model. CMC could be a potential carrier, however, further studies are needed to verify the proportion and efficacy. PMID:17120797

  20. Proteasome inhibitors and bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Ya-Wei; Heuck, Christoph J; Shaughnessy, John D; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua

    2012-07-01

    Bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by increase in the numbers and activity of bone-resorpting osteoclasts and decrease in the number and function of bone-formation osteoblasts. MM-triggered inhibition of bone formation may stem from suppression of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, a pivotal pathway in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into osteoblasts, and regulating production of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis by osteoblasts. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs), such as bortezomib (Bz), induce activation of Wnt/?-catenin pathway and MSC differentiation toward osteoblasts. PIs also suppress osteoclastogenesis, possibly through regulating multiple pathways including NF-?B, Bim, and the ratio of RANKL/OPG. The critical role of PI in increasing osteoblast function and suppression of osteoclast activity is highlighted by clinical evidence of increases in bone formation and decreases in bone resorption makers. This review will discuss the function of PIs in stimulating bone formation and suppression of bone resorption, and the mechanism underlying this process that leads to inhibition bone disease in MM patients. PMID:22726547

  1. Impregnation of bone chips with alendronate and cefazolin, combined with demineralized bone matrix: a bone chamber study in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Mc, Mathijssen Nina; Hannink Gerjon; Pilot Peter; Wim, Schreurs B.; Bloem Rolf M; Buma Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bone grafts from bone banks might be mixed with bisphosphonates to inhibit the osteoclastic response. This inhibition prevents the osteoclasts to resorb the allograft bone before new bone has been formed by the osteoblasts, which might prevent instability. Since bisphosphonates may not only inhibit osteoclasts, but also osteoblasts and thus bone formation, we studied different bisphosphonate concentrations combined with allograft bone. We investigated whether locally appli...

  2. Histological Analysis of the Effect of Accelerated Portland Cement as a Bone Graft Substitute on Experimentally-Created Three-Walled Intrabony Defects in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Javad Ashraf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Recent literature shows that accelerated Portland cement (APC is a non-toxic material that may have potential to promote bone healing. The objective of this study was to histologically evaluate periodontal healing focusing on new bone regeneration following implantation of APC into intra-bony defects in dogs.

    Materials and methods. Three-wall intra-bony periodontal defects were surgically created at the mesial aspect of the first molar in both sides of mandible in six dogs. One side was randomly filled with the material and other received a flap operation only. The animals were euthanized eight weeks post-surgery when block sections of the defect sites were collected and prepared for qualitative histological analysis.

    Results. Compared to control group, stimulation of growth of new bone tissue in the cavity containing APC was significantly prominent in three of six cases, showing osteoid formation with osteoblastic rimming and new bone trabeculla. New bone formation was observed just close to cavity containing APC. Connective tissue proliferation and downgrowth of epithelium were significantly less than those of control group.

    Conclusion. Our results are encouraging for the use of APC as a bone substitute, but more comprehensive study are necessary before warranting clinical use.

  3. The correlation between the bone mineral density of cancellous bone and the bone quality in the jaw bone of implant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between the bone mineral density of cancellous bone in the jawbone and the grading of the bone quality by operative findings in implant patients. The jawbones of 53 implant patients (15 males and 38 females), 150 sites (maxilla 50 sites, mandible :100 sites) were analyzed by the preoperative Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) examination. The oral surgeons categorized the bone quality in four grades based on the operative findings (tactile sense). Statistical analyses were performed and the bone mineral densities of cancellous bone were compared with the grades of the bone qualities. The results were as follows: The bone mineral density of cancellous bone of males was significantly higher than that of females (p<0.05). The bone quality of females was significantly poorer than that of males (p<0.05). The bone mineral density of cancellous bone of the maxillae tended to be lower than that of the mandibles. The bone quality of the maxillae was significantly poorer than that of the mandibles (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the bone mineral density of cancellous bone and the bone quality in the implant patients (p<0.05, r=-0.60). These results demonstrated that the measurement of the bone mineral density of cancellous bone in the implant patients from the preoperative Quantitative Computed Tomography examination had the potential to diagnose the bone quality of the implant sites. (author) quality of the implant sites. (author)

  4. Endocortical bone loss in osteoporosis: the role of bone surface availability

    CERN Document Server

    Buenzli, Pascal R; Clement, John G; Pivonka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Age-related bone loss and postmenopausal osteoporosis are disorders of bone remodelling, in which less bone is reformed than resorbed. Yet, this dysregulation of bone remodelling does not occur equally in all bone regions. Loss of bone is more pronounced near the endocortex, leading to cortical wall thinning and medullary cavity expansion, a process sometimes referred to as "trabecularisation" or "cancellisation". Cortical wall thinning is of primary concern in osteoporosis due to the strong reduction in bone mechanical properties that it is associated with. In this paper, we examine the possibility that the nonuniformity of microscopic bone surface availability could explain the nonuniformity of bone loss in osteoporosis. We use a simple computational model of bone remodelling, in which microscopic bone surface availability influences bone turnover rate, to simulate the evolution of the bone volume fraction profile across the midshaft of a long bone. We find that bone loss is accelerated near the endocortica...

  5. Trasplante óseo Bone transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. San Julián

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Describimos la metodología del Banco de Huesos y Tejidos blandos desde su extracción y su almacenamiento hasta su utilización. Desde el año 1986 con la creación del Banco de Huesos en la Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, se han utilizado más de 3.000 injertos para cirugías muy diversas. Los injertos óseos se pueden clasificar en corticales y esponjosos; los primeros se emplean principalmente en cirugía de salvamento en pacientes tumorales, en grandes reconstrucciones postraumáticas y en cirugía de reemplazo en el que los defectos óseos son masivos y requieren un soporte estructural. Los injertos esponjosos son los más utilizados por sus numerosas indicaciones, de especial utilidad en el relleno de cavidades que precisan una cantidad importante de injerto cuando el autoinjerto es insuficiente o como complemento; también son de especial ayuda en el tratamiento de las fracturas cuando existen pérdidas óseas y en el tratamiento de los retrasos de consolidación y seudoartrosis en zonas poco vascularizadas y atróficas. Se usan también en cirugía protésica ante la presencia de defectos de tipo cavitario. Los aloinjertos de tejidos blandos están especialmente reconocidos en lesiones ligamentosas múltiples que requieren reconstrucciones. Hoy en día, los más utilizados son los empleados en la cirugía del ligamento cruzado anterior aunque pueden ser utilizados para reemplazar cualquier defecto ligamentoso o tendinoso. Las principales dificultades de los aloinjertos corticales están en la consolidación de los extremos con el hueso propio y en cirugía tumoral, dado que son enfermos inmunodeprimidos por el tratamiento, la incidencia de infección se encuentra aumentada con respecto a los injertos esponjosos y de tejidos blandos que es irrelevante. En definitiva, el uso de aloinjertos cada vez más extendido es un arma terapéutica imprescindible en cirugía ortopédica y traumatología, que debe ser usada por manos expertas.We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  6. Bone scan in assessment of metastases to the bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scan can be used as a primary investigation to reveal bone metastases and should be performed both at the stage of making diagnosis and annual monitoring of cancer patients. This method is most sensitive and allows an early diagnosis or demonstration of larger amount of lesions when compared with radiography

  7. Bone mineral density and bone fracture relationship in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Cakmak

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Risk of bone fracture in geriatric women is not only associated with BMD. We should keep in mind that the risk may be associated with features such as content and structure of the bone and fall common seen in these ages.

  8. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last Building bone as ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

  9. Bones in Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-05

    Thirty-first monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Our bones change throughout our lives, building and increasing in density to our 30's and then decreasing in density thereafter. People who don't get exercise, such as those who must remain in bed for long periods of time, can suffer early osteoporosis. But why don't bears, who hibernate for half a year, experience the same problem?

  10. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  11. Bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation

  12. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (?=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  13. The Effect of Water on the Growth of Multi-layered Polycrystalline Reaction rims in the System CaO-MgO-SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, A.; Joachim, B.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Schade, U.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of traces of water is of paramount importance for kinetics in natural rocks. Experimental results show that traces of water released at a reaction front have a major effect on the growth rates and phase sequence of the reaction rim. Experiments on polished synthetic, single crystals of OH-doped periclase (MgO) and wollastonite (dry) (CaSiO3) were reacted in an Internally Heated Pressure device at 0.5 GPa and 1200°C, 21.5hr to 96hr. Water-doped periclase as starting material allows to control the water initiation to the experiments on the ppm level. Homogenous OH distribution of the periclase starting material was analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy. In the absence of an periclase-specific calibration, the quantification of hydrogen concentration expressed as H2O-equivalent was done after [1] and gives 3.5 wt ppm H2O at ambient P/T. Raman spectroscopy, which shows OH-defect related bands at identical wavenumbers yields an H2O equivalent concentration of about 9 wt ppm quantified after [2]. A complex multi-layered rim consisting of the phases forsterite, monticellite, merwinite and akermanite grows between periclase and wollastonite at the P/T conditions mentioned above. Rim thickness of individual rim phases are between 3 to 20 ?m. Conventional and synchrotron IR radiation was used at Bessy II (Berlin, Germany) with a spatial resolution down to 5 x 5 ?m to analyze how water prevails in the starting material and reaction rims. A series of FTIR spectra were recorded in a line scan over the periclase toward the rim sequence. The periclase spectra show typical absorption bands at 3297 and 3310.5 cm-1 which are interpreted as OH stretching vibrations [3]. In addition an absorption band at 3697 cm-1 is observed, which is associated to Mg(OH)2 precipitate [4], which develops during quenching. In general the initial OH-doped periclase partially dehydrated during the rim growth experiments. We observe a gradient towards the reaction rim: water concentration corresponding to the OH-defect (absorption bands at 3297 and 3310.5 cm-1) measured by FTIR from the edge to the reaction rim of the periclase over the length of 700 ?m decrease from 2.3 to 1.8 wt ppm. In contrast the water concentration associated with Mg(OH)2 precipitate increases towards the rim from 2 to 3 wt ppm. A line scan across the rim sequence indicates that at least one product phase (monticellite) and the wollastonite starting material have measurable traces of water incorporated. Here further quantification of the water concentration and OH-distribution is necessary.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions trading among Pacific Rim countries: An analysis of policies to bring developing countries to the bargaining table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the aggregate net costs and individual country cost savings of greenhouse gas emissions trading among Pacific Rim countries. We propose emission permit allocation rules designed to entice developing countries to participate. Absence of developing country involvement has served as an excuse for the lack by participation by the United States in the first compliance period of the Kyoto Protocol and may serve as a disincentive to even more countries in subsequent periods. Our analysis specifies permit allocation rules that could result in no net costs, and even cost-savings, to developing countries for their involvement in the emissions trading market, while at the same time providing extensive benefits to industrialized countries through access to lower-cost mitigation alternatives

  15. Computed tomography assessment of bone lesions in patients with POEMS syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and skeletal survey (SS) in patients with POEMS syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed, with institutional review board approval, the dysproteinemia database at our institution for patients with new diagnosis of POEMS syndrome between January 1998 and December 2008. Twenty-four patients were identified with PET/CT or CT and had skeletal survey (SS) available for review. Twenty-four patients were included in the study group with median age of 47 years. All CTs demonstrated at least one sclerotic lesion. The most common pattern was multiple small lesions, with 18 patients (75 %) having at least 5 lesions less than 1 cm. The larger lesions had a central lytic component and were FDG avid. SS had a false negative rate of 36 % (8 patients). Serial CT after treatment showed a decrease in size and number of sclerotic lesions in 53 % of cases (13 patients), the majority showing increased sclerosis. Two patients had complete resolution of sclerotic lesions. CT identified sclerotic lesions in all study patients with POEMS syndrome, the majority being less than 1 cm in size, which were not identified radiographically. CT may demonstrate increased sclerosis or even resolution of sclerotic lesions corresponding to treatment response. (orig.)

  16. Computed tomography assessment of bone lesions in patients with POEMS syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazebrook, K.; Johnson, Adam; Leng, S.; Dispenzieri, A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Guerra Bonilla, Francis L. [Hospital Regional Rafael Hernandez, Hematology Division, David, Chiriqui (Panama)

    2014-09-25

    To describe the imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and skeletal survey (SS) in patients with POEMS syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed, with institutional review board approval, the dysproteinemia database at our institution for patients with new diagnosis of POEMS syndrome between January 1998 and December 2008. Twenty-four patients were identified with PET/CT or CT and had skeletal survey (SS) available for review. Twenty-four patients were included in the study group with median age of 47 years. All CTs demonstrated at least one sclerotic lesion. The most common pattern was multiple small lesions, with 18 patients (75 %) having at least 5 lesions less than 1 cm. The larger lesions had a central lytic component and were FDG avid. SS had a false negative rate of 36 % (8 patients). Serial CT after treatment showed a decrease in size and number of sclerotic lesions in 53 % of cases (13 patients), the majority showing increased sclerosis. Two patients had complete resolution of sclerotic lesions. CT identified sclerotic lesions in all study patients with POEMS syndrome, the majority being less than 1 cm in size, which were not identified radiographically. CT may demonstrate increased sclerosis or even resolution of sclerotic lesions corresponding to treatment response. (orig.)

  17. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available BAHA: BONE ANCHORED HEARING TREATMENT PROCEDURE HARTFORD HOSPITAL HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT January 17, 2008 00:00:10 ANNOUNCER: During the ... Baha device will allow sound to travel through bone and restore close-to-normal hearing for the ...

  18. Not Bare Bones at All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Hutchings

    2009-05-05

    In this lesson, students examine the literal, physiological and figurative significance of bones through experimentation, then create their own skeleton-related exhibits for a “Bone and Skeleton Museum.” The suggested time allowance for this lesson is 1-2 class periods.

  19. Unusual sutural bones at pterion

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak SB; Kv, S

    2008-01-01

    The existence of Wormian (sutural) bones in the skull is well known. We found three unusual Wormian bones at the right pterion in an adult Indian skull. The variation noted was unilateral. This type of variation has not been reported yet.

  20. Dilatational band formation in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poundarik, Atharva A; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L; Gundberg, Caren M; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-11-20

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone's nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC(-/-), OPN(-/-), OC-OPN(-/-;-/-)) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  1. How Is Bone Cancer Staged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bone or nearby lymph nodes M1: Distant metastasis (the cancer has spread) M1a: The cancer has spread only to the lung M1b: The cancer has spread to other sites (like the brain, the liver, etc.) Grades of bone cancer G1- ...

  2. Interaction between Muscle and Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    The clinical significance of sarcopenia and osteoporosis has increased with the increase in the population of older people. Sarcopenia is defined by decreased muscle mass and impaired muscle function, which is related to osteoporosis independently and dependently. Numerous lines of clinical evidence suggest that lean body mass is positively related to bone mass, which leads to reduced fracture risk. Genetic, endocrine and mechanical factors affect both muscle and bone simultaneously. Vitamin D, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis and testosterone are physiologically and pathologically important as endocrine factors. These findings suggest the presence of interactions between muscle and bone, which might be very important for understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Muscle/bone relationships include two factors: local control of muscle to bone and systemic humoral interactions between muscle and bone. As a putative local inducer of muscle ossification, we found Tmem119, a parathyroid hormone-responsive osteoblast differentiation factor. Moreover, osteoglycin might be one of the muscle-derived humoral bone anabolic factors. This issue may be important for the development of novel drugs and biomarkers for osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Further research will be necessary to clarify the details of the linkage of muscle and bone. PMID:24707465

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be more useful in identifying bone and joint injuries (e.g., meniscal and ligament tears in the knee, rotator cuff and labrum tears in the shoulder) and in imaging of the spine (because both the bones and the spinal cord can be evaluated). MRI can also detect subtle ...

  4. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the sound quality was less natural. Another alternative was a bone conduction device, but because the placement of the bone oscillator is superficial on the skin, the transference of that energy is less efficient, and therefore the sound quality ...

  5. Osteosarcoma of the flat bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to understand the biology of osteosarcoma of the flat bone, which is a rare tumor entity. Cases with osteosarcoma of the flat bone were compared with those of the extremity in order to evaluate their clinicopathologic characteristics. And the influences of heterogeneous treatment modalities on outcome were analyzed. Tumors of the flat bone comprised 91 (11.3%) of 806 osteosarcoma cases. Eight cases were secondary osteosarcoma associated with previous radiotherapy. Patients with a flat bone tumor were significantly older and more likely to present with metastases at diagnosis than extremity tumor. The proportions of female sex and chondroblastic subtype were higher among flat bone tumors than among extremity tumors. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 35.2±5.4% and 24.7±5.5%, respectively. Although age and histologic response to pre-operative chemotherapy were not related to outcome of flat bone tumors, treatment modality influenced the survival. Patients treated surgically had better outcomes than those treated by another means. Radiation therapy did not appear to be an effective local control measure as surgery. Treatment outcome of the tumor of the flat bone was worse than extremity tumors. Further studies are needed to identify effective local control measures that can substitute for surgery and to determine the biologic characteristics of osteosarcoma of the flat bone. (author)

  6. Understanding the Structure of Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural Organization of Bone The structure of bone is very similar to reinforced concrete that is used to make a building or a bridge. When the building or bridge is first assembled, an initial frame that contains long steel rods is put ...

  7. Bone Anchored Hearing Treatment Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue but rather the bone itself and the integration of the titanium into the bone. That integration takes place over the course of the next ... the healing process is mainly dictated by the integration of the titanium. And that can be frustrating ...

  8. Bone and Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vai, Silvia; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; Moroni, Isabella; Mastella, Chiara; Broggi, Francesca; Morandi, Lucia; Arnoldi, Maria Teresa; Bussolino, Chiara; Baranello, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease, leading to progressive denervation atrophy in the involved skeletal muscles. Bone status has been poorly studied. We assessed bone metabolism, bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in 30 children (age range 15-171months) affected by SMA types 2 and 3. Eighteen children (60%) had higher than normal levels of CTx (bone resorption marker); 25-OH vitamin D was in the lower range of normal (below 20ng/ml in 9 children and below 12ng/ml in 2). Lumbar spine BMAD (bone mineral apparent density) Z-score was below -1.5 in 50% of children. According to clinical records, four children had sustained four peripheral fractures; on spine X-rays, we observed 9 previously undiagnosed vertebral fractures in 7 children. There was a significant inverse regression between PTH and 25-OH D levels, and a significant regression between BMC and BMAD values and the scores of motor-functional tests. Even if this study could not establish the pathogenesis of bone derangements in SMA, its main findings - reduced bone density, low 25OH vitamin D levels, increased bone resorption markers and asymptomatic vertebral fractures also in very young patients - strongly suggest that even young subjects affected by SMA should be considered at risk of osteopenia and even osteoporosis and fractures. PMID:26055105

  9. Bone metabolism following gastric surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impairment of bone metabolism was investigated in patients who underwent gastrectomy or vagotomy with drainage two or more years ago. Serum biochemical analysis, microdensitometry of the 2nd metacarpal bone, and measurements of bone mineral content of the radius (measured 1/3 distally) using single-photon absorptiometry were performed at follow-up examination. Although serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were within normal range, alkaline phosphatase levels were slightly for the Billroth II group than for Billroth I. Twenty-eight of 50 gastrectomy cases (56 %), and four of 10 vagotomy cases (40 %) showed pathologically thin bone : microdensitometric (MD) scores were greater than 3. The Billroth II group showed a far higher frequency of greater MD scores than Billroth I. The MD scores showed significant positive relationship with the age at follow-up, but did not correlate well with the length of the postoperative period. Radial bone mineral content (BMC) was lower in patients with Billroth II anastomosis, or with total or proximal gastrectomy, than in those undergoing Billroth I. These results suggest that metabolic bone disorders following gastric surgery can be detected by MD score and BMC of appendicular bones. However, there was not sufficient resolution with these parameters to detect any bone changes in patients treated with active vitamin D3. (author)

  10. The usefulness of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone lesion in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a combination of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy to study 15 patients with multiple myeloma (7 in untreated group and 8 in chemotherapy group). Of the 3 cases in untreated group whose 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed no abnormality, one had abnormal bone-marrow scintigraphy. In other 4 cases of untreated group whose 99mTc-MDP bone scan showed cold defects, 99mTc-sulfur colloid bone-marrow scintigraphy clearly delineated the areas of tumor-cell invasion. In all chemotherapy cases, multiple hot spots were observed on bone scintigram, but abnormalities were not recognized on bone-marrow scintigram in all of their lesions. In conclusion, the combination technique of bone and bone-marrow scintigraphy was a useful method in evaluating bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. (author)

  11. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells form ectopic woven bone in vivo through endochondral bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sophia Chia-Ning; Tai, Ching-Lung; Chung, Hui-Ying; Lin, Tsung-Min; Jeng, Long-Bin

    2009-04-01

    Autologous vascularized bone grafts, allografts, and biocompatible artificial bone substitutes each have their shortcomings. Bones regenerated using recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins, demineralized bone powder, or combinations of these are generally small and do not meet the need. The current trend is to use tissue engineering approaches with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to generate bones of a desired size and shape. A suspension of osteogenically induced MSCs (CD11a-, CD29+, CD44+) was added to 2% alginate, gelled by mixing this combination with calcium sulfate (CaSO(4) 0.2 g/mL), and injected into the subcutaneous pocket in the dorsal aspect of nude mice. Cells of various concentrations (0, 10, 50, and 70 million/mL) were used. These implanted constructs were harvested at predetermined times up to 30 weeks for histology. The doubling time of bovine MSCs is 3.75 +/- 1.96 days and the proliferation is rapid. Histological evaluation revealed signs of endochondrosis with woven bone deposition. The equilibrium modulus increased with time in vivo, though less than that of normal tissue. Implants seeded with 70 million cells/mL for 6 months resulted in the best formation of equilibrium modulus. This approach has several advantages: (i) obtaining MSCs is associated with low donor morbidity; (ii) MSCs proliferate rapidly in vitro, and a large number of viable cells can be obtained; and (iii) the MSC/alginate constructs can develop into bone-like nodules with high cell viability. Such a system may be useful in large-scale production of bony implants or in the repair of bony defects. The fact that endochondral bone formation led to woven bone suggests its potential feasibility in regional cell therapy. PMID:19335406

  12. The healing of fractured bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A method utilising neutron beams of width 1 mm, used on D1B (2.4 A) and D20 (1.3 A) to study the healing of fractured bones is presented. It is found that the callus bone uniting the fractured tibia of a sheep, whose healing had been encouraged by daily mechanical vibration over a period of three months, showed no trace of the large preferential vertical orientation of the apatite crystals which is characteristic of the normal bone. Nevertheless the bone had regained about 60% of its mechanical strength and the callus bone, although not oriented, was well crystallized. It is considered that the new monochromator for D20, expected to give increased intensity at 2.5 A, will be of considerable advantage. (author). 2 refs.

  13. Radiodiagnosis of hemophiliac bone pseudotumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 259 hemophiliacs bone pseudotumors were diagnosed in 11 (4.3 %); they were localised in the femur (6 cases), calcaneus (4) and in the iliac bone (3). Two cases of combined fermoral and calcaneal lesions and 4 cases of bone fracture were observed. As a rule, pseudotumors developed in hemophiliacs with severe disease. An x-ray picture of a pseudotumor depended on its site and was characterized by a large soft tissue tumor shadow, often with calcinosis, and serious destructive changes in bones in the form or round foci of 7 cm in diameter with clear-cut contours. An adge defect of the cortical layer was defined in the diaphysis of the femoral bone (15 cm long). Destructive changes were often accompanied by osteosclerosis and periostitis

  14. Imaging diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst secondary to giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To improve recognition and imaging diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst secondary to a giant cell tumor. Methods: To collect the dates of 12 patients with aneurysmal bone cyst secondary to a giant cell tumor were proved by operation and pathology from January 2003 to October 2006. Analyzed and summarized their imaging manifestations and correlation with pathohistology. Results: Six lesions were located in epiphysis and metaphysic regions of long bone. Six lesions were located in pelvis. All cases showed a cystic lesion with expanded and osteolytic, eccentric 10 cases and centric 2 cases. Four cases display trabeculate, the margin is well define with a rim of bone sclerosis in 2 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were available in 10 patients. All case showed cystic, dilated lesions with solid areas. Eight cases manifested single or multitude solid nodules in big cystic wall. Two cases appeared solid masses with multitude cysts. The sign of multitude fluid-fluid level, best seen on T2-weighted images, was present in all patients. Seven cases emerged soft-tissue masses. MR found indicative of large amounts of hemosiderin in one cases. Eight cases were examined by spiral CT with plain scanning and enhancement scanning. Reconstructed image were CTA and 3D-MPR (three dimensions multiplanar reconstruction) imaging. All cases showed cystic, dilated lesions with solid areas. The sign of multitude fluid-fluid level was present in 6 patients. The suid level was present in 6 patients. The solid areas and cystic-wall of lesions showed contrast enhancement in 8 patients. 3D-MPR imaging showed supply blood vessel of tumors in 3 cases. Arteriovenous malformation did not found in all patients. The surgeons operative findings and the gross specimens were studied in all patients. All lesions were composed of solid areas and cystic areas. The diagnosis of pathology were ABC with GCT(grade II) in 10 cases and ABC with GCT(grade III). Conclusion: Aneurysmal bone cyst secondary to a giant cell tumor is not rare. Adequately recognizing the pathologic basis of ABC, and selecting imaging techniques correctly (X-ray and MRI, or X-ray and CT) is especially important to diagnose a giant-cell tumor with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. When an eccentric, expanded, lyric tumor with a cystic-solid lesion in epiphysis of long bone or pelvis shows multiple fluid levels, a giant-cell tumor with secondary anemysmal bone cyst components should be sufficiently considered. (authors)

  15. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis are essential, because the associated bone loss is inevitably due to the relative increase of bone resorption compared with bone formation. Measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC) in normal adults is assessed - partly on the uncorrected values and partly in proportion to the body muscle mass. The whole body retention (WBR) method is presented. The WBR and alternative urinary excretion (UE) methods used by the author are characterised and compared with the retention methods described in the literature. The representativity of WBR and UE for the estimation of bone turnover in normal subjects and patients with various bone metabolic diseases is discussed. The conclusion is that the modified retention methods used by the author have a satisfactory precision and accuracy in relation to the clinical studies carried out. The author's modification of the WBR method for determination of bone turnover and the alternative urinary excretion method (UE) consists in continuous scanning in the whole body count, using a gamma camera, and with the collimator a short distance from the volunteer. This procedure has the advantage of restricting the radioactive dose to 2 mCi (72 MBa). This is smaller by a factor of 5-10 than the dose used to measure WBR with equally simple counting equipment: With the author's procedure, using frontal counting, WBR is systematically underestimated by about 4 per cent point compared to the py about 4 per cent point compared to the purely dorsal count, but since the frontal position is the most comfortable, requires a smaller radioactive dose, and the error is systematic, it is the preferred counting procedure. Correction of WBR and UE for bone mineral content is in principle a new parameter of bone turnover, whose improved accuracy increases the validity of the retention determinations. 136 refs. (EG)

  16. Use of ice water and salt treatments to eliminate an exotic snail, red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, from small immersible fisheries equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice water and salt treatments were evaluated for disinfection of fisheries equipment contaminated with a non-indigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus. The snail can displace native snails and can transmit trematodes directly to fishes and indirectly to other animals, i...

  17. Effect of sintering time and composition of sintering aids on the core-rim microstructure and material properties of spark plasma sintered silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagienski, Steven E.

    Silicon carbide is an industrial ceramic used for many applications. Due to its complicated crystal structure, many different types exist and can be made to have a "core-rim" microstructure in individual grains. In this work, SiC samples were processed via a co-precipitation and spark plasma sintered to examine the core-rim microstructure by altering the sintering time when spark plasma sintered, the additive amounts, and the polytype composition. Samples were characterized via density, hardness, FESEM, XRD, and Raman analysis depending on the type of samples. The density and hardness of samples showed that the samples for the dwell time studied were densified but the ones of varying polytype were not. The hardness generally increased with longer sintering dwell times, whereas the density measurements were too similar to discern any appreciable difference between samples. The extent of the core-rim structure as seen from FESEM images had a large variability, but preliminary results hint at less core-rim features with longer dwell times. The XRD results were typical of the materials present in the sample and showed a SiO 2 phase.

  18. Rim em ferradura com cistos e ureter único: relato de caso Horseshoe kidney with cysts and a single ureter: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O rim em ferradura é a mais comum de todas as anomalias de fusão, ocorrendo em aproximadamente 0,25% da população geral. O rim em ferradura com ureter único é uma rara anomalia. Um paciente do sexo masculino de 60 anos foi admitido para investigação rotineira de triagem. Sua história familiar era negativa para doenças renais e o exame físico foi considerado normal. A tomografia computadorizada revelou um rim em ferradura atípico com cistos e a reconstrução tridimensional na tomografia computadorizada mostrou a presença de um único ureter. O paciente encontra-se assintomático após dois anos de seguimento. Apresentamos um raro caso de paciente portador de rim em ferradura com cistos e ureter único diagnosticado incidentalmente.Horseshoe kidney is the most common of all renal fusion anomalies, occurring in approximately 0.25% of the general population. Horseshoe kidney with only a single ureter is a rare anomaly. A 60-year-old man was admitted to hospital for routine health screening. His family history was negative for kidney diseases, and there was no abnormality in his physical examination. A computed tomography (CT scan revealed an atypical horseshoe kidney with cysts and three-dimensional spiral CT reconstruction showed the presence of a single ureter. The patient has since been followed up for two years without any signs of clinical disease. We report a rare case of a patient with a horseshoe kidney with cysts and a single ureter that was diagnosed incidentally.

  19. Rim em ferradura com cistos e ureter único: relato de caso / Horseshoe kidney with cysts and a single ureter: a case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Alberto Batista, Peres; José Roberto Leonel, Ferreira; Sérgio Luiz, Bader.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O rim em ferradura é a mais comum de todas as anomalias de fusão, ocorrendo em aproximadamente 0,25% da população geral. O rim em ferradura com ureter único é uma rara anomalia. Um paciente do sexo masculino de 60 anos foi admitido para investigação rotineira de triagem. Sua história familiar era ne [...] gativa para doenças renais e o exame físico foi considerado normal. A tomografia computadorizada revelou um rim em ferradura atípico com cistos e a reconstrução tridimensional na tomografia computadorizada mostrou a presença de um único ureter. O paciente encontra-se assintomático após dois anos de seguimento. Apresentamos um raro caso de paciente portador de rim em ferradura com cistos e ureter único diagnosticado incidentalmente. Abstract in english Horseshoe kidney is the most common of all renal fusion anomalies, occurring in approximately 0.25% of the general population. Horseshoe kidney with only a single ureter is a rare anomaly. A 60-year-old man was admitted to hospital for routine health screening. His family history was negative for ki [...] dney diseases, and there was no abnormality in his physical examination. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an atypical horseshoe kidney with cysts and three-dimensional spiral CT reconstruction showed the presence of a single ureter. The patient has since been followed up for two years without any signs of clinical disease. We report a rare case of a patient with a horseshoe kidney with cysts and a single ureter that was diagnosed incidentally.

  20. Histologic diagnosis of metabolic bone diseases: bone histomorphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dalle Carbonare

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Histomorphometry or quantitative histology is the analysis on histologic sections of bone resorption parameters, formation and structure. It is the only technique that allows a dynamic evaluation of the activity of bone modelling after labelling with tetracycline. Moreover, the new measurement procedures through the use of the computer allow an assessment of bone microarchitecture too. Histomorphometric bone biopsy is a reliable and well-tolerated procedure. Complications are reported only in 1% of the subjects (hematoma, pain, transient neuralgia. Histomorphometry is used to exclude or confirm the diagnosis of osteomalacia. It is employed in the evaluation of bone damage associated with particular treatments (for example, anticonvulsants or in case of rare bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, systemic mastocytosis. It is also an essential approach when clinical, biochemical and other diagnostic data are not consistent. Finally, it is a useful method to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of drugs. The bone sample is taken at the level of iliac crest under local anesthesia. It is then put into methyl-metacrilate resin where the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various histomorphometric parameters.

  1. Limb bone morphology, bone strength, and cursoriality in lagomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Danczak, Robert; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study is to broadly evaluate the relationship between cursoriality (i.e. anatomical and physiological specialization for running) and limb bone morphology in lagomorphs. Relative to most previous studies of cursoriality, our focus on a size-restricted, taxonomically narrow group of mammals permits us to evaluate the degree to which 'cursorial specialization' affects locomotor anatomy independently of broader allometric and phylogenetic trends that might obscure such a relationship. We collected linear morphometrics and ?CT data on 737 limb bones covering three lagomorph species that differ in degree of cursoriality: pikas (Ochotona princeps, non-cursorial), jackrabbits (Lepus californicus, highly cursorial), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani, level of cursoriality intermediate between pikas and jackrabbits). We evaluated two hypotheses: cursoriality should be associated with (i) lower limb joint mechanical advantage (i.e. high 'displacement advantage', permitting more cursorial species to cycle their limbs more quickly) and (ii) longer, more gracile limb bones, particularly at the distal segments (as a means of decreasing rotational inertia). As predicted, highly cursorial jackrabbits are typically marked by the lowest mechanical advantage and the longest distal segments, non-cursorial pikas display the highest mechanical advantage and the shortest distal segments, and rabbits generally display intermediate values for these variables. Variation in long bone robusticity followed a proximodistal gradient. Whereas proximal limb bone robusticity declined with cursoriality, distal limb bone robusticity generally remained constant across the three species. The association between long, structurally gracile limb bones and decreased maximal bending strength suggests that the more cursorial lagomorphs compromise proximal limb bone integrity to improve locomotor economy. In contrast, the integrity of distal limb bones is maintained with increasing cursoriality, suggesting that the safety factor takes priority over locomotor economy in those regions of the postcranial skeleton that experience higher loading during locomotion. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis that cursoriality is associated with a common suite of morphological adaptations across a range of body sizes and radiations. PMID:25046350

  2. Tratamento conservador do rim displásico multicístico: curso clínico e ultra-sonográfico / Conservative management of multicystic dysplastic kidney: clinical course and ultrasound outcome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eli Armando S., Rabelo; Eduardo A., Oliveira; José Maria Penido, Silva; Maria Cândida F., Bouzada; Bárbara C., Sousa; Mirela N., Almeida; Edson Samesima, Tatsuo.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o curso clínico e a evolução ultra-sonográfica de pacientes com rim displásico multicístico tratados conservadoramente. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas no estudo 53 crianças com rim displásico multicístico unilateral diagnosticado pela ultra-sonografia fetal entre 1989 e 2004. Todos os [...] pacientes foram submetidos a protocolo sistemático, incluindo tratamento conservador e exames clínicos, laboratoriais e ultra-sonográficos periódicos. Os exames foram realizados com periodicidade de 6 meses, nos 2 primeiros anos, e anualmente, após esse período. No curso clínico, foram avaliados: pressão arterial, infecção do trato urinário, função renal e crescimento dos pacientes. Na evolução ecográfica, foram avaliados a involução do rim displásico multicístico e o crescimento do rim contralateral. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 68 meses. Dois pacientes apresentaram hipertensão arterial no seguimento. Cinco tiveram infecção urinária (apenas um com episódios repetidos). Não houve degeneração maligna do rim displásico multicístico. Foram realizados 334 exames ultra-sonográficos seriados. Houve involução do rim displásico multicístico em 90% dos casos, sendo que nove (17%) desapareceram. O ritmo de involução foi maior nos 30 primeiros meses de vida. Houve progressiva hipertrofia compensatória do rim contralateral, sendo o ritmo mais intenso nos 2 primeiros anos de vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do acompanhamento prospectivo de crianças portadoras de rim displásico multicístico tratadas conservadoramente sugerem que a conduta clínica é segura, a incidência de complicações é mínima e há uma nítida tendência de involução ultra-sonográfica da unidade renal afetada. Os dados sugerem, ainda, que o ritmo de involução do rim displásico multicístico, assim como da hipertrofia compensatória do rim contralateral, sejam maiores nos 2 primeiros anos de vida. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to describe the clinical course and ultrasound outcome of prenatally detected multicystic dysplastic kidney. METHODS: Fifty-three children with unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney detected by prenatal ultrasound between 1989 and 2004 were included in the anal [...] ysis. All children were submitted to conservative management with follow-up visits every six months. Follow-up ultrasound examinations were performed at six-month intervals during the first two years of life and yearly thereafter. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: blood pressure, urinary tract infection, renal function, and growth. The following ultrasound parameters were evaluated: involution of multicystic dysplastic kidney and contralateral renal growth. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 68 months. Two children presented hypertension during follow-up and five had urinary tract infection (only one with recurrent episodes). There was no malignant degeneration of multicystic dysplastic kidney. A total of 334 ultrasound scans were analyzed. US scan demonstrated involution of the multicystic dysplastic kidney in 48 (90%) cases, including complete involution in nine (17%). The involution rate was faster in the first 30 months of life. There was progressive compensatory renal hypertrophy of the contralateral renal unit; the rate of growth was greater in the first 24 months of life. CONCLUSION: The results of prolonged follow-up of children with conservatively managed multicystic dysplastic kidney suggest that clinical approach is safe, the incidence of complications is small, and that there is a clear tendency for multicystic dysplastic kidney to decrease in size. Our data also suggest that the involution rate of multicystic dysplastic kidney as well as the growth of the contralateral kidney is greater in the first 24 months of life.

  3. Tratamento conservador do rim displásico multicístico: curso clínico e ultra-sonográfico Conservative management of multicystic dysplastic kidney: clinical course and ultrasound outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Armando S. Rabelo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o curso clínico e a evolução ultra-sonográfica de pacientes com rim displásico multicístico tratados conservadoramente. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas no estudo 53 crianças com rim displásico multicístico unilateral diagnosticado pela ultra-sonografia fetal entre 1989 e 2004. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a protocolo sistemático, incluindo tratamento conservador e exames clínicos, laboratoriais e ultra-sonográficos periódicos. Os exames foram realizados com periodicidade de 6 meses, nos 2 primeiros anos, e anualmente, após esse período. No curso clínico, foram avaliados: pressão arterial, infecção do trato urinário, função renal e crescimento dos pacientes. Na evolução ecográfica, foram avaliados a involução do rim displásico multicístico e o crescimento do rim contralateral. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 68 meses. Dois pacientes apresentaram hipertensão arterial no seguimento. Cinco tiveram infecção urinária (apenas um com episódios repetidos. Não houve degeneração maligna do rim displásico multicístico. Foram realizados 334 exames ultra-sonográficos seriados. Houve involução do rim displásico multicístico em 90% dos casos, sendo que nove (17% desapareceram. O ritmo de involução foi maior nos 30 primeiros meses de vida. Houve progressiva hipertrofia compensatória do rim contralateral, sendo o ritmo mais intenso nos 2 primeiros anos de vida. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do acompanhamento prospectivo de crianças portadoras de rim displásico multicístico tratadas conservadoramente sugerem que a conduta clínica é segura, a incidência de complicações é mínima e há uma nítida tendência de involução ultra-sonográfica da unidade renal afetada. Os dados sugerem, ainda, que o ritmo de involução do rim displásico multicístico, assim como da hipertrofia compensatória do rim contralateral, sejam maiores nos 2 primeiros anos de vida.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to describe the clinical course and ultrasound outcome of prenatally detected multicystic dysplastic kidney. METHODS: Fifty-three children with unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney detected by prenatal ultrasound between 1989 and 2004 were included in the analysis. All children were submitted to conservative management with follow-up visits every six months. Follow-up ultrasound examinations were performed at six-month intervals during the first two years of life and yearly thereafter. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: blood pressure, urinary tract infection, renal function, and growth. The following ultrasound parameters were evaluated: involution of multicystic dysplastic kidney and contralateral renal growth. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 68 months. Two children presented hypertension during follow-up and five had urinary tract infection (only one with recurrent episodes. There was no malignant degeneration of multicystic dysplastic kidney. A total of 334 ultrasound scans were analyzed. US scan demonstrated involution of the multicystic dysplastic kidney in 48 (90% cases, including complete involution in nine (17%. The involution rate was faster in the first 30 months of life. There was progressive compensatory renal hypertrophy of the contralateral renal unit; the rate of growth was greater in the first 24 months of life. CONCLUSION: The results of prolonged follow-up of children with conservatively managed multicystic dysplastic kidney suggest that clinical approach is safe, the incidence of complications is small, and that there is a clear tendency for multicystic dysplastic kidney to decrease in size. Our data also suggest that the involution rate of multicystic dysplastic kidney as well as the growth of the contralateral kidney is greater in the first 24 months of life.

  4. Bone pain palliation: Philippines setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic bone disease is a major sequela of several solid cancers; the breast, prostate, lung, kidney and thyroid etc. Bone pain is a common symptom in advancing malignancy and often determines the quality of life in the later stages of disease. Management of bone pain remains palliative at present. With the improved cancer survival resulting from advances in cancer management, the population of patients seeking relief of bone pain has increased. Radiopharmaceutical therapy offers potential pain relief with minimal adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of radiopharmaceutical therapy for bone pain palliation in the Philippines. To date, no study has been done on bone pain palliation therapy. The study population included all cancer patients with bone metastasis presenting with chronic bone pain who were subjected to radiopharmaceutical therapy for bone pain palliation in the different medical centers and hospitals in the Philippines. The clinical histories of the patients were reviewed. The specific radiopharmaceutical and corresponding doses used for the said therapies were also noted. The respondents were inquired of the effectiveness of the therapy in relieving bone pain and duration of the response to the therapy. The complete blood count, before and after the therapy, were retrieved. The approximate cost of the therapy was also inquired and was then compared with the cost of different treatment modalities. Over the years onlt treatment modalities. Over the years only six radiopharmaceutical therapies have been performed in the Philippines (three male patients with prostate cancer, two female patients with breast cancer and one female patient with renal cancer). All had multiple bone metastases on bone scintigraphy and presented with chronic bone pain, which were not adequately controlled by other treatment modalities such as analgesics, bisphosphonates, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and radiation therapy. Four subjects were subjected to Strontium-89 chloride (Sr-89 Cl ) therapy, while the other 2 two subjects were subjected to Samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (Sm-153 EDTMP) therapy, with a dose of 148 MBq (4 mCi) and 37 MBq/kg (1 mCi/kg), respectively. Both Sr-89 Cl and Sm-153 EDTMP 2 provided significant pain relief, lasting for about 2 to 6 months. Hematologic effects were noted with recovery of most blood parameters a few weeks after therapy. In conclusion, only six radiopharmaceutical therapies were performed in the Philippines during the past several years using Sr-89 Cl and Sm-153 EDTMP, the procedures 2 provided significant pain relief lasting for several months, with reversible myelosuppression. Although proven to be cost effective, radiopharmaceutical therapy seems to be the last option in pain palliation due to the high cost of the procedure especially in the Philippines setting. (author)

  5. Vivência da família no processo de transplante de rim de doador vivo / Family experience in the kidney transplant process from a living donor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Goreti da Silva, Cruz; Celina, Daspett; Bartira de Aguiar, Roza; Conceição Vieira da Silva, Ohara; Ana Lucia de Moraes, Horta.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Compreender a vivência da família no processo de transplante de rim de doador vivo. Métodos: Estudo qualitativo realizado com quatro famílias de pacientes submetidos a transplante de rim intervivos. O instrumento de pesquisa foi a entrevista semi-estruturada realizada nos domicílios [...] das famílias e gravada em áudio. As entrevistas foram transcritas na íntegra e a partir da saturação dos dados as categorias emergiram. Resultados: Observaram-se as seguintes categorias: impacto da doença renal crônica e do tratamento dialítico na família; experiência da família frente às diferentes fases do transplante de rim de doador vivo; interação da família com a equipe de saúde, ressignificando o sistema familiar no processo da doença renal crônica e transplante de rim; e apoio da rede social e da espiritualidade como estratégia de enfrentamento. Conclusão: O transplante de rim de doador vivo envolve aspectos de cuidado físico e emocionais de todos os envolvidos durante o processo, considerando as potencialidades e adaptações vivenciadas onde a espiritualidade é um fator coadjuvante. Abstract in english Abstract Objective: To understand the family experience of kidney transplantation process of a living donor. Methods: Qualitative study conducted with four families of patients undergoing kidney transplantation of living donor. The research instrument used was a semi-structured interview conducted a [...] t the homes of families and recorded audio. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and from the saturation of data, categories emerged. Results: The following categories were observed: impact of chronic kidney disease and dialysis treatment in the family; family experience at different stages facing kidney transplant of a living donor; family interaction with the healthcare team; Resignifying the family system in the process of chronic kidney disease and kidney transplant; and support from social networking and spirituality as coping strategies. Conclusion: Kidney transplantation from a living donor involves aspects of physical and emotional care of everyone involved in the process, considering the potential and experienced adaptations where spirituality is seen as a contributing factor.

  6. Appearance of bone marrow in the presence of trabecular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper quantitates the reduction in relaxation time T2* due to the inherent susceptibility differences between the trabeculae and bone marrow and to correlate it with bone density. The mean bone mineral density of 15 vertebral specimens immersed in saline was determined with standard single-energy QCT. Partial-saturation spin-echo sequences (1.5 T) at TR/TE combinations of 300/20, 500/20, and 1,200/20, 40, 60, 80 msec were used to measure T1 and T2, while gradient-echo images at a TR of 300 msec and TEs of 10--50 msec (? = 90 degrees) were used to determine T2*. The MR relaxation times of the saline in the trabecular spaces were correlated with mean bone mineral density. Similar measurements of relaxation times were made when the specimens were immersed in a fat-water emulsion, in order to replicate the true in vivo situation

  7. MRI of bone marrow disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanel, D.; Dromain, C.; Tardivon, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2000-02-01

    Four factors can be used in MR of bone marrow: fat-water distribution, artifacts induced by bone trabeculae, diffusion, and uptake of contrast media. Fat-water is imaged using T1-weighted spin-echo, short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and fast STIR, in- and out-of-phase gradient echo, and fat pre-saturation sequences; bone trabeculae by gradient echo with long TE; diffusion by single-shot spin-echo. The injection of contrast media is a more easy and efficient way to improve the specificity. The value and limitations of those sequences are discussed in marrow replacements (metastases, lymphoma, leukemia) and in myeloid hyperplasia or depletion. (orig.)

  8. Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly M. Stevens

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Materials that enhance bone regeneration have a wealth of potential clinical applications from the treatment of nonunion fractures to spinal fusion. The use of porous material scaffolds from bioceramic and polymer components to support bone cell and tissue growth is a longstanding area of interest. Current challenges include the engineering of materials that can match both the mechanical and biological context of real bone tissue matrix and support the vascularization of large tissue constructs. Scaffolds with new levels of biofunctionality that attempt to recreate nanoscale topographical and biofactor cues from the extracellular environment are emerging as interesting candidate biomimetic materials.

  9. Bone dysplasias and mental functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancar, J.

    1977-01-01

    Fourteen patients suffering from various degrees of bone dysplasia and mental handicap with superimposed neuroses or psychotic episodes are reported. Known biochemical and chromosomal causes are noted. Mental states associated with syndromes and mental malfunctioning or impairment because of skeletal defects or other factors are briefly discussed. High IgE was noted in the three cases of bone dysplasias suffering from chromosomal anomalies. Importance of early diagnosis, treatment and genetic counselling in bone dysplasias to prevent mental disorder is emphasized. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:917960

  10. Bone densitometry in musculoskeletal pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone density measurements represent an important part of most clinical studies where bone metabolism can be involved. The most largely used technique for these measurements is dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This technique, which was formerly designed to screen post-menopausal women for osteoporosis, has now broader applications. Due to its low delivered radiation dose and its high flexibility, it is, for example, an interesting tool in Pediatrics. Nowadays, DXA appears as the reference technique in bone investigations. However, soft tissues can also be easily measured and the analysis of body composition in lean and fat masses are important new clinical developments of DXA. (author)

  11. Bone imaging in sports medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikare S

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased participation in sports by the general public leads to increase in sports induced injuries including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis and host of musculotendenous maladies. We have studied twenty patients referred from sports clinic for bone scanning to evaluate clinically difficult problems. It showed stress fracture in twelve patients, bilateral shin splint in five patients and normal bone scan in three patients. Present study highlights the utility of bone imaging for the diagnosis of various sports injuries in sports medicine.

  12. Stronger Muscles = Healthier Bones in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_152089.html Stronger Muscles = Healthier Bones in Kids Added bone mass may help delay osteoporosis, study suggests To ... HealthDay News) -- Stronger muscles seems to mean healthier bones in children, according to a new study. "Bone ...

  13. Role of carotenoid ?-cryptoxanthin in bone homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Masayoshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone homeostasis is maintained through a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Aging induces bone loss due to decreased osteoblastic bone formation and increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Nutritional factors may play a role in the prevention of bone loss with aging. Among various carotenoids (carotene and xanthophylls including beta (?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, ?-carotene, astaxanthin, and rutin, ?-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu MARC., has been found to have a stimulatory effect on bone calcification in vitro. ?-cryptoxanthin has stimulatory effects on osteoblastic bone formation and inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro, thereby increasing bone mass. ?-cryptoxanthin has an effect on the gene expression of various proteins that are related osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resororption in vitro. The intake of ?-cryptoxanthin may have a preventive effect on bone loss in animal models for osteoporosis and in healthy human or postmenopausal women. Epidemiological studies suggest a potential role of ?-cryptoxanthin as a sustainable nutritional approach to improving bone health of human subjects. ?-Cryptoxanthin may be an osteogenic factor in preventing osteoporosis in human subjects.

  14. Air-filled (Pneumatic) Bone Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2005-01-01

    Just like birds, some dinosaurs had air-filled (pneumatic) bones, which made the dinosaurs' skeletons lighter. In this activity, learners bake chicken or turkey bones and then rub the ends off the bones with sandpaper to expose air spaces inside. This activity would be great during Thanksgiving vacation, or any other holiday when you have bones left over from dinner.

  15. Cancer of the Bone and Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of primary bone cancer are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and chondrosarcoma. Secondary bone cancer is cancer that spreads to the bone from another part of the body (such as the prostate, breast, or lung). Primary bone cancer is far less ...

  16. Characteristic Uptake Pattern of Bone Scintigraphy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Treatment with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Waihan; Ho, Waiyin; Lai, Andrew S. H.; Wong, Kwongkuen; Law, Martin [Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2013-12-15

    This study retrospectively reviews the characteristic bone scintigraphic findings in 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A potential complication of HIFU is damage to the tissues along the path of the ultrasound beam and structures superficial to the lesion of interest. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent a bone scan between 1st December 2005 and 31st December 2011 were considered for this study. Among these patients, only those who had bone scans after the HIFU treatment were included. The time between HIFU treatment and bone scans, HIFU energy, HCC sites, tumour sizes and related radiological findings were evaluated. In total, 20 bone scans of 18 patients were reviewed. Of these scans, two patients were normal; three patients showed decreased uptake, four patients showed increased uptake and nine patients showed mixed uptakes of the bony tracer in their rib cages. The defects were located in the anterior, lateral, anterolateral or posterolateral aspects of the rib cage. The majority of those cold defects were in the right anterior rib cages. SPECT/CT was used to localise the decreased uptake in ribs. The magnetic resonance imaging in individual patients invariably showed ill-defined rim enhancement along the right chest wall, signifying chest wall injury. The results showed that tissue ablation using HIFU caused tissue injury along the pathway of high-intensity ultrasound beams. The harm to tissues is presented as photopenic area on the rib cages due to necrosis or hot spots due to rib fractures in the bone scan. Since these cold defects are subtle, they are easily overlooked or mistaken as aggressive bony metastasis.

  17. Characteristic Uptake Pattern of Bone Scintigraphy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Treatment with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study retrospectively reviews the characteristic bone scintigraphic findings in 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A potential complication of HIFU is damage to the tissues along the path of the ultrasound beam and structures superficial to the lesion of interest. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent a bone scan between 1st December 2005 and 31st December 2011 were considered for this study. Among these patients, only those who had bone scans after the HIFU treatment were included. The time between HIFU treatment and bone scans, HIFU energy, HCC sites, tumour sizes and related radiological findings were evaluated. In total, 20 bone scans of 18 patients were reviewed. Of these scans, two patients were normal; three patients showed decreased uptake, four patients showed increased uptake and nine patients showed mixed uptakes of the bony tracer in their rib cages. The defects were located in the anterior, lateral, anterolateral or posterolateral aspects of the rib cage. The majority of those cold defects were in the right anterior rib cages. SPECT/CT was used to localise the decreased uptake in ribs. The magnetic resonance imaging in individual patients invariably showed ill-defined rim enhancement along the right chest wall, signifying chest wall injury. The results showed that tissue ablation using HIFU caused tissue injury along the pathway of high-intensity ultrasound beams. The harm to tissues is presented as photopenic area on the rib cages due to necrosis or hot spots due to rib fractures in the bone scan. Since these cold defects are subtle, they are easily overlooked or mistaken as aggressive bony metastasis

  18. Ultrasonic Bone Curette For Bone Resection in Neurosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sec?ki?n, Zekai; Ayberk, G?yas; Eylen, Alpaslan; Akc?ay, Emine Kalkan; Faik O?zveren, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The advantages of the ultrasonic bone curette which has been recently started to be used in neurosurgical operations is emphasized.Methods: Ultrasonic bone curette was used in 7 cases which has been operated in our clinic between 2006-2007. These cases were basilar artery tip aneurysm, type 1 diastematomyelia, pontocerebellar angle tumor, orbital tumor, lombar spinal stenosis, tuberculum sella meningioma, giant internal carotid artery aneurysm of the cavernous sinus respectively.Re...

  19. Bone formation on calcium phosphate bone substitute materials

    OpenAIRE

    Samizadeh, S.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of bone substitute materials are available; for which some authors claim osteoconductivity and some osteoinductivity. In order to rank these materials an in vivo analysis was carried out. These materials were chosen based on their availability and claimed mode of action. Silicon substituted Hydroxyapatite (SiHA), Hydroxyapatite (HA), Resorbable Calcium Phosphate Silicon, Skelite [siliconstabilized tricalcium phosphate-based bone substitute], Pro Osteon 500R [coralline HA]...

  20. Validity of arthroscopic measurement of glenoid bone loss using the bare spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyatake K

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Katsutoshi Miyatake, Yoshitsugu Takeda, Koji Fujii, Tomoya Takasago, Toshiyuki Iwame Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima Red Cross Hospital, Komatsushima, Tokushima, Japan Purpose: Our aim was to test the validity of using the bare spot method to quantify glenoid bone loss arthroscopically in patients with shoulder instability. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with no evidence of instability (18 males, nine females; mean age 59.1 years were evaluated arthroscopically to assess whether the bare spot is consistently located at the center of the inferior glenoid. Another 40 patients with glenohumeral anterior instability who underwent shoulder arthroscopy (30 males, ten females; mean age 25.9 years were evaluated for glenoid bone loss with preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT and arthroscopic examination. In patients without instability, the distances from the bare spot of the inferior glenoid to the anterior (Da and posterior (Dp glenoid rim were measured arthroscopically. In patients with instability, we compared the percentage glenoid bone loss calculated using CT versus arthroscopic measurements. Results: Among patients without instability, the bare spot could not be identified in three of 27 patients. Da (9.5±1.2 mm was smaller than Dp (10.1±1.5 mm, but it was not significantly different. However, only 55% of glenoids showed less than 1 mm of difference between Da and Dp, and 18% showed more than 2 mm difference in length. The bare spot could not be identified in five of 40 patients with instability. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed significant (P<0.001 and strong (R2=0.63 correlation in percentage glenoid bone loss between the 3D-CT and arthroscopy method measurements. However, in ten shoulders (29%, the difference in percentage glenoid bone loss between 3D-CT and arthroscopic measurements was greater than 5%. Conclusion: The bare spot was not consistently located at the center of the inferior glenoid, and the arthroscopic measurement of glenoid bone loss using the bare spot as a landmark was inaccurate in some patients with anterior glenohumeral instability. Level of evidence: Level II, prospective comparative study. Keywords: shoulder instability, glenoid defect, arthroscopy, Bankart repair, 3D-CT, bone graft, shoulder dislocation