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1

SCB Quantum Computers Using iSWAP and 1-Qubit Rotations

Units of superconducting circuitry that exploit the concept of the single- Cooper-pair box (SCB) have been built and are undergoing testing as prototypes of logic gates that could, in principle, constitute building blocks of clocked quantum computers. These units utilize quantized charge states as the quantum information-bearing degrees of freedom. An SCB is an artificial two-level quantum system that comprises a nanoscale superconducting electrode connected to a reservoir of Cooper-pair charges via a Josephson junction. The logical quantum states of the device, .0. and .1., are implemented physically as a pair of charge-number states that differ by 2e (where e is the charge of an electron). Typically, some 109 Cooper pairs are involved. Transitions between the logical states are accomplished by tunneling of Cooper pairs through the Josephson junction. Although the two-level system contains a macroscopic number of charges, in the superconducting regime, they behave collectively, as a Bose-Einstein condensate, making possible a coherent superposition of the two logical states. This possibility makes the SCB a candidate for the physical implementation of a qubit. A set of quantum logic operations and the gates that implement them is characterized as universal if, in principle, one can form combinations of the operations in the set to implement any desired quantum computation. To be able to design a practical quantum computer, one must first specify how to decompose any valid quantum computation into a sequence of elementary 1- and 2-qubit quantum gates that are universal and that can be realized in hardware that is feasible to fabricate. Traditionally, the set of universal gates has been taken to be the set of all 1-qubit quantum gates in conjunction with the controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate, which is a 2-qubit gate. Also, it has been known for some time that the SWAP gate, which implements square root of the simple 2-qubit exchange interaction, is as computationally universal as is the CNOT operation.

Williams, Colin; Echtemach, Pierre

2005-01-01

2

Universal quantum gates for Single Cooper Pair Box based quantum computing

We describe a method for achieving arbitrary 1-qubit gates and controlled-NOT gates within the context of the Single Cooper Pair Box (SCB) approach to quantum computing. Such gates are sufficient to support universal quantum computation.

Echternach, P.; Williams, C. P.; Dultz, S. C.; Braunstein, S.; Dowling, J. P.

2000-01-01

3

This research paper gives an overview of quantum computers - description of their operation, differences between quantum and silicon computers, major construction problems of a quantum computer and many other basic aspects. No special scientific knowledge is necessary for the reader.

???????, ???? ???????????; ???????, ???? ??????????; Diadechko, Alla Mykolaivna; Polevik, S. I.

2009-01-01

4

Quantum computers and quantum computations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review outlines the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements. The theory of ideal computers that do not interact with the environment and are immune to quantum decohering processes is presented. Decohering processes in quantum computers are investigated. The review considers methods for correcting quantum computing errors arising from the decoherence of the state of the quantum computer, as well as possible methods for the suppression of the decohering processes. A brief enumeration of proposed quantum computer realizations concludes the review. (reviews of topical problems)

5

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from classical information theory and, arguably, quantum from classical physics. Basic quantum information ideas are next outlined, including qubits and data compression, quantum gates, the 'no cloning' property and teleportation. Quantum cryptography is briefly sketched. The universal quantum computer (QC) is described, based on the Church-Turing principle and a network model of computation. Algorithms for such a computer are discussed, especially those for finding the period of a function, and searching a random list. Such algorithms prove that a QC of sufficiently precise construction is not only fundamentally different from any computer which can only manipulate classical information, but can compute a small class of functions with greater efficiency. This implies that some important computational tasks are impossible for any device apart from a QC. To build a universal QC is well beyond the abilities of current technology. However, the principles of quantum information physics can be tested on smaller devices. The current experimental situation is reviewed, with emphasis on the linear ion trap, high-Q optical cavities, and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. These allow coherent control in a Hilbert space of eight dimensions (three qubits) and should be extendable up to a thousand or more dimensions (10 qubits). Among other things, these systems will allow the feasibility of quantum computing to be assessed. In fact such experiments are so difficult that it seemed likely until recently that a practically useful QC (requiring, say, 1000 qubits) was actually ruled out by considerations of experimental imprecision and the unavoidable coupling between any system and its environment. However, a further fundamental part of quantum information physics provides a solution to this impasse. This is quantum error correction (QEC). An introduction to QEC is provided. The evolution of the QC is restricted to a carefully chosen subspace of its Hilbert space. Errors are almost certain to cause a departure from this subspace. QEC provi

6

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report on recent studies comparing the ignition threshold of temperature cycled, SCB thermite devices with units that were not submitted to temperature cycling. Aluminum/copper-oxide thermite was pressed into units at two densities, 45% of theoretical maximum density (TMD) or 47% of TMD. Half of each of the density sets underwent three thermal cycles; each cycle consisted of 2 hours at 74 C and 2 hours at {minus}54 C, with a 5 minute maximum transfer time between temperatures. The temperature cycled units were brought to ambient temperature before the threshold testing. Both the density and the thermal cycling affected the all-fire voltage. Using a 5.34 {micro}F CDU (capacitor discharge unit) firing set, the all-fire voltage for the units that were not temperature cycled increased with density from 32.99 V (45% TMD) to 39.32 V (47% TMD). The all-fire voltages for the thermally cycled units were 34.42 V (45% TMD) and 58.1 V (47% TMD). They also report on no-fire levels at ambient temperature for two component designs; the 5 minute no-fire levels were greater than 1.2 A. Units were also subjected to tests in which 1 W of RF power was injected into the bridges at 10 MHz for 5 minutes. The units survived and fired normally afterwards. Finally, units were subjected to pin-to-pin electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests. None of the units fired upon application of the ESD pulse, and all of the tested units fired normally afterwards.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohler, J.H. [Energetic Materials Associates, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States)

1996-12-31

7

Quantum Computation and Quantum Information

Quantum computation and quantum information are of great current interest in computer science, mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. They will likely lead to a new wave of technological innovations in communication, computation and cryptography. As the theory of quantum physics is fundamentally stochastic, randomness and uncertainty are deeply rooted in quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. Consequently quantum algorithms are random in na...

Wang, Yazhen

2012-01-01

8

Moore's Law is a famous rule of thumb that says transistor density, and hence microprocessor performance, doubles approximately every eighteen months. While this trend has stood the test of time, many experts believe it will eventually grind to a halt when physical limitations prevent further miniaturization. Although this will likely not happen for twenty years or more, researchers are already looking at a potential solution.The concept of quantum computing has been around since the 1970's, but the science is still in its infancy. To learn about its profound implications, Liquid Logic (1) is a solid article with some remarkable insights into the technology. One of the most comprehensive sources on the Web is at the Centre for Quantum Computation (2) (last mentioned in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report). This has lots of introductory materials and tutorials that explain many of the basic concepts of quantum computing. The Centre's research efforts are also detailed on the site. Another good site for people new to the subject is the home page of Magiq Technologies (3). A very informative section about quantum information processing looks at some of the history of its development and its applications for the future. The company addresses some key issues in the frequently asked questions section, such as why research in this area could be so important. The Quantum Logic and Coherent Control Project Web site (4) presents extensive advanced theory about several experiments conducted with an rf (Paul) ion trap. The discussions are replete with equations and graphs, probably most suited for post graduate research. The Institute for Quantum Information (5) offers over 30 of its publications online, most of which are very recent. Because it is located at the California Institute of Technology, there are links to course home pages with lecture notes and solutions to problems. Users of the popular Mathematica software can add a powerful library of quantum computation functions with the free QuCalc package (6). The download site has documentation for the software and a few examples that include Mathematica code. Quantum Leap: Seize the Light (7) is an insightful article that discusses two recently published papers that address two promising methods of harnessing qubits (the fundamental unit of storage for quantum computation). This is necessary for the advancement of the technology, because the current methods are quite limited. EE Times hosts another article (8) about one of the newest breakthroughs in quantum information processing. Researchers at Harvard University have successfully transferred quantum information from a laser beam into and out of the spin state of rubidium atoms. The article considers the accomplishment and looks at what the group is planning next.

Leske, Cavin.

9

Quantum interferometers as quantum computers

Quantum computers which use quantum interference of different computational paths to enhance correct outcomes and suppress erroneous outcomes of computations can be viewed as multiparticle interferometers. I discuss this approach to quantum computation and argue that it provides additional insights into the nature of quantum algorithms.

Ekert, A.

1998-01-01

10

Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices

This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.

Lloyd, Seth

2000-01-01

11

Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are "universal for quantum computation" relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer.

Kendon, Viv

2014-12-01

12

Duality Computing in Quantum Computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this letter, we propose a duality computing mode, which resembles particle-wave duality property when a quantum system such as a quantum computer passes through a double-slit. In this mode, computing operations are not necessarily unitary. The duality mode provides a natural link between classical computing and quantum computing. In addition, the duality mode provides a new tool for quantum algorithm design

13

Quantum Robots and Quantum Computers

Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with environm...

Benioff, Paul

1997-01-01

14

Physics of quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper, the modern status of the theory of quantum computation is considered. The fundamental principles of quantum computers and their basic notions such as quantum processors and computational basis states of the quantum Turing machine as well as the quantum Fourier transform are discussed. Some possible experimental realizations on the basis of NMR methods are given

15

Quantum Computing for Computer Architects

Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore

Metodi, Tzvetan

2011-01-01

16

Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper

The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…

Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

2010-01-01

17

We describe a quantum computer emulator for a generic, general purpose quantum computer. This emulator consists of a simulator of the physical realization of the quantum computer and a graphical user interface to program and control the simulator. We illustrate the use of the quantum computer emulator through various implementations of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover's database search algorithm.

Raedt, Hans; Hams, Anthony; Michielsen, Kristel; Raedt, Koen

1999-01-01

18

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper gives the detailed information about Quantum computer, and difference between quantum computer and traditional computers, the basis of Quantum computers which are slightly similar but still different from traditional computer. Many research groups are working towards the highly technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. Quantum computer is very much use full for computation purpose in field of Science and Research. Large amount of data and information will be computed, processing, storing, retrieving, transmitting and displaying information in less time with that much of accuracy which is not provided by traditional computers.

Prashant Anil Patil

2012-04-01

19

Quantum robots and quantum computers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.

Benioff, P.

1998-07-01

20

Quantum mechanics---the theory describing the fundamental workings of nature---is famously counterintuitive: it predicts that a particle can be in two places at the same time, and that two remote particles can be inextricably and instantaneously linked. These predictions have been the topic of intense metaphysical debate ever since the theory's inception early last century. However, supreme predictive power combined with direct experimental observation of some of these unusual phenomena leave little doubt as to its fundamental correctness. In fact, without quantum mechanics we could not explain the workings of a laser, nor indeed how a fridge magnet operates. Over the last several decades quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we gain some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that exhibit these unique quantum properties? Today it is understood that the answer is yes. Many research groups around the world are working towards one ...

Ladd, Thaddeus D; Laflamme, Raymond; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Monroe, Christopher; O'Brien, Jeremy L; 10.1038/nature08812

2010-01-01

21

Integrable Quantum Computation

Integrable quantum computation is defined as quantum computing via the integrable condition, in which two-qubit gates are either nontrivial unitary solutions of the Yang--Baxter equation or the Swap gate (permutation). To make the definition clear, in this article, we explore the physics underlying the quantum circuit model, and then present a unified description on both quantum computing via the Bethe ansatz and quantum computing via the Yang--Baxter equation.

Zhang, Yong

2011-01-01

22

Quantum chaos and quantum computing

Quantum Information, Computation and Complexity * Programme at the Institut Henri Poincaré, January 4th – April 7th, 2006 * Organizers: Ph.Grangier, M.Santha and D.L.Shepelyansky * Lectures have been filmed by Peter Rapcan and Michal Sedlak from Bratislava with the support of the Marie Curie RTN "CONQUEST" A trimester at the Centre Emile Borel - Institut Henri Poincaré is devoted to modern developments in a rapidly growing field of quantum information and communication, quantum computers ...

Benenti, Giuliano

2006-01-01

23

Quantum Holonomies for Quantum Computing

Holonomic Quantum Computation (HQC) is an all-geometrical approach to quantum information processing. In the HQC strategy information is encoded in degenerate eigen-spaces of a parametric family of Hamiltonians. The computational network of unitary quantum gates is realized by driving adiabatically the Hamiltonian parameters along loops in a control manifold. By properly designing such loops the non-trivial curvature of the underlying bundle geometry gives rise to unitary tr...

Pachos, Jiannis; Zanardi, Paolo

2000-01-01

24

Quantum mechanics---the theory describing the fundamental workings of nature---is famously counterintuitive: it predicts that a particle can be in two places at the same time, and that two remote particles can be inextricably and instantaneously linked. These predictions have been the topic of intense metaphysical debate ever since the theory's inception early last century. However, supreme predictive power combined with direct experimental observation of some of these unusu...

Kiili, Markus

1998-01-01

25

I provide an introduction to quantum computers, describing how they might be realized using language accessible to a solid state physicist. A listing of the minimal requirements for creating a quantum computer is given. I also discuss several recent developments in the area of quantum error correction, a subject of importance not only to quantum computation, but also to some aspects of the foundations of quantum theory.

Divincenzo, David P.

1996-01-01

26

Searching with Quantum Computers

This article introduces quantum computation by analogy with probabilistic computation. A basic description of the quantum search algorithm is given by representing the algorithm as a C program in a novel way.

Grover, Lov K.

2000-01-01

27

Quantum information. Teleporation - cryptography - quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

28

Uncertainty In Quantum Computation

We examine the effect of previous history on starting a computation on a quantum computer. Specifically, we assume that the quantum register has some unknown state on it, and it is required that this state be cleared and replaced by a specific superposition state without any phase uncertainty, as needed by quantum algorithms. We show that, in general, this task is computationally impossible.

Kak, Subhash

2002-01-01

29

We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future. PMID:20603371

Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

2010-08-13

30

'Photosynthetic' Quantum Computers?

Do quantum computers already exist in Nature? It is proposed that they do. Photosynthesis is one example in which a 'quantum computer' component may play a role in the 'classical' world of complex biological systems. A 'translation' of the standard metabolic description of the 'front-end' light harvesting complex in photosynthesis into the language of quantum computers is presented. Biological systems represent an untapped resource for thinking about the design and operation of hybrid quantum-classical computers and expanding our current conceptions of what defines a 'quantum computer' in Nature.

Hitchcock, S M

2001-01-01

31

Algorithms for Quantum Computers

This paper surveys the field of quantum computer algorithms. It gives a taste of both the breadth and the depth of the known algorithms for quantum computers, focusing on some of the more recent results. It begins with a brief review of quantum Fourier transform based algorithms, followed by quantum searching and some of its early generalizations. It continues with a more in-depth description of two more recent developments: algorithms developed in the quantum walk paradigm,...

Smith, Jamie; Mosca, Michele

2010-01-01

32

We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, t...

Sehrawat, Arun; Zemann, Daniel; Englert, Berthold-georg

2010-01-01

33

Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

34

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attention is given to the fact that a computer whose functioning is based on the state superposition principle can be realised with classical, as well as quantum, elements. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

35

Quantum Computers and Dissipation

We analyse dissipation in quantum computation and its destructive impact on efficiency of quantum algorithms. Using a general model of decoherence, we study the time evolution of a quantum register of arbitrary length coupled with an environment of arbitrary coherence length. We discuss relations between decoherence and computational complexity and show that the quantum factorization algorithm must be modified in order to be regarded as efficient and realistic.

Palma, Gm; Suominen, Ka; Ekert, Ak

1997-01-01

36

Adiabatic topological quantum computing

Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the...

Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice

2014-01-01

37

'Photosynthetic' Quantum Computers?

Do quantum computers already exist in Nature? It is proposed that they do. Photosynthesis is one example in which a 'quantum computer' component may play a role in the 'classical' world of complex biological systems. A 'translation' of the standard metabolic description of the 'front-end' light harvesting complex in photosynthesis into the language of quantum computers is presented. Biological systems represent an untapped resource for thinking about the design and operation...

Hitchcock, Scott M.

2001-01-01

38

Quantum Computing Without Entanglement

It is generally believed that entanglement is essential for quantum computing. We present here a few simple examples in which quantum computing without entanglement is better than anything classically achievable, in terms of the reliability of the outcome after a xed number of oracle calls. Using a separable (that is, unentangled) n-qubit state, we show that the Deutsch-Jozsa problem and the Simon problem can be solved more reliably by a quantum computer than by the best pos...

Biham, Eli; Brassard, Gilles; Kenigsberg, Dan; Mor, Tal

2003-01-01

39

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A quantum computer would put the latest PC to shame. Not only would such a device be faster than a conventional computer, but by exploiting the quantum-mechanical principle of superposition it could change the way we think about information processing. However, two key goals need to be met before a quantum computer becomes reality. The first is to be able to control the state of a single quantum bit (or 'qubit') and the second is to build a two-qubit gate that can produce 'entanglement' between the qubit states. (U.K.)

Milburn, Gerard

2003-10-01

40

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantum computer would put the latest PC to shame. Not only would such a device be faster than a conventional computer, but by exploiting the quantum-mechanical principle of superposition it could change the way we think about information processing. However, two key goals need to be met before a quantum computer becomes reality. The first is to be able to control the state of a single quantum bit (or 'qubit') and the second is to build a two-qubit gate that can produce 'entanglement' between the qubit states. (U.K.)

41

Computational quantum field theory

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The computational quantum field theory (CQFT) is considered as a part of the computational physics. The main mathematical structures of the CQFT are described in the case of quantum chromodynamics. As examples of the application of the CQFT methods the calculation of the topological susceptibility and the gluon condensates are considered

42

Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

Zak, M.

1998-01-01

43

Quantum computing Hamiltonian cycles

An algorithm for quantum computing Hamiltonian cycles of simple, cubic, bipartite graphs is discussed. It is shown that it is possible to evolve a quantum computer into an entanglement of states which map onto the set of all possible paths originating from a chosen vertex, and furthermore to subsequently project out all states not corresponding to Hamiltonian cycles.

Rudolph, T.

1996-01-01

44

We propose an implementation of a quantum computer to solve Deutsch's problem, which requires exponential time on a classical computer but only linear time with quantum parallelism. By using a dual-rail qubit representation as a simple form of error correction, our machine can tolerate some amount of decoherence and still give the correct result with high probability. The design which we employ also demonstrates a signature for quantum parallelism which unambiguously delinea...

Chuang, I. L.; Yamamoto, Y.

1995-01-01

45

Beyond Quantum Computation and Towards Quantum Field Computation

Because the subject of relativistic quantum field theory (QFT) contains all of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, we expect quantum field computation to contain (non-relativistic) quantum computation. Although we do not yet have a quantum theory of the gravitational field, and are far from a practical implementation of a quantum field computer, some pieces of the puzzle (without gravity) are now available. We consider a general model for computation with quantum field theor...

Manoharan, A. C.

2003-01-01

46

Quantum computing with trapped ions

Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain computational task much more efficiently than classical computers. We review the recent experimental advancements towards a quantum computer with trapped ions. In particular, various implementations of qubits, quantum gates and some key experiments are discussed. Furthermore, we review some implementations of quantum algorithms such as a deterministic teleportation of quantum information and an error correction scheme.

Haeffner, H.; Roos, C. F.; Blatt, R.

2008-01-01

47

Quantum computing with trapped ions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum computers hold the promise of solving certain computational tasks much more efficiently than classical computers. We review recent experimental advances towards a quantum computer with trapped ions. In particular, various implementations of qubits, quantum gates and some key experiments are discussed. Furthermore, we review some implementations of quantum algorithms such as a deterministic teleportation of quantum information and an error correction scheme

48

Quantum Computation and Quantum Error Prevention Wiki

The Quantum Computation and Quantum Error Prevention Wiki is a collaborative and live document to compliment courses on quantum computing. All edits must be made by registered users in order to maintain accuracy and integrity for the document. It is produced by Qunet, a network for quantum physicists, particularly those working in the fields of quantum information and quantum computation. It was developed as a part of a NSF funded project led by Prof. M. S. Byrd at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

Mark S. Byrd

2014-04-04

49

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Digital computers are machines that can be programmed to perform logical and arithmetical operations. Contemporary digital computers are ``universal,`` in the sense that a program that runs on one computer can, if properly compiled, run on any other computer that has access to enough memory space and time. Any one universal computer can simulate the operation of any other; and the set of tasks that any such machine can perform is common to all universal machines. Since Bennett`s discovery that computation can be carried out in a non-dissipative fashion, a number of Hamiltonian quantum-mechanical systems have been proposed whose time-evolutions over discrete intervals are equivalent to those of specific universal computers. The first quantum-mechanical treatment of computers was given by Benioff, who exhibited a Hamiltonian system with a basis whose members corresponded to the logical states of a Turing machine. In order to make the Hamiltonian local, in the sense that its structure depended only on the part of the computation being performed at that time, Benioff found it necessary to make the Hamiltonian time-dependent. Feynman discovered a way to make the computational Hamiltonian both local and time-independent by incorporating the direction of computation in the initial condition. In Feynman`s quantum computer, the program is a carefully prepared wave packet that propagates through different computational states. Deutsch presented a quantum computer that exploits the possibility of existing in a superposition of computational states to perform tasks that a classical computer cannot, such as generating purely random numbers, and carrying out superpositions of computations as a method of parallel processing. In this paper, we show that such computers, by virtue of their common function, possess a common form for their quantum dynamics.

Lloyd, S.

1992-12-01

50

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Digital computers are machines that can be programmed to perform logical and arithmetical operations. Contemporary digital computers are universal,'' in the sense that a program that runs on one computer can, if properly compiled, run on any other computer that has access to enough memory space and time. Any one universal computer can simulate the operation of any other; and the set of tasks that any such machine can perform is common to all universal machines. Since Bennett's discovery that computation can be carried out in a non-dissipative fashion, a number of Hamiltonian quantum-mechanical systems have been proposed whose time-evolutions over discrete intervals are equivalent to those of specific universal computers. The first quantum-mechanical treatment of computers was given by Benioff, who exhibited a Hamiltonian system with a basis whose members corresponded to the logical states of a Turing machine. In order to make the Hamiltonian local, in the sense that its structure depended only on the part of the computation being performed at that time, Benioff found it necessary to make the Hamiltonian time-dependent. Feynman discovered a way to make the computational Hamiltonian both local and time-independent by incorporating the direction of computation in the initial condition. In Feynman's quantum computer, the program is a carefully prepared wave packet that propagates through different computational states. Deutsch presented a quantum computer that exploits the possibility of existing in a superposition of computational states to perform tasks that a classical computer cannot, such as generating purely random numbers, and carrying out superpositions of computations as a method of parallel processing. In this paper, we show that such computers, by virtue of their common function, possess a common form for their quantum dynamics.

Lloyd, S.

1992-01-01

51

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital computers are machines that can be programmed to perform logical and arithmetical operations. Contemporary digital computers are ''universal,'' in the sense that a program that runs on one computer can, if properly compiled, run on any other computer that has access to enough memory space and time. Any one universal computer can simulate the operation of any other; and the set of tasks that any such machine can perform is common to all universal machines. Since Bennett's discovery that computation can be carried out in a non-dissipative fashion, a number of Hamiltonian quantum-mechanical systems have been proposed whose time-evolutions over discrete intervals are equivalent to those of specific universal computers. The first quantum-mechanical treatment of computers was given by Benioff, who exhibited a Hamiltonian system with a basis whose members corresponded to the logical states of a Turing machine. In order to make the Hamiltonian local, in the sense that its structure depended only on the part of the computation being performed at that time, Benioff found it necessary to make the Hamiltonian time-dependent. Feynman discovered a way to make the computational Hamiltonian both local and time-independent by incorporating the direction of computation in the initial condition. In Feynman's quantum computer, the program is a carefully prepared wave packet that propagates through different computational states. Deutsch presented a quantum computer that exploits the possibility of existing in a superposition of computational states to perform tasks that a classical computer cannot, such as generating purely random numbers, and carrying out superpositions of computations as a method of parallel processing. In this paper, we show that such computers, by virtue of their common function, possess a common form for their quantum dynamics

52

Parallel Quantum Computing in a Single Ensemble Quantum Computer

We propose a parallel quantum computing mode for ensemble quantum computer. In this mode, some qubits can be in pure states while other qubits in mixed states. It enables a single ensemble quantum computer to perform $"$single-instruction-multi-data" type of parallel computation. In Grover's algorithm and Shor's algorithm, parallel quantum computing can provide additional speedup. In addition, it also makes a fuller use of qubit resources in an ensemble quantum computer. As ...

Long, Gui Lu; Xiao, Li

2003-01-01

53

Computational Methods for Simulating Quantum Computers

This review gives a survey of numerical algorithms and software to simulate quantum computers.It covers the basic concepts of quantum computation and quantum algorithms and includes a few examples that illustrate the use of simulation software for ideal and physical models of quantum computers.

Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

2004-01-01

54

Quantum computing with defects

Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center stands out for its robustness - its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defect...

Weber, J. R.; Koehl, W. F.; Varley, J. B.; Janotti, A.; Buckley, B. B.; Walle, C. G.; Awschalom, D. D.

2010-01-01

55

Using Quantum Computers for Quantum Simulation

Numerical simulation of quantum systems is crucial to further our understanding of natural phenomena. Many systems of key interest and importance, in areas such as superconducting materials and quantum chemistry, are thought to be described by models which we cannot solve with sufficient accuracy, neither analytically nor numerically with classical computers. Using a quantum computer to simulate such quantum systems has been viewed as a key application of quantum computation...

Kendon, Vivien M.; Brown, Katherine L.; Munro, William J.

2010-01-01

56

An Introduction to Quantum Computers

This is a short introduction to quantum computers, quantum algorithms and quantum error correcting codes. Familiarity with the principles of quantum theory is assumed. Emphasis is put on a concise presentation of the principles avoiding lengthy discussions.

Zalka, Christof

1998-01-01

57

Adiabatic Quantum Computing (AQC) is a relatively new subject in the world of quantum computing, let alone Physics. Inspiration for this project has come from recent controversy around D-Wave Systems in British Columbia, Canada, who claim to have built a working AQC which is now commercially available and hope to be distributing a 1024 qubit chip by the end of 2008. Their 16 qubit chip was demonstrated online for the Supercomputing 2007 conference within which a few small pr...

Pinski, Sebastian D.

2011-01-01

58

In 2001 all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single photon sources, linear optical elements, and single photon detectors. Although it was in principle scalable, the massive resource overhead made the scheme practically daunting. However, several simplifications were followed by proof-of-principle demonstrations, and recent approaches based on cluster states or error encoding have dramatically ...

O Brien, Jeremy L.

2008-01-01

59

Quantum Computing: a Quantum Group Approach

There is compelling theoretical evidence that quantum physics will change the face of information science. Exciting progress has been made during the last two decades towards the building of a large scale quantum computer. A quantum group approach stands out as a promising route to this holy grail, and provides hope that we may have quantum computers in our future.

Wang, Zhenghan

2013-01-01

60

Using Quantum Computers for Quantum Simulation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerical simulation of quantum systems is crucial to further our understanding of natural phenomena. Many systems of key interest and importance, in areas such as superconducting materials and quantum chemistry, are thought to be described by models which we cannot solve with sufficient accuracy, neither analytically nor numerically with classical computers. Using a quantum computer to simulate such quantum systems has been viewed as a key application of quantum computation from the very beginning of the field in the 1980s. Moreover, useful results beyond the reach of classical computation are expected to be accessible with fewer than a hundred qubits, making quantum simulation potentially one of the earliest practical applications of quantum computers. In this paper we survey the theoretical and experimental development of quantum simulation using quantum computers, from the first ideas to the intense research efforts currently underway.

Vivien M. Kendon

2010-11-01

61

In the circuit model, quantum computers rely on the availability of a universal quantum gate set. A particularly intriguing example of such a set is the "matchgates" along with swap, the simple exchange of two qubits. In this paper, we show a simple decomposition of arbitrary matchgates into better known elementary gates, and implement one matchgate in a linear optics experiment using single photons. We characterize the gate performance via quantum process tomography and represent the resulting quantum process in a novel way, as a fidelity map in the space of all possible nonlocal two-qubit unitaries. In addition, we propose a new non-local, diagnostic process measure.

Ramelow, S; Steinberg, A M; White, A G

2009-01-01

62

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the authors describe computer models that simulate the electrical characteristics and hence, the firing characteristics and performance of a semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator for the initiation of BNCP [tetraammine-cis-bis (5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N{sup 2}) cobalt(III) perchlorate]. The electrical data and resultant models provide new insights into the fundamental behavior of SCB detonators, particularly with respect to the initiation mechanism and the interaction of the explosive powder with the SCB. One model developed, the Thermal Feedback Model, considers the total energy budget for the system, including the time evolution of the energy delivered to the powder by the electrical circuit, as well as that released by the ignition and subsequent chemical reaction of the powder. The authors also present data obtained using a new low-voltage firing set which employed an advanced electrochemical capacitor having a nominal capacitance of 350,000 {micro}F at 9 V, the maximum voltage rating for this particular device. A model for this firing set and detonator was developed by making measurements of the intrinsic capacitance and equivalent series resistance (ESR < 10 m{Omega}) of a single device. This model was then used to predict the behavior of BNCP SCB detonators fired alone, as well as in a multishot, parallel-string configuration using a firing set composed of either a single 9 V electrochemical capacitor or two of the capacitors wired in series and charged to 18 V.

Marx, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Ingersoll, D.; Bickes, R.W. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-11-01

63

An Introduction to Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing is a new and exciting field at the intersection of mathematics, computer science and physics. It concerns a utilization of quantum mechanics to improve the efficiency of computation. Here we present a gentle introduction to some of the ideas in quantum computing. The paper begins by motivating the central ideas of quantum mechanics and quantum computation with simple toy models. From there we move on to a formal presentation of the small fraction of (finite...

Yanofsky, Noson S.

2007-01-01

64

Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language

We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.

Blaha, Stephen

2002-01-01

65

Simulating chemistry using quantum computers

The difficulty of simulating quantum systems, well-known to quantum chemists, prompted the idea of quantum computation. One can avoid the steep scaling associated with the exact simulation of increasingly large quantum systems on conventional computers, by mapping the quantum system to another, more controllable one. In this review, we discuss to what extent the ideas in quantum computation, now a well-established field, have been applied to chemical problems. We describe al...

Kassal, Ivan; Whitfield, James D.; Perdomo-ortiz, Alejandro; Yung, Man-hong; Aspuru-guzik, Alan

2010-01-01

66

Simulating quantum mechanics on a quantum computer

Algorithms are described for efficiently simulating quantum mechanical systems on quantum computers. A class of algorithms for simulating the Schrodinger equation for interacting many-body systems are presented in some detail. These algorithms would make it possible to simulate nonrelativistic quantum systems on a quantum computer with an exponential speedup compared to simulations on classical computers. Issues involved in simulating relativistic systems of Dirac and gauge ...

Boghosian, Bruce M.; Taylor, Washington

1997-01-01

67

I, Quantum Robot: Quantum Mind control on a Quantum Computer

The logic which describes quantum robots is not orthodox quantum logic, but a deductive calculus which reproduces the quantum tasks (computational processes, and actions) taking into account quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. A way toward the realization of intelligent quantum robots is to adopt a quantum metalanguage to control quantum robots. A physical implementation of a quantum metalanguage might be the use of coherent states in brain signals.

Zizzi, Paola

2008-01-01

68

Quantum Computing with Superqubits

We analyze some aspects of quantum computing with super-qubits (squbits). We propose the analogue of a superfield formalism, and give a physical interpretation for the Grassmann coefficients in the squbit expansion as fermionic creation operators of an auxiliary quantum system. In the simplest case the squbit is a superposition of one Bose X Bose and one Fermi X Fermi state, and its norm is invariant under a U(2) group realized with Clifford-valued matrices. This case can be...

Castellani, Leonardo; Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Sommovigo, Luca

2010-01-01

69

Quantum++ - A C++11 quantum computing library

Quantum++ is a general-purpose multi-threaded quantum computing library written in C++11 and composed solely of header files. The library is not restricted to qubit systems or specific quantum information processing tasks, being capable of simulating arbitrary quantum processes. The main design factors taken in consideration were ease of use, portability, and performance.

Gheorghiu, Vlad

2014-01-01

70

Quantum information and computation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past two decades, there has emerged the new subject of quantum information and computation which both offers the possibility of powerful new modes of computing and communication and also suggests deep links between the well established disciplines of quantum theory and information theory and computer science. In recent years, the growth of the subject has been explosive, with significant progress in theory and experiment. The area has a highly interdisciplinary character with contributions from physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists in particular. Developments have occurred in diverse areas including quantum algorithms, quantum communication, quantum cryptography, entanglement and nonlocality. This progress has been reflected in contributions to Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General which traditionally provides a natural home for this area of research. Furthermore, the journal's commitment to this field has recently been strengthened by the appointments of Sandu Popescu and Nicolas Gisin to the Editorial Board, and in this special issue we take the opportunity to present a snapshot of the present state of the art. (author)

Popescu, Sandu; Linden, Noah; Jozsa, Richard

2001-09-07

71

Computational quantum chemistry website

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage.

none,

1997-08-22

72

Computational quantum chemistry website

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage

73

Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available. PMID:22267806

Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

2012-01-20

74

Quantum Computation and Spin Physics

A brief review is given of the physical implementation of quantum computation within spin systems or other two-state quantum systems. The importance of the controlled-NOT or quantum XOR gate as the fundamental primitive operation of quantum logic is emphasized. Recent developments in the use of quantum entanglement to built error-robust quantum states, and the simplest protocol for quantum error correction, are discussed.

Divincenzo, David P.

1996-01-01

75

Universal computation by quantum walk

In some of the earliest work on quantum mechanical computers, Feynman showed how to implement universal quantum computation by the dynamics of a time-independent Hamiltonian. I show that this remains possible even if the Hamiltonian is restricted to be a sparse matrix with all entries equal to 0 or 1, i.e., the adjacency matrix of a low-degree graph. Thus quantum walk can be regarded as a universal computational primitive, with any desired quantum computation encoded entirel...

Childs, Andrew M.

2008-01-01

76

Programming a Topological Quantum Computer

Topological quantum computing has recently proven itself to be a powerful computational model when constructing viable architectures for large scale computation. The topological model is constructed from the foundation of a error correction code, required to correct for inevitable hardware faults that will exist for a large scale quantum device. It is also a measurement based model of quantum computation, meaning that the quantum hardware is responsible only for the construc...

Devitt, Simon J.; Nemoto, Kae

2012-01-01

77

Quantum Nondemolition Monitoring of Universal Quantum Computers

The halt scheme for quantum Turing machines, originally proposed by Deutsch, is reformulated precisely and is proved to work without spoiling the computation. The ``conflict'' pointed out recently by Myers in the definition of a universal quantum computer is shown to be only apparent. In the context of quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement, it is also shown that the output observable, an observable representing the output of the computation, is a QND observable and that th...

Ozawa, Masanao

1997-01-01

78

Adiabatic Quantum Computation is Equivalent to Standard Quantum Computation

Adiabatic quantum computation has recently attracted attention in the physics and computer science communities, but its computational power has been unknown. We settle this question and describe an efficient adiabatic simulation of any given quantum algorithm, which implies that the adiabatic computation model and the conventional quantum circuit model are polynomially equivalent. Our result can be extended to the physically realistic setting of particles arranged on a two-dimensional grid with nearest neighbor interactions. The equivalence between the models provides a new vantage point from which to tackle the central issues in quantum computation, namely designing new quantum algorithms and constructing fault tolerant quantum computers. In particular, by translating the main open questions in quantum algorithms to the language of spectral gaps of sparse matrices, the result makes quantum algorithmic questions accessible to a wider scientific audience, acquainted with mathematical physics, expander theory a...

Aharonov, D; Kempe, J; Landau, Z; Lloyd, S; Regev, O; Aharonov, Dorit; Dam, Wim van; Kempe, Julia; Landau, Zeph; Lloyd, Seth; Regev, Oded

2004-01-01

79

Quantum computers: Definition and implementations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DiVincenzo criteria for implementing a quantum computer have been seminal in focusing both experimental and theoretical research in quantum-information processing. These criteria were formulated specifically for the circuit model of quantum computing. However, several new models for quantum computing (paradigms) have been proposed that do not seem to fit the criteria well. Therefore, the question is what are the general criteria for implementing quantum computers. To this end, a formal operational definition of a quantum computer is introduced. It is then shown that, according to this definition, a device is a quantum computer if it obeys the following criteria: Any quantum computer must consist of a quantum memory, with an additional structure that (1) facilitates a controlled quantum evolution of the quantum memory; (2) includes a method for information theoretic cooling of the memory; and (3) provides a readout mechanism for subsets of the quantum memory. The criteria are met when the device is scalable and operates fault tolerantly. We discuss various existing quantum computing paradigms and how they fit within this framework. Finally, we present a decision tree for selecting an avenue toward building a quantum computer. This is intended to help experimentalists determine the most natural paradigm given a particular physical implementation.

80

Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The past few years have witnessed a remarkable interest in the application of quantum computing for solving problems in quantum chemistry more efficiently than classical computers allow. Very recently, proof-of-principle experimental realizations have been reported. However, so far only the nonrelativistic regime (i.e., the Schrodinger equation) has been explored, while it is well known that relativistic effects can be very important in chemistry. We present a quantum algorithm for relativistic computations of molecular energies. We show how to efficiently solve the eigenproblem of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian on a quantum computer and demonstrate the functionality of the proposed procedure by numerical simulations of computations of the spin-orbit splitting in the SbH molecule. Finally, we propose quantum circuits with three qubits and nine or ten controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates, which implement a proof-of-principle relativistic quantum chemical calculation for this molecule and might be suitable for an experimental realization.

Veis, L.; Visnak, J.

2012-01-01

81

Sombrero adiabatic quantum computation

Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) employs the ground state of time-dependent Hamiltonians for algorithm implementation. AQC initial Hamiltonians conventionally have a uniform superposition as ground state. We diverge from this practice by introducing a new strategy, in which adiabatic evolution starts with an initial guess chosen at random or following intuition about the problem, followed by a ``sombrero-like'' perturbation, hence the name sombrero AQC (SAQC). We provide a scheme to build initial Hamiltonians which encode such initial guesses in their ground states, and we present a proof of concept for SAQC by performing an exhaustive numerical study on hard-to-satisfy instances of the satisfiability problem (3-SAT). Our results show that about 35% of the initial 7 variable guesses have a significantly larger minimum gap compared to the minimum gap expected for conventional AQC (CAQC), possibly allowing for more efficient quantum algorithms. Finally, we propose serial and parallel versions of a quantum ad...

Perdomo, Alejandro; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2008-01-01

82

In everyday life, practically all the information which is processed, exchanged or stored is coded in the form of discrete entities called bits, which take two values only, by convention 0 and 1. With the present technology for computers and optical fibers, bits are carried by electrical currents and electromagnetic waves corresponding to macroscopic fluxes of electrons and photons, and they are stored in memories of various kinds, for example, magnetic memories. Although quantum physics is the basic physics which underlies the operation of a transistor (Chapter 6) or of a laser (Chapter 4), each exchanged or processed bit corresponds to a large number of elementary quantum systems, and its behavior can be described classically due to the strong interaction with the environment (Chapter 9). For about thirty years, physicists have learned to manipulate with great accuracy individual quantum systems: photons, electrons, neutrons, atoms, and so forth, which opens the way to using two-state quantum systems, such as the polarization states of a photon (Chapter 2) or the two energy levels of an atom or an ion (Chapter 4) in order to process, exchange or store information. In § 2.3.2, we used the two polarization states of a photon, vertical (V) and horizontal (H), to represent the values 0 and 1 of a bit and to exchange information. In what follows, it will be convenient to use Dirac's notation (see Appendix A.2.2 for more details), where a vertical polarization state is denoted by |V> or |0> and a horizontal one by |H> or |1>, while a state with arbitrary polarization will be denoted by |?>. The polarization states of a photon give one possible realization of a quantum bit, or for short a qubit. Thanks to the properties of quantum physics, quantum computers using qubits, if they ever exist, would outperform classical computers for some specific, but very important, problems. In Sections 8.1 and 8.2, we describe some typical quantum algorithms and, in order to do so, we shall not be able to avoid some technical developments. However, these two sections may be skipped in a first reading, as they are not necessary for understanding the more general considerations of Sections 8.3 and 8.4.

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

83

Quantum Computation toward Quantum Gravity

The aim of this paper is to enlight the emerging relevance of Quantum Information Theory in the field of Quantum Gravity. As it was suggested by J. A. Wheeler, information theory must play a relevant role in understanding the foundations of Quantum Mechanics (the "It from bit" proposal). Here we suggest that quantum information must play a relevant role in Quantum Gravity (the "It from qubit" proposal). The conjecture is that Quantum Gravity, the theory which will reconcile Quantum Mechanics with General Relativity, can be formulated in terms of quantum bits of information (qubits) stored in space at the Planck scale. This conjecture is based on the following arguments: a) The holographic principle, b) The loop quantum gravity approach and spin networks, c) Quantum geometry and black hole entropy. Here we present the quantum version of the holographic principle by considering each pixel of area of an event horizon as a qubit. This is possible if the horizon is pierced by spin networks' edges of spin 1\\2, in t...

Zizzi, P A

2001-01-01

84

Scalable Quantum Computing with "Enhancement" Quantum Dots

We propose a novel scheme of solid state realization of a quantum computer based on single spin "enhancement mode" quantum dots as building blocks. In the enhancement quantum dots, just one electron can be brought into initially empty dot, in contrast to depletion mode dots based on expelling of electrons from multi-electron dots by gates. The quantum computer architectures based on depletion dots are confronted by several challenges making scalability difficult. These challenges can be successfully met by the approach based on ehnancement mode, capable of producing square array of dots with versatile functionalities. These functionalities allow transportation of qubits, including teleportation, and error correction based on straightforward one- and two-qubit operations. We describe physical properties and demonstrate experimental characteristics of enhancement quantum dots and single-electron transistors based on InAs/GaSb composite quantum wells. We discuss the materials aspects of quantum dot quantum compu...

Lyanda-Geller, Y B; Yang, M J

2005-01-01

85

Vibrational coherent quantum computation

A long-lived coherent state and non-linear interaction have been experimentally demonstrated for the vibrational mode of a trapped ion. We propose an implementation of quantum computation using coherent states of the vibrational modes of trapped ions. Differently from earlier experiments, we consider a far-off resonance for the interaction between external fields and the ion in a bidimensional trap. By appropriate choices of the detunings between the external fields, the adiabatic elimination of the ionic excited level from the Hamiltonian of the system allows for beam splitting between orthogonal vibrational modes, production of coherent states and non-linear interactions of various kinds. In particular, this model enables the generation of the four coherent Bell states. Furthermore, all the necessary operations for quantum computation such as preparation of qubits, one-qubit and controlled two-qubit operations, are possible. The detection of the state of a vibrational mode in a Bell state is made possible b...

Paternostro, M; Knight, P L; Paternostro, Mauro

2005-01-01

86

New Trends in Quantum Computing

Classical and quantum information are very different. Together they can perform feats that neither could achieve alone, such as quantum computing, quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. Some of the applications range from helping to preventing spies from reading private communications. Among the tools that will facilitate their implementation, we note quantum purification and quantum error correction. Although some of these ideas are still beyond the grasp of curren...

Brassard, Gilles

1996-01-01

87

Quantum Gravity on a Quantum Computer?

EPR-type measurements on spatially separated entangled spin qubits allow one, in principle, to detect curvature. Also the entanglement of the vacuum state is affected by curvature. Here, we ask if the curvature of spacetime can be expressed entirely in terms of the spatial entanglement structure of the vacuum. This would open up the prospect that quantum gravity could be simulated on a quantum computer and that quantum information techniques could be fully employed in the study of quantum gravity.

Kempf, Achim

2013-01-01

88

Quantum Chaos and Quantum Computing Structures

A system of quantum computing structures is introduced and proven capable of making emerge, on average, the orbits of classical bounded nonlinear maps on \\mathbb{C} through the iterative action of path-dependent quantum gates. The effects of emerging nonlinear dynamics and chaos upon the quantum averages of relevant observables and quantum probabilities are exemplified for a version of Chirikov's standard map on \\mathbb{C} . Both the individual orbits and ensemble properties...

Gonc?alves, Carlos Pedro

2012-01-01

89

Spin-Based Quantum Dot Quantum Computing

We present a brief overview of the current theoretical and experimental progresses in the study of quantum dot-based quantum computing schemes, then focus on the spin-based varieties, which are generally regarded as the most scalable because of the relatively long coherence times of electron and nuclear spins. Reviewed topics include spin coherence, spin interaction, spin detection, and the current status of the experimental studies of spin-based quantum computing.

Hu, Xuedong

2004-01-01

90

Quantum computer for dummies (in Russian)

An introduction (in Russian) to quantum computers, quantum cryptography, and quantum teleportation for students who have no previous knowledge of these subjects, but know quantum mechanics. Several simple examples are considered in detail using the quantum computer emulator QCL.

Grozin, Andrey

2011-01-01

91

Quantum computing with mixed states

We discuss a model for quantum computing with initially mixed states. Although such a computer is known to be less powerful than a quantum computer operating with pure (entangled) states, it may efficiently solve some problems for which no efficient classical algorithms are known. We suggest a new implementation of quantum computation with initially mixed states in which an algorithm realization is achieved by means of optimal basis independent transformations of qubits.

Siomau, Michael; Fritzsche, Stephan

2011-01-01

92

Energy Dissipation in Quantum Computers

A method is described for calculating the heat generated in a quantum computer due to loss of quantum phase information. Amazingly enough, this heat generation can take place at zero temperature. and may explain why it is impossible to extract energy from vacuum fluctuations. Implications for optical computers and quantum cosmology are also briefly discussed.

Granik, A.; Chapline, G.

2003-01-01

93

Energy Dissipation in Quantum Computers

A method is described for calculating the heat generated in a quantum computer due to loss of quantum phase information. Amazingly enough, this heat generation can take place at zero temperature. and may explain why it is impossible to extrax=ct energy from vacuum fluctuations. Implications for optical computers and quantum cosmology are also briefly discussed.

Granik, A

2003-01-01

94

Pulse controlled noise suppressed quantum computation

To make arbitrarily accurate quantum computation possible, practical realization of quantum computers will require suppressing noise in quantum memory and gate operations to make it below a threshold value. A scheme based on realistic quantum computer models is described for suppressing noise in quantum computation without the cost of stringent quantum computing resources.

Duan, Lu-ming; Guo, Guang-can

1998-01-01

95

Quantum Computation Toward Quantum Gravity

The aim of this paper is to enlighten the emerging relevance of Quantum Information Theory in the field of Quantum Gravity. As it was suggested by J. A. Wheeler, information theory must play a relevant role in understanding the foundations of Quantum Mechanics (the "It from bit" proposal). Here we suggest that quantum information must play a relevant role in Quantum Gravity (the "It from qubit" proposal). The conjecture is that Quantum Gravity, the theory which will reconcile Quantum Mechanics with General Relativity, can be formulated in terms of quantum bits of information (qubits) stored in space at the Planck scale. This conjecture is based on the following arguments: a) The holographic principle, b) The loop quantum gravity approach and spin networks, c) Quantum geometry and black hole entropy. From the above arguments, as they stand in the literature, it follows that the edges of spin networks pierce the black hole horizon and excite curvature degrees of freedom on the surface. These excitations are micro-states of Chern-Simons theory and account of the black hole entropy which turns out to be a quarter of the area of the horizon, (in units of Planck area), in accordance with the holographic principle. Moreover, the states which dominate the counting correspond to punctures of spin j = 1/2 and one can in fact visualize each micro-state as a bit of information. The obvious generalization of this result is to consider open spin networks with edges labeled by the spin -1/ 2 representation of SU(2) in a superposed state of spin "on" and spin "down." The micro-state corresponding to such a puncture will be a pixel of area which is "on" and "off" at the same time, and it will encode a qubit of information. This picture, when applied to quantum cosmology, describes an early inflationary universe which is a discrete version of the de Sitter universe.

Zizzi, P. A.

2001-08-01

96

THE APROACH OF CLASSICAL COMPUTER TO QUANTUM COMPUTER

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to guide computer scientists through the barriers that separate quantum computing from conventional computing. We introduce basic principles of quantum mechanics to explain where the power of quantum computers comes from and why it is difficult to harness. We describe the diffrences between classical and quantum computers, bit and quantum bit and quantum key distribution.

SEYEDEH MOHADESEH ELTEJA

2013-09-01

97

The universe as quantum computer

This article reviews the history of digital computation, and investigates just how far the concept of computation can be taken. In particular, I address the question of whether the universe itself is in fact a giant computer, and if so, just what kind of computer it is. I will show that the universe can be regarded as a giant quantum computer. The quantum computational model of the universe explains a variety of observed phenomena not encompassed by the ordinary laws of phys...

Lloyd, Seth

2013-01-01

98

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

Breuer, Reinhard (comp.)

2010-07-01

99

Quantum discord in quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum discord is a measure of the quantumness of correlations. After reviewing its different versions and properties, we apply it to the questions of quantum information processing. First we show that changes in discord in the processed unentangled states indicate the need for entanglement in the distributed implementation of quantum gates. On the other hand, it was shown that zero system-environment discord is a necessary and sufficient condition for applicability of the standard completely positive description of the system's evolution. We demonstrate that this result does not translate into useful quantum process tomography. Depending on the details of the preparation procedure only absence of any initial correlations may guarantees consistency of the process tomography.

100

Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem

Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly...

Meter, Rodney

2013-01-01

101

Interfacing External Quantum Devices to a Universal Quantum Computer

We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, na...

Lagana, Antonio A.; Lohe, Max A.; Von Smekal, Lorenz

2011-01-01

102

Cartoon Computation: Quantum-like computing without quantum mechanics

We present a computational framework based on geometric structures. No quantum mechanics is involved, and yet the algorithms perform tasks analogous to quantum computation. Tensor products and entangled states are not needed -- they are replaced by sets of basic shapes. To test the formalism we solve in geometric terms the Deutsch-Jozsa problem, historically the first example that demonstrated the potential power of quantum computation. Each step of the algorithm has a clear geometric interpetation and allows for a cartoon representation.

Aerts, D; Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek

2006-01-01

103

Cartoon Computation: Quantum-like computing without quantum mechanics

We present a computational framework based on geometric structures. No quantum mechanics is involved, and yet the algorithms perform tasks analogous to quantum computation. Tensor products and entangled states are not needed -- they are replaced by sets of basic shapes. To test the formalism we solve in geometric terms the Deutsch-Jozsa problem, historically the first example that demonstrated the potential power of quantum computation. Each step of the algorithm has a clear...

Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek

2006-01-01

104

Interactive Proofs For Quantum Computations

It is generally accepted that large quantum systems cannot be simulated efficiently by classical systems. Several fundamental questions arise: Experimentalist's aspect: the next generation of quantum computers will presumably contain a few tens of qubits or more. Such systems are already impossible to simulate efficiently classically. Which experiments should be conducted in order to verify that those claimed quantum computers are performing the way they should? Cryptographic aspect: assuming that the first generations of quantum computers will be extremely expensive, and thus quantum computations would be delegated to untrusted companies. How can one trust the outcome? Moreover, can the tasks being delegated be kept secret? Foundations of Quantum Mechanics aspect: assuming that small systems obey quantum mechanics to an extremely high accuracy, it is still possible that the physical description of large many-body systems deviates significantly from quantum mechanics. The conjecture that BQP is not equal to B...

Aharonov, Dorit; Eban, Elad

2008-01-01

105

Macroscopic entanglement in Quantum Computation

We investigate macroscopic entanglement of quantum states in quantum computers, where we say a quantum state is entangled macroscopically if the state has superposition of macroscopically distinct states. The index $p$ of the macroscopic entanglement is calculated as a function of the step of the computation, for Grover's quantum search algorithm and Shor's factoring algorithm. It is found that whether macroscopically entangled states are used or not depends on the numbers a...

Ukena, Akihisa; Shimizu, Akira

2005-01-01

106

Measures of quantum computing speedup

We introduce the concept of strong quantum speedup. We prove that approximating the ground state energy of an instance of the time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation, with $d$ degrees of freedom, $d$ large, enjoys strong exponential quantum speedup. It can be easily solved on a quantum computer. Some researchers in discrete complexity theory believe that quantum computation is not effective for eigenvalue problems. One of our goals in this paper is to explain this dissonance.

Papageorgiou, Anargyros; Traub, Joseph F.

2013-01-01

107

Quantum computing for pattern classification

It is well known that for certain tasks, quantum computing outperforms classical computing. A growing number of contributions try to use this advantage in order to improve or extend classical machine learning algorithms by methods of quantum information theory. This paper gives a brief introduction into quantum machine learning using the example of pattern classification. We introduce a quantum pattern classification algorithm that draws on Trugenberger's proposal for measur...

Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

2014-01-01

108

Multi-party Quantum Computation

We investigate definitions of and protocols for multi-party quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum information-theoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to establish that any ...

Smith, Adam

2001-01-01

109

Interfacing external quantum devices to a universal quantum computer.

We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, namely the Deutsch, Deutsch-Jozsa, and the Grover algorithms using external black-box quantum oracle devices. In the process, we demonstrate a method to map existing quantum algorithms onto the universal quantum computer. PMID:22216276

Lagana, Antonio A; Lohe, Max A; von Smekal, Lorenz

2011-01-01

110

Multi-party Quantum Computation

We investigate definitions of and protocols for multi-party quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum information-theoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to establish that any multi-party quantum computation can be securely performed as long as the number of dishonest players is less than n/6.

Smith, A

2001-01-01

111

Experimental Aspects of Quantum Computing

Practical quantum computing still seems more than a decade away, and researchers have not even identified what the best physical implementation of a quantum bit will be. There is a real need in the scientific literature for a dialog on the topic of lessons learned and looming roadblocks. These papers, which appeared in the journal of "Quantum Information Processing" are dedicated to the experimental aspects of quantum computing These papers highlight the lessons learned over the last ten years, outline the challenges over the next ten years, and discuss the most promising physical implementations of quantum computing.

Everitt, Henry O

2005-01-01

112

Database Manipulation on Quantum Computers

Manipulating a database system on a quantum computer is an essential aim to benefit from the promising speed-up of quantum computers over classical computers in areas that take a vast amount of storage and processing time such as in databases. In this paper, the basic operations for manipulating the data in a quantum database will be defined, e.g. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, backing up and restoring a database file. This gives the ability to perform the data processing t...

Younes, Ahmed

2007-01-01

113

Superconducting Quantum Computing Without Entanglement?

In recent years, quantum computing has promised a revolution in computing performance, based on massive parallelism enabled by many entangled qubits. Josephson junction integrated circuits have emerged as the key technology to implement such a universal digital quantum computer. Indeed, prior experiments have demonstrated simple Josephson qubit configurations with quantized energy levels and long coherence times, which are a necessary prerequisite for a practical quantum com...

Kadin, Alan M.; Kaplan, Steven B.

2014-01-01

114

Are Quantum Computing Models Realistic?

The commonly used circuit model of quantum computing leaves out the problems of imprecision in the initial state preparation, particle statistics (indistinguishability of particles belonging to the same quantum state), and error correction (current techniques cannot correct all small errors). The initial state in the circuit model computation is obtained by applying potentially imprecise Hadamard gate operations whereas useful quantum computation requires a state with no unc...

Kak, Subhash

2001-01-01

115

Quantum Principles and Mathematical Computability

Taking the view that computation is after all physical, we argue that physics, particularly quantum physics, could help extend the notion of computability. Here, we list the important and unique features of quantum mechanics and then outline a quantum mechanical "algorithm" for one of the insoluble problems of mathematics, the Hilbert's tenth and equivalently the Turing halting problem. The key element of this algorithm is the {\\em computability} and {\\em measurability} of b...

Kieu, Tien D.

2002-01-01

116

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that pure NQR can be utilized as a platform for quantum computing without applying a high external magnetic field. By exciting each resonance transition between quadrupole energy levels with two radio-frequency fields differing in phase and direction, the double degeneracy of the spin energy spectrum in an electric field gradient is removed. As an example, in the case of I=7/2 (nuclei {sup 133}Cs or {sup 123}Sb) the energy spectrum has eight levels which can be used as three qubits. (orig.)

Furman, G.B. [Coll. ' ' Ogalo' ' , Katzrin (Israel); Physics Dept., Ben Gurion Univ., Beer Sheva (Israel); Goren, S.D. [Physics Dept., Ben Gurion Univ., Beer Sheva (Israel)

2002-07-01

117

Algorithms on Ensemble Quantum Computers

In ensemble (or bulk) quantum computation, all computations are performed on an ensemble of computers rather than on a single computer. Measurements of qubits in an individual computer cannot be performed; instead, only expectation values (over the complete ensemble of computers) can be measured. As a result of this limitation on the model of computation, many algorithms cannot be processed directly on such computers, and must be modified, as the common strategy of delaying the measurements u...

Boykin, P. Oscar; Mor, Tal; Roychowdhury, Vwani; Vatan, Farrokh

1999-01-01

118

Visualizing a silicon quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum computation is a fast-growing, multi-disciplinary research field. The purpose of a quantum computer is to execute quantum algorithms that efficiently solve computational problems intractable within the existing paradigm of 'classical' computing built on bits and Boolean gates. While collaboration between computer scientists, physicists, chemists, engineers, mathematicians and others is essential to the project's success, traditional disciplinary boundaries can hinder progress and make communicating the aims of quantum computing and future technologies difficult. We have developed a four minute animation as a tool for representing, understanding and communicating a silicon-based solid-state quantum computer to a variety of audiences, either as a stand-alone animation to be used by expert presenters or embedded into a longer movie as short animated sequences. The paper includes a generally applicable recipe for successful scientific animation production.

119

Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Computational Algorithms

The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We show that if no entanglement is envolved then whatever one can do with qubits can also be done with classical optical systems. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped onto a classical optical scheme. It is only ...

Arvind

2000-01-01

120

Robust Quantum Computation with Quantum Dots

Quantum computation in solid state quantum dots faces two significant challenges: Decoherence from interactions with the environment and the difficulty of generating local magnetic fields for the single qubit rotations. This paper presents a design of composite qubits to overcome both challenges. Each qubit is encoded in the degenerate ground-state of four (or six) electrons in a system of five quantum dots arranged in a two-dimensional pattern. This decoherence-free subspac...

Hellberg, C. Stephen

2003-01-01

121

Spintronics and Quantum Dots for Quantum Computing and Quantum Communication

Control over electron-spin states, such as coherent manipulation, filtering and measurement promises access to new technologies in conventional as well as in quantum computation and quantum communication. We review our proposal of using electron spins in quantum confined structures as qubits and discuss the requirements for implementing a quantum computer. We describe several realizations of one- and two-qubit gates and of the read-in and read-out tasks. We discuss recently ...

Burkard, Guido; Engel, Hans-andreas; Loss, Daniel

2000-01-01

122

Universal quantum computation by discontinuous quantum walk

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum walks are the quantum-mechanical analog of random walks, in which a quantum ''walker'' evolves between initial and final states by traversing the edges of a graph, either in discrete steps from node to node or via continuous evolution under the Hamiltonian furnished by the adjacency matrix of the graph. We present a hybrid scheme for universal quantum computation in which a quantum walker takes discrete steps of continuous evolution. This ''discontinuous'' quantum walk employs perfect quantum-state transfer between two nodes of specific subgraphs chosen to implement a universal gate set, thereby ensuring unitary evolution without requiring the introduction of an ancillary coin space. The run time is linear in the number of simulated qubits and gates. The scheme allows multiple runs of the algorithm to be executed almost simultaneously by starting walkers one time step apart.

123

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

Koenneker, Carsten (comp.)

2012-11-01

124

Vibrational coherent quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A long-lived coherent state and nonlinear interaction have been experimentally demonstrated for the vibrational mode of a trapped ion. We propose an implementation of quantum computation using coherent states of the vibrational modes of trapped ions. Differently from earlier experiments, we consider a far-off resonance for the interaction between external fields and the ion in a bidimensional trap. By appropriate choices of the detunings between the external fields, the adiabatic elimination of the ionic excited level from the Hamiltonian of the system allows for beam splitting between orthogonal vibrational modes, production of coherent states, and nonlinear interactions of various kinds. In particular, this model enables the generation of the four coherent Bell states. Furthermore, all the necessary operations for quantum computation, such as preparation of qubits and one-qubit and controlled two-qubit operations, are possible. The detection of the state of a vibrational mode in a Bell state is made possible by the combination of resonant and off-resonant interactions between the ion and some external fields. We show that our read-out scheme provides highly efficient discrimination between all the four Bell states. We extend this to a quantum register composed of many individually trapped ions. In this case, operations on two remote qubits are possible through a cavity mode. We emphasize that our remote-qubit operation scheme does not require a high-quality factor re does not require a high-quality factor resonator: the cavity field acts as a catalyst for the gate operation

125

Algorithms on ensemble quantum computers.

In ensemble (or bulk) quantum computation, all computations are performed on an ensemble of computers rather than on a single computer. Measurements of qubits in an individual computer cannot be performed; instead, only expectation values (over the complete ensemble of computers) can be measured. As a result of this limitation on the model of computation, many algorithms cannot be processed directly on such computers, and must be modified, as the common strategy of delaying the measurements usually does not resolve this ensemble-measurement problem. Here we present several new strategies for resolving this problem. Based on these strategies we provide new versions of some of the most important quantum algorithms, versions that are suitable for implementing on ensemble quantum computers, e.g., on liquid NMR quantum computers. These algorithms are Shor's factorization algorithm, Grover's search algorithm (with several marked items), and an algorithm for quantum fault-tolerant computation. The first two algorithms are simply modified using a randomizing and a sorting strategies. For the last algorithm, we develop a classical-quantum hybrid strategy for removing measurements. We use it to present a novel quantum fault-tolerant scheme. More explicitly, we present schemes for fault-tolerant measurement-free implementation of Toffoli and ?(z)(¼) as these operations cannot be implemented "bitwise", and their standard fault-tolerant implementations require measurement. PMID:21475662

Boykin, P Oscar; Mor, Tal; Roychowdhury, Vwani; Vatan, Farrokh

2010-06-01

126

The limits of quantum computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Future computers, which work with quantum bits, would indeed solve some special problems extremely fastly, but for the most problems the would hardly be superior to contemporary computers. This knowledge could manifest a new fundamental physical principle

127

Minimal ancilla mediated quantum computation

Schemes of universal quantum computation in which the interactions between the computational elements, in a computational register, are mediated by some ancillary system are of interest due to their relevance to the physical implementation of a quantum computer. Furthermore, reducing the level of control required over both the ancillary and register systems has the potential to simplify any experimental implementation. In this paper we consider how to minimise the control ne...

Proctor, Timothy J.; Kendon, Viv

2014-01-01

128

Quantum physics, simulation, and computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The ultimate scope and power of computers will be determined by the laws of physics. Quantum computers exploit the rules of quantum mechanics, using quantum coherence and entanglement for new ways of information processing. Up to date, the realization of these systems requires extremely precise control of matter on the atomic scale and a nearly perfect isolation from the environment. The question, to what extent quantum information processing can also be exploited in 'natural' and less controlled systems, including biological ones, is exciting but still open. In this talk, I will present some of our recent work on (quantum) physically and biologically motivated models of information processing. (author)

129

Simulating chemistry using quantum computers.

The difficulty of simulating quantum systems, well known to quantum chemists, prompted the idea of quantum computation. One can avoid the steep scaling associated with the exact simulation of increasingly large quantum systems on conventional computers, by mapping the quantum system to another, more controllable one. In this review, we discuss to what extent the ideas in quantum computation, now a well-established field, have been applied to chemical problems. We describe algorithms that achieve significant advantages for the electronic-structure problem, the simulation of chemical dynamics, protein folding, and other tasks. Although theory is still ahead of experiment, we outline recent advances that have led to the first chemical calculations on small quantum information processors. PMID:21166541

Kassal, Ivan; Whitfield, James D; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2011-01-01

130

Simulating chemistry using quantum computers

The difficulty of simulating quantum systems, well-known to quantum chemists, prompted the idea of quantum computation. One can avoid the steep scaling associated with the exact simulation of increasingly large quantum systems on conventional computers, by mapping the quantum system to another, more controllable one. In this review, we discuss to what extent the ideas in quantum computation, now a well-established field, have been applied to chemical problems. We describe algorithms that achieve significant advantages for the electronic-structure problem, the simulation of chemical dynamics, protein folding, and other tasks. Although theory is still ahead of experiment, we outline recent advances that have led to the first chemical calculations on small quantum information processors.

Kassal, Ivan; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2010-01-01

131

Computing quantum discord is NP-complete

We study the computational complexity of quantum discord (a measure of quantum correlation beyond entanglement), and prove that computing quantum discord is NP-complete. Therefore, quantum discord is computationally intractable: the running time of any algorithm for computing quantum discord is believed to grow exponentially with the dimension of the Hilbert space so that computing quantum discord in a quantum system of moderate size is not possible in practice. As by-produc...

Huang, Yichen

2013-01-01

132

The Physics of Quantum Computation

Quantum Computation has emerged in the past decades as a consequence of down-scaling of electronic devices to the mesoscopic regime and of advances in the ability of controlling and measuring microscopic quantum systems. QC has many interdisciplinary aspects, ranging from physics and chemistry to mathematics and computer science. In these lecture notes we focus on physical hardware, present day challenges and future directions for design of quantum architectures.

Falci, Giuseppe; Paladino, Elisabette

2015-10-01

133

Quantum computing in neural networks

According to the statistical interpretation of quantum theory, quantum computers form a distinguished class of probabilistic machines (PMs) by encoding n qubits in 2n pbits (random binary variables). This raises the possibility of a large-scale quantum computing using PMs, especially with neural networks which have the innate capability for probabilistic information processing. Restricting ourselves to a particular model, we construct and numerically examine the performance ...

Gralewicz, P.

2004-01-01

134

Adiabatic Cluster State Quantum Computing

Models of quantum computation are important because they change the physical requirements for achieving universal quantum computation (QC). For example, one-way QC requires the preparation of an entangled "cluster" state followed by adaptive measurement on this state, a set of requirements which is different from the standard quantum circuit model. Here we introduce a model based on one-way QC but without measurements (except for the final readout), instead using adiabatic d...

Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.

2009-01-01

135

Local Hamiltonians in Quantum Computation

In this thesis, I investigate aspects of local Hamiltonians in quantum computing. First, I focus on the Adiabatic Quantum Computing model, based on evolution with a time dependent Hamiltonian. I show that to succeed using AQC, the Hamiltonian involved must have local structure, which leads to a result about eigenvalue gaps from information theory. I also improve results about simulating quantum circuits with AQC. Second, I look at classically simulating time evolution with l...

Nagaj, Daniel

2008-01-01

136

Polynomial Simulations of Decohered Quantum Computers

We define formally decohered quantum computers (using density matrices), and present a simulation of them by a probabalistic classical Turing Machine. We study the slowdown of the simulation for two cases: (1) sequential quantum computers, or quantum Turing machines(QTM), and (2) parallel quantum computers, or quantum circuits. This paper shows that the computational power of decohered quantum computers depends strongly on the amount of parallelism in the computation. T...

Aharonov, Dorit; Ben-or, Michael

1996-01-01

137

Cartoon computation: quantum-like computing without quantum mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a computational framework based on geometric structures. No quantum mechanics is involved, and yet the algorithms perform tasks analogous to quantum computation. Tensor products and entangled states are not needed-they are replaced by sets of basic shapes. To test the formalism we solve in geometric terms the Deutsch-Jozsa problem, historically the first example that demonstrated the potential power of quantum computation. Each step of the algorithm has a clear geometric interpretation and allows for a cartoon representation. (fast track communication)

138

Programming Pulse Driven Quantum Computers

Arrays of weakly-coupled quantum systems can be made to compute by subjecting them to a sequence of electromagnetic pulses of well-defined frequency and length. Such pulsed arrays are true quantum computers: bits can be placed in superpositions of 0 and 1, logical operations take place coherently, and dissipation is required only for error correction. Programming such computers is accomplished by selecting the proper sequence of pulses.

Lloyd, Seth

1999-01-01

139

Computing on Anonymous Quantum Network

This paper considers distributed computing on an anonymous quantum network, a network in which no party has a unique identifier and quantum communication and computation are available. It is proved that the leader election problem can exactly (i.e., without error in bounded time) be solved with at most the same complexity up to a constant factor as that of exactly computing symmetric functions (without intermediate measurements for a distributed and superposed input), if the...

Kobayashi, Hirotada; Matsumoto, Keiji; Tani, Seiichiro

2010-01-01

140

Quantum Computation Beyond the Circuit Model

The quantum circuit model is the most widely used model of quantum computation. It provides both a framework for formulating quantum algorithms and an architecture for the physical construction of quantum computers. However, several other models of quantum computation exist which provide useful alternative frameworks for both discovering new quantum algorithms and devising new physical implementations of quantum computers. In this thesis, I first present necessary background...

Jordan, Stephen P.

2008-01-01

141

Entanglement Echoes in Quantum Computation

We study the stability of entanglement in a quantum computer implementing an efficient quantum algorithm, which simulates a quantum chaotic dynamics. For this purpose, we perform a forward-backward evolution of an initial state in which two qubits are in a maximally entangled Bell state. If the dynamics is reversed after an evolution time $t_r$, there is an echo of the entanglement between these two qubits at time $t_e=2t_r$. Perturbations attenuate the pairwise entanglement echo and generate entanglement between these two qubits and the other qubits of the quantum computer.

Rossini, D; Casati, G; Rossini, Davide; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

2003-01-01

142

The new field of quantum error correction has developed spectacularly since its origin less than two years ago. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. Hence, an arbitrarily long quantum compu...

Preskill, John

1997-01-01

143

Computing methods in quantum electrodynamics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Algebraic and numerical computing methods used for calculations in quantum electrodynamics are reviewed. Computer algebra systems suitable for high energy physics computations are presented. The impact of these methods on the evaluation of the Lamb shift in hydrogen and of the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons is shown. (Auth.)

144

Quantum Computing with Very Noisy Devices

In theory, quantum computers can efficiently simulate quantum physics, factor large numbers and estimate integrals, thus solving otherwise intractable computational problems. In practice, quantum computers must operate with noisy devices called ``gates'' that tend to destroy the fragile quantum states needed for computation. The goal of fault-tolerant quantum computing is to compute accurately even when gates have a high probability of error each time they are used. Here we ...

Knill, E.

2004-01-01

145

Continuous-variable blind quantum computation

Blind quantum computation is a secure delegated quantum computing protocol where Alice who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal delegates her computation to Bob who has a fully-fledged quantum computer in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output, and algorithm. Protocols of blind quantum computation have been proposed for several qubit measurement-based computation models, such as the graph state model, the Affleck-Kennedy-...

Morimae, Tomoyuki

2012-01-01

146

Cluster-state quantum computation

This article is a short introduction to and review of the cluster-state model of quantum computation, in which coherent quantum information processing is accomplished via a sequence of single-qubit measurements applied to a fixed quantum state known as a cluster state. We also discuss a few novel properties of the model, including a proof that the cluster state cannot occur as the exact ground state of any naturally occurring physical system, and a proof that measurements on...

Nielsen, Michael A.

2005-01-01

147

Gates for Adiabatic Quantum Computing

The goal of this paper is to introduce building blocks for adiabatic quantum algorithms. Adiabatic quantum computing uses the principle of quantum annealing, which implies that a carefully controlled energy solution is optimal and corresponds to minimizing a discrete function. The input function can be influenced by rewards and penalties to favor a solution that meets restrictions that are imposed by the problem. We show how to accomplish this influence for gates in adiabati...

Warren, Richard H.

2014-01-01

148

Entanglement Echoes in Quantum Computation

We study the stability of entanglement in a quantum computer implementing an efficient quantum algorithm, which simulates a quantum chaotic dynamics. For this purpose, we perform a forward-backward evolution of an initial state in which two qubits are in a maximally entangled Bell state. If the dynamics is reversed after an evolution time $t_r$, there is an echo of the entanglement between these two qubits at time $t_e=2t_r$. Perturbations attenuate the pairwise entanglement...

Rossini, Davide; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

2003-01-01

149

Quantum Information and Computing

Preface -- Coherent quantum control of [symbol]-atoms through the stochastic limit / L. Accardi, S. V. Kozyrev and A. N. Pechen -- Recent advances in quantum white noise calculus / L. Accardi and A. Boukas -- Control of quantum states by decoherence / L. Accardi and K. Imafuku -- Logical operations realized on the Ising chain of N qubits / M. Asano, N. Tateda and C. Ishii -- Joint extension of states of fermion subsystems / H. Araki -- Quantum filtering and optimal feedback control of a Gaussian quantum free particle / S. C. Edwards and V. P. Belavkin -- On existence of quantum zeno dynamics / P. Exner and T. Ichinose -- Invariant subspaces and control of decoherence / P. Facchi, V. L. Lepore and S. Pascazio -- Clauser-Horner inequality for electron counting statistics in multiterminal mesoscopic conductors / L. Faoro, F. Taddei and R. Fazio -- Fidelity of quantum teleportation model using beam splittings / K.-H. Fichtner, T. Miyadera and M. Ohya -- Quantum logical gates realized by beam splittings / W. Freudenberg ... [et al.] -- Information divergence for quantum channels / S. J. Hammersley and V. P. Belavkin -- On the uniqueness theorem in quantum information geometry / H. Hasegawa -- Noncanonical representations of a multi-dimensional Brownian motion / Y. Hibino -- Some of future directions of white noise theory / T. Hida -- Information, innovation and elemental random field / T. Hida -- Generalized quantum turing machine and its application to the SAT chaos algorithm / S. Iriyama, M. Ohya and I. Volovich -- A Stroboscopic approach to quantum tomography / A. Jamiolkowski -- Positive maps and separable states in matrix algebras / A. Kossakowski -- Simulating open quantum systems with trapped ions / S. Maniscalco -- A purification scheme and entanglement distillations / H. Nakazato, M. Unoki and K. Yuasa -- Generalized sectors and adjunctions to control micro-macro transitions / I. Ojima -- Saturation of an entropy bound and quantum Markov states / D. Petz -- An infinite dimensional Laplacian acting on some class of Lévy white noise functionals / K. Saitô -- Structure of linear processes / Si Si and Win Win Htay -- Group theory of dynamical maps / E. C. G. Sudarshan -- On quantum analysis, quantum transfer-matrix method, and effective information entropy / M. Suzuki -- Nonequilibrium steady states for a harmonic oscillator interacting with two bose fields-stochastic limit approach and C* algebraic approach / S. Tasaki and L. Accardi -- Control of decoherence with multipulse application / C. Uchiyama -- Quantum entanglement, purification, and linear-optics quantum gates with photonic qubits / P. Walther and A. Zeilinger -- On quantum mutual type measures and capacity / N. Watanabe.

Accardi, L.; Ohya, Masanori; Watanabe, N.

2006-03-01

150

Computing quantum eigenvalues made easy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An extremely simple and convenient method is presented for computing eigenvalues in quantum mechanics by representing position and momentum operators in matrix form. The simplicity and success of the method is illustrated by numerical results concerning eigenvalues of bound systems and resonances for Hermitian and non-Hermitian Hamiltonians as well as driven quantum systems. Various MATLAB program codes are listed. (author)

151

Quantum chromodynamics with advanced computing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We survey results in lattice quantum chromodynamics from groups in the USQCD Collaboration. The main focus is on physics, but many aspects of the discussion are aimed at an audience of computational physicists.

Kronfeld, Andreas S.; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

152

Towards Quantum Chemistry on a Quantum Computer

The fundamental problem faced in quantum chemistry is the calculation of molecular properties, which are of practical importance in fields ranging from materials science to biochemistry. Within chemical precision, the total energy of a molecule as well as most other properties, can be calculated by solving the Schrodinger equation. However, the computational resources required to obtain exact solutions on a conventional computer generally increase exponentially with the numb...

Lanyon, Bp; Whitfield, Jd; Gillett, Gg; Goggin, Me; Almeida, Mp; Kassal, I.; Biamonte, Jd; Mohseni, M.; Powell, Bj; Barbieri, M.; Aspuru-guzik, A.; White, Ag

2010-01-01

153

Interactive Proofs For Quantum Computations

The widely held belief that BQP strictly contains BPP raises fundamental questions: Upcoming generations of quantum computers might already be too large to be simulated classically. Is it possible to experimentally test that these systems perform as they should, if we cannot efficiently compute predictions for their behavior? Vazirani has asked: If predicting Quantum Mechanical systems requires exponential resources, is QM a falsifiable theory? In cryptographic settings, an ...

Aharonov, Dorit; Ben-or, Michael; Eban, Elad

2008-01-01

154

Quantum Computing via The Bethe Ansatz

We recognize quantum circuit model of computation as factorisable scattering model and propose that a quantum computer is associated with a quantum many-body system solved by the Bethe ansatz. As an typical example to support our perspectives on quantum computation, we study quantum computing in one-dimensional nonrelativistic system with delta-function interaction, where the two-body scattering matrix satisfies the factorisation equation (the quantum Yang--Baxter equation) ...

Zhang, Yong

2011-01-01

155

Quantum information and computing

The main purpose of this volume is to emphasize the multidisciplinary aspects of this very active new line of research in which concrete technological and industrial realizations require the combined efforts of experimental and theoretical physicists, mathematicians and engineers. Contents: Coherent Quantum Control of ?-Atoms through the Stochastic Limit (L Accardi et al.); Recent Advances in Quantum White Noise Calculus (L Accardi & A Boukas); Joint Extension of States of Fermion Subsystems (H Araki); Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation Model Using Beam Splittings (K-H Fichtner et al.); Quantum

Ohya, M; Watanabe, N

2006-01-01

156

Decoherence and Programmable Quantum Computation

An examination of the concept of using classical degrees of freedom to drive the evolution of quantum computers is given. Specifically, when externally generated, coherent states of the electromagnetic field are used to drive transitions within the qubit system, a decoherence results due to the back reaction from the qubits onto the quantum field. We derive an expression for the decoherence rate for two cases, that of the single-qubit Walsh-Hadamard transform, and for an implementation of the controlled-NOT gate. We examine the impact of this decoherence mechanism on Grover's search algorithm, and on the proposals for use of error-correcting codes in quantum computation.

Barnes, J P; Barnes, Jeff P.; Warren, Warren S.

1999-01-01

157

Are quantum walks the saviour of optical quantum computing?

Quantum walks have emerged as an interesting candidate for the implementation of quantum information processing protocols. Optical implementations of quantum walks have been demonstrated by various groups and some have received high-profile coverage. It is often claimed that quantum walks provide an avenue towards universal quantum computation. In this comment I wish to dispel some misconceptions surrounding the prospects of quantum walks as a route towards universal optical quantum computation.

Rohde, Peter P

2010-01-01

158

The quantum field as a quantum computer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is supposed that at very small scales a quantum field is an infinite homogeneous quantum computer. On a quantum computer the information cannot propagate faster than c=a/?, a and ? being the minimum space and time distances between gates, respectively. For one space dimension it is shown that the information flow satisfies a Dirac equation, with speed v=?c and ?=?(m) mass-dependent. For c the speed of light ?{sup ?1} is a vacuum refraction index that increases monotonically from ?{sup ?1}(0)=1 to ?{sup ?1}(M)=?, M being the Planck mass for 2a the Planck length. The Fermi anticommuting field can be entirely qubitized, i.e. it can be written in terms of local Pauli matrices and with the field interaction remaining local on qubits. Extensions to larger space dimensions are discussed. -- Highlights: ? q-Computational approach to quantum field theory, the Wheeler's “It from Bit”. ? Dirac derived as free flow of information, without requiring Lorentz covariance. ? Info-interpretation of inertial mass and h{sup ¯} and field Hamiltonian derived from gates. ? Violation of dispersion relation as mass-dependent vacuum refraction index. ? Fermi anticommuting fields substituted by qubits.

D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro, E-mail: dariano@unipv.it [University of Pavia, QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica “A. Volta”, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, PV (Italy)

2012-01-16

159

Information Processing beyond Quantum Computation

Recent developments in quantum computation have made it clear that there is a lot more to computation than the conventional Boolean algebra. Is quantum computation the most general framework for processing information? Having gathered the courage to go beyond the traditional definitions, we are now in a position to answer: Certainly not. The meaning of a message being ``a collection of building blocks'' can be explored in a variety of situations. A generalised framework is proposed based on group theory, and it is illustrated with well-known physical examples. In many cases, systematic information theoretical approach is yet to be developed.

Patel, A

2003-01-01

160

On the Problem of Programming Quantum Computers

We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyse the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical implementations of quantum computers. We discuss the origin of the instabilities of quantum algorithms and explore physical mechanisms to enlarge the region(s) of stable operation.

Raedt, Hans; Hams, Anthony; Michielsen, Kristel; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji

2000-01-01

161

Reversible computing fundamentals, quantum computing, and applications

Written by one of the few top internationally recognized experts in the field, this book concentrates on those topics that will remain fundamental, such as low power computing, reversible programming languages, and applications in thermodynamics. It describes reversible computing from various points of view: Boolean algebra, group theory, logic circuits, low-power electronics, communication, software, quantum computing. It is this multidisciplinary approach that makes it unique.Backed by numerous examples, this is useful for all levels of the scientific and academic community, from undergr

De Vos, Alexis

2010-01-01

162

Analogical Modeling and Quantum Computing

This paper serves as a bridge between quantum computing and analogical modeling (a general theory for predicting categories of behavior in varying contexts). Since its formulation in the early 1980s, analogical modeling has been successfully applied to a variety of problems in language. Several striking similarities between quantum mechanics and analogical modeling have recently been noted: (1) traditional statistics can be derived from a non-statistical basis by assuming da...

Skousen, Royal

2000-01-01

163

Handbook of computational quantum chemistry

Quantum chemistry forms the basis of molecular modeling, a tool widely used to obtain important chemical information and visual images of molecular systems. Recent advances in computing have resulted in considerable developments in molecular modeling, and these developments have led to significant achievements in the design and synthesis of drugs and catalysts. This comprehensive text provides upper-level undergraduates and graduate students with an introduction to the implementation of quantum ideas in molecular modeling, exploring practical applications alongside theoretical explanations.Wri

Cook, David B

2012-01-01

164

Topological quantum computation via the quantum tunneling effect.

Quantum computers are predicted to utilize quantum states to process tasks far faster than those of conventional classical computers. In this Letter we show an alternative approach towards building topological quantum computers by tuning the quantum tunneling effect of degenerate quantum states in topological order, instead of braiding anyons. Using a designer Hamiltonian-the Wen-Plaquette model as an example, we study its quantum tunneling effect of the toric codes and show how to control the toric codes to realize topological quantum computation. In particular, we give a proposal to the measurement of the toric codes from Aharonov-Bohm interferences of quasiparticles. PMID:19392257

Kou, Su-Peng

2009-03-27

165

Geometrical perspective on quantum states and quantum computation

We interpret quantum computing as a geometric evolution process by reformulating finite quantum systems via Connes' noncommutative geometry. In this formulation, quantum states are represented as noncommutative connections, while gauge transformations on the connections play a role of unitary quantum operations. Thereby, a geometrical model for quantum computation is presented, which is equivalent to the quantum circuit model. This result shows a geometric way of realizing q...

Chen, Zeqian

2013-01-01

166

Maintaining coherence in Quantum Computers

The effect of the inevitable coupling to external degrees of freedom of a quantum computer are examined. It is found that for quantum calculations (in which the maintenance of coherence over a large number of states is important), not only must the coupling be small but the time taken in the quantum calculation must be less than the thermal time scale, $\\hbar/k_B T$. For longer times the condition on the strength of the coupling to the external world becomes much more string...

Unruh, W. G.

1994-01-01

167

Decoherence and programmable quantum computation

When coherent states of the electromagnetic field are used to drive the evolution of a quantum computer, a decoherence results due to the back reaction from the qubits onto the fields. We show how to calculate this effect. No assumptions about the environment are necessary, so this represents a useful model to test the fidelity of quantum error correcting codes. We examine two cases of interest. First, the decoherence from the Walsh-Hadamard transformations in Grover's search algorithm is found [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 325 (1997)]. Interference effects, and decoherence-dependent phases, are present that could be useful in reducing the decoherence. Second, Shor's fault-tolerant controlled-NOT gate is examined, utilizing frequency-selective pulses [Proceedings, 35th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Press, New York, 1994), pp. 56-65]. This implementation is found not to be optimal in regards to fault-tolerant quantum computation.

Barnes, Jeff P.; Warren, Warren S.

1999-12-01

168

It is shown in the paper that the unitary quantum dynamics in quantum mechanics is the universal quantum driving force to speed up a quantum computation. This assertion supports strongly in theory that the unitary quantum dynamics is the fundamental and universal principle in nature. On the other hand, the symmetric structure of Hilbert space of a composite quantum system is the quantum-computing resource that is not owned by classical computation. A new quantum-computing sp...

Miao, Xijia

2011-01-01

169

One Complexity Theorist's View of Quantum Computing

The complexity of quantum computation remains poorly understood. While physicists attempt to find ways to create quantum computers, we still do not have much evidence one way or the other as to how useful these machines will be. The tools of computational complexity theory should come to bear on these important questions. Quantum computing often scares away many potential researchers from computer science because of the apparent background need in quantum mechanics and the a...

Fortnow, Lance

2000-01-01

170

Quantum Walks for Computer Scientists

Quantum computation, one of the latest joint ventures between physics and the theory of computation, is a scientific field whose main goals include the development of hardware and algorithms based on the quantum mechanical properties of those physical systems used to implement such algorithms. Solving difficult tasks (for example, the Satisfiability Problem and other NP-complete problems) requires the development of sophisticated algorithms, many of which employ stochastic processes as their mathematical basis. Discrete random walks are a popular choice among those stochastic processes. Inspir

Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

2008-01-01

171

Quantum computing of quantum chaos and imperfection effects

We study numerically the imperfection effects in the quantum computing of the kicked rotator model in the regime of quantum chaos. It is shown that there are two types of physical characteristics: for one of them the quantum computation errors grow exponentially with the number of qubits in the computer while for the other the growth is polynomial. Certain similarity between classical and quantum computing errors is also discussed.

Song, Pil Hun; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

2000-01-01

172

Quantum Ballistic Evolution in Quantum Mechanics: Application to Quantum Computers

Quantum computers are important examples of processes whose evolution can be described in terms of iterations of single step operators or their adjoints. Based on this, Hamiltonian evolution of processes with associated step operators $T$ is investigated here. The main limitation of this paper is to processes which evolve quantum ballistically, i.e. motion restricted to a collection of nonintersecting or distinct paths on an arbitrary basis. The main goal of this paper is pr...

Benioff, Paul

1996-01-01

173

Topological cluster state quantum computing

The quantum computing scheme described in Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 190504 (2007), when viewed as a cluster state computation, features a 3-D cluster state, novel adjustable strength error correction capable of correcting general errors through the correction of Z errors only, a threshold error rate approaching 1% and low overhead arbitrarily long-range logical gates. In this work, we review the scheme in detail framing discussion solely in terms of the required 3-D cluster state...

Fowler, Austin G.; Goyal, Kovid

2008-01-01

174

Self-correcting quantum computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Is the notion of a quantum computer (QC) resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting QCs. To this end, we first give a sufficient condition on the connectedness of excitations for a stabilizer code model to be a self-correcting quantum memory. We then study the two main examples of topological stabilizer codes in arbitrary dimensions and establish their self-correcting capabilities. Also, we address the transversality properties of topological color codes, showing that six-dimensional color codes provide a self-correcting model that allows the transversal and local implementation of a universal set of operations in seven spatial dimensions. Finally, we give a procedure for initializing such quantum memories at finite temperature. (paper)

175

The Quantum Way of Doing Computations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Since the mid nineties of the 20th century it became apparent that one of the centuries’ most important technological inventions, computers in general and many of their applications could possibly be further enormously enhanced by using operations based on quantum. This is timely since the classical road maps for the development of computational devices, commonly known as Moore’s law, will cease to be applicable within the next decade due to the ever smaller sizes of the electronic components that soon will enter the quantum physics realm. Computations, whether they happen in our heads or with any computational device, always rely on real physical processes, which are data input, data representation in a memory, data manipulation using algorithms and finally, the data output. Building a quantum computer then requires the implementation of quantum bits (qubits) as storage sites for quantum information, quantum registers and quantum gates for data handling and processing and the development of quantum algorithms. In this talk, the basic functional principle of a quantum computer will be reviewed and a few technologies for their implementation will be highlighted. In particular, the quantum way of doing computations will be illustrated by showing how quantum correlations, commonly known as entanglement can enhance computational processes. Aside from their use for quantum computers, these quantum technologies open wide perspectives for applications in many technical areas. Examples such as quantum enhanced metrology and quantum simulations will be presented. (author)

176

Quantum computing with neutral atoms

We develop a method to entangle neutral atoms using cold controlled collisions. We analyze this method in two particular set-ups: optical lattices and magnetic micro-traps. Both offer the possibility of performing certain multi-particle operations in parallel. Using this fact, we show how to implement efficient quantum error correction and schemes for fault-tolerant computing.

Briegel, H J; Jaksch, D; Cirac, J I; Zoller, P

1999-01-01

177

Using Quantum Computers to Learn Physics

Since its inception at the beginning of the twentieth century, quantum mechanics has challenged our conceptions of how the universe ought to work; however, the equations of quantum mechanics can be too computationally difficult to solve using existing computers for even modestly large systems. Here I will show that quantum computers can sometimes be used to address such problems and that quantum computer science can assign formal complexities to learning facts about nature. ...

Wiebe, Nathan

2014-01-01

178

Programming physical realizations of quantum computers

We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyze the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical realizations of quantum computers. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation and Grover's database search algorithm are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum computation are unstable with respec...

Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Hams, Anthony; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji

2001-01-01

179

AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM NEURAL COMPUTING

The goal of the artificial neural network is to create powerful artificial problem solving systems. The field of quantum computation applies ideas from quantum mechanics to the study of computation and has made interesting progress. Quantum Neural Network (QNN) is one of the new paradigms built upon the combination of classical neural computation and quantum computation. It is argued that the study of QNN may explain the brain functionality in a better way and create new systems for informati...

Shaktikanta Nayak

2011-01-01

180

Quantum computing from the ground up

Quantum computing - the application of quantum mechanics to information - represents a fundamental break from classical information and promises to dramatically increase a computer's power. Many difficult problems, such as the factorization of large numbers, have so far resisted attack by classical computers yet are easily solved with quantum computers. If they become feasible, quantum computers will end standard practices such as RSA encryption. Most of the books or papers on quantum computing require (or assume) prior knowledge of certain areas such as linear algebra or quantum mechanics. The majority of the currently-available literature is hard to understand for the average computer enthusiast or interested layman. This text attempts to teach quantum computing from the ground up in an easily readable way, providing a comprehensive tutorial that includes all the necessary mathematics, computer science and physics.

Perry, Riley Tipton

2012-01-01

181

Fixed-gap adiabatic quantum computation

Quantum computation has revolutionary potential for speeding algorithms and for simulating quantum systems such as molecules. We report here a quantum computer design that performs universal quantum computation within a single non-degenerate ground state protected from decohering noise by an energy gap that we argue is system-size-independent. Closely analogous to a traditional electric circuit, it substantially changes the requirements for quantum computer construction, easing measurement, timing, and heating problems. Using the standard adiabatic condition, we present evidence that this design permits "quantum concurrent processing" distributing a quantum computation among extra qubits to perform a quantum algorithm of N gates in an amount of time that scales with the square root of N. One consequence of our work is a fixed gap version of adiabatic quantum computation, which several arguments hinted could be impossible.

Mizel, Ari

2010-01-01

182

Universal quantum computing with nanowire double quantum dots

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a method for implementing universal quantum computing using a singlet and triplets of nanowire double quantum dots coupled to a one-dimensional transmission line resonator. This method is suitable and of interest for both quantum computing and quantum control with inhibition of spontaneous emission, enhanced spin qubit lifetime, strong coupling and quantum nondemolition measurements of spin qubits. We analyze the performance and stability of all the required operations and emphasize that all techniques are feasible with current experimental technology.

Xue Peng, E-mail: peng_xue@seu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

2011-10-15

183

Universal quantum computing with nanowire double quantum dots

We show a method for implementing universal quantum computing using of a singlet and triplets of nanowire double quantum dots coupled to a one-dimensional transmission line resonator. This method is attractive for both quantum computing and quantum control with inhibition of spontaneous emission, enhanced spin qubit lifetime, strong coupling and quantum nondemolition measurements of spin qubits. We analyze the performance and stability of all required operations and emphasiz...

Xue, P.

2011-01-01

184

Universal quantum computation using the discrete time quantum walk

A proof that continuous time quantum walks are universal for quantum computation, using unweighted graphs of low degree, has recently been presented by Childs [PRL 102 180501 (2009)]. We present a version based instead on the discrete time quantum walk. We show the discrete time quantum walk is also a computational primitive and is able to implement the same universal gate set. Additionally we give a set of components on which the discrete time quantum walk provides perfect state transfer.

Lovett, Neil B; Everitt, Matthew; Trevers, Matthew; Kendon, Viv

2009-01-01

185

KLM quantum computation as a measurement based computation

We show that the Knill Laflamme Milburn method of quantum computation with linear optics gates can be interpreted as a one-way, measurement based quantum computation of the type introduced by Briegel and Rausendorf. We also show that the permanent state of n n-dimensional systems is a universal state for quantum computation.

Popescu, Sandu

2006-01-01

186

Semiconductor Bridge (SCB): A new method for the ignition of explosives and pyrotechnics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small metal bridgewires (hot wires) are often used to ignite energetic powders such as propellants, pyrotechnics and explosive powders. We have developed a new means for ignition of such powders using a semiconductor bridge or SCB which is heavily doped polysilicon film 100 ..mu..m long by 380 ..mu..m wide by 2 ..mu..m thick. When driven by a short (less than 20..mu..s), low energy (less than 3.5 mJ) current pulse, the SCB produces a hot plasma that ignites the explosive material pressed against it. SCB explosive devices function in a few tens of microseconds and operate at one-tenth the input energy of conventional hot-wire devices. Despite the low energy for ignition, tests have revealed the SCB devices to be electrostatic discharge safe and less sensitive to no-fire current levels than hot-wire components. We report in this paper data obtained comparing a pyrotechnic SCB actuator with its hot-wire analog, a comparison of an SCB thruster with its hot-wire equivalent and test results for a prototype SCB lead azide detonator. In addition, because the SCB is compatible with digital circuitry, we are developing ''smart'' components which will incorporate the SCB into a single thumb size package (containing the SCB and firing set) which is controlled by digital signals. Thus programmed firing (such as accurate delay sequences) of SCB devices is easily achieved. We describe in this paper a prototype delay device and a sequential firing experiment in which twenty actautors were fired in a programmed sequence. 11 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.

1988-01-01

187

Exploiting locality in quantum computation for quantum chemistry

Accurate prediction of chemical and material properties from first principles quantum chemistry is a challenging task on traditional computers. Recent developments in quantum computation offer a route towards highly accurate solutions with polynomial cost, however this solution still carries a large overhead. In this perspective, we aim to bring together known results about the locality of physical interactions from quantum chemistry with ideas from quantum computation. We s...

Mcclean, Jarrod R.; Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-guzik, Ala?n

2014-01-01

188

Computable measure of quantum correlation

A general state of an system is a classical-quantum state if and only if its associated -correlation matrix (a matrix constructed from the coherence vector of the party , the correlation matrix of the state, and a function of the local coherence vector of the subsystem ), has rank no larger than . Using the general Schatten -norms, we quantify quantum correlation by measuring any violation of this condition. The required minimization can be carried out for the general -norms and any function of the local coherence vector of the unmeasured subsystem, leading to a class of computable quantities which can be used to capture the quantumness of correlations due to the subsystem . We introduce two special members of these quantifiers: The first one coincides with the tight lower bound on the geometric measure of discord, so that such lower bound fully captures the quantum correlation of a bipartite system. Accordingly, a vanishing tight lower bound on the geometric discord is a necessary and sufficient condition for a state to be zero-discord. The second quantifier has the property that it is invariant under a local and reversible operation performed on the unmeasured subsystem, so that it can be regarded as a computable well-defined measure of the quantum correlations. The approach presented in this paper provides a way to circumvent the problem with the geometric discord. We provide some examples to exemplify this measure.

Akhtarshenas, S. Javad; Mohammadi, Hamidreza; Karimi, Saman; Azmi, Zahra

2015-01-01

189

Simulating quantum dynamics on a quantum computer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We explicitly show how to simulate time-dependent sparse Hamiltonian evolution on a quantum computer, with complexity that is close to linear in the evolution time. The complexity also depends on the magnitude of the derivatives of the Hamiltonian. We propose a range of techniques to simulate Hamiltonians with badly behaved derivatives. These include using adaptive time steps, adapting the order of the integrators, and omitting regions about discontinuities. The complexity of the algorithm is quantified by calls to an oracle, which yields information about the Hamiltonian, and accounts for all computational resources. We explicitly determine the number of bits of output that this oracle needs to provide, and show how to efficiently perform the required 1-sparse unitary operations using these bits. We also account for discretization error in the time, as well as accounting for Hamiltonians that are a sum of terms that are sparse in different bases. (paper)

Wiebe, Nathan; Hoyer, Peter; Sanders, Barry C [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Berry, Dominic W, E-mail: nathanwiebe@gmail.com [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2 L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-11-04

190

Simulating quantum dynamics on a quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We explicitly show how to simulate time-dependent sparse Hamiltonian evolution on a quantum computer, with complexity that is close to linear in the evolution time. The complexity also depends on the magnitude of the derivatives of the Hamiltonian. We propose a range of techniques to simulate Hamiltonians with badly behaved derivatives. These include using adaptive time steps, adapting the order of the integrators, and omitting regions about discontinuities. The complexity of the algorithm is quantified by calls to an oracle, which yields information about the Hamiltonian, and accounts for all computational resources. We explicitly determine the number of bits of output that this oracle needs to provide, and show how to efficiently perform the required 1-sparse unitary operations using these bits. We also account for discretization error in the time, as well as accounting for Hamiltonians that are a sum of terms that are sparse in different bases. (paper)

191

Are quantum walks the saviour of optical quantum computing?

Quantum walks have emerged as an interesting candidate for the implementation of quantum information processing protocols. Optical implementations of quantum walks have been demonstrated by various groups and some have received high-profile coverage. It is often claimed that quantum walks provide an avenue towards universal quantum computation. In this comment I wish to dispel some misconceptions surrounding the prospects of quantum walks as a route towards universal optical...

Rohde, Peter P.

2010-01-01

192

Cove: A Practical Quantum Computer Programming Framework

While not yet in commercial existence, quantum computers have the ability to solve certain classes of problems that are not efficiently solvable on existing Turing Machine based (classical) computers. For quantum computers to be of use, methods of programming them must exist. Proposals exist for programming quantum computers, but all of the existing ones suffer from flaws that make them impractical in commercial software development environments. Cove is a framework for programming quantum computers that extends existing classical languages to allow for quantum computation, thus providing a quantum computing toolkit for commercial software developers. Since the target users of Cove are commercial developers, it is an object oriented framework that can be used by multiple languages and also places emphasis on complete documentation. The focus of Cove is not so much on the software product, but on the fundamental concepts that make quantum computing practical for common developers.

Purkeypile, Matt

2009-01-01

193

Simulating Quantum Dynamics On A Quantum Computer

We develop an efficient quantum algorithm for simulating time-dependent Hamiltonian evolution of general input states on a quantum computer. Given conditions on the smoothness of the Hamiltonian, the complexity of the algorithm is close to linear in the evolution time, and therefore is comparable to algorithms for time-independent Hamiltonians. In addition, we show how the complexity can be reduced by optimizing the time steps. The complexity of the algorithm is quantified by calls to an oracle, which yields information about the Hamiltonian, and accounts for all computational resources. In contrast to previous work, which allowed an oracle query to yield an arbitrary number of bits or qubits, we assign a cost for each bit or qubit accessed. This per-bit or per-qubit costing of oracle calls reveals hitherto unnoticed simulation costs. We also account for discretization errors in the time and the representation of the Hamiltonian. We generalize the requirement of sparse Hamiltonians to being a sum of sparse Ha...

Wiebe, Nathan; Hoyer, Peter; Sanders, Barry C

2010-01-01

194

Quantum computation with programmable connections between gates

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new model of quantum computation is considered, in which the connections between gates are programmed by the state of a quantum register. This new model of computation is shown to be more powerful than the usual quantum computation, e.g. in achieving the programmability of permutations of N different unitary channels with 1 use instead of N uses per channel. For this task, a new elemental resource is needed, the quantum switch, which can be programmed to switch the order of two channels with a single use of each one. -- Highlights: ? New model of quantum computation performing tasks not allowed by quantum circuits. ? Task requiring a single oracle evaluation instead of N. ? Computation is based on a new gate called “quantum switch”. ? Quantum switch has been achieved in the quantum optical lab.

Colnaghi, Timoteo, E-mail: timoteo.colnaghi@gmail.com [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Facchini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.facchini@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Perinotti, Paolo [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

2012-10-01

195

Quantum computation with programmable connections between gates

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new model of quantum computation is considered, in which the connections between gates are programmed by the state of a quantum register. This new model of computation is shown to be more powerful than the usual quantum computation, e.g. in achieving the programmability of permutations of N different unitary channels with 1 use instead of N uses per channel. For this task, a new elemental resource is needed, the quantum switch, which can be programmed to switch the order of two channels with a single use of each one. -- Highlights: ? New model of quantum computation performing tasks not allowed by quantum circuits. ? Task requiring a single oracle evaluation instead of N. ? Computation is based on a new gate called “quantum switch”. ? Quantum switch has been achieved in the quantum optical lab.

196

Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information

Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...

Steeb, Willi-Hans

2012-01-01

197

Transparallel mind: Classical computing with quantum power

Inspired by the extraordinary computing power promised by quantum computers, the quantum mind hypothesis postulated that quantum mechanical phenomena are the source of neuronal synchronization which, in turn, might underlie consciousness. Here, I present an alternative inspired by a classical computing method with quantum power. This method relies on distributed representations called hyperstrings. Hyperstrings are superpositions of up to an exponential number of similar str...

Helm, Peter A.

2014-01-01

198

The Next Generation Computing Brainwave-Quantum Computing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is written to explicate the working of Quantum Computing and its mechanics. Quantum Computing is basically a minute field from Nanotechnology. The main purpose of this paper is to explain an inexperienced user about the technology and principles used while designing the architect of a quantum computer. Operational quantum computers would be a reality in forth coming years by the virtue of new mechanisms to explore and implementations. This paper is sectioned into 7 parts. Part 1 is a brief introduction to Quantum Computing i.e. basic working principle of a Qubit. Part 2 covers Qubit and the architect of the whole system. It also enlightens us about the Qubit in more detail like how data is represented, principles like superposition and state of composite system. Part 3 narrates how quantum Computing can be built using Qubits and applies the above mentioned principles. Part 4 deals with the basic introduction to Quantum Mechanics and some principles like dual nature of light and Uncertainty Principle. Part 5 depicts about the advantages of Quantum Computer over present computing systems. Part 6 discusses the overheads of Quantum Computing. Part 7 describes about implementation of Quantum Computing in today’s world. Finally this paper offers an insight about how and by when we would be able to design a full time Quantum Computer and what are the probable considerations to be taken in to account.

T. Venkat Narayana Rao

2010-12-01

199

The Quantum Human Computer (QHC) Hypothesis

This article attempts to suggest the existence of a human computer called Quantum Human Computer (QHC) on the basis of an analogy between human beings and computers. To date, there are two types of computers: Binary and Quantum. The former operates on the basis of binary logic where an object is said to exist in either of the two states of 1 and…

Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2008-01-01

200

Quantum chemistry simulation on quantum computers: theories and experiments.

It has been claimed that quantum computers can mimic quantum systems efficiently in the polynomial scale. Traditionally, those simulations are carried out numerically on classical computers, which are inevitably confronted with the exponential growth of required resources, with the increasing size of quantum systems. Quantum computers avoid this problem, and thus provide a possible solution for large quantum systems. In this paper, we first discuss the ideas of quantum simulation, the background of quantum simulators, their categories, and the development in both theories and experiments. We then present a brief introduction to quantum chemistry evaluated via classical computers followed by typical procedures of quantum simulation towards quantum chemistry. Reviewed are not only theoretical proposals but also proof-of-principle experimental implementations, via a small quantum computer, which include the evaluation of the static molecular eigenenergy and the simulation of chemical reaction dynamics. Although the experimental development is still behind the theory, we give prospects and suggestions for future experiments. We anticipate that in the near future quantum simulation will become a powerful tool for quantum chemistry over classical computations. PMID:22652702

Lu, Dawei; Xu, Boruo; Xu, Nanyang; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Peng, Xinhua; Xu, Ruixue; Du, Jiangfeng

2012-07-14

201

A Layered Architecture for Quantum Computing Using Quantum Dots

We address the challenge of designing a quantum computer architecture with a layered framework that is modular and facilitates fault-tolerance. The framework is flexible and could be used for analysis and comparison of differing quantum computer designs. Using this framework, we develop a complete, layered architecture for quantum computing with optically controlled quantum dots, showing how a myriad of technologies must operate synchronously to achieve fault-tolerance. Our design deliberately takes advantage of the large possibilities for integration afforded by semiconductor fabrication. Quantum information is stored in the electron spin states of a charged quantum dot controlled by ultrafast optical pulses. Optical control makes this system very fast, scalable to large problem sizes, and extensible to quantum communication or distributed architectures. The design of this quantum computer centers on error correction in the form of a topological surface code, which requires only local and nearest-neighbor ga...

Jones, N Cody; Fowler, Austin G; McMahon, Peter L; Kim, Jungsang; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

2010-01-01

202

Exploiting locality in quantum computation for quantum chemistry

Accurate prediction of chemical and material properties from first principles quantum chemistry is a challenging task on traditional computers. Recent developments in quantum computation offer a route towards highly accurate solutions with polynomial cost, however this solution still carries a large overhead. In this perspective, we aim to bring together known results about the locality of physical interactions from quantum chemistry with ideas from quantum computation. We show that the utilization of spatial locality combined with the Bravyi-Kitaev transformation offers an improvement in the scaling of known quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry and provide numerical examples to help illustrate this point. We combine these developments to improve the outlook for the future of quantum chemistry on quantum computers.

McClean, Jarrod R; Love, Peter J; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

2014-01-01

203

Ion strings for quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis reports on the setup of a new experimental apparatus for the storage and control of strings of calcium ions to be used for quantum computation. The ions are trapped in a linear Paul trap, cooled and excited by laser light, and observed by detection of their fluorescence on a photon counting photomultiplier and on a highly sensitive CCD camera. High resolution spectroscopy of the narrow S1/2-D5/2 quadrupole transition is used to characterize the ions' motion in the trap and to test the possibility to use the S1/2 and D5/2 levels as a quantum bit for the application of fundamental quantum gate operations. A major requirement for the use of trapped ions for quantum computation is the ability to cool the ions to the ground state of the trapping potential. This requires several stages of laser cooling. First, Doppler cooling on the S1/2-P1/2 dipole transition is applied so that the ions crystallize to strings with a temperature near the Doppler limit. Lower temperatures can be achieved with more refined cooling mechanisms such as sideband cooling on the S1/2-D5/2 transition. To determine the success of further cooling stages the ability to measure the ions' temperature is required. This measurement is done by recording the oscillation sidebands in absorption spectra of the S1/2-D5/2 transition. With the realization of the trap, the laser systems at five different wavelengthsaser systems at five different wavelengths, the preparation and control of a string of crystallized ions, and the ability of high resolution spectroscopy the basis is laid for further experiments involving the quantum features of the ion motion in the trap. With the preparation of a pure state of motion it will be possible to apply the ions to quantum gate operations, the building blocks for a quantum computer. This will allow for the deterministic entanglement of massive particles in so-called Bell and GHZ-states. (author)

204

Suppression of quantum chaos in a quantum computer hardware

We present numerical and analytical studies of a quantum computer proposed by the Yamamoto group in Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017901 (2002). The stable and quantum chaos regimes in the quantum computer hardware are identified as a function of magnetic field gradient and dipole-dipole couplings between qubits on a square lattice. It is shown that a strong magnetic field gradient leads to suppression of quantum chaos.

Lages, J

2005-01-01

205

A theory of quantum gravity based on quantum computation

This paper proposes a method of unifying quantum mechanics and gravity based on quantum computation. In this theory, fundamental processes are described in terms of pairwise interactions between quantum degrees of freedom. The geometry of space-time is a construct, derived from the underlying quantum information processing. The computation gives rise to a superposition of four-dimensional spacetimes, each of which obeys the Einstein-Regge equations. The theory makes explicit...

Lloyd, Seth

2005-01-01

206

Topological Quantum Computation by Manipulating Toric Code

Quantum computers are predicted to utilize quantum states to perform memory and to process tasks far faster than those of conventional classical computers. In this paper we show a new road towards building {fault tolerance} quantum computer by tuning the tunneling of the degenerate quantum states in Z2 topological order, instead of by braiding anyons. Using a designer Hamiltonian - the Wen-Plaquette model as an example, we show how to control the toric code to realize topological quantum computation (TQC). In particular, we give a proposal to the measurement of TQC. In the end the realization of the Wen-Plaquette model in cold atoms is discussed.

Kou, Su-Peng

2008-01-01

207

The Heisenberg Representation of Quantum Computers

Since Shor's discovery of an algorithm to factor numbers on a quantum computer in polynomial time, quantum computation has become a subject of immense interest. Unfortunately, one of the key features of quantum computers - the difficulty of describing them on classical computers - also makes it difficult to describe and understand precisely what can be done with them. A formalism describing the evolution of operators rather than states has proven extremely fruitful in unders...

Gottesman, Daniel

1998-01-01

208

Universal quantum computation using the discrete-time quantum walk

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A proof that continuous-time quantum walks are universal for quantum computation, using unweighted graphs of low degree, has recently been presented by A. M. Childs [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 180501 (2009)]. We present a version based instead on the discrete-time quantum walk. We show that the discrete-time quantum walk is able to implement the same universal gate set and thus both discrete and continuous-time quantum walks are computational primitives. Additionally, we give a set of components on which the discrete-time quantum walk provides perfect state transfer.

209

Quantum machine learning what quantum computing means to data mining

Quantum Machine Learning bridges the gap between abstract developments in quantum computing and the applied research on machine learning. Paring down the complexity of the disciplines involved, it focuses on providing a synthesis that explains the most important machine learning algorithms in a quantum framework. Theoretical advances in quantum computing are hard to follow for computer scientists, and sometimes even for researchers involved in the field. The lack of a step-by-step guide hampers the broader understanding of this emergent interdisciplinary body of research. Quantum Machine L

Wittek, Peter

2014-01-01

210

Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing theory and practice

Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'''' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a nov

McGeoch, Catherine C

2014-01-01

211

Embracing the quantum limit in silicon computing.

Quantum computers hold the promise of massive performance enhancements across a range of applications, from cryptography and databases to revolutionary scientific simulation tools. Such computers would make use of the same quantum mechanical phenomena that pose limitations on the continued shrinking of conventional information processing devices. Many of the key requirements for quantum computing differ markedly from those of conventional computers. However, silicon, which plays a central part in conventional information processing, has many properties that make it a superb platform around which to build a quantum computer. PMID:22094695

Morton, John J L; McCamey, Dane R; Eriksson, Mark A; Lyon, Stephen A

2011-11-17

212

Universal quantum computation with qudits

Quantum circuit model has been widely explored for various quantum applications such as Shors algorithm and Grovers searching algorithm. Most of previous algorithms are based on the qubit systems. Herein a proposal for a universal circuit is given based on the qudit system, which is larger and can store more information. In order to prove its universality for quantum applications, an explicit set of one-qudit and two-qudit gates is provided for the universal qudit computation. The one-qudit gates are general rotation for each two-dimensional subspace while the two-qudit gates are their controlled extensions. In comparison to previous quantum qudit logical gates, each primitive qudit gate is only dependent on two free parameters and may be easily implemented. In experimental implementation, multilevel ions with the linear ion trap model are used to build the qudit systems and use the coupling of neighbored levels for qudit gates. The controlled qudit gates may be realized with the interactions of internal and external coordinates of the ion.

Luo, MingXing; Wang, XiaoJun

2014-09-01

213

Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing

We present a method for designing quantum circuits that perform non-unitary quantum computations on n-qubit states probabilistically, and give analytic expressions for the success probability and fidelity.

Gingrich, Robert M.; Williams, Colin P.

2004-01-01

214

Decoherence, Control, and Symmetry in Quantum Computers

In this thesis we describe methods for avoiding the detrimental effects of decoherence while at the same time still allowing for computation of the quantum information. The philosophy of the method discussed in the first part of this thesis is to use a symmetry of the decoherence mechanism to find robust encodings of the quantum information. Stability, control, and methods for using decoherence-free information in a quantum computer are presented with a specific emphasis on decoherence due to a collective coupling between the system and its environment. Universal quantum computation on such collective decoherence decoherence-free encodings is demonstrated. Rigorous definitions of control and the use of encoded universality in quantum computers are addressed. Explicit gate constructions for encoded universality on ion trap and exchange based quantum computers are given. In the second part of the thesis we examine physical systems with error correcting properties. We examine systems that can store quantum infor...

Bacon, D J

2003-01-01

215

The Essence of Quantum Theory for Computers

Quantum computers take advantage of interfering quantum alternatives in order to handle problems that might be too time consuming with algorithms based on classical logic. Developing quantum computers requires new ways of thinking beyond those in the familiar classical world. To help in this thinking, we give a description of the foundational ideas that hold in all of our successful physical models, including quantum theory. Our emphasis will be on the proper interpretation ...

Parke, W. C.

2014-01-01

216

Models of Quantum Computers and Decoherence Problem

Mathematical models of quantum computers such as a multidimensional quantum Turing machine and quantum circuits are described and its relations with lattice spin models are discussed. One of the main open problems one has to solve if one wants to build a quantum computer is the decoherence due to the coupling with the environment. We propose a possible solution of this problem by using a control of parameters of the system. This proposal is based on the analysis of the spin-...

Volovich, I. V.

1999-01-01

217

Quantum Computations with Optical Waveguide Modes

A fully optical method to perform any quantum computation with optical waveguide modes is proposed by supplying the prescriptions for a universal set of quantum gates. The proposal for quantum computation is based on implementing a quantum bit with two normal modes of multi-mode waveguides. The proposed universal set of gates has the potential of being more compact and easily realized than other optical implementations, since it is based on planar lightwave circuit technolog...

Fu, Jian

2002-01-01

218

Quantum Computing and Zeroes of Zeta Functions

A possible connection between quantum computing and Zeta functions of finite field equations is described. Inspired by the 'spectral approach' to the Riemann conjecture, the assumption is that the zeroes of such Zeta functions correspond to the eigenvalues of finite dimensional unitary operators of natural quantum mechanical systems. The notion of universal, efficient quantum computation is used to model the desired quantum systems. Using eigenvalue estimation, such quantu...

Dam, Wim

2004-01-01

219

The Halting Problem for Quantum Computers

We argue that the halting problem for quantum computers which was first raised by Myers, is by no means solved, as has been claimed recently. We explicitly demonstrate the difficulties that arise in a quantum computer when different branches of the computation halt at different, unknown, times.

Linden, N

1998-01-01

220

Contextuality supplies the `magic' for quantum computation

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via `magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple `hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-01

221

Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.

Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152

Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

2014-06-19

222

Functional Quantum Computing: An Optical Approach

A new model of quantum computing has recently been proposed which, in analogy with a classical lambda-calculus, exploits quantum processes which operate on other quantum processes. One such quantum meta-operator takes N unitary transformations as input, coherently permutes their ordering, and outputs a new composite operator which can be applied to a quantum state. Here we propose an optical device which implements this type of coherent operator permutation. This device requ...

Rambo, Timothy; Altepeter, Joseph; D Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kumar, Prem

2012-01-01

223

Zeno effect for quantum computation and control

It is well known that the quantum Zeno effect can protect specific quantum states from decoherence by using projective measurements. Here we combine the theory of weak measurements with stabilizer quantum error correction and detection codes. We derive rigorous performance bounds which demonstrate that the Zeno effect can be used to protect appropriately encoded arbitrary states to arbitrary accuracy, while at the same time allowing for universal quantum computation or quantum control.

Paz-Silva, G A; Lidar, D A

2011-01-01

224

Disciplines, models, and computers: the path to computational quantum chemistry.

Many disciplines and scientific fields have undergone a computational turn in the past several decades. This paper analyzes this sort of turn by investigating the case of computational quantum chemistry. The main claim is that the transformation from quantum to computational quantum chemistry involved changes in three dimensions. First, on the side of instrumentation, small computers and a networked infrastructure took over the lead from centralized mainframe architecture. Second, a new conception of computational modeling became feasible and assumed a crucial role. And third, the field of computa- tional quantum chemistry became organized in a market-like fashion and this market is much bigger than the number of quantum theory experts. These claims will be substantiated by an investigation of the so-called density functional theory (DFT), the arguably pivotal theory in the turn to computational quantum chemistry around 1990. PMID:25571750

Lenhard, Johannes

2014-12-01

225

An introduction to reliable quantum computation

This is an introduction to software methods of quantum fault tolerance. Broadly speaking, these methods describe strategies for using the noisy hardware components of a quantum computer to perform computations while continually monitoring and actively correcting the hardware faults. We discuss parallels and differences with similar methods for ordinary digital computation, we discuss some of the noise models used in designing and analyzing noisy quantum circuits, and we sketch the logic of some of the central results in this area of research.

Aliferis, Panos

2011-01-01

226

Error correcting codes for adiabatic quantum computation

Recently, there has been growing interest in using adiabatic quantum computation as an architecture for experimentally realizable quantum computers. One of the reasons for this is the idea that the energy gap should provide some inherent resistance to noise. It is now known that universal quantum computation can be achieved adiabatically using 2-local Hamiltonians. The energy gap in these Hamiltonians scales as an inverse polynomial in the problem size. Here we present stabi...

Jordan, Stephen P.; Farhi, Edward; Shor, Peter W.

2005-01-01

227

Prospects for quantum computing: extremely doubtful

The quantum computer is supposed to process information by applying unitary transformations to the complex amplitudes defining the state of N qubits. A useful machine needing N=1000 or more, the number of continuous parameters describing the state of a quantum computer at any given moment is much greater than the number of protons in the Universe. However, the theorists believe that the feasibility of large-scale quantum computing has been proven via the threshold theorem. L...

Dyakonov, M. I.

2014-01-01

228

Ultrafast Pulse Shaping Approaches to Quantum Computing

Quantum computing exploits the quantum-mechanical nature of matter to exist in multiple possible states simultaneously. This new approach promises to revolutionize the present form of computing. As an approach to quantum computing, we discuss ultrafast laser pulse shaping, in particular, the acousto-optic modulator based Fourier-Transform pulse-shaper, which has the ability to modulate tunable high power ultrafast laser pulses. We show that optical pulse shaping is an attrac...

Goswami, Debabrata

2003-01-01

229

Strained silicon for quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strains in multivalley semiconductors can destroy the strict equivalence of the valleys that is demanded by cubic symmetry. Significant changes in the properties of a semiconductor may result. A proposed implementation of quantum computing with donor atoms in silicon would suffer from alterations of the donor wave functions caused by strains that are produced by fabrication processes. Deliberately straining the silicon to an extent that removed all but one valley from participation in the lowest donor state, would prevent further changes in the wave function by strain. The strain required can be achieved with established technology for depositing silicon on SiGe alloys. (author)

230

Difficulties in the Implementation of Quantum Computers

This paper reviews various engineering hurdles facing the field of quantum computing. Specifically, problems related to decoherence, state preparation, error correction, and implementability of gates are considered.

Ponnath, Abhilash

2006-01-01

231

Centre for Quantum Computation & Communication Technology

This is the homepage of "an Australian multi-university collaboration undertaking research on the fundamental physics and technology of building, at the atomic level, a solid state quantum computer in silicon together with other high potential implementations." Although attempts to develop a quantum computer have met with limited success, the centre has substantial resources invested in advancing toward practical uses of quantum computing technology. The site provides a very good introduction to the principles and implications of quantum computing, as well as details about various research projects underway at the Australian universities. Links to conference and journal papers produced by members of the centre, many from 2003, are also provided.

232

Accounting Principles are Simulated on Quantum Computers

The paper is devoted to a new idea of simulation of accounting by quantum computing. We expose the actual accounting principles in a pure mathematics language. After that we simulated the accounting principles on quantum computers. We show that all arbitrary accounting actions are exhausted by the described basic actions. The main problem of accounting are reduced to some system of linear equations in the economic model of Leontief. In this simulation we use our constructed quantum Gau\\ss-Jordan Elimination to solve the problem and the time of quantum computing is some square root order faster than the time in classical computing.

Diep, D N; Diep, Do Ngoc; Giang, Do Hoang

2005-01-01

233

Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

2006-01-01

234

Quantum and classical structures in nondeterminstic computation

In categorical quantum mechanics, classical structures characterize the classical interfaces of quantum resources on one hand, while on the other hand giving rise to some quantum phenomena. In the standard Hilbert space model of quantum theories, classical structures over a space correspond to its orthonormal bases. In the present paper, we show that classical structures in the category of relations correspond to biproducts of abelian groups. Although relations are, of course, not an interesting model of quantum computation, this result has some interesting computational interpretations. If relations are viewed as denotations of nondeterministic programs, it uncovers a wide variety of non-standard quantum structures in this familiar area of classical computation. Ironically, it also opens up a version of what in philosophy of quantum mechanics would be called an ontic-epistemic gap, as it provides no interface to these nonstandard quantum structures.

Pavlovic, Dusko

2008-01-01

235

Active stabilisation, quantum computation and quantum state synthesis

Active stabilisation of a quantum system is the active suppression of noise (such as decoherence) in the system, without disrupting its unitary evolution. Quantum error correction suggests the possibility of achieving this, but only if the recovery network can suppress more noise than it introduces. A general method of constructing such networks is proposed, which gives a substantial improvement over previous fault tolerant designs. The construction permits quantum error correction to be understood as essentially quantum state synthesis. An approximate analysis implies that algorithms involving very many computational steps on a quantum computer can thus be made possible.

Steane, A M

1997-01-01

236

Photon echo quantum RAM integration in quantum computer

We have analyzed an efficient integration of the multi-qubit echo quantum memory into the quantum computer scheme on the atomic resonant ensembles in quantum electrodynamics cavity. Here, one atomic ensemble with controllable inhomogeneous broadening is used for the quantum memory node and other atomic ensembles characterized by the homogeneous broadening of the resonant line are used as processing nodes. We have found optimal conditions for efficient integration of multi-qubit quantum memory modified for this analyzed physical scheme and we have determined a specified shape of the self temporal modes providing a perfect reversible transfer of the photon qubits between the quantum memory node and arbitrary processing nodes. The obtained results open the way for realization of full-scale solid state quantum computing based on using the efficient multi-qubit quantum memory.

Moiseev, Sergey A

2012-01-01

237

Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

2012-01-01

238

Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation

Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in AQC the system starts in the ground state of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that the final ground state encodes the answer to the problem. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any me...

Antonio, Bobby; Markham, Damian; Anders, Janet

2013-01-01

239

The potential of the quantum computer

The Physics Section of the University of Geneva is continuing its series of lectures, open to the general public, on the most recent developments in the field of physics. The next lecture, given by Professor Michel Devoret of Yale University in the United States, will be on the potential of the quantum computer. The quantum computer is, as yet, a hypothetical machine which would operate on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. Compared to standard computers, it represents a significant gain in computing power for certain complex calculations. Quantum operations can simultaneously explore a very large number of possibilities. The correction of quantum errors, which until recently had been deemed impossible, has now become a well-established technique. Several prototypes for, as yet, very simple quantum processors have been developed. The lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de M...

2006-01-01

240

Quantum computer of wire circuit architecture

First solid state quantum computer was built using transmons (cooper pair boxes). The operation of the computer is limited because of using a number of the rigit cooper boxes working with fixed frequency at temperatures of superconducting material. Here, we propose a novel architecture of quantum computer based on a flexible wire circuit of many coupled quantum nodes containing controlled atomic (molecular) ensembles. We demonstrate wide opportunities of the proposed computer. Firstly, we reveal a perfect storage of external photon qubits to multi-mode quantum memory node and demonstrate a reversible exchange of the qubits between any arbitrary nodes. We found optimal parameters of atoms in the circuit and self quantum modes for quantum processing. The predicted perfect storage has been observed experimentally for microwave radiation on the lithium phthalocyaninate molecule ensemble. Then also, for the first time we show a realization of the efficient basic two-qubit gate with direct coupling of two arbitrary...

Moiseev, S A; Andrianov, S N

2010-01-01

241

Quantum computing without qubit-qubit interactions

Quantum computing tries to exploit entanglement and interference to process information more efficiently than the best known classical solutions. Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this approach have already been performed. However, finding a really scalable and robust quantum computing architecture remains a challenge for both, experimentalists and theoreticians. In most setups decoherence becomes non-negligible when one tries to perform entangling gate operations...

Beige, Almut

2005-01-01

242

Evolutionary Design in Biological Quantum Computing

The unique capability of quantum mechanics to evolve alternative possibilities in parallel is appealing and over the years a number of quantum algorithms have been developed offering great computational benefits. Systems coupled to the environment lose quantum coherence quickly and realization of schemes based on unitarity might be impossible. Recent discovery of room temperature quantum coherence in light harvesting complexes opens up new possibilities to borrow concepts fr...

Vattay, Gabor; Kauffman, Stuart A.

2013-01-01

243

Quantum Isometry Groups: Examples and Computations

In this follow-up of the article: Quantum Group of Isometries in Classical and Noncommutative Geometry(arXiv:0704.0041) by Goswami, where quantum isometry group of a noncommutative manifold has been defined, we explicitly compute such quantum groups for a number of classical as well as noncommutative manifolds including the spheres and the tori. It is also proved that the quantum isometry group of an isospectral deformation of a (classical or noncommutative) manifold is a su...

Goswami, Debashish; Bhowmick, Jyotishman

2007-01-01

244

Quantum Neural Computation for Option Price Modelling

We propose a new cognitive framework for option price modelling, using quantum neural computation formalism. Briefly, when we apply a classical nonlinear neural-network learning to a linear quantum Schr\\"odinger equation, as a result we get a nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLS), performing as a quantum stochastic filter. In this paper, we present a bidirectional quantum associative memory model for the Black--Scholes--like option price evolution, consisting of a pair of c...

Ivancevic, Vladimir G.

2009-01-01

245

Quantum Computing and the Jones Polynomial

This paper is an exploration of relationships between the Jones polynomial and quantum computing. We discuss the structure of the Jones polynomial in relation to representations of the Temperley Lieb algebra, and give an example of a unitary representation of the braid group. We discuss the evaluation of the polynomial as a generalized quantum amplitude and show how the braiding part of the evaluation can be construed as a quantum computation when the braiding representation...

Kauffman, Louis H.

2001-01-01

246

Prospects for Spin-Based Quantum Computing

Experimental and theoretical progress toward quantum computation with spins in quantum dots (QDs) is reviewed, with particular focus on QDs formed in GaAs heterostructures, on nanowire-based QDs, and on self-assembled QDs. We report on a remarkable evolution of the field where decoherence, one of the main challenges for realizing quantum computers, no longer seems to be the stumbling block it had originally been considered. General concepts, relevant quantities, and basic re...

Kloeffel, Christoph; Loss, Daniel

2012-01-01

247

The Initialization Problem in Quantum Computing

The problem of initializing phase in a quantum computing system is considered. The initialization of phases is a problem when the system is initially present in an entangled state and also in the application of the quantum gate transformations since each gate will introduce phase uncertainty. The accumulation of these random phases will reduce the effectiveness of the recently proposed quantum computing schemes. The paper also presents general observations on the nonlocal na...

Kak, Subhash

1998-01-01

248

An obstacle affecting any proposal for a topological quantum computer based on Ising anyons is that quasiparticle braiding can only implement a finite (nonuniversal) set of quantum operations. The computational power of this restricted set of operations (often called stabilizer operations) has been studied in quantum information theory, and it is known that no quantum-computational advantage can be obtained without the help of an additional nonstabilizer operation. Similarly, a bi...

Howard, Mark; Vala, Jiri

2012-01-01

249

Experimental demonstration of deterministic one-way quantum computing on a NMR quantum computer

One-way quantum computing is an important and novel approach to quantum computation. By exploiting the existing particle-particle interactions, we report the first experimental realization of the complete process of deterministic one-way quantum Deutsch-Josza algorithm in NMR, including graph state preparation, single-qubit measurements and feed-forward corrections. The findings in our experiment may shed light on the future scalable one-way quantum computation.

Ju, Chenyong; Zhu, Jing; Peng, Xinhua; Chong, Bo; Zhou, Xianyi; Du, Jiangfeng

2008-01-01

250

Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.

Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers. PMID:20431256

Tsai, Jaw-Shen

2010-01-01

251

No quantum advantage for nonlocal computation

We investigate the problem of "nonlocal" computation, in which separated parties must compute a function with nonlocally encoded inputs and output, such that each party individually learns nothing, yet together they compute the correct function output. We show that the best that can be done classically is a trivial linear approximation. Surprisingly, we also show that quantum entanglement provides no advantage over the classical case. On the other hand, generalized (i.e. super-quantum) nonlocal correlations allow perfect nonlocal computation. This gives new insights into the nature of quantum nonlocality and its relationship to generalised nonlocal correlations.

Linden, N; Short, A J; Winter, A; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Winter, Andreas

2006-01-01

252

Racing a quantum computer through Minkowski spacetime

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Lorentzian length of a timelike curve connecting both endpoints of a computation in Minkowski spacetime is smaller than the Lorentzian length of the corresponding geodesic. In this talk, I will point out some properties of spacetime that allow an inertial classical computer to outperform a quantum one, at the completion of a long journey. We will focus on a comparison between the optimal quadratic Grover speed up from quantum computing and an n=2 speedup using classical computers and relativistic effects. These results are not practical as a new model of computation, but allow us to probe the ultimate limits physics places on computers.

253

Quantum computing with spins in solids

The ability to perform high-precision one- and two-qubit operations is sufficient for universal quantum computation. For the Loss-DiVincenzo proposal to use single electron spins confned to quantum dots as qubits, it is therefore sufficient to analyze only single- and coupled double-dot structures, since the strong Heisenberg exchange coupling between spins in this proposal falls off exponentially with distance and long-ranged dipolar coupling mechanisms can be made significantly weaker. This scalability of the Loss-DiVincenzo design is both a practical necessity for eventual applications of multi-qubit quantum computing and a great conceptual advantage, making analysis of the relevant components relatively transparent and systematic. We review the Loss-DiVincenzo proposal for quantum-dot-confned electron spin qubits, and survey the current state of experiment and theory regarding the relevant single- and double- quantum dots, with a brief look at some related alternative schemes for quantum computing.

Coish, W A; Loss, Daniel

2006-01-01

254

Simulated Quantum Computation of Molecular Energies

The calculation time for the energy of atoms and molecules scales exponentially with system size on a classical computer but polynomially using quantum algorithms. We demonstrate that such algorithms can be applied to problems of chemical interest using modest numbers of quantum bits. Calculations of the water and lithium hydride molecular ground-state energies have been carried out on a quantum computer simulator using a recursive phase-estimation algorithm. The recursive algorithm reduces the number of quantum bits required for the readout register from about 20 to 4. Mappings of the molecular wave function to the quantum bits are described. An adiabatic method for the preparation of a good approximate ground-state wave function is described and demonstrated for a stretched hydrogen molecule. The number of quantum bits required scales linearly with the number of basis functions, and the number of gates required grows polynomially with the number of quantum bits.

Aspuru-Guzik, A; Love, P J; Head-Gordon, M; Aspuru-Guzik, Al\\'an; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Love, Peter J.; Head-Gordon, Martin

2005-01-01

255

Effective Pure States for Bulk Quantum Computation

In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Cory et al. (spatial averaging) for the case ...

Knill, Emanuel; Chuang, Isaac; Laflamme, Raymond

1997-01-01

256

Secure Multi-party Quantum Computing

Secure multi-party computing, also called "secure function evaluation", has been extensively studied in classical cryptography. We consider the extension of this task to computation with quantum inputs and circuits. Our protocols are information-theoretically secure, i.e. no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). Thi...

Crepeau, Claude; Gottesman, Daniel; Smith, Adam

2002-01-01

257

Quantum Computation Beyond the "Standard Circuit Model"

Construction of explicit quantum circuits follows the notion of the "standard circuit model" introduced in the solid and profound analysis of elementary gates providing quantum computation. Nevertheless the model is not always optimal (e.g. concerning the number of computational steps) and it neglects physical systems which cannot follow the "standard circuit model" analysis. We propose a computational scheme which overcomes the notion of the transposition from classical cir...

Chatzisavvas, K. Ch; Daskaloyannis, C.; Panos, C. P.

2005-01-01

258

KLM quantum computation with bosonic atoms

A Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) type quantum computation with bosonic neutral atoms or bosonic ions is suggested. Crucially, as opposite to other quantum computation schemes involving atoms (ions), no controlled interactions between atoms (ions) involving their internal levels are required. Versus photonic KLM computation this scheme has the advantage that single atom (ion) sources are more natural than single photon sources, and single atom (ion) detectors are far more efficient than single photon ones.

Popescu, S

2006-01-01

259

KLM quantum computation with bosonic atoms

A Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) type quantum computation with bosonic neutral atoms or bosonic ions is suggested. Crucially, as opposite to other quantum computation schemes involving atoms (ions), no controlled interactions between atoms (ions) involving their internal levels are required. Versus photonic KLM computation this scheme has the advantage that single atom (ion) sources are more natural than single photon sources, and single atom (ion) detectors are far more effic...

Popescu, Sandu

2006-01-01

260

Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing

In the graph isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and transforms G ?G'. If yes, then G and G' are said to be isomorphic; otherwise they are nonisomorphic. The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI and which also provides an approach to determining all automorphisms of a given graph. We show how the GI problem can be converted to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate the algorithm's quantum dynamics and show that it correctly (i) distinguishes nonisomorphic graphs; (ii) recognizes isomorphic graphs and determines the permutation(s) that connect them; and (iii) finds the automorphism group of a given graph G. We then discuss the GI quantum algorithm's experimental implementation, and close by showing how it can be leveraged to give a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of the NP-complete subgraph isomorphism problem. The computational complexity of an adiabatic quantum algorithm is largely determined by the minimum energy gap ? (N) separating the ground and first-excited states in the limit of large problem size N ?1. Calculating ? (N) in this limit is a fundamental open problem in adiabatic quantum computing, and so it is not possible to determine the computational complexity of adiabatic quantum algorithms in general, nor consequently, of the specific adiabatic quantum algorithms presented here. Adiabatic quantum computing has been shown to be equivalent to the circuit model of quantum computing, and so development of adiabatic quantum algorithms continues to be of great interest.

Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

2014-02-01

261

Verification of Linear Optical Quantum Computing using Quantum Process Calculus

We explain the use of quantum process calculus to describe and analyse linear optical quantum computing (LOQC). The main idea is to define two processes, one modelling a linear optical system and the other expressing a specification, and prove that they are behaviourally equivalent. We extend the theory of behavioural equivalence in the process calculus Communicating Quantum Processes (CQP) to include multiple particles (namely photons) as information carriers, described by ...

Franke-arnold, Sonja; Gay, Simon J.; Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese

2014-01-01

262

Lyapunov Control of Quantum Systems with Applications to Quantum Computing

In the design of complex quantum systems like ion traps for quantum computing, it is usually desired to stabilize a particular system state or make the system state track a desired trajectory. Several control theoretical approaches based on feedback seem attractive to solve such problems. But the uncertain dynamics introduced by measurement on quantum systems makes the synthesis of feedback control laws very complicated. Although we have not explicitly modeled the change in ...

Nagarjun, K. P.; Sivaranjani, S.; Koshy, George

2012-01-01

263

Video Encryption and Decryption on Quantum Computers

A method for video encryption and decryption on quantum computers is proposed based on color information transformations on each frame encoding the content of the encoding the content of the video. The proposed method provides a flexible operation to encrypt quantum video by means of the quantum measurement in order to enhance the security of the video. To validate the proposed approach, a tetris tile-matching puzzle game video is utilized in the experimental simulations. The results obtained suggest that the proposed method enhances the security and speed of quantum video encryption and decryption, both properties required for secure transmission and sharing of video content in quantum communication.

Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.; Yang, Huamin

2015-02-01

264

Principles of quantum computation and information

Quantum computation and information is a new, rapidly developing interdisciplinary field. Therefore, it is not easy to understand its fundamental concepts and central results without facing numerous technical details. This book provides the reader a useful and not-too-heavy guide. It offers a simple and self-contained introduction; no previous knowledge of quantum mechanics or classical computation is required. Volume I may be used as a textbook for a one-semester introductory course in quantum information and computation, both for upper-level undergraduate students and for graduate students.

Benenti, Giuliano; Strini, Giuliano

2004-01-01

265

Universal 2-local Hamiltonian Quantum Computing

We present a Hamiltonian quantum computation scheme universal for quantum computation (BQP). Our Hamiltonian is a sum of a polynomial number (in the number of gates L in the quantum circuit) of time-independent, constant-norm, 2-local qubit-qubit interaction terms. Furthermore, each qubit in the system interacts only with a constant number of other qubits. The computer runs in three steps - starts in a simple initial product-state, evolves it for time of order L^2 (up to log...

Nagaj, Daniel

2010-01-01

266

Why now is the right time to study quantum computing

Quantum computing is a good way to justify difficult physics experiments. But until quantum computers are built, do computer scientists need to know anything about quantum information? In fact, quantum computing is not merely a recipe for new computing devices, but a new way of looking at the world that has been astonishingly intellectually productive. In this article, I'll talk about where quantum computing came from, what it is, and what we can learn from it.

Harrow, Aram W.

2014-01-01

267

Simulating a perceptron on a quantum computer

Perceptrons are the basic computational unit of artificial neural networks, as they model the activation mechanism of an output neuron due to incoming signals from its neighbours. As linear classifiers, they play an important role in the foundations of machine learning. In the context of the emerging field of quantum machine learning, several attempts have been made to develop a corresponding unit using quantum information theory. Based on the quantum phase estimation algori...

Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

2014-01-01

268

Efficient quantum computing with weak measurements

Projective measurements with high quantum efficiency is often assumed to be required for efficient circuit based quantum computing. We argue that this is not the case and show that this fact has actually be known previously though not deeply explored. We examine this issue by giving an example of how to perform the quantum ordering finding algorithm efficiently using non-local weak measurements given that the measurements used are of bounded weakness and some fixed but arbit...

Lund, A. P.

2011-01-01

269

An introduction to quantum computing algorithms

In 1994 Peter Shor [65] published a factoring algorithm for a quantum computer that finds the prime factors of a composite integer N more efficiently than is possible with the known algorithms for a classical com puter. Since the difficulty of the factoring problem is crucial for the se curity of a public key encryption system, interest (and funding) in quan tum computing and quantum computation suddenly blossomed. Quan tum computing had arrived. The study of the role of quantum mechanics in the theory of computa tion seems to have begun in the early 1980s with the publications of Paul Benioff [6]' [7] who considered a quantum mechanical model of computers and the computation process. A related question was discussed shortly thereafter by Richard Feynman [35] who began from a different perspec tive by asking what kind of computer should be used to simulate physics. His analysis led him to the belief that with a suitable class of "quantum machines" one could imitate any quantum system.

Pittenger, Arthur O

2000-01-01

270

Elements of quantum computing history, theories and engineering applications

A quantum computer is a computer based on a computational model which uses quantum mechanics, which is a subfield of physics to study phenomena at the micro level. There has been a growing interest on quantum computing in the 1990's, and some quantum computers at the experimental level were recently implemented. Quantum computers enable super-speed computation, and can solve some important problems whose solutions were regarded impossible or intractable with traditional computers. This book provides a quick introduction to quantum computing for readers who have no backgrounds of both theory of computation and quantum mechanics. “Elements of Quantum Computing” presents the history, theories, and engineering applications of quantum computing. The book is suitable to computer scientists, physicist, and software engineers.

Akama, Seiki

2015-01-01

271

Faster quantum chemistry simulation on fault-tolerant quantum computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum computers can in principle simulate quantum physics exponentially faster than their classical counterparts, but some technical hurdles remain. We propose methods which substantially improve the performance of a particular form of simulation, ab initio quantum chemistry, on fault-tolerant quantum computers; these methods generalize readily to other quantum simulation problems. Quantum teleportation plays a key role in these improvements and is used extensively as a computing resource. To improve execution time, we examine techniques for constructing arbitrary gates which perform substantially faster than circuits based on the conventional Solovay–Kitaev algorithm (Dawson and Nielsen 2006 Quantum Inform. Comput. 6 81). For a given approximation error ?, arbitrary single-qubit gates can be produced fault-tolerantly and using a restricted set of gates in time which is O(log??) or O(log?log??); with sufficient parallel preparation of ancillas, constant average depth is possible using a method we call programmable ancilla rotations. Moreover, we construct and analyze efficient implementations of first- and second-quantized simulation algorithms using the fault-tolerant arbitrary gates and other techniques, such as implementing various subroutines in constant time. A specific example we analyze is the ground-state energy calculation for lithium hydride. (paper)

272

From quantum computation to quantum simulation: becoming more realistic

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this talk is to introduce the basic tasks and goals of the EU FP7-project ''COQUIT (Collective quantum operations for information technology)''. Quantum systems are investigated which allow only a partial control by a constrained set of quantum operations. Typical examples are many particle quantum systems like cold atoms in optical lattices or other multi-atom ensembles, which can be manipulated collectively but not individually. Such restrictions are currently one of the biggest obstacles against working quantum computers. Instead of improving the corresponding experimental methods, we aim at a systematic study of the tasks which can be performed with currently available techniques. To this end we want to develop theoretical models which can on the one hand reflect the limitations of current experimental setups, but are on the other hand powerful enough to allow non-trivial practical applications. This point of view is new and complementary to most other research in quantum information science, where complete control over a small number of particles is assumed. One basic pillar of the COQUIT project is based on the concept of quantum simulation. Here a limited set of implementable operations is used to simulate physical properties of another quantum system. In this sense a quantum simulation device is a computational device for special purposes. We present the actual status of the project including new results and future perspectives. and future perspectives.

273

Carmichael Numbers on a Quantum Computer

We present a quantum probabilistic algorithm which tests with a polynomial computational complexity whether a given composite number is of the Carmichael type. We also suggest a quantum algorithm which could verify a conjecture by Pomerance, Selfridge and Wagstaff concerning the asymptotic distribution of Carmichael numbers smaller than a given integer.

Carlini, A

1999-01-01

274

Is the Brain a Quantum Computer?

We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic…

Litt, Abninder; Eliasmith, Chris; Kroon, Frederick W.; Weinstein, Steven; Thagard, Paul

2006-01-01

275

Quantum vs. Classical Communication and Computation

We present a simple and general simulation technique that transforms any black-box quantum algorithm (a la Grover's database search algorithm) to a quantum communication protocol for a related problem, in a way that fully exploits the quantum parallelism. This allows us to obtain new positive and negative results. The positive results are novel quantum communication protocols that are built from nontrivial quantum algorithms via this simulation. These protocols, combined with (old and new) classical lower bounds, are shown to provide the first asymptotic separation results between the quantum and classical (probabilistic) two-party communication complexity models. In particular, we obtain a quadratic separation for the bounded-error model, and an exponential separation for the zero-error model. The negative results transform known quantum communication lower bounds to computational lower bounds in the black-box model. In particular, we show that the quadratic speed-up achieved by Grover for the OR function is...

Buhrman, H; Wigderson, A; Buhrman, Harry; Cleve, Richard; Wigderson, Avi

1998-01-01

276

Classical signal-flow in cluster-state quantum computation

We study concretely how classical signals should be processed in quantum cluster-state computation. Deforming corresponding quantum teleportation circuit, we find a simple rule of a classical signal-flow to obtain correct quantum computation results.

Oshima, Kazuto

2009-01-01

277

Quantum Computing and Shor`s Factoring Algorithm

Lectures on quantum computing. Contents: Algorithms. Quantum circuits. Quantum Fourier transform. Elements of number theory. Modular exponentiation. Shor`s algorithm for finding the order. Computational complexity of Schor`s algorithm. Factoring integers. NP-complete problems.

Volovich, Igor V.

2001-01-01

278

Quantum Computing with Electron Spins in Quantum Dots

We present a set of concrete and realistic ideas for the implementation of a small-scale quantum computer using electron spins in lateral GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. Initialization is based on leads in the quantum Hall regime with tunable spin-polarization. Read-out hinges on spin-to-charge conversion via spin-selective tunneling to or from the leads, followed by measurement of the number of electron charges on the dot via a charge detector. Single-qubit manipulation relies on a microfabricated wire located close to the quantum dot, and two-qubit interactions are controlled via the tunnel barrier connecting the respective quantum dots. Based on these ideas, we have begun a series of experiments in order to demonstrate unitary control and to measure the coherence time of individual electron spins in quantum dots.

Vandersypen, L M K; Van Beveren, L H W; Elzerman, J M; Greidanus, J S; De Franceschi, S; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

2002-01-01

279

Quantum Computing: Theoretical versus Practical Possibility

An intense effort is being made today to build a quantum computer. Instead of presenting what has been achieved, I invoke here analogies from the history of science in an attempt to glimpse what the future might hold. Quantum computing is possible in principle - there are no known laws of Nature that prevent it - yet scaling up the few qubits demonstrated so far has proven to be exceedingly difficult. While this could be regarded merely as a technological or practical impedi...

Paraoanu, G. S.

2011-01-01

280

Acausal measurement-based quantum computing

In the measurement-based quantum computing, there is a natural "causal cone" among qubits of the resource state, since the measurement angle on a qubit has to depend on previous measurement results in order to correct the effect of byproduct operators. If we respect the no-signaling principle, byproduct operators cannot be avoided. In this paper, we study the possibility of acausal measurement-based quantum computing by using the process matrix framework [O. Oreshkov, F. Cos...

Morimae, Tomoyuki

2014-01-01

281

Adiabatic Quantum Computing for Random Satisfiability Problems

The discrete formulation of adiabatic quantum computing is compared with other search methods, classical and quantum, for random satisfiability (SAT) problems. With the number of steps growing only as the cube of the number of variables, the adiabatic method gives solution probabilities close to 1 for problem sizes feasible to evaluate via simulation on current computers. However, for these sizes the minimum energy gaps of most instances are fairly large, so the good perform...

Hogg, Tad

2002-01-01

282

Methodological testing: Are fast quantum computers illusions?

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Popularity of the idea for computers constructed from the principles of QM started with Feynman's 'Lectures On Computation', but he called the idea crazy and dependent on statistical mechanics. In 1987, Feynman published a paper in 'Quantum Implications - Essays in Honor of David Bohm' on negative probabilities which he said gave him cultural shock. The problem with imagined fast quantum computers (QC) is that speed requires both statistical behavior and truth of the mathematical formalism. The Swedish Royal Academy 2012 Nobel Prize in physics press release touted the discovery of methods to control ''individual quantum systems'', to ''measure and control very fragile quantum states'' which enables ''first steps towards building a new type of super fast computer based on quantum physics.'' A number of examples where widely accepted mathematical descriptions have turned out to be problematic are examined: Problems with the use of Oracles in P=NP computational complexity, Paul Finsler's proof of the continuum hypothesis, and Turing's Enigma code breaking versus William tutte's Colossus. I view QC research as faith in computational oracles with wished for properties. Arther Fine's interpretation in 'The Shaky Game' of Einstein's skepticism toward QM is discussed. If Einstein's reality as space-time curvature is correct, then space-time computers will be the next type of super fast computer.

283

The experimental research on the principle of semi-conductor bridge (SCB) detonator

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the electrical exploding semi-conductor bridge (SCB) is used to initiate the HE, the safety properties are better and required energies are smaller than the HE initiated by electrical exploding conductor bridge because the special electrical performances of semi-conductor materials. The HE initiated by SCB is researched by changing the parameters of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU) and the density of the original charge. The explosive initiated is re-crystallized PETN filled in a copper shell with diameter 6.2 mm and it's wall thickness 0.3 mm. The filled explosive's size is ?5.6 mm x 14 mm and it's density is ? = (1.0 - 1.3)g/cm3. The detonator's total size is ?6.2 mm x 20 mm. The experimental results show that it is possibly a faster DDT (deflagration to detonation transition) process that explosives initiated by SCB and the energy required for the re-crystallized PETN with density 1.0 g/cm3 reliably initiated by this SCB detonator is about 290 mJ. The function time (the time from the start of the capacitor discharge to steady detonation formation in the PETN) of this detonator is t ? 3.27?s and the distance run to detonation of the initiated explosive is ??6.31 mm. This new SCB detonator can reliably initiate the inert PETN booster (PETN/wax = 95/5) with density 1.64 g/cm3

284

Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ?, ? in its domain, parallel T?-T? parallel 1?k parallel ?-? parallel 1 for some 0?k1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

285

Fundamental gravitational limitations to quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lloyd has considered the ultimate limitations the fundamental laws of physics place on quantum computers. He concludes in particular that for an 'ultimate laptop' (a computer of one liter of volume and one kilogram of mass) the maximum number of operations per second is bounded by 1051. The limit is derived considering ordinary quantum mechanics. Here we consider additional limits that are placed by quantum gravity ideas, namely the use of a relational notion of time and fundamental gravitational limits that exist on time measurements. We then particularize for the case of an ultimate laptop and show that the maximum number of operations is further constrained to 1047 per second. (authors)

286

Fundamental gravitational limitations to quantum computing

Lloyd has considered the ultimate limitations physics places on quantum computers. He concludes in particular that for an ``ultimate laptop'' (a computer of one liter of volume and one kilogram of mass) the maximum number of operations per second is bounded by $10^{51}$. The limit is derived considering ordinary quantum mechanics. Here we consider additional limits that are placed by quantum gravity ideas, namely the use of a relational notion of time and fundamental gravitational limits that exist on time measurements. We then particularize for the case of an ultimate laptop and show that the maximum number of operations is further constrained to $10^{47}$ per second.

Gambini, R; Pullin, J; Gambini, Rodolfo; Porto, Rafael A.; Pullin, Jorge

2005-01-01

287

Decoherence Free Subspaces for Quantum Computation

Decoherence in quantum computers is formulated within the Semigroup approach. The error generators are identified with the generators of a Lie algebra. This allows for a comprehensive description which includes as a special case the frequently assumed spin-boson model. A general condition is presented for error-less quantum computation: decoherence-free subspaces are spanned by those states which are annihilated by all the generators. It is shown that these subspaces are stable to perturbations and moreover, that universal quantum oomputation is possible within them.

Lidar, D A; Whaley, K B

1998-01-01

288

Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Remarkable progress towards realizing quantum computation has been achieved using natural and artificial atoms as qubits. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of different types of qubits. On the one hand, natural atoms (such as neutral atoms and ions) have long coherence times, and could be stored in large arrays, providing ideal 'quantum memories'. On the other hand, artificial atoms (such as superconducting circuits or semiconductor quantum dots) have the advantage of custom-designed features and could be used as 'quantum processing units'. Natural and artificial atoms can be coupled with each other and can also be interfaced with photons for long-distance communications. Hybrid devices made of natural/artificial atoms and photons may provide the next-generation design for quantum computers.

Buluta, Iulia; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco, E-mail: fnori@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)

2011-10-15

289

Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remarkable progress towards realizing quantum computation has been achieved using natural and artificial atoms as qubits. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of different types of qubits. On the one hand, natural atoms (such as neutral atoms and ions) have long coherence times, and could be stored in large arrays, providing ideal 'quantum memories'. On the other hand, artificial atoms (such as superconducting circuits or semiconductor quantum dots) have the advantage of custom-designed features and could be used as 'quantum processing units'. Natural and artificial atoms can be coupled with each other and can also be interfaced with photons for long-distance communications. Hybrid devices made of natural/artificial atoms and photons may provide the next-generation design for quantum computers.

290

Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots

The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrence of stable coherence phenomena, in turn underlying high-level mental processes such as intentions and strategies. More precisely, within the context of a dissipative Quantum Field Theory of brain operation it is possible to introduce generalized coherent states associated, within the framework of logic, to the assertions of a quantum metalanguage. The latter controls the quantum-mechanical computing corresponding to standard mental operation. It thus become possible to conceive a Quantum Cyborg in which a human mind controls, through a qu...

Pessa, Eliano

2009-01-01

291

Composable security of measuring-Alice blind quantum computation

Blind quantum computing [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science 517 (2009)] is a secure cloud quantum computing protocol which enables a client (who does not have enough quantum technology at her disposal) to delegate her quantum computation to a server (who has a universal quantum computer) without leaking any relevant information to the server. In [T. Morimae and K. Fujii, Phys. Rev. A {...

Morimae, Tomoyuki; Koshiba, Takeshi

2013-01-01

292

Simulating Grover's Quantum Search in a Classical Computer

The rapid progress of computer science has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of computation, from classical computation to quantum computation. As quantum computing is on its way to becoming an established discipline of computing science, much effort is being put into the development of new quantum algorithms. One of quantum algorithms is Grover algorithm, which is used for searching an element in an unstructured list of N elements with quadratic speed-up over classical algorithms. In this work, Quantum Computer Language (QCL) is used to make a Grover's quantum search simulation in a classical computer

Ningtyas, D K

2010-01-01

293

Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers.

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 85, ?. 3 (2012), 030304. ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/08/0626 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : simulation * algorithm * computation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012

Veis, Libor; Viš?ák, Jakub; Fleig, T.; Knecht, S.; Saue, T.; Visscher, L.; Pittner, Ji?í

2012-01-01

294

Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Lattice Gas Computation

We report an ensemble nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) implementation of a quantum lattice gas algorithm for the diffusion equation. The algorithm employs an array of quantum information processors sharing classical information, a novel architecture referred to as a type-II quantum computer. This concrete implementation provides a test example from which to probe the strengths and limitations of this new computation paradigm. The NMR experiment consists of encoding a mass density onto an array of 16 two-qubit quantum information processors and then following the computation through 7 time steps of the algorithm. The results show good agreement with the analytic solution for diffusive dynamics. We also describe numerical simulations of the NMR implementation. The simulations aid in determining sources of experimental errors, and they help define the limits of the implementation.

Pravia, M A; Yepez, J; Cory, D G; Pravia, Marco A.; Chen, Zhiying; Yepez, Jeffrey; Cory, David G.

2003-01-01

295

An overview of semiconductor bridge, SCB, applications at Sandia National Laboratories

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The semiconductor bridge, SCB, developed by Sandia National Laboratories is a maturing technology now being used in several applications by Sandia customers. Most applications arose because of a need at the system level to provide explosive assemblies that were light weight, small volume, low cost and required small quantities of electrical energy to function -- for the purposes of this paper we define an explosive assembly to mean the combination of the firing set and an explosive component. As a result, and because conventional firing systems could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers, we designed and are investigating SCB applications that range from devices for Sandia applications to igniters for fireworks. We present in this paper an overview of SCB technology with specific examples of the system designed for our customers to meet modern requirements that sophisticated explosive systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Weinlein, J.H.

1995-05-01

296

Consequences and Limitations of Conventional Computers and their Solutions through Quantum Computers

Quantum computer is the current topic of research in the field of computational science, which uses principles of quantum mechanics. Quantum computers will be much more powerful than the classical computer due to its enormous computational speed. Recent developments in quantum computers which are based on the laws of quantum mechanics, shows different ways of performing efficient calculations along with the various results which are not possible on the classical computers in an efficient peri...

Dalvi, Sanjaykumar; Bardapurkar, Pranav; Barde, Nilesh; Thakur, Deepak

2011-01-01

297

Charge based quantum computer without charge transfer

A novel implementation of a charge based quantum computer is proposed. There is no charge transfer during calculation, therefore, uncontrollable entanglement between qubits due to long-range Coulomb forces is suppressed. High-speed computation with 1ps per an operation looks as feasible.

V Yurkov, V.; Gorelik, L. Y.

2000-01-01

298

Linear optical quantum computation with parity encoding

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We present a linear optics quantum computation scheme that employs an incremental parity encoding approach. The scheme is circuit-based but uses techniques from cluster state computation, and achieves comparable resource usage to the cluster state approach. Our scheme also offers increased tolerance to photon loss. (author)

299

Construction of a universal quantum computer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We construct a universal quantum computer following Deutsch's original proposal of a universal quantum Turing machine (UQTM). Like Deutsch's UQTM, our machine can emulate any classical Turing machine and can execute any algorithm that can be implemented in the quantum gate array framework but under the control of a quantum program, and hence is universal. We present the architecture of the machine, which consists of a memory tape and a processor and describe the observables that comprise the registers of the processor and the instruction set, which includes a set of operations that can approximate any unitary operation to any desired accuracy and hence is quantum computationally universal. We present the unitary evolution operators that act on the machine to achieve universal computation and discuss each of them in detail and specify and discuss explicit program halting and concatenation schemes. We define and describe a set of primitive programs in order to demonstrate the universal nature of the machine. These primitive programs facilitate the implementation of more complex algorithms and we demonstrate their use by presenting a program that computes the NAND function, thereby also showing that the machine can compute any classically computable function.

300

Quantum memory and quantum computations in the optical subradiance regime

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities of creation and manipulation of subradiant states in an extended atomic system by coherent 2? pulses are analysed. It is shown that excitation of the atomic system to collective subradiant states eliminates the superradiant broadening of the resonance line in quantum optical memory devices. The scheme of a nonlinear sign-shift two-qubit gate is proposed, which can be used in optical quantum computers. (fourth seminar to the memory of d.n. klyshko)

301

Quantum pseudo-randomness from cluster-state quantum computation

We show how to efficiently generate pseudo-random states suitable for quantum information processing via cluster-state quantum computation. By reformulating pseudo-random algorithms in the cluster-state picture, we identify a strategy for optimizing pseudo-random circuits by properly choosing single-qubit rotations. A Markov chain analysis provides the tool for analyzing convergence rates to the Haar measure and finding the optimal single-qubit gate distribution. Our results...

Brown, Winton G.; Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Viola, Lorenza

2008-01-01

302

Fast quantum computing with semiconductor quantum dots in a microcavity

We propose a novel scheme to carry out quantum computing ultrafastly with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a single mode microcavity. The spin degrees of freedom of the only excess conduction band electron are employed as qubits, excitonic states are used as auxiliary states, and the cavity mode plays the role of data bus. We show how to perform a controlled phase shift (CPS) with properly tailored laser pulses and Pauli-blocking effect, without exciting the cavity mode.

Feng, M; Zanardi, P; Rossi, F; Feng, Mang; Amico, Irene D'; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto

2002-01-01

303

Quantum computation and quantum optics with circuit QED

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The idea of harnessing superconducting circuits to act as artificial atoms, and coupling them to microwave transmission line resonators has come a long way since its first realization in 2004. This architecture, termed circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED), has been successfully employed in a number of experiments probing fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum optics, and has enabled impressive progress towards quantum computing. At the same time, circuit QED constitutes an appealing testbed for the theoretical understanding and modeling of driven open quantum systems. This talk gives an introduction to the basics of circuit QED, and a discussion of recent results obtained with the new transmon qubit, an improved Cooper pair box immune to 1/f charge noise

304

Noise-assisted quantum transport and computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transmission of an excitation along a spin chain can be hindered by the presence of small fixed imperfections that create trapping regions where the excitation may get caught (Anderson localization). A certain degree of noise, ensuing from the interaction with a thermal bath, allows us to overcome localization (noise-assisted transport). In this paper, we investigate the relation between the noise-assisted transport and (quantum) computation. In particular, we prove that noise does assist classical computation on a quantum computing device, but hinders the possibility of creating entanglement. (paper)

305

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma ignition method has been applied in various fields particularly to the rocket propulsion, pyrotechnics, explosives, and to the automotive air-bag system. Ignition method for those applications should be safe and also operate reliably in hostile environments such as; electromagnetic noise, drift voltage, electrostatic background and so on. In the present Letter, a semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma ignition device was fabricated and its plasma characteristics including the propagation speed of the plasma, plasma size, and plasma temperature were investigated with the aid of the visualization of micro scale plasma (i.e., ?350 ?m), which generated from a micro-electro-mechanical poly-silicon semiconductor bridge (SCB)

306

Universal quantum computation with little entanglement.

We show that universal quantum computation can be achieved in the standard pure-state circuit model while the entanglement entropy of every bipartition is small in each step of the computation. The entanglement entropy required for large-scale quantum computation even tends to zero. Moreover we show that the same conclusion applies to many entanglement measures commonly used in the literature. This includes e.g., the geometric measure, localizable entanglement, multipartite concurrence, squashed entanglement, witness-based measures, and more generally any entanglement measure which is continuous in a certain natural sense. These results demonstrate that many entanglement measures are unsuitable tools to assess the power of quantum computers. PMID:23432229

Van den Nest, Maarten

2013-02-01

307

Quantum Computing with Electron Spins in Quantum Dots

We present a set of concrete and realistic ideas for the implementation of a small-scale quantum computer using electron spins in lateral GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. Initialization is based on leads in the quantum Hall regime with tunable spin-polarization. Read-out hinges on spin-to-charge conversion via spin-selective tunneling to or from the leads, followed by measurement of the number of electron charges on the dot via a charge detector. Single-qubit manipulation relies on...

Z?ak, Robert Andrzej; Ro?thlisberger, Beat; Chesi, Stefano; Loss, Daniel

2009-01-01

308

Universal quantum computation in a semiconductor quantum wire network

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Universal quantum computation (UQC) using Majorana fermions on a two-dimensional topological superconducting (TS) medium remains an outstanding open problem. This is because the quantum gate set that can be generated by braiding of the Majorana fermions does not include any two-qubit gate and also no single-qubit ?/8 phase gate. In principle, it is possible to create these crucial extra gates using quantum interference of Majorana fermion currents. However, it is not clear if the motion of the various order parameter defects (vortices, domain walls, etc.), to which the Majorana fermions are bound in a TS medium, can be quantum coherent. We show that these obstacles can be overcome using a semiconductor quantum wire network in the vicinity of an s-wave superconductor, by constructing topologically protected two-qubit gates and any arbitrary single-qubit phase gate in a topologically unprotected manner, which can be error corrected using magic-state distillation. Thus our strategy, using a judicious combination of topologically protected and unprotected gate operations, realizes UQC on a quantum wire network with a remarkably high error threshold of 0.14 as compared to 10-3 to 10-4 in ordinary unprotected quantum computation.

309

Analogue Quantum Computers for Data Analysis

Analogue computers use continuous properties of physical system for modeling. In the paper is described possibility of modeling by analogue quantum computers for some model of data analysis. It is analogue associative memory and a formal neural network. A particularity of the models is combination of continuous internal processes with discrete set of output states. The modeling of the system by classical analogue computers was offered long times ago, but now it is not very e...

Vlasov, Alexander Yu

1998-01-01

310

No quantum advantage for nonlocal computation

We investigate the problem of "nonlocal" computation, in which separated parties must compute a function with nonlocally encoded inputs and output, such that each party individually learns nothing, yet together they compute the correct function output. We show that the best that can be done classically is a trivial linear approximation. Surprisingly, we also show that quantum entanglement provides no advantage over the classical case. On the other hand, generalized (i.e. sup...

Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Winter, Andreas

2006-01-01

311

Verification for measurement-only blind quantum computing

Blind quantum computing is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client who does not have any sophisticated quantum technlogy can delegate her quantum computing to a server without leaking any privacy. It is known that a client who has only a measurement device can perform blind quantum computing [T. Morimae and K. Fujii, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf87}, 050301(R) (2013)]. It has been an open problem whether the protocol can enjoy the verification, i.e., the ability of client...

Morimae, Tomoyuki

2012-01-01

312

Bethe ansatz, quantum computers, and unitary geometry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The one-dimensional ring of N magnetic nodes, each node with the spin 1/2, can be seen as a faithful prototype of a quantum computer with N qubits. We point out here some analogies between typical problems and known solutions of the Heisenberg model of a magnet on this ring, and the related questions posed within the midst of quantum information processing. In particular, we relate such notions as the memory, gates, or entanglement of quantum states with exact results of Bethe Ansatz, expressed in combinatoric terms of rigged string configurations. A promising and transparent interpretation of relation between Bethe Ansatz and quantum computation can be provided by the unitary geometry of Schwinger, presented in our previous SSPCM schools by prof. Vourdas

313

Universal quantum computation with unlabelled qubits

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that an nth root of the Walsh-Hadamard transform (obtained from the Hadamard gate and a cyclic permutation of the qubits), together with two diagonal matrices, namely a local qubit-flip (for a fixed but arbitrary qubit) and a non-local phase-flip (for a fixed but arbitrary coefficient), can do universal quantum computation on n qubits. A quantum computation, making use of n qubits and based on these operations, is then a word of variable length, but whose letters are always taken from an alphabet of cardinality three. Therefore, in contrast with other universal sets, no choice of qubit lines is needed for the application of the operations described here. A quantum algorithm based on this set can be interpreted as a discrete diffusion of a quantum particle on a de Bruijn graph, corrected on-the-fly by auxiliary modifications of the phases associated with the arcs

314

Universal quantum computation with unlabelled qubits

We show that an nth root of the Walsh-Hadamard transform (obtained from the Hadamard gate and a cyclic permutation of the qubits), together with two diagonal matrices, namely a local qubit-flip (for a fixed but arbitrary qubit) and a non-local phase-flip (for a fixed but arbitrary coefficient), can do universal quantum computation on n qubits. A quantum computation, making use of n qubits and based on these operations, is then a word of variable length, but whose letters are always taken from an alphabet of cardinality three. Therefore, in contrast with other universal sets, no choice of qubit lines is needed for the application of the operations described here. A quantum algorithm based on this set can be interpreted as a discrete diffusion of a quantum particle on a de Bruijn graph, corrected on-the-fly by auxiliary modifications of the phases associated with the arcs.

Severini, Simone

2006-06-01

315

Recipes for spin-based quantum computing

Technological growth in the electronics industry has historically been measured by the number of transistors that can be crammed onto a single microchip. Unfortunately, all good things must come to an end; spectacular growth in the number of transistors on a chip requires spectacular reduction of the transistor size. For electrons in semiconductors, the laws of quantum mechanics take over at the nanometre scale, and the conventional wisdom for progress (transistor cramming) must be abandoned. This realization has stimulated extensive research on ways to exploit the spin (in addition to the orbital) degree of freedom of the electron, giving birth to the field of spintronics. Perhaps the most ambitious goal of spintronics is to realize complete control over the quantum mechanical nature of the relevant spins. This prospect has motivated a race to design and build a spintronic device capable of complete control over its quantum mechanical state, and ultimately, performing computations: a quantum computer. In thi...

Cerletti, V; Gywat, O; Loss, D; Cerletti, Veronica; Gywat, Oliver; Loss, Daniel

2005-01-01

316

Quantum computation of discrete logarithms in semigroups

We describe an efficient quantum algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in semigroups using Shor's algorithms for period finding and discrete log as subroutines. Thus proposed cryptosystems based on the presumed hardness of discrete logarithms in semigroups are insecure against quantum attacks. In contrast, we show that some generalizations of the discrete log problem are hard in semigroups despite being easy in groups. We relate a shifted version of the discrete log pr...

Childs, Andrew M.; Ivanyos, Ga?bor

2013-01-01

317

Universal Quantum Computing with Spin and Valley

We investigate a two-electron double quantum dot with both spin and valley degrees of freedom as they occur in graphene, carbon nanotubes, or silicon, and regard the 16-dimensional space with one electron per dot as a four-qubit logic space. In the spin-only case, it is well known that the exchange coupling between the dots combined with arbitrary single-qubit operations is sufficient for universal quantum computation. The presence of the valley degeneracy in the electronic ...

Rohling, Niklas; Burkard, Guido

2012-01-01

318

Another Look at Quantum Neural Computing

The term quantum neural computing indicates a unity in the functioning of the brain. It assumes that the neural structures perform classical processing and that the virtual particles associated with the dynamical states of the structures define the underlying quantum state. We revisit the concept and also summarize new arguments related to the learning modes of the brain in response to sensory input that may be aggregated in three types: associative, reorganizational, and qu...

Kak, Subhash

2009-01-01

319

Nonlinear quantum optical computing via measurement

We show how the measurement induced model of quantum computation proposed by Raussendorf and Briegel [Phys. Rev. Letts. 86, 5188 (2001)] can be adapted to a nonlinear optical interaction. This optical implementation requires a Kerr nonlinearity, a single photon source, a single photon detector and fast feed forward. Although nondeterministic optical quantum information proposals such as that suggested by KLM [Nature 409, 46 (2001)] do not require a Kerr nonlinearity they do ...

Hutchinson, G. D.; Milburn, G. J.

2004-01-01

320

Quantum computing by pairing trapped ultracold ions

The superpositional wave function oscillations for finite-time implementation of quantum algorithms modifies the desired interference required for quantum computing. We propose a scheme with trapped ultracold ion-pairs being qubits to diminish the detrimental effect of the wave function oscillations, and apply the scheme to the two-qubit Grover's search. It can be also found that the qubits in our scheme are more robust against the decoherence caused by the environment, and the model is scalable.

Mang, F; Kelin, G; Lei, S; Mang, Feng; Xiwen, Zhu; Kelin, Gao; Lei, Shi

2000-01-01

321

Neuromorphic quantum computation with energy dissipation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Real parallel computing with a quantum computer attracts vast interest due to its extreme high potential. We propose a neuromorphic quantum computation algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with energy dissipation. This algorithm can be applied to problems if a cost function can be expressed in a quadratic form. This requirement results from the fact that our Hamiltonian is designed by following a method similar to an artificial neural network (ANN). The state of an ANN is often trapped at local minima, and the network outputs an error. Since the state of a quantum system with the proposed algorithm is always in the ground state according to the adiabatic theorem, it is not necessary to be concerned that the quantum state is trapped at local minima. However, there is no guarantee that a quantum algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with degeneration or level crossing is successfully executed. We show successful numerical simulation results with the proposed algorithm by introducing energy dissipation to keep the quantum state staying in the ground state, and then we show an application to the n-queen problem, which is one of the combinatorial optimization problems

322

Density functional theory and quantum computation

We demonstrate the applicability of ground-state and time-dependent density functional theory to quantum computing by proving the Hohenberg-Kohn and Runge-Gross theorems for a fermion system representing N qubits. Time-dependent density functional theory is used to determine the minimum energy gap Delta(N) arising from application of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm to the NP-Complete problem MAXCUT. As density functional theory has been used to treat quantum systems with as many as 650 interacting degrees of freedom, this raises the realistic prospect of evaluating the gap Delta(N) for systems with N ~ 650 qubits.

Gaitan, Frank

2008-01-01

323

Universal quantum computation with little entanglement

We show that universal quantum computation can be achieved in the standard pure-state circuit model while, at any time, the entanglement entropy of all bipartitions is small---even tending to zero with growing system size. The result is obtained by showing that a quantum computer operating within a small region around the set of unentangled states still has universal computational power, and by using continuity of entanglement entropy. In fact an analogous conclusion applies to every entanglement measure which is continuous in a certain natural sense, which amounts to a large class. Other examples include the geometric measure, localizable entanglement, smooth epsilon-measures, multipartite concurrence, squashed entanglement, and several others. We discuss implications of these results for the believed role of entanglement as a key necessary resource for quantum speed-ups.

Nest, Maarten Van den

2012-01-01

324

Exchange in silicon based quantum computer architecture

The silicon-based quantum computer proposal has been one of the intensely pursued ideas during the past three years. Here we calculate the donor electron exchange in silicon and germanium, and demonstrate an atomic-scale challenge for quantum computing in Si (and Ge), as the six (four) conduction band minima in Si (Ge) lead to inter-valley electronic interferences, generating strong oscillations in the exchange splitting of two-donor two-electron states. Donor positioning with atomic scale precision within the unit cell thus becomes a decisive factor in determining the strength of the exchange coupling--a fundamental ingredient for two-qubit operations in a silicon-based quantum computer.

Koiller, B; Sarma, S D; Koiller, Belita; Hu, Xuedong

2002-01-01

325

Quantum problem solving as simultaneous computation

I provide an alternative way of seeing quantum computation. First, I describe an idealized classical problem solving machine that, thanks to a many body interaction, reversibly and nondeterministically produces the solution of the problem under the simultaneous influence of all the problem constraints. This requires a perfectly accurate, rigid, and reversible relation between the coordinates of the machine parts - the machine can be considered the many body generalization of another perfect machine, the bounching ball model of reversible computation. The mathematical description of the machine, as it is, is applicable to quantum problem solving, an extension of the quantum algorithms that comprises the physical representation of the problem-solution interdependence. The perfect relation between the coordinates of the machine parts is transferred to the populations of the reduced density operators of the parts of the computer register. The solution of the problem is reversibly and nondeterministically produced...

Castagnoli, Giuseppe

2007-01-01

326

Methodological testing: Are fast quantum computers illusions?

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Popularity of the idea for computers constructed from the principles of QM started with Feynman's 'Lectures On Computation', but he called the idea crazy and dependent on statistical mechanics. In 1987, Feynman published a paper in 'Quantum Implications - Essays in Honor of David Bohm' on negative probabilities which he said gave him cultural shock. The problem with imagined fast quantum computers (QC) is that speed requires both statistical behavior and truth of the mathematical formalism. The Swedish Royal Academy 2012 Nobel Prize in physics press release touted the discovery of methods to control ''individual quantum systems'', to ''measure and control very fragile quantum states'' which enables ''first steps towards building a new type of super fast computer based on quantum physics.'' A number of examples where widely accepted mathematical descriptions have turned out to be problematic are examined: Problems with the use of Oracles in P=NP computational complexity, Paul Finsler's proof of the continuum hypothesis, and Turing's Enigma code breaking versus William tutte's Colossus. I view QC research as faith in computational oracles with wished for properties. Arther Fine's interpretation in 'The Shaky Game' of Einstein's skepticism toward QM is discussed. If Einstein's reality as space-time curvature is correct, then space-time computers will be the next type of super fast computer.

Meyer, Steven [Tachyon Design Automation, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2013-07-01

327

An obstacle affecting any proposal for a topological quantum computer based on Ising anyons is that quasiparticle braiding can only implement a finite (non-universal) set of quantum operations. The computational power of this restricted set of operations (often called stabilizer operations) has been studied in quantum information theory, and it is known that no quantum-computational advantage can be obtained without the help of an additional non-stabilizer operation. Similarly, a bipartite two-qubit system based on Ising anyons cannot exhibit non-locality (in the sense of violating a Bell inequality) when only topologically protected stabilizer operations are performed. To produce correlations that cannot be described by a local hidden variable model again requires the use of a non-stabilizer operation. Using geometric techniques, we relate the sets of operations that enable universal quantum computing (UQC) with those that enable violation of a Bell inequality. Motivated by the fact that non-stabilizer opera...

Howard, Mark

2011-01-01

328

Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation

Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of \\dot{H} as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated.

Antonio, B.; Markham, D.; Anders, J.

2014-11-01

329

Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

2002-01-01

330

Topological Quantum Computation by Manipulating Quantum Tunneling Effect of the Toric Codes

Quantum computers are predicted to utilize quantum states to perform memory and to process tasks far faster than those of conventional classical computers. In this paper we show a new road towards building fault tolerance quantum computer by tuning quantum tunneling effect of the degenerate quantum states in topological order, instead of by braiding anyons. Using a designer Hamiltonian - the Wen-Plaquette model as an example, we study its quantum tunneling effect of the tori...

Kou, Su-peng

2008-01-01

331

Analogue Quantum Computers for Data Analysis

Analogue computers use continuous properties of physical system for modeling. In the paper is described possibility of modeling by analogue quantum computers for some model of data analysis. It is analogue associative memory and a formal neural network. A particularity of the models is combination of continuous internal processes with discrete set of output states. The modeling of the system by classical analogue computers was offered long times ago, but now it is not very effectively in comparison with modern digital computers. The application of quantum analogue modelling looks quite possible for modern level of technology and it may be more effective than digital one, because number of element may be about Avogadro number (N=6.0E23).

Vlasov, A Yu

1998-01-01

332

Quantum cellular automata quantum computing with endohedral fullerenes

We present a scheme to perform universal quantum computation using global addressing techniques as applied to a physical system of endohedrally doped fullerenes. The system consists of an ABAB linear array of Group V endohedrally doped fullerenes. Each molecule spin site consists of a nuclear spin coupled via a Hyperfine interaction to an electron spin. The electron spin of each molecule is in a quartet ground state $S=3/2$. Neighboring molecular electron spins are coupled via a magnetic dipole interaction. We find that an all-electron construction of a quantum cellular automata is frustrated due to the degeneracy of the electronic transitions. However, we can construct a quantum celluar automata quantum computing architecture using these molecules by encoding the quantum information on the nuclear spins while using the electron spins as a local bus. We deduce the NMR and ESR pulses required to execute the basic cellular automata operation and obtain a rough figure of merit for the the number of gate operatio...

Twamley, J

2003-01-01

333

Fabrication technologies for solid state quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Quantum computers exploit the superposition and entanglement of quantum states to enable the operation of certain algorithms, such as factoring large numbers, which are not feasible on a conventional computer. A recent proposal developed at UNSW for a silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computer offers perhaps the best opportunity for a practical and scalable quantum processor. These devices will require placement, with atomic precision, of 31P dopants within isotopically-pure 28Si, and the subsequent deposition of nanoscale metal gates on the surface, registered to the donors. We will present strategies for the fabrication of such multi-qubit devices which employ a hydrogen-on-silicon resist technology in which a scanned probe is used to perform atomic-scale lithography. Subsequent fabrication steps include epitaxial silicon growth and electron-beam lithography. In these devices quantum information is encoded on the spins of the 31P nuclei and can be transferred to the donor electrons via the hyperfine interaction. We describe how an Al/Al2O3 single-electron transistor can be used to detect the spin of individual electrons, thereby indirectly achieving nuclear spin readout

334

Design Constraints for Nanometer Scale Quantum Computers

Nanometer scale electronics present a challenge for the computer architect. These quantum devices have small gain and are difficult to interconnect. I have analyzed current device capabilities and explored two general design requirements for the design of computers: error correction and long range connections. These two principles follow when Turing machines are implemented as integrated circuits. I consider the roles of electromigration through thin wires, circuit layout, a...

Mainieri, Ronnie

1994-01-01

335

Quantum Computers and Classical Randomized Algorithms

We present a quantum version of the classical probabilistic algorithms Grover's operator for the quantum search of a database and of Shor's Fourier transform for extracting the periodicity of a function, and their combined use in the counting algorithm originally introduced by Brassard et al. One of the main novelties of our quantum probabilistic algorithm is its full unitarity and reversibility, which would make its use possible as part of larger and more complicated networks in quantum computers. As an example of this we describe polynomial time algorithms for studying some important problems in number theory, such as the test of the primality of an integer, the so called 'prime number theorem' and Hardy and Littlewood's conjecture about the asymptotic number of representations of an even integer as a sum of two primes.

Carlini, A

1999-01-01

336

Universal quantum computation with unlabeled qubits

We show that an n-th root of the Walsh-Hadamard transform (obtained from the Hadamard gate and a cyclic permutation of the qubits) and two diagonal matrices, namely a local qubit-flip (for a fixed but arbitrary qubit) and a non-local phase-flip (for a fixed but arbitrary coefficient), form a universal set for quantum computation on n qubits. A quantum circuit, with n-qubits and based on this set, is then a product of unitaries whose factors are chosen from a pool of three. A quantum algorithm based on this set can be interpreted as a discrete diffusion of a quantum particle on a de Bruijn graph, with auxiliary modifications of the phases associated to the arcs.

Severini, S

2006-01-01

337

Quantum computing implementations with neutral particles

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We review quantum information processing with cold neutral particles, that is, atoms or polar molecules. First, we analyze the best suited degrees of freedom of these particles for storing quantum information, and then we discuss both single- and two-qubit gate implementations. We focus our discussion mainly on collisional quantum gates, which are best suited for atom-chip-like devices, as well as on gate proposals conceived for optical lattices. Additionally, we analyze schemes both for cold atoms confined in optical cavities and hybrid approaches to entanglement generation, and we show how optimal control theory might be a powerful tool to enhance the speed up of the gate operations as well as to achieve high fidelities required for fault tolerant quantum computation.

Negretti, Antonio; Treutlein, Philipp

2011-01-01

338

Temporal resources for global quantum computing architectures

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Using the methods for optimal simulation of quantum logic gates, we perform a quantitative estimation of the time resources involved in the execution of universal gate sets for the case of three representative models of quantum computation based on global control. The importance of such models stems [...] from the solution to the problem of experimentally addressing and locally manipulating the qubits in a given quantum register. The numerical estimation of the temporal efficiency for each model is performed by assuming that the qubits in the register can be coupled to each other via the Ising and the Förster interactions. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of the physical realization of such architectures under quantum error correction conditions.

Juan D., Jaramillo; John H., Reina.

2008-12-01

339

Universal quantum computation in a hidden basis

Suppose we are given several copies each of two orthogonal states $\\ketz$ and $\\keto$ that are promised to come from known orthogonal subspaces, but are otherwise unknown. We consider the quantum-information-theoretic tasks of state preparation and universal quantum computation with respect to the hidden basis $\\{\\ketz,e^{i \\theta}\\keto\\}^{\\otimes l}$, of an $l$-logical-qubit system, for a random $\\theta$. We give an exact algorithm for state preparation, and give an efficient approximation algorithm for universal computation. We apply our results to quantum-public-key authentication protocols, by showing that a class of digital signature schemes is insecure and giving an example of a (potentially secure) protocol based on these techniques.

Ioannou, Lawrence M

2008-01-01

340

Realizing universal Majorana fermionic quantum computation

Majorana fermionic quantum computation (MFQC) was proposed by S. B. Bravyi and A. Yu. Kitaev [Ann. Phys. (NY) 298, 210 (2002), 10.1006/aphy.2002.6254], who indicated that a (nontopological) fault-tolerant quantum computer built from Majorana fermions may be more efficient than that built from distinguishable two-state systems. However, until now scientists have not known how to realize a MFQC in a physical system. In this paper we propose a possible realization of MFQC. We find that the end of a line defect of a p-wave superconductor or superfluid in a honeycomb lattice traps a Majorana zero mode, which becomes the starting point of MFQC. Then we show how to manipulate Majorana fermions to perform universal MFQC, which possesses possibilities for high-level local controllability through individually addressing the quantum states of individual constituent elements by using timely cold-atom technology.

Wu, Ya-Jie; He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng

2014-08-01

341

Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Deutsch's Algorithm

We show that by a suitable choice of a time dependent Hamiltonian, Deutsch's algorithm can be implemented by an adiabatic quantum computer. We extend our analysis to the Deutsch-Jozsa problem and estimate the required running time for both global and local adiabatic evolutions.

Das, Saurya; Kobes, Randy; Kunstatter, Gabor

2001-01-01

342

Universal quantum computing based on monodromy representations

A model of quantum computing is presented, based on properties of connections with a prescribed monodromy group on holomorphic vector bundles over bases with nontrivial topology. Such connections with required properties appear in the WZW-models, in which moreover the corresponding n-point correlation functions are sections of appropriate bundles which are holomorphic with respect to the connection.

Giorgadze, Gia

2002-01-01

343

Simulations of Probabilities for Quantum Computing

It has been demonstrated that classical probabilities, and in particular, probabilistic Turing machine, can be simulated by combining chaos and non-LIpschitz dynamics, without utilization of any man-made devices (such as random number generators). Self-organizing properties of systems coupling simulated and calculated probabilities and their link to quantum computations are discussed.

Zak, M.

1996-01-01

344

Quantum Annealing and Computation: A Brief Documentary Note

Major breakthrough in quantum computation has recently been achieved using quantum annealing to develop analog quantum computers instead of gate based computers. After a short introduction to quantum computation, we retrace very briefly the history of these developments and discuss the Indian researches in this connection and provide some interesting documents (in the Figs.) obtained from a chosen set of high impact papers (and also some recent news etc. blogs appearing in t...

Ghosh, Asim; Mukherjee, Sudip

2013-01-01

345

A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes.

Beige, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lim, Y L [DSO National Laboratories, 20 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118230, Singapore (Singapore); Kwek, L C [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542, Singapore (Singapore)

2007-06-15

346

Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference. Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, it may be well into the 21st century before we see quantum computing used at a commercial level for a variety of reasons discussed in this paper. The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This paper discusses some of the current advances, applications, and chal-lenges of quantum computing as well as its impact on corporate computing and implications for management. It shows how quantum computing can be utilized to process and store information, as well as impact cryptography for perfectly secure communication, algorithmic searching, factorizing large numbers very rapidly, and simulating quantum-mechanical systems efficiently. A broad interdisciplinary effort will be needed if quantum com-puters are to fulfill their destiny as the world's fastest computing devices.

Mahesh S. Raisinghani

2001-01-01

347

Quantum Computation and Information From Theory to Experiment

Recently, the field of quantum computation and information has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields in theoretical and practical areas. This book consists of the reviews of selected topics charterized by great progress and cover the field from theoretical areas to experimental ones. It contains fundamental areas, quantum query complexity, quantum statistical inference, quantum cloning, quantum entanglement, additivity. It treats three types of quantum security system, quantum public key cryptography, quantum key distribution, and quantum steganography. A photonic system is highlighted for the realization of quantum information processing.

Imai, Hiroshi

2006-01-01

348

The move from conventional energetic composites to nano scale energetic mixtures (nano energetics) has shown dramatic improvement in energy release rate and sensitivity to ignition. A possible application of nano energetics is on a semiconductor bridge (SCB). An SCB typically requires a tenth of the energy input as compared to a bridge wire design with the same no-fire and is capable of igniting in tens of microseconds. For very low energy applications, SCBs can be manufactured to extremely small sizes and it is necessary to find materials with particle sizes that are even smaller to function. Reactive particles of comparable size to the bridge can lead to problems with ignition reliability for small bridges. Nano-energetic composites and the use of SCBs have been significantly studied individually, however, the process of combining nano energetics with an SCB has not been investigated extensively and is the focus of this work. Goals of this study are to determine if nano energetics can be used with SCBs to further reduce the minimum energy required and improve reliability. The performance of nano-scale aluminum (nAl) and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) with nitrocellulose (NC), Fluorel(TM) FC 2175 (chemically equivalent to VitonRTM) and Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as binders where quantified initially using the SenTest(TM) algorithm at three weight fractions (5, 7, and 9%) of binder. The threshold energy was calculated and compared to previous data using conventional materials such as zirconium potassium chlorate (ZPC), mercuric 5-Nitrotetrazol (DXN-1) and titanium sub-hydride potassium per-chlorate (TSPP). It was found that even though there where only slight differences in performance between the binders with nAl/Bi2O 3 at any of the three binder weight fractions, the results show that these nano energetic materials require about half of the threshold energy compared to conventional materials using an SCB with an 84x42 mum bridge. Binder limit testing was conducted to find the critical limit of binder when the output of the SCB declines. The binder was evaluated at 13, 17 and 20% and it was found that the limit amount of binder falls between 17 and 20% by weight of material. Scaling of the SCB bridge was evaluated using a 36x15 mum bridge size and tested using 5, 7 and 9% nAl/Bi2O 3 FC 2175 slurry, creating a functioning SCB compared to previous no-ignition results using TSPP. It was also postulated that the compaction of a secondary material onto the SCB would alter the SCB output during testing. It was found that increased energy values where required for both the 5 and 7% binder amounts and no change was seen at the 9% level.

Strohm, Gianna Sophia

349

Interactive Quantum Mechanics Quantum Experiments on the Computer

Extra Materials available on extras.springer.com INTERACTIVE QUANTUM MECHANICS allows students to perform their own quantum-physics experiments on their computer, in vivid 3D color graphics. Topics covered include: • harmonic waves and wave packets, • free particles as well as bound states and scattering in various potentials in one and three dimensions (both stationary and time dependent), • two-particle systems, coupled harmonic oscillators, • distinguishable and indistinguishable particles, • coherent and squeezed states in time-dependent motion, • quantized angular momentum, • spin and magnetic resonance, • hybridization. For the present edition the physics scope has been widened appreciably. Moreover, INTERQUANTA can now produce user-defined movies of quantum-mechanical situations. Movies can be viewed directly and also be saved to be shown later in any browser. Sections on spec...

Brandt, S; Dahmen, H.D

2011-01-01

350

Rapid Data Search using Adiabatic Quantum Computation

We show that by a suitable choice of time-dependent Hamiltonian, the search for a marked item in an unstructured database can be achieved in unit time, using Adiabatic Quantum Computation. This is a considerable improvement over the O(sqrt(N)) time required in previous algorithms. The trade-off is that in the intermediate stages of the computation process, the ground state energy of the computer increases to a maximum of O(sqrt(N)), before returning to zero at the end of the process.

Ahrensmeier, D; Kobes, R L; Kunstatter, G; Zaraket, H; Ahrensmeier, Daria; Das, Saurya; Kobes, Randy; Kunstatter, Gabor; Zaraket, Haitham

2002-01-01

351

Imperfect detectors in linear optical quantum computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the effects of imperfect photon detectors suffering from loss and noise on the reliability of linear optical quantum computers. We show that for a given detector efficiency there is a maximum achievable success probability, and that increasing the number of ancillary photons and detectors used for one controlled sign flip gate beyond a critical point will decrease the probability that the computer will function correctly. We have also performed simulations of some small logic gates and estimate the efficiency and noise levels required for the linear optical quantum computer to function properly. We find that the construction of a 99% reliable controlled sign flip gate would require photon detectors with an efficiency greater than 0.999987

352

Discrete Wigner functions and quantum computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Gibbons et al. have recently defined a class of discrete Wigner functions W to represent quantum states in a finite Hilbert space dimension d. I characterize the set Cd of states having non-negative W simultaneously in all definitions of W in this class. I then argue that states in this set behave classically in a well-defined computational sense. I show that one-qubit states in C2 do not provide for universal computation in a recent model proposed by Bravyi and Kitaev [quant-ph/0403025]. More generally, I show that the only pure states in Cd are stabilizer states, which have an efficient description using the stabilizer formalism. This result shows that two different notions of 'classical' states coincide: states with non-negative Wigner functions are those which have an efficient description. This suggests that negativity of W may be necessary for exponential speed-up in pure-state quantum computation. (author)

353

Measurement-Based Interference in Quantum Computation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interference has been measured by the visibility in two-level systems, which, however, does not work for multi-level systems. We generalize a measure of the interference based on decoherence process, consistent with the visibility in qubit systems. By taking cluster states as examples, we show in the one-way quantum computation that the gate fidelity is proportional to the interference of the measured qubit and is inversely proportional to the interference of all register qubits. We also find that the interference increases with the number of the computing steps. So we conjecture that the interference may be the source of the speedup of the one-way quantum computation. (general)

354

NMR spectra simulation for quantum computing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Pulse NMR is one of the most serious candidates as an experimental technique for implementing quantum algorithms. To the present date, this technique is in fact the only one where full demonstrations of quantum algorithms implementations have been carried out, in spite of various technical difficulties. On NMR quantum computers, gates and subroutines are encoded as radiofrequency pulse sequences. A 'program output' is read directly on the measured spectra. On this work we simulate NMR spectra and show their evolution during algorithms implementations for two and three qubits systems. We will focus on Grover search, Quantum Fourier Transform, Shor factorization and Teleportation algorithms. Calculated spectra are compared to experimental data extracted from the literature. The main difficulties associated to the use of NMR to quantum computing, such as the exponential decrease of the signal upon increasing the number of qubits could, in principle, be partially removed by using ferromagnetic materials. However, broad NMR linewidths in these materials can mask logical operation. Some simulations are also presented to illustrate this point. (author)

355

Quantum Computing: Theoretical versus Practical Possibility

An intense effort is being made today to build a quantum computer. Instead of presenting what has been achieved, I invoke here analogies from the history of science in an attempt to glimpse what the future might hold. Quantum computing is possible in principle - there are no known laws of Nature that prevent it - yet scaling up the few qubits demonstrated so far has proven to be exceedingly difficult. While this could be regarded merely as a technological or practical impediment, I argue that this difficulty might be a symptom of new laws of physics waiting to be discovered. I also introduce a distinction between "strong" and "weak" emergentist positions. The former assumes that a critical value of a parameter exists (one that is most likely related to the complexity of the states involved) at which the quantum-mechanical description breaks down, in other words, that quantum mechanics will turn out to be an incomplete description of reality. The latter assumes that quantum mechanics will remain as a universal...

Paraoanu, G S

2011-01-01

356

Holonomic quantum computation with electron spins in quantum dots

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the help of the spin-orbit interaction, we propose a scheme to perform holonomic single-qubit gates on the electron spin confined to a quantum dot. The manipulation is done in the absence (or presence) of an applied magnetic field. By adiabatic changing the position of the confinement potential, one can rotate the spin state of the electron around the Bloch sphere in semiconductor heterostructures. The dynamics of the system is equivalent to employing an effective non-Abelian gauge potential whose structure depends on the type of the spin-orbit interaction. As an example, we find an analytic expression for the electron spin dynamics when the dot is moved around a circular path (with radius R) on the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and show that all single-qubit gates can be realized by tuning the radius and orientation of the circular paths. Moreover, using the Heisenberg exchange interaction, we demonstrate how one can generate two-qubit gates by bringing two quantum dots near each other, yielding a scalable scheme to perform quantum computing on arbitrary N qubits. This proposal shows a way of realizing holonomic quantum computers in solid-state systems.

357

Scheme for Quantum Computing Immune to Decoherence

A constructive scheme has been devised to enable mapping of any quantum computation into a spintronic circuit in which the computation is encoded in a basis that is, in principle, immune to quantum decoherence. The scheme is implemented by an algorithm that utilizes multiple physical spins to encode each logical bit in such a way that collective errors affecting all the physical spins do not disturb the logical bit. The scheme is expected to be of use to experimenters working on spintronic implementations of quantum logic. Spintronic computing devices use quantum-mechanical spins (typically, electron spins) to encode logical bits. Bits thus encoded (denoted qubits) are potentially susceptible to errors caused by noise and decoherence. The traditional model of quantum computation is based partly on the assumption that each qubit is implemented by use of a single two-state quantum system, such as an electron or other spin-1.2 particle. It can be surprisingly difficult to achieve certain gate operations . most notably, those of arbitrary 1-qubit gates . in spintronic hardware according to this model. However, ironically, certain 2-qubit interactions (in particular, spin-spin exchange interactions) can be achieved relatively easily in spintronic hardware. Therefore, it would be fortunate if it were possible to implement any 1-qubit gate by use of a spin-spin exchange interaction. While such a direct representation is not possible, it is possible to achieve an arbitrary 1-qubit gate indirectly by means of a sequence of four spin-spin exchange interactions, which could be implemented by use of four exchange gates. Accordingly, the present scheme provides for mapping any 1-qubit gate in the logical basis into an equivalent sequence of at most four spin-spin exchange interactions in the physical (encoded) basis. The complexity of the mathematical derivation of the scheme from basic quantum principles precludes a description within this article; it must suffice to report that the derivation provides explicit constructions for finding the exchange couplings in the physical basis needed to implement any arbitrary 1-qubit gate. These constructions lead to spintronic encodings of quantum logic that are more efficient than those of a previously published scheme that utilizes a universal but fixed set of gates.

Williams, Colin; Vatan, Farrokh

2008-01-01

358

Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modelled by strictly contractive channels. A channel $T$ is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators $\\rho,\\sigma$ in its domain, $\\| T\\rho - T\\sigma \\|_1 \\le k \\| \\rho-\\sigma \\|_1$ for some $0 \\le k < 1$ (here $\\| \\cdot \\|_1$ denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of qua...

Raginsky, Maxim

2001-01-01

359

We briefly summarize here the history, conceptual base, as well as challenges and implications of quantum computing. Then, we present the theoretical requirements for viable quantum computation, as well as thestate-of-the-art experimental approach and a project of solid 129Xe NMR-based quantum computer.

Belaga, Edward G.; Grucker, Daniel

2003-01-01

360

Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin ensemble can be utilized for the important task of sequentially generating entanglement between electrons. This is true despite the fact that electrons and nuclei become only very weakly entangled through the hyperfine interaction. Straightforward experimentally feasible protocols for the generation of multipartite entangled (GHZ- and W-)states are presented. (orig.)

Christ, H.

2008-01-24

361

Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin ensemble can be utilized for the important task of sequentially generating entanglement between electrons. This is true despite the fact that electrons and nuclei become only very weakly entangled through the hyperfine interaction. Straightforward experimentally feasible protocols for the generation of multipartite entangled (GHZ- and W-)states are presented. (orig.)

362

Quantum computation with devices whose contents are never read

In classical computation, a "write-only memory" (WOM) is little more than an oxymoron, and the addition of WOM to a (deterministic or probabilistic) classical computer brings no advantage. We prove that quantum computers that are augmented with WOM can solve problems that neither a classical computer with WOM nor a quantum computer without WOM can solve, when all other resource bounds are equal. We focus on realtime quantum finite automata, and examine the increase in their ...

Yakaryilmaz, Abuzer; Freivalds, Rusins; Say, A. C. Cem; Agadzanyan, Ruben

2010-01-01

363

Quantum picturalism for topological cluster-state computing

Topological quantum computing is a way of allowing precise quantum computations to run on noisy and imperfect hardware. One implementation uses surface codes created by forming defects in a highly-entangled cluster state. Such a method of computing is a leading candidate for large-scale quantum computing. However, there has been a lack of sufficiently powerful high-level languages to describe computing in this form without resorting to single-qubit operations, which quickly ...

Horsman, Clare

2011-01-01

364

Efficiency of open quantum walk implementation of dissipative quantum computing algorithms

An open quantum walk formalism for dissipative quantum computing is presented. The approach is illustrated with the examples of the Toffoli gate and the Quantum Fourier Transform for 3 and 4 qubits. It is shown that the algorithms based on the open quantum walk formalism are more efficient than the canonical dissipative quantum computing approach. In particular, the open quantum walks can be designed to converge faster to the desired steady state and to increase the probabil...

Sinayskiy, I.; Petruccione, F.

2014-01-01

365

Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing circuit and method

A quantum circuit performing quantum computation in a quantum computer. A chosen transformation of an initial n-qubit state is probabilistically obtained. The circuit comprises a unitary quantum operator obtained from a non-unitary quantum operator, operating on an n-qubit state and an ancilla state. When operation on the ancilla state provides a success condition, computation is stopped. When operation on the ancilla state provides a failure condition, computation is performed again on the ancilla state and the n-qubit state obtained in the previous computation, until a success condition is obtained.

Williams, Colin P. (Inventor); Gingrich, Robert M. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

366

Quantum Computers and Classical Randomized Algorithms addendum

We discuss an exact generalization of Grover's quantum algorithm for an unstructured search problem and of the Count algorithm by Brassard et al. in the case when the initial state is unknown and arbitrarily entangled. This is the most general situation one might expect to have when working with subroutines involving quantum search or counting in a larger quantum computation. We derive, in particular, an exact iteration formula for the action of the original Grover's operator and find, similarly to the case of an initial state with unknown amplitudes, that the final state is a periodic function of the number of 'good' items and can be expressed in terms of first and second order moments of the initial amplitude distribution of states alone. Grover's search algorithm with arbitrary phases as discussed by Chi and Kim is also generalized with an exact formula.

Carlini, A

1999-01-01

367

QDENSITY—A Mathematica quantum computer simulation

This Mathematica 6.0 package is a simulation of a Quantum Computer. The program provides a modular, instructive approach for generating the basic elements that make up a quantum circuit. The main emphasis is on using the density matrix, although an approach using state vectors is also implemented in the package. The package commands are defined in Qdensity.m which contains the tools needed in quantum circuits, e.g., multiqubit kets, projectors, gates, etc. New version program summaryProgram title: QDENSITY 2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADXH_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXH_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26 055 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 227 540 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 6.0 Operating system: Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Macintosh OS X, and Linux FC4 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADXH_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 914 Classification: 4.15 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Offers an alternative, more up to date, implementation Nature of problem: Analysis and design of quantum circuits, quantum algorithms and quantum clusters. Solution method: A Mathematica package is provided which contains commands to create and analyze quantum circuits. Several Mathematica notebooks containing relevant examples: Teleportation, Shor's Algorithm and Grover's search are explained in detail. A tutorial, Tutorial.nb is also enclosed. Reasons for new version: The package has been updated to make it fully compatible with Mathematica 6.0 Summary of revisions: The package has been updated to make it fully compatible with Mathematica 6.0 Running time: Most examples included in the package, e.g., the tutorial, Shor's examples, Teleportation examples and Grover's search, run in less than a minute on a Pentium 4 processor (2.6 GHz). The running time for a quantum computation depends crucially on the number of qubits employed.

Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Burdis, Joseph M.; Tabakin, Frank

2009-03-01

368

Cluster state quantum computation for many-level systems

The cluster state model for quantum computation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188] outlines a scheme that allows one to use measurement on a large set of entangled quantum systems in what is known as a cluster state to undertake quantum computations. The model itself and many works dedicated to it involve using entangled qubits. In this paper we consider the issue of using entangled qudits instead. We present a complete framework for cluster state quantum computation using qudits, ...

Hall, William

2005-01-01

369

Measurement-based quantum computation cannot avoid byproducts

Measurement-based quantum computation is a novel model of quantum computing where universal quantum computation can be done with only local measurements on each particle of a quantum many-body state, which is called a resource state. One large difference of the measurement-based model from the circuit model is the existence of byproducts. In the circuit model, a desired unitary U can be implemented deterministically, whereas the measurement-based model implements BU, where B...

Morimae, Tomoyuki

2012-01-01

370

A study of heuristic guesses for adiabatic quantum computation

Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is a universal model for quantum computation which seeks to transform the initial ground state of a quantum system into a final ground state encoding the answer to a computational problem. AQC initial Hamiltonians conventionally have a uniform superposition as ground state. We diverge from this practice by introducing a simple form of heuristics: the ability to start the quantum evolution with a state which is a guess to the solution of th...

Perdomo-ortiz, Alejandro; Venegas-andraca, Salvador E.; Aspuru-guzik, Alan

2008-01-01

371

Gate count estimates for performing quantum chemistry on small quantum computers

As quantum computing technology improves and quantum computers with a small but non-trivial number of N > 100 qubits appear feasible in the near future the question of possible applications of small quantum computers gains importance. One frequently mentioned application is Feynman's original proposal of simulating quantum systems, and in particular the electronic structure of molecules and materials. In this paper, we analyze the computational requirements for one of the st...

Wecker, Dave; Bauer, Bela; Clark, Bryan K.; Hastings, Matthew B.; Troyer, Matthias

2013-01-01

372

Solid State Quantum Computing Using Spectral Holes

A quantum computer that stores information on two-state systems called quantum bits or qubits must be able to address and manipulate individual qubits, to effect coherent interactions between pairs of qubits, and to read out the value of qubits.1,2 Current methods for addressing qubits are divided up into spatial methods, as when a laser beam is focused on an individual qubit3,4,5 or spectral methods, as when a nuclear spin in a molecule is addressed using NMR.6,7 The density of qubits addressable spatially is limited by the wavelength of light, and the number of qubits addressable spectrally is limited by spin linewidths. Here, we propose a method for addressing qubits using a method that combines spatial and spectral selectivity. The result is a design for quantum computation that provides the potential for a density of quantum information storage and processing many orders of magnitude greater than that afforded by ion traps or NMR. Specifically, this method uses an ensemble of spectrally resolved atoms in...

Shahriar, M S; Lloyd, S; Bowers, J A; Craig, A E

2002-01-01

373

Quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the nonadiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 ?s, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10-3. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.

374

A quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers

We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the non-adiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 us, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10^3. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.

Weitenberg, Christof; Mølmer, Klaus; Sherson, Jacob F

2011-01-01

375

Quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the nonadiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 ?s, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10?3. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.

Weitenberg, Christof; Kuhr, Stefan

2011-01-01

376

Quantum computation and Biological stress: A Hypothesis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose that biological systems may behave as quantum computers.We have earlier hypothesized that patterns of quantum computation may be altered in stress and this leads to the change in the consciousness vector of biological systems. We further propose in this paper that the biological systems with a sufficient consciousness vector behave as objects which are entangled with the universal consciousness and as a consequence wormholes exist between the universal consciousness and the biological systems.The decrease in the consciousness vector of the biological systemsdue to stress(abiotic and/or bioticleads to disruption of wormholes between biological systems and the universal consciousness. This leads to appearance of the stress symptoms in the biological systems. However the application of pesticides/fertilisers or introduction of novel proteins through genetic engineering leads torestoration of wormholes and increase in consciousness vector of the biological systemsand in turn results in to alleviation of stress symptoms.

Grover Monendra

2014-04-01

377

Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits

A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.

Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey

2014-08-26

378

Advice Coins for Classical and Quantum Computation

We study the power of classical and quantum algorithms equipped with nonuniform advice, in the form of a coin whose bias encodes useful information. This question takes on particular importance in the quantum case, due to a surprising result that we prove: a quantum finite automaton with just two states can be sensitive to arbitrarily small changes in a coin's bias. This contrasts with classical probabilistic finite automata, whose sensitivity to changes in a coin's bias is bounded by a classic 1970 result of Hellman and Cover. Despite this finding, we are able to bound the power of advice coins for space-bounded classical and quantum computation. We define the classes BPPSPACE/coin and BQPSPACE/coin, of languages decidable by classical and quantum polynomial-space machines with advice coins. Our main theorem is that both classes coincide with PSPACE/poly. Proving this result turns out to require substantial machinery. We use an algorithm due to Neff for finding roots of polynomials in NC; a result from algeb...

Aaronson, Scott

2011-01-01

379

Vibrational Decoherence in Ion Trap Quantum Computers

The ion trap quantum computer proposed by Cirac and Zoller is analyzed for decoherence due to vibrations of the ions. An adiabatic approximation exploiting the vast difference between the frequencies of the optical intraionic transition and the vibrational modes is used to find the decoherence time at any temperature T. The scaling of this decoherence time with the number of ions is discussed, and compared to that due to spontaneous emission.

Garg, Anupam

1997-01-01

380

Cluster state quantum computing in optical fibers

A scheme for the implementation of the cluster state model of quantum computing in optical fibers, which enables the feedforward feature, is proposed. This scheme uses the time-bin encoding of qubits. Following previously suggested methods of applying arbitrary one-qubit gates in optical fibers, two different ways for the realization of fusion gate types I and II for cluster production are proposed: a fully time-bin based encoding scheme and a combination of time-bin and pol...

Soudagar, Yasaman; Bussieres, Felix; Berlin, Guido; Lacroix, Suzanne; Fernandez, Jose M.; Godbout, Nicolas

2006-01-01

381

Solving Random Satisfiability Problems with Quantum Computers

Quantum computer algorithms can exploit the structure of random satisfiability problems. This paper extends a previous empirical evaluation of such an algorithm and gives an approximate asymptotic analysis accounting for both the average and variation of amplitudes among search states with the same costs. The analysis predicts good performance, on average, for a variety of problems including those near a phase transition associated with a high concentration of hard cases. Ba...

Hogg, Tad

2001-01-01

382

Scalable Superconducting Architecture for Adiabatic Quantum Computation

A scalable superconducting architecture for adiabatic quantum computers is proposed. The architecture is based on time-independent, nearest-neighbor interqubit couplings: it can handle any problem in the class NP even in the presence of measurement errors, noise, and decoherence. The implementation of this architecture with superconducting persistent-current qubits and the natural robustness of such an implementation to manufacturing imprecision and decoherence are discussed.

Kaminsky, William M.; Lloyd, Seth; Orlando, Terry P.

2004-01-01

383

Quantum computing in a macroscopic dark period

Decoherence-free subspaces allow for the preparation of coherent and entangled qubits for quantum computing. Decoherence can be dramatically reduced, yet dissipation is an integral part of the scheme in generating stable qubits and manipulating them via one and two bit gate operations. How this works can be understood by comparing the system with a three-level atom exhibiting a macroscopic dark period. In addition, a dynamical explanation is given for a scheme based on atoms...

Tregenna, B.; Beige, A.; Knight, Pl

2002-01-01

384

Data Structures in Classical and Quantum Computing

This survey summarizes several results about quantum computing related to (mostly static) data structures. First, we describe classical data structures for the set membership and the predecessor search problems: Perfect Hash tables for set membership by Fredman, Koml\\'{o}s and Szemer\\'{e}di and a data structure by Beame and Fich for predecessor search. We also prove results about their space complexity (how many bits are required) and time complexity (how many bits have to b...

Fillinger, Maximilian

2013-01-01

385

Quantum computing with spatially delocalized qubits

We analyze the operation of quantum gates for neutral atoms with qubits that are delocalized in space, i.e., the computational basis states are defined by the presence of a neutral atom in the ground state of one out of two trapping potentials. The implementation of single qubit gates as well as a controlled phase gate between two qubits is discussed and explicit calculations are presented for rubidium atoms in optical microtraps. Furthermore, we show how multi-qubit highly ...

Mompart Penina, Jordi

2002-01-01

386

Nuclear spin quantum computing with trapped ions

Quantum computing with qubits encoded in nuclear spins of trapped ions is studied with particular attention to the Yb$^+$ ion. For this purpose we consider the Paschen-Back regime (strong magnetic field) and employ a high-field approximation in this treatment. An efficient scheme is proposed to carry out gate operations on an array of trapped ions, and the feasibility of generating the required high magnetic field is discussed.

Wang, Kunling; Feng, Mang; Mintert, Florian; Wunderlich, Christof

2011-01-01

387

A New Way to Implement Quantum Computation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, I shall sketch a new way to consider a Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra as a 3D logical space in which any one (of the 256 statements occupies a well-defined position and it is identified by a numerical ID. This allows pure mechanical computation both for generating rules and inferences. It is shown that this abstract formalism can be geometrically represented with logical spaces and subspaces allowing a vectorial representation. Finally, it shows the application to quantum computing through the example of three coupled harmonic oscillators.

Gennaro Auletta

2013-11-01

388

How detrimental is decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation?

Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time-scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit $T_2$ time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary canc...

Albash, Tameem

2015-01-01

389

Extending scientific computing system with structural quantum programming capabilities

We present a basic high-level structures used for developing quantum programming languages. The presented structures are commonly used in many existing quantum programming languages and we use quantum pseudo-code based on QCL quantum programming language to describe them. We also present the implementation of introduced structures in GNU Octave language for scientific computing. Procedures used in the implementation are available as a package quantum-octave, providing a library of functions, which facilitates the simulation of quantum computing. This package allows also to incorporate high-level programming concepts into the simulation in GNU Octave and Matlab. As such it connects features unique for high-level quantum programming languages, with the full palette of efficient computational routines commonly available in modern scientific computing systems. To present the major features of the described package we provide the implementation of selected quantum algorithms. We also show how quantum errors can be...

Gawron, P; Miszczak, J A; Winiarczyk, R

2010-01-01

390

Quantum Computing and Quantum Simulation with Group-II Atoms

Recent experimental progress in controlling neutral group-II atoms for optical clocks, and in the production of degenerate gases with group-II atoms has given rise to novel opportunities to address challenges in quantum computing and quantum simulation. In these systems, it is possible to encode qubits in nuclear spin states, which are decoupled from the electronic state in the $^1$S$_0$ ground state and the long-lived $^3$P$_0$ metastable state on the clock transition. This leads to quantum computing scenarios where qubits are stored in long lived nuclear spin states, while electronic states can be accessed independently, for cooling of the atoms, as well as manipulation and readout of the qubits. The high nuclear spin in some fermionic isotopes also offers opportunities for the encoding of multiple qubits on a single atom, as well as providing an opportunity for studying many-body physics in systems with a high spin symmetry. Here we review recent experimental and theoretical progress in these areas, and su...

Daley, Andrew J

2011-01-01

391

PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography

The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable systems, the second by T Prosen, discussing chaos and complexity in quantum systems. Both topics have theoretical as well as experimental relevance and are likely to witness a fast growing development in the near future. The remaining contributions present more specific and very recent results. They involve the study of the structure of quantum states and their estimation (B Baumgartner et al, C King et al, S Olivares et al, D Petz et al and W van Dam et al), of entanglement generation and its quantification (G Brida et al, F Ciccarello et al, G Costantini et al, O Romero-Isart et al, D Rossini et al, A Serafini et al and D Vitali et al), of randomness related effects on entanglement behaviour (I Akhalwaya et al, O Dahlsten et al and L Viola et al), and of abstract and applied aspects of quantum computation and communication (K Audenart, G M D'Ariano et al, N Datta et al, L C Kwek et al and M Nathanson et al). We would like to express our gratitude to the European Commission, the Abdus Salam ICTP, SISSA and Eurotech SpA (Amaro, Udine, Italy) for financial and/or logistic support. Special thanks also go to the workshop secretary Marina De Comelli, and the secretaries of the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Sabrina Gaspardis and Rosita Glavina for their precious help and assistance.

Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.

2007-07-01

392

Hybrid architecture for encoded measurement-based quantum computation

We present a hybrid scheme for quantum computation that combines the modular structure of elementary building blocks used in the circuit model with the advantages of a measurement-based approach to quantum computation. We show how to construct optimal resource states of minimal size to implement elementary building blocks for encoded quantum computation in a measurement-based way, including states for error correction and encoded gates. The performance of the scheme is determined by the quality of the resource states, where within the considered error model a threshold of the order of 10% local noise per particle for fault-tolerant quantum computation and quantum communication.

Zwerger, M.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.

2014-06-01

393

Quantum computation in triangular decoherence-free subdynamic space

A formalism of quantum computing with 2000 qubits or more in decoherence-free subspaces is presented. The subspace is triangular with respect to the index related to the environment. The quantum states in the subspaces are projected states ruled by a subdynamic kinetic equation. These projected states can be used to perform general, large-scale decoherence-free quantum computing.

Bi, Qiao

2015-04-01

394

An Introduction to Quantum Computing using Cavity QED concepts

We present a concise but complete conceptual treatment of quantum computing implemented with Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (CQED. The paper is intended as a brief overview for professionals who are coming over to the field from other areas and who may have not discussed the concepts behind quantum computing during their technical training.

Burell, Zachary

2012-01-01

395

We determine the universal law for fidelity decay in quantum computations of complex dynamics in presence of internal static imperfections in a quantum computer. Our approach is based on random matrix theory applied to quantum computations in presence of imperfections. The theoretical predictions are tested and confirmed in extensive numerical simulations of a quantum algorithm for quantum chaos in the dynamical tent map with up to 18 qubits. The theory developed determines the time scales for reliable quantum computations in absence of the quantum error correction codes. These time scales are related to the Heisenberg time, the Thouless time, and the decay time given by Fermi's golden rule which are well known in the context of mesoscopic systems. The comparison is presented for static imperfection effects and random errors in quantum gates. A new convenient method for the quantum computation of the coarse-grained Wigner function is also proposed.

Frahm, K M; Shepelyansky, D L; Fleckinger, Robert; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

2004-01-01

396

Computing the Exit Complexity of Knowledge in Distributed Quantum Computers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distributed Quantum computers abide from the exit complexity of the knowledge. The exit complexity is the accrue of the nodal information needed to clarify the total egress system with deference to a distinguished exit node. The core objective of this paper is to compile an arrogant methodology for assessing the exit complexity of the knowledge in distributed quantum computers. The proposed methodology is based on contouring the knowledge using the unlabeled binary trees, hence building an benchmarked and a computer based model. The proposed methodology dramatizes knowledge autocratically calculates the exit complexity. The methodology consists of several amphitheaters, starting with detecting the baron aspect of the tree of others entitled express knowledge and then measure the volume of information and the complexity of behavior destining from the bargain of information. Then calculate egress resulting from episodes that do not lead to the withdrawal of the information. In the end is calculated total egress complexity and then appraised total exit complexity of the system. Given the complexity of the operations within the Distributed Computing Quantity, this research addresses effective transactions that could affect the three-dimensional behavior of knowledge. The results materialized that the best affair where total exit complexity as minimal as possible is a picture of a binary tree is entitled at the rate of positive and negative cardinal points medium value. It could be argued that these cardinal points should not amass the upper bound apex or minimum.

M.A.Abbas

2013-01-01

397

Knill-Laflamme-Milburn Linear Optics Quantum Computation as a Measurement-Based Computation

We show that the Knill Lafllame Milburn method of quantum computation with linear optics gates can be interpreted as a one-way, measurement-based quantum computation of the type introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf. We also show that the permanent state of n n-dimensional systems is a universal state for quantum computation.

Popescu, Sandu

2007-12-01

398

Universal Quantum Computing with Spin and Valley

We investigate a two-electron double quantum dot with both spin and valley degrees of freedom as they occur in graphene, carbon nanotubes, or silicon, and regard the 16-dimensional space with one electron per dot as a four-qubit logic space. In the spin-only case, it is well known that the exchange coupling between the dots combined with arbitrary single-qubit operations is sufficient for universal quantum computation. The presence of the valley degeneracy in the electronic band structure alters the form of the exchange coupling and in general leads to spin-valley entanglement. Here, we show that universal quantum computation can still be performed by exchange interaction and single-qubit gates in the presence of the additional (valley) degree of freedom. We present an explicit pulse sequence for a spin-only controlled-NOT consisting of the generalized exchange coupling and single-electron spin and valley rotations. We also propose state preparations and projective measurements with the use of adiabatic trans...

Rohling, Niklas

2012-01-01

399

Minimal computational-space implementation of multiround quantum protocols

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A single-party strategy in a multiround quantum protocol can be implemented by sequential networks of quantum operations connected by internal memories. Here, we provide an efficient realization in terms of computational-space resources.

400

Trapped Ion Quantum Computer Research at Los Alamos

We briefly review the development and theory of an experiment to investigate quantum computation with trapped calcium ions. The ion trap, laser and ion requirements are determined, and the parameters required for simple quantum logic operations are described

James, D. F. V.; Gulley, M. S.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Hughes, R. J.; Kwiat, P. G.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Peterson, C. G.; Sandberg, V. D.; Schauer, M. M.; Simmons, C. M.; Tupa, D.; Wang, P. Z.; White, A. G.

1998-01-01

401

Computational Advantage from Quantum-Controlled Ordering of Gates

It is usually assumed that a quantum computation is performed by applying gates in a specific order. One can relax this assumption by allowing a control quantum system to switch the order in which the gates are applied. This provides a more general kind of quantum computing that allows transformations on blackbox quantum gates that are impossible in a circuit with fixed order. Here we show that this model of quantum computing is physically realizable, by proposing an interferometric setup that can implement such a quantum control of the order between the gates. We show that this new resource provides a reduction in computational complexity: we propose a problem that can be solved by using O (n ) blackbox queries, whereas the best known quantum algorithm with fixed order between the gates requires O (n2) queries. Furthermore, we conjecture that solving this problem in a classical computer takes exponential time, which may be of independent interest.

Araújo, Mateus; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, ?aslav

2014-12-01

402

Experimental Quantum Computations on a Topologically Encoded Qubit

The construction of a quantum computer remains a fundamental scientific and technological challenge, in particular due to unavoidable noise. Quantum states and operations can be protected from errors using protocols for fault-tolerant quantum computing (FTQC). Here we present a step towards this by implementing a quantum error correcting code, encoding one qubit in entangled states distributed over 7 trapped-ion qubits. We demonstrate the capability of the code to detect one...

Nigg, Daniel; Mueller, Markus; Martinez, Esteban A.; Schindler, Philipp; Hennrich, Markus; Monz, Thomas; Martin-delgado, Miguel A.; Blatt, Rainer

2014-01-01

403

Logic Synthesis for Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computers

Efficient constructions for quantum logic are essential since quantum computation is experimentally challenging. This thesis develops quantum logic synthesis as a paradigm for reducing the resource overhead in fault-tolerant quantum computing. The model for error correction considered here is the surface code. After developing the theory behind general logic synthesis, the resource costs of magic-state distillation for the $T = \\exp(i \\pi (I-Z)/8)$ gate are quantitatively an...

Jones, N. Cody

2013-01-01

404

Quantum Nonlocality and Beyond: Limits from Nonlocal Computation

We address the problem of “nonlocal computation,” in which separated parties must compute a function without any individual learning anything about the inputs. Surprisingly, entanglement provides no benefit over local classical strategies for such tasks, yet stronger nonlocal correlations allow perfect success. This provides intriguing insights into the limits of quantum information processing, the nature of quantum nonlocality, and the differences between quantum and stronger-than-quantum nonlocal correlations.

Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Winter, Andreas

2007-11-01

405

Quiet SDS Josephson Junctions for Quantum Computing

Unconventional superconductors exhibit an order parameter symmetry lower than the symmetry of the underlying crystal lattice. Recent phase sensitive experiments have established the d-wave (D) nature of the copper-oxide materials, thus identifying unambiguously the first unconventional superconductor. The sign change in the order parameter can be exploited to construct a new type of SDS Josephson junction exhibiting a degenerate ground state and a double-periodic current - phase characteristic. Here, we demonstrate how to make use of these special junction characteristics in the construction of a quantum computer. Combining such junctions together with a usual s-wave (S) link into a SQUID loop we obtain what we call a `quiet' qubit - a solid state implementation of a quantum bit which remains optimally isolated from its environment.

Ioffe, L B; Feigelman, M V; Fauchère, A L; Blatter, G

1999-01-01

406

High Fidelity Adiabatic Quantum Computation via Dynamical Decoupling

We introduce high-order dynamical decoupling strategies for open system adiabatic quantum computation. Our numerical results demonstrate that a judicious choice of high-order dynamical decoupling method, in conjunction with an encoding which allows computation to proceed alongside decoupling, can dramatically enhance the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computation in spite of decoherence.

Quiroz, Gregory

2012-01-01

407

Spintronics and Quantum Computing: Switching Mechanisms for Qubits

Quantum computing and quantum communication are remarkable examples of new information processing technologies that arise from the coherent manipulation of spins in nanostructures. We review our theoretical proposal for using electron spins in quantum-confined nanostructures as qubits. We present single- and two-qubit gate mechanisms in laterally as well as vertically coupled quantum dots and discuss the possibility to couple spins in quantum dots via exchange or superexchan...

Leuenberger, Michael N.; Loss, Daniel

2000-01-01

408

Quantum computational complexity in the presence of closed timelike curves

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum computation with quantum data that can traverse closed timelike curves represents a new physical model of computation. We argue that a model of quantum computation in the presence of closed timelike curves can be formulated which represents a valid quantification of resources given the ability to construct compact regions of closed timelike curves. The notion of self-consistent evolution for quantum computers whose components follow closed timelike curves, as pointed out by Deutsch [Phys. Rev. D 44, 3197 (1991)], implies that the evolution of the chronology respecting components which interact with the closed timelike curve components is nonlinear. We demonstrate that this nonlinearity can be used to efficiently solve computational problems which are generally thought to be intractable. In particular we demonstrate that a quantum computer which has access to closed timelike curve qubits can solve NP-complete problems with only a polynomial number of quantum gates

409

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I will discuss the revolutionary new concept of topological quantum computation, which is fault-tolerant at the hardware level with no need, in principle, of any quantum error correction protocols. Errors simply do not occur since the physical qubits and the computation steps are protected against decoherence by non-local topological correlations in the underlying physical system. The key idea is non-Abelian statistics of the quasiparticles (called 'anyons' as opposed to fermions or bosons), where the space-time braiding of the anyons around each other, i.e. quantum 'knots', form topologically protected quantum gate operations. I will describe in detail the theoretical principles guiding the experimental search for the appropriate topological phases of matter where such non-Abelian anyons, which are low-dimensional solid state versions of the elusive and exotic Majorana fermions hypothesized seventy-five years ago, may exist. I will critically discuss the recent experimental claims of observing the Majorana modes in semiconductor nanowire structures following earlier theoretical proposals, outlining the future developments which would be necessary to eventually build a topological quantum computer.

Das Sarma, Sankar [University of Maryland

2012-10-03

410

Globally controlled artificial semiconducting molecules as quantum computers

Quantum computers are expected to be considerably more efficient than classical computers for the execution of some specific tasks. The difficulty in the practical implementation of thoose computers is to build a microscopic quantum system that can be controlled at a larger mesoscopic scale. Here I show that vertical lines of donor atoms embedded in an appropriate Zinc Oxide semiconductor structure can constitute artificial molecules that are as many copy of the same quantum...

Tribollet, Jerome

2005-01-01

411

A graphical approach to measurement-based quantum computing

Quantum computations are easily represented in the graphical notation known as the ZX-calculus, a.k.a. the red-green calculus. We demonstrate its use in reasoning about measurement-based quantum computing, where the graphical syntax directly captures the structure of the entangled states used to represent computations, and show that the notion of information flow within the entangled states gives rise to rewriting strategies for proving the correctness of quantum programs.

Duncan, Ross

2012-01-01

412

A silicon-based cluster state quantum computer

It has been over ten years since Kane's influential proposal for a silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computer using phosphorous donors. Since then, silicon-based architectures have been refined as the experimental challenges associated with the original proposal have become better understood, while simultaneously a number of powerful and generic models for quantum computation have emerged. Here, I discuss how the cluster state or "one-way" model for quantum computing might ...

Morton, John J. L.

2009-01-01

413

State of the art and prospects for quantum computing

This is a brief review of the experimental and theoretical quantum computing. The hopes for eventually building a useful quantum computer rely entirely on the so-called "threshold theorem". In turn, this theorem is based on a number of assumptions, treated as axioms, i.e. as being satisfied exactly. Since in reality this is not possible, the prospects of scalable quantum computing will remain uncertain until the required precision, with which these assumptions should be appr...

Dyakonov, M. I.

2012-01-01

414

Simulating chemistry efficiently on fault-tolerant quantum computers

Quantum computers can in principle simulate quantum physics exponentially faster than their classical counterparts, but some technical hurdles remain. Here we consider methods to make proposed chemical simulation algorithms computationally fast on fault-tolerant quantum computers in the circuit model. Fault tolerance constrains the choice of available gates, so that arbitrary gates required for a simulation algorithm must be constructed from sequences of fundamental operatio...

Jones, N. Cody; Whitfield, James D.; Mcmahon, Peter L.; Yung, Man-hong; Meter, Rodney; Aspuru-guzik, Ala?n; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

2012-01-01

415

Quantum computing accelerator I/O : LDRD 52750 final report.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a superposition of quantum states, a bit can be in both the states '0' and '1' at the same time. This feature of the quantum bit or qubit has no parallel in classical systems. Currently, quantum computers consisting of 4 to 7 qubits in a 'quantum computing register' have been built. Innovative algorithms suited to quantum computing are now beginning to emerge, applicable to sorting and cryptanalysis, and other applications. A framework for overcoming slightly inaccurate quantum gate interactions and for causing quantum states to survive interactions with surrounding environment is emerging, called quantum error correction. Thus there is the potential for rapid advances in this field. Although quantum information processing can be applied to secure communication links (quantum cryptography) and to crack conventional cryptosystems, the first few computing applications will likely involve a 'quantum computing accelerator' similar to a 'floating point arithmetic accelerator' interfaced to a conventional Von Neumann computer architecture. This research is to develop a roadmap for applying Sandia's capabilities to the solution of some of the problems associated with maintaining quantum information, and with getting data into and out of such a 'quantum computing accelerator'. We propose to focus this work on 'quantum I/O technologies' by applying quantum optics on semiconductor nanostructures to leverage Sandia's expertise in semiconductor microelectronic/photonic fabrication techniques, as well as its expertise in information theory, processing, and algorithms. The work will be guided by understanding of practical requirements of computing and communication architectures. This effort will incorporate ongoing collaboration between 9000, 6000 and 1000 and between junior and senior personnel. Follow-on work to fabricate and evaluate appropriate experimental nano/microstructures will be proposed as a result of this work.

Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Modine, Normand Arthur; Ganti, Anand; Pierson, Lyndon George; Tigges, Christopher P.

2003-12-01

416

Quantum computing accelerator I/O : LDRD 52750 final report

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a superposition of quantum states, a bit can be in both the states '0' and '1' at the same time. This feature of the quantum bit or qubit has no parallel in classical systems. Currently, quantum computers consisting of 4 to 7 qubits in a 'quantum computing register' have been built. Innovative algorithms suited to quantum computing are now beginning to emerge, applicable to sorting and cryptanalysis, and other applications. A framework for overcoming slightly inaccurate quantum gate interactions and for causing quantum states to survive interactions with surrounding environment is emerging, called quantum error correction. Thus there is the potential for rapid advances in this field. Although quantum information processing can be applied to secure communication links (quantum cryptography) and to crack conventional cryptosystems, the first few computing applications will likely involve a 'quantum computing accelerator' similar to a 'floating point arithmetic accelerator' interfaced to a conventional Von Neumann computer architecture. This research is to develop a roadmap for applying Sandia's capabilities to the solution of some of the problems associated with maintaining quantum information, and with getting data into and out of such a 'quantum computing accelerator'. We propose to focus this work on 'quantum I/O technologies' by applying quantum optics on semiconductor nanostructures to leverage Sandia's expertise in semiconductor microelectronic/photonic fabricaconductor microelectronic/photonic fabrication techniques, as well as its expertise in information theory, processing, and algorithms. The work will be guided by understanding of practical requirements of computing and communication architectures. This effort will incorporate ongoing collaboration between 9000, 6000 and 1000 and between junior and senior personnel. Follow-on work to fabricate and evaluate appropriate experimental nano/microstructures will be proposed as a result of this work

417

This thesis consists of two parts. I describe an approach for a physical realization of a quantum computer by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). I propose a new framework for NMR that gives such a physical realization. I construct a quantum mechanical description of NMR from which I can build the fundamental elementary operators for quantum computation. I describe the experiments that build these operators. I give a polynomial time quantum algorithm to solve simultaneous Pell equations as an e...

Schenk Brill, Kees

2010-01-01

418

Measurement-only topological quantum computation via anyonic interferometry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe measurement-only topological quantum computation using both projective and interferometrical measurement of topological charge. We demonstrate how anyonic teleportation can be achieved using 'forced measurement' protocols for both types of measurement. Using this, it is shown how topological charge measurements can be used to generate the braiding transformations used in topological quantum computation, and hence that the physical transportation of computational anyons is unnecessary. We give a detailed discussion of the anyonics for implementation of topological quantum computation (particularly, using the measurement-only approach) in fractional quantum Hall systems

419

Consequences and Limitations of Conventional Computers and their Solutions through Quantum Computers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantum computer is the current topic of research in the field of computational science, which uses principles of quantum mechanics. Quantum computers will be much more powerful than the classical computer due to its enormous computational speed. Recent developments in quantum computers which are based on the laws of quantum mechanics, shows different ways of performing efficient calculations along with the various results which are not possible on the classical computers in an efficient period of time. One of the most striking results that have obtained on the quantum computers is the prime factorization of the large integer in a polynomial time. The idea of involvement of the quantum mechanics for the computational purpose is outlined briefly in the present work that reflects the importance and advantages of the next generation of the 21st century classical computers, named as quantum computers, in terms of the cost as well as time period required for the computation purpose. Present paper presents a quantum computer simulator for executing the limitations of classical computer with respect to time and the number of digits of a composite integer used for calculating its prime factors.

Nilesh BARDE

2012-08-01

420

Tomography and spectroscopy as quantum computations

Determining the state of a system and measuring properties of its evolution are two of the most important tasks a physicist faces. For the first purpose one can use tomography, a method that after subjecting the system to a number of experiments determines all independent elements of the density matrix. For the second task, one can resort to spectroscopy, a set of techniques used to determine the spectrum of eigenvalues of the evolution operator. In this letter, we show that tomography and spectroscopy can be naturally interpreted as dual forms of quantum computation. We show how to adapt the simplest case of the well-known phase estimation quantum algorithm to perform both tasks, giving it a natural interpretation as a simulated scattering experiment. We show how this algorithm can be used to implement an interesting form of tomography by performing a direct measurement of the Wigner function of a quantum system. We present results of such measurements performed on a system of three qubits using liquid state...

Miquel, C; Saraceno, M; Knill, E H; Laflamme, R; Negrevergne, C; Miquel, Cesar; Paz, Juan Pablo; Saraceno, Marcos; Knill, Emmanuel; Laflamme, Raymond; Negrevergne, Camille

2001-01-01

421

Lecture Script: Introduction to Computational Quantum Mechanics

This document is the lecture script of a one-semester course taught at the University of Basel in the Fall semesters of 2012 and 2013. It is aimed at advanced students of physics who are familiar with the concepts and notations of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics lectures can often be separated into two classes. In the first class you get to know Schroedinger's equation and find the form and dynamics of simple physical systems (square well, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom); most calculations are analytic and inspired by calculations originally done in the 1920s and 1930s. In the second class you learn about large systems such as molecular structures, crystalline solids, or lattice models; these calculations are usually so complicated that it is difficult for the student to understand them in all detail. This lecture tries to bridge the gap between simple analytic calculations and complicated large-scale computations. We will revisit most of the problems encountered in introductory quantum mechanics, fo...

Schmied, Roman

2014-01-01

422

Adiabatic Quantum Computation with Neutral Atoms

We are implementing a new platform for adiabatic quantum computation (AQC)footnotetext E. Farhi, et al. Science 292, 472 (2000) based on trapped neutral atoms whose coupling is mediated by the dipole-dipole interactions of Rydberg states. Ground state cesium atoms are dressed by laser fields in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism,footnotetextS. Rolston, et al. Phys. Rev. A, 82, 033412 (2010)^,footnotetextT. Keating, et al. arXiv:1209.4112 (2012) thereby providing the requisite entangling interactions. As a benchmark we study a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem whose solution is found in the ground state spin configuration of an Ising-like model.[4pt] In collaboration with Lambert Parazzoli, Sandia National Laboratories; Aaron Hankin, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; James Chin-Wen Chou, Yuan-Yu Jau, Peter Schwindt, Cort Johnson, and George Burns, Sandia National Laboratories; Tyler Keating, Krittika Goyal, and Ivan Deutsch, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; and Andrew Landahl, Sandia National Laboratories.

Biedermann, Grant

2013-03-01

423

A Blueprint for a Topologically Fault-tolerant Quantum Computer

The advancement of information processing into the realm of quantum mechanics promises a transcendence in computational power that will enable problems to be solved which are completely beyond the known abilities of any "classical" computer, including any potential non-quantum technologies the future may bring. However, the fragility of quantum states poses a challenging obstacle for realization of a fault-tolerant quantum computer. The topological approach to quantum computation proposes to surmount this obstacle by using special physical systems -- non-Abelian topologically ordered phases of matter -- that would provide intrinsic fault-tolerance at the hardware level. The so-called "Ising-type" non-Abelian topological order is likely to be physically realized in a number of systems, but it can only provide a universal gate set (a requisite for quantum computation) if one has the ability to perform certain dynamical topology-changing operations on the system. Until now, practical methods of implementing thes...

Bonderson, Parsa; Freedman, Michael; Nayak, Chetan

2010-01-01

424

Computer science approach to quantum control

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whereas it is obvious that every computation process is a physical process it has hardly been recognized that many complex physical processes bear similarities to computation processes. This is in particular true for the control of physical systems on the nanoscopic level: usually the system can only be accessed via a rather limited set of elementary control operations and for many purposes only a concatenation of a large number of these basic operations will implement the desired process. This concatenation is in many cases quite similar to building complex programs from elementary steps and principles for designing algorithm may thus be a paradigm for designing control processes. For instance, one can decrease the temperature of one part of a molecule by transferring its heat to the remaining part where it is then dissipated to the environment. But the implementation of such a process involves a complex sequence of electromagnetic pulses. This work considers several hypothetical control processes on the nanoscopic level and show their analogy to computation processes. We show that measuring certain types of quantum observables is such a complex task that every instrument that is able to perform it would necessarily be an extremely powerful computer. Likewise, the implementation of a heat engine on the nanoscale requires to process the heat in a way that is similar to information processing and it can be shown that heat engines with maximal efficiency would be powerfes with maximal efficiency would be powerful computers, too. In the same way as problems in computer science can be classified by complexity classes we can also classify control problems according to their complexity. Moreover, we directly relate these complexity classes for control problems to the classes in computer science. Unifying notions of complexity in computer science and physics has therefore two aspects: on the one hand, computer science methods help to analyze the complexity of physical processes. On the other hand, reasonable definitions of complexity in computer science must be based upon a notion of elementary computation steps that correspond to not too complex real physical processes. This book tries to shed light on both aspects of this unification. (orig.)

425

Multiple network alignment on quantum computers

Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

2014-12-01

426

The limits of quantum computers; Die Grenzen der Quantencomputer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Future computers, which work with quantum bits, would indeed solve some special problems extremely fastly, but for the most problems the would hardly be superior to contemporary computers. This knowledge could manifest a new fundamental physical principle.

Aaronson, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

2008-07-15

427

A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B. [SCB Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Churchill, J.K. [Quantic-Holex, Hollister, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

428

A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

A conventional NSI (NASA Standard Initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

Bickes, R. W., Jr.; Grubelich, M. C.; Hartman, J. K.; McCampbell, C. B.; Churchill, J. K.

1994-01-01

429

Electronic structure, phonon spectra and electron-phonon interaction in ScB2

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electronic structure, Fermi surface, angle dependence of the cyclotron masses and extremal cross sections of the Fermi surface, phonon spectra, electron-phonon Eliashberg and transport spectral functions, temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of the ScB2 diboride were investigated from first principles using the fully relativistic and full potential linear muffin-tin orbital methods. The calculations of the dynamic matrix were carried out within the framework of the linear response theory. A good agreement with experimental data of electron-phonon spectral functions, electrical resistivity, cyclotron masses and extremal cross sections of the Fermi surface was achieved.

430

The Los Alamos Trapped Ion Quantum Computer Experiment

The development and theory of an experiment to investigate quantum computation with trapped calcium ions is described. The ion trap, laser and ion requirements are determined, and the parameters required for quantum logic operations as well as simple quantum factoring are described.

Hughes, R J; Gómez, J J; Gulley, M S; Holzscheiter, M H; Kwiat, P G; Lamoreaux, S K; Peterson, C G; Sandberg, V D; Schauer, M M; Simmons, C M; Thorburn, C E; Tupa, D; Wang, P Z; White, A G

1998-01-01

431

Quantum Computation, Spectroscopy of Trapped Ions, and Schrodinger's Cat

We summarize efforts at NIST to implement quantum computation using trapped ions, based on a scheme proposed by J.I. Cirac and P. Zoller (Innsbruck University). The use of quantum logic to create entangled states, which can maximize the quantum-limited signal-to-noise ratio in spectroscopy, is discussed.

Wineland, D. J.; Monroe, C.; Itano, W. M.; Kielpinski, D.; King, B. E.; Myatt, C. J.; Turchette, Q. A.; Wood, C. S.

1998-01-01

432

The Los Alamos Trapped Ion Quantum Computer Experiment

The development and theory of an experiment to investigate quantum computation with trapped calcium ions is described. The ion trap, laser and ion requirements are determined, and the parameters required for quantum logic operations as well as simple quantum factoring are described.

Hughes, R. J.; James, D. F. V.; Gomez, J. J.; Gulley, M. S.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Kwiat, P. G.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Peterson, C. G.; Sandberg, V. D.; Schauer, M. M.; Simmons, C. M.; Thorburn, C. E.; Tupa, D.; Wang, P. Z.; White, A. G.

1997-01-01

433

The concepts of quantum automata and quantum computation are studied in the context of quantum genetics and genetic networks with nonlinear dynamics. In previous publications (Baianu,1971a, b) the formal concept of quantum automaton and quantum computation, respectively, were introduced and their possible implications for genetic processes and metabolic activities in living cells and organisms were considered. This was followed by a report on quantum and abstract, symbolic computation based on the theory of categories, functors and natural transformations (Baianu,1971b; 1977; 1987; 2004; Baianu et al, 2004). The notions of topological semigroup, quantum automaton, or quantum computer, were then suggested with a view to their potential applications to the analogous simulation of biological systems, and especially genetic activities and nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks. Further, detailed studies of nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks were carried out in categories of n-valued, Lukasiewicz Logic Algebra...

Baianu,I C

2004-01-01

434

Simulation of Electronic Structure Hamiltonians Using Quantum Computers

Over the last century, a large number of physical and mathematical developments paired with rapidly advancing technology have allowed the field of quantum chemistry to advance dramatically. However, the lack of computationally efficient methods for the exact simulation of quantum systems on classical computers presents a limitation of current computational approaches. We report, in detail, how a set of pre-computed molecular integrals can be used to explicitly create a quant...

Whitfield, James D.; Biamonte, Jacob; Aspuru-guzik, Ala?n

2010-01-01

435

Quantum computers can search rapidly by using almost any transformation

A quantum computer has a clear advantage over a classical computer for exhaustive search. The quantum mechanical algorithm for exhaustive search was originally derived by using subtle properties of a particular quantum mechanical operation called the Walsh-Hadamard (W-H) transform. This paper shows that this algorithm can be implemented by replacing the W-H transform by almost any quantum mechanical operation. This leads to several new applications where it improves the number of steps by a square-root. It also broadens the scope for implementation since it demonstrates quantum mechanical algorithms that can readily adapt to available technology.

Grover, L K

1998-01-01

436

Quantum Computers Can Search Rapidly by Using Almost Any Transformation

A quantum computer has a clear advantage over a classical computer for exhaustive search. The quantum mechanical algorithm for exhaustive search was originally derived by using subtle properties of a particular quantum mechanical operation called the Walsh-Hadamard (W-H) transform. This paper shows that this algorithm can be implemented by replacing the W-H transform by almost any quantum mechanical operation. This leads to several new applications where it improves the number of steps by a square root. It also broadens the scope for implementation since it demonstrates quantum mechanical algorithms that can adapt to available technology.

Grover, Lov K.

1998-05-01

437

Quantum computation in semiconductor quantum dots of electron-spin asymmetric anisotropic exchange

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The universal quantum computation is obtained when there exists asymmetric anisotropic exchange between electron spins in coupled semiconductor quantum dots. The asymmetric Heisenberg model can be transformed into the isotropic model through the control of two local unitary rotations for the realization of essential quantum gates. The rotations on each qubit are symmetrical and depend on the strength and orientation of asymmetric exchange. The implementation of the axially symmetric local magnetic fields can assist the construction of quantum logic gates in anisotropic coupled quantum dots. This proposal can efficiently use each physical electron spin as a logical qubit in the universal quantum computation

438

Quantum computation in semiconductor quantum dots of electron-spin asymmetric anisotropic exchange

The universal quantum computation is obtained when there exists asymmetric anisotropic exchange between electron spins in coupled semiconductor quantum dots. The asymmetric Heisenberg model can be transformed into the isotropic model through the control of two local unitary rotations for the realization of essential quantum gates. The rotations on each qubit are symmetrical and depend on the strength and orientation of asymmetric exchange. The implementation of the axially symmetric local magnetic fields can assist the construction of quantum logic gates in anisotropic coupled quantum dots. This proposal can efficiently use each physical electron spin as a logical qubit in the universal quantum computation.

Hao, Xiang

2007-01-01

439

Practical experimental certification of computational quantum gates via twirling

Due to the technical difficulty of building large quantum computers, it is important to be able to estimate how faithful a given implementation is to an ideal quantum computer. The common approach of completely characterizing the computation process via quantum process tomography requires an exponential amount of resources, and thus is not practical even for relatively small devices. We solve this problem by demonstrating that twirling experiments previously used to characterize the average fidelity of quantum memories efficiently can be easily adapted to estimate the average fidelity of the experimental implementation of important quantum computation processes, such as unitaries in the Clifford group, in a practical and efficient manner with applicability in current quantum devices. Using this procedure, we demonstrate state-of-the-art coherent control of an ensemble of magnetic moments of nuclear spins in a single crystal solid by implementing the encoding operation for a 3 qubit code with only a 1% degrada...

Moussa, Osama; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

2011-01-01

440

Sufficient condition on noise correlations for scalable quantum computing

I study the effectiveness of fault-tolerant quantum computation against correlated Hamiltonian noise, and derive a sufficient condition for scalability. Arbitrarily long quantum computations can be executed reliably provided that noise terms acting collectively on k system qubits are sufficiently weak, and decay sufficiently rapidly with increasing k and with increasing spatial separation of the qubits.

Preskill, John

2012-01-01

441

Finding Matches between Two Databases on a Quantum Computer

Given two unsorted lists each of length N that have a single common entry, a quantum computer can find that matching element with a work factor of $O(N^{3/4}\\log N)$ (measured in quantum memory accesses and accesses to each list). The amount of quantum memory required is $O(N^{1/2})$. The quantum algorithm that accomplishes this consists of an inner Grover search combined with a partial sort all sitting inside of an outer Grover search.

Heiligman, M

2000-01-01

442

Knot Logic and Topological Quantum Computing with Majorana Fermions

This paper is an introduction to relationships between quantum topology and quantum computing. We take a foundational approach, showing how knots are related not just to braiding and quantum operators, but to quantum set theoretical foundations and algebras of fermions. We show how the operation of negation in logic, seen as both a value and an operator, can generate the fusion algebra for a Majorana fermion, a particle that is its own anti-particle and interacts with itself...

Kauffman, Louis H.

2013-01-01

443

Measurement-Based Quantum Computing with Valence-Bond-Solids

Measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC) is a model of quantum computing that proceeds by sequential measurements of individual spins in an entangled resource state. However, it remains a challenge to produce efficiently such resource states. Would it be possible to generate these states by simply cooling a quantum many-body system to its ground state? Cluster states, the canonical resource states for MBQC, do not occur naturally as unique ground states of physical systems...

Kwek, Leong Chuan; Wei, Zhaohui; Zeng, Bei

2011-01-01

444

Quantum computing: a view from the enemy camp

Quantum computing relies on processing information within a quantum system with many continuous degrees of freedom. The practical implementation of this idea requires complete control over all of the 2^n independent amplitudes of a many-particle wavefunction, where n>1000. The principles of quantum computing are discussed from the practical point of view with the conclusion that no working device will be built in the forseeable future.

Dyakonov, M. I.

2001-01-01

445

Computational quantum magnetism: Role of noncollinear magnetism

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We are witnessing today a golden age of innovation with novel magnetic materials and with discoveries important for both basic science and device applications. Computation and simulation have played a key role in the dramatic advances of the past and those we are witnessing today. A goal-driving computational science-simulations of every-increasing complexity of more and more realistic models has been brought into greater focus with greater computing power to run sophisticated and powerful software codes like our highly precise full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. Indeed, significant progress has been achieved from advanced first-principles FLAPW calculations for the predictions of surface/interface magnetism. One recently resolved challenging issue is the role of noncollinear magnetism (NCM) that arises not only through the SOC, but also from the breaking of symmetry at surfaces and interfaces. For this, we will further review some specific advances we are witnessing today, including complex magnetic phenomena from noncollinear magnetism with no shape approximation for the magnetization (perpendicular MCA in transition-metal overlayers and superlattices; unidirectional anisotropy and exchange bias in FM and AFM bilayers; constricted domain walls important in quantum spin interfaces; and curling magnetic nano-scale dots as new candidates for non-volatile memory applications) and most recently providing new predictions and understanding of magg new predictions and understanding of magnetism in novel materials such as magnetic semiconductors and multi-ferroic systems

446

Quantum computation in continuous time using dynamic invariants

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We introduce an approach for quantum computing in continuous time based on the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamic invariants. This approach allows, under certain conditions, for the design of quantum algorithms running on a nonadiabatic regime. We show that the relaxation of adiabaticity can be achieved by processing information in the eigenlevels of a time dependent observable, namely, the dynamic invariant operator. Moreover, we derive the conditions for which the computation can be implemented by time independent as well as by adiabatically varying Hamiltonians. We illustrate our results by providing the implementation of both Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover algorithms via dynamic invariants. -- Highlights: ? An approach for quantum computing in continuous time based on the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamic invariants is introduced. ? Nonadiabatic quantum computation is performed in the eigenlevels of the dynamic invariant operator. ? Condition of equivalence with adiabatic quantum computation is analyzed. ? Implementation of Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover algorithms is provided.

447

Magnetic qubits as hardware for quantum computers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose two potential realisations for quantum bits based on nanometre scale magnetic particles of large spin S and high anisotropy molecular clusters. In case (1) the bit-value basis states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1> are the ground and first excited spin states Sz = S and S-1, separated by an energy gap given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. In case (2), when there is significant tunnelling through the anisotropy barrier, the qubit states correspond to the symmetric, vertical bar-0>, and antisymmetric, vertical bar-1>, combinations of the two-fold degenerate ground state Sz = ± S. In each case the temperature of operation must be low compared to the energy gap, ?, between the states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1>. The gap ? in case (2) can be controlled with an external magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis of the molecular cluster. The states of different molecular clusters and magnetic particles may be entangled by connecting them by superconducting lines with Josephson switches, leading to the potential for quantum computing hardware. (author)

448

The Universe as a Quantum Computer

This article presents a sequential growth model for the universe that acts like a quantum computer. The basic constituents of the model are a special type of causal set (causet) called a $c$-causet. A $c$-causet is defined to be a causet that is independent of its labeling. We characterize $c$-causets as those causets that form a multipartite graph or equivalently those causets whose elements are comparable whenever their heights are different. We show that a $c$-causet has precisely two $c$-causet offspring. It follows that there are $2^n$ $c$-causets of cardinality $n+1$. This enables us to classify $c$-causets of cardinality $n+1$ in terms of $n$-bits. We then quantize the model by introducing a quantum sequential growth process. This is accomplished by replacing the $n$-bits by $n$-qubits and defining transition amplitudes for the growth transitions. We mainly consider two types of processes called stationary and completely stationary. We show that for stationary processes, the probability operators are t...

Gudder, Stan

2014-01-01

449

Magnetic qubits as hardware for quantum computers

We propose two potential realisations for quantum bits based on nanometre scale magnetic particles of large spin S and high anisotropy molecular clusters. In case (1) the bit-value basis states |0> and |1> are the ground and first excited spin states Sz = S and S-1, separated by an energy gap given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. In case (2), when there is significant tunnelling through the anisotropy barrier, the qubit states correspond to the symmetric, |0>, and antisymmetric, |1>, combinations of the two-fold degenerate ground state Sz = +- S. In each case the temperature of operation must be low compared to the energy gap, \\Delta, between the states |0> and |1>. The gap \\Delta in case (2) can be controlled with an external magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis of the molecular cluster. The states of different molecular clusters and magnetic particles may be entangled by connecting them by superconducting lines with Josephson switches, leading to the potential for quantum computing ...

Tejada, J; Barco, E; Hernández, J M; Spiller, T P

2000-01-01

450

Quantum computing with magnetically interacting atoms

We propose a scalable quantum-computing architecture based on cold atoms confined to sites of a tight optical lattice. The lattice is placed in a non-uniform magnetic field and the resulting Zeeman sublevels define qubit states. Microwave pulses tuned to space-dependent resonant frequencies are used for individual addressing. The atoms interact via magnetic-dipole interactions allowing implementation of a universal controlled-NOT gate. The resulting gate operation times for alkalis are on the order of milliseconds, much faster then the anticipated decoherence times. Single qubit operations take about 10 microseconds. Analysis of motional decoherence due to NOT operations is given. We also comment on the improved feasibility of the proposed architecture with complex open-shell atoms, such as Cr, Eu and metas

Derevianko, A; Derevianko, Andrei; Cannon, Caleb C.

2004-01-01

451

Spin quantum computation in silicon nanostructures

Proposed silicon-based quantum-computer architectures have attracted attention because of their promise for scalability and their potential for synergetically utilizing the available resources associated with the existing Si technology infrastructure. Electronic and nuclear spins of shallow donors (e.g. phosphorus) in Si are ideal candidates for qubits in such proposals because of their long spin coherence times due to their limited interactions with their environments. For these spin qubits, shallow donor exchange gates are frequently invoked to perform two-qubit operations. We discuss in this review a particularly important spin decoherence channel, and bandstructure effects on the exchange gate control. Specifically, we review our work on donor electron spin spectral diffusion due to background nuclear spin flip-flops, and how isotopic purification of silicon can significantly enhance the electron spin dephasing time. We then review our calculation of donor electron exchange coupling in the presence of deg...

Sarma, S D; Hu, X; Koiller, B; Sousa, Rogerio de; Hu, Xuedong; Koiller, Belita

2004-01-01

452

Quantum computation of multifractal exponents through the quantum wavelet transform

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the use of the quantum wavelet transform to extract efficiently information about the multifractal exponents for multifractal quantum states. We show that, combined with quantum simulation algorithms, it enables to build quantum algorithms for multifractal exponents with a polynomial gain compared to classical simulations. Numerical results indicate that a rough estimate of fractality could be obtained exponentially fast. Our findings are relevant, e.g., for quantum simulations of multifractal quantum maps and of the Anderson model at the metal-insulator transition.

453

Elementary Particles as Gates for Universal Quantum Computation

It is shown that there exists a mapping between the fermions of the Standard Model (SM) represented as braids in the Bilson-Thompson model, and a set of gates which can perform Universal Quantum Computation (UQC). This leads us to conjecture that the "Computational Universe Hypothesis" (CUH) can be given a concrete implementation in a new physical framework where elementary particles and the gauge bosons (which intermediate interactions between fermions) are interpreted as the components of a quantum computational network, with the particles serving as quantum computational gates and the gauge fields as the information carrying entities.

Vaid, Deepak

2013-01-01

454

Quantum computing and the entanglement frontier

Quantum information science explores the frontier of highly complex quantum states, the "entanglement frontier." This study is motivated by the observation (widely believed but unproven) that classical systems cannot simulate highly entangled quantum systems efficiently, and we hope to hasten the day when well controlled quantum systems can perform tasks surpassing what can be done in the classical world. One way to achieve such "quantum supremacy" would be to run an algorit...

Preskill, John

2012-01-01

455

Quantum picturalism for topological cluster-state computing

'Quantum picturalism' is a method for graphically representing processes in quantum mechanics. It is of particular interest for quantum information processes, defining a 'flow' of information through a protocol or algorithm. In this paper we apply the category-theoretic work of Abramsky and Coecke to the topological cluster-state model of quantum computing to show the topological equivalence of defect strands in the cluster state and the graphical flow of the red/green calculus. We concentrate here on the pictorial representation, and use a minimal amount of the machinery of category theory. We give the equivalence between the graphical and topological information flows, and show the applicable rewrite algebra for this computing model. Finally we show how the use of quantum picturalism gives a proof algebra for topological cluster state computing, from which we can derive previously unknown properties of the model. This work not only demonstrates for the first time a concrete realisation of quantum diagrammat...

Horsman, Clare

2011-01-01

456

The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing

1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental c...

2004-01-01

457

Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0? and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity. PMID:21266968

Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

2011-01-25

458

The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing

1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental ...

2004-01-01

459

The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing

1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental...

2004-01-01

460

Quantum Computers: Noise Propagation and Adversarial Noise Models

In this paper we consider adversarial noise models that will fail quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. We describe known results regarding high-rate noise, sequential computation, and reversible noisy computation. We continue by discussing highly correlated noise and the "boundary," in terms of correlation of errors, of the "threshold theorem." Next, we draw a picture of adversarial forms of noise called (collectively) "detrimental noise." ...

Kalai, Gil

2009-01-01

461

The Signals and Systems Approach to Quantum Computation

In this note we point out the fact that the proper conceptual setting of quantum computation is the theory of Linear Time Invariant systems. To convince readers of the utility of the approach, we introduce a new model of computation based on the orthogonal group. This makes the link to traditional electronics engineering clear. We conjecture that the speed up achieved in quantum computation is at the cost of increased circuit complexity.

Gadiyar, H G; Padma, R; Sharatchandra, H S

2003-01-01

462

From transistor to trapped-ion computers for quantum chemistry

Over the last few decades, quantum chemistry has progressed through the development of computational methods based on modern digital computers. However, these methods can hardly fulfill the exponentially-growing resource requirements when applied to large quantum systems. As pointed out by Feynman, this restriction is intrinsic to all computational models based on classical physics. Recently, the rapid advancement of trapped-ion technologies has opened new possibilities for ...

-h Yung, M.; Casanova, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Mcclean, J.; Lamata, L.; Aspuru-guzik, A.; Solano, E.

2014-01-01

463

Knill-Laflamme-Milburn Quantum Computation with Bosonic Atoms

A Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) type quantum computation with bosonic neutral atoms or bosonic ions is suggested. Crucially, as opposite to other quantum computation schemes involving atoms (ions), no controlled interactions between atoms (ions) involving their internal levels are required. Versus photonic KLM computation, this scheme has the advantage that single-atom (ion) sources are more natural than single-photon sources, and single-atom (ion) detectors are far more efficient than single-photon ones.

Popescu, Sandu

2007-09-01

464

Quantum computation teaches us that quantum mechanics exhibits exponential complexity. We argue that the standard scientific paradigm of "predict and verify" cannot be applied to testing quantum mechanics in this limit of high complexity. We describe how QM can be tested in this regime by extending the usual scientific paradigm to include {\\it interactive experiments}.

Aharonov, Dorit; Vazirani, Umesh

2012-01-01

465

How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation

The feasibility of computationally superior quantum computers is one of the most exciting and clear-cut scientific questions of our time. The question touches on fundamental issues regarding probability, physics, and computability, as well as on exciting problems in experimental physics, engineering, computer science, and mathematics. We propose three related directions towards a negative answer. The first is a conjecture about physical realizations of quantum codes, the sec...

Kalai, Gil

2011-01-01

466

Quantum Monte Carlo Endstation for Petascale Computing

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NCSU research group has been focused on accomplising the key goals of this initiative: establishing new generation of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) computational tools as a part of Endstation petaflop initiative for use at the DOE ORNL computational facilities and for use by computational electronic structure community at large; carrying out high accuracy quantum Monte Carlo demonstration projects in application of these tools to the forefront electronic structure problems in molecular and solid systems; expanding the impact of QMC methods and approaches; explaining and enhancing the impact of these advanced computational approaches. In particular, we have developed quantum Monte Carlo code (QWalk, www.qwalk.org) which was significantly expanded and optimized using funds from this support and at present became an actively used tool in the petascale regime by ORNL researchers and beyond. These developments have been built upon efforts undertaken by the PI's group and collaborators over the period of the last decade. The code was optimized and tested extensively on a number of parallel architectures including petaflop ORNL Jaguar machine. We have developed and redesigned a number of code modules such as evaluation of wave functions and orbitals, calculations of pfaffians and introduction of backflow coordinates together with overall organization of the code and random walker distribution over multicore architectures. We have addressed several bottlenecks such as load balancing and verified efficiency and accuracy of the calculations with the other groups of the Endstation team. The QWalk package contains about 50,000 lines of high quality object-oriented C++ and includes also interfaces to data files from other conventional electronic structure codes such as Gamess, Gaussian, Crystal and others. This grant supported PI for one month during summers, a full-time postdoc and partially three graduate students over the period of the grant duration, it has resulted in 13 published papers, 15 invited talks and lectures nationally and internationally. My former graduate student and postdoc Dr. Michal Bajdich, who was supported byt this grant, is currently a postdoc with ORNL in the group of Dr. F. Reboredo and Dr. P. Kent and is using the developed tools in a number of DOE projects. The QWalk package has become a truly important research tool used by the electronic structure community and has attracted several new developers in other research groups. Our tools use several types of correlated wavefunction approaches, variational, diffusion and reptation methods, large-scale optimization methods for wavefunctions and enables to calculate energy differences such as cohesion, electronic gaps, but also densities and other properties, using multiple runs one can obtain equations of state for given structures and beyond. Our codes use efficient numerical and Monte Carlo strategies (high accuracy numerical orbitals, multi-reference wave functions, highly accurate correlation factors, pairing orbitals, force biased and correlated sampling Monte Carlo), are robustly parallelized and enable to run on tens of thousands cores very efficiently. Our demonstration applications were focused on the challenging research problems in several fields of materials science such as transition metal solids. We note that our study of FeO solid was the first QMC calculation of transition metal oxides at high pressures.

Lubos Mitas

2011-01-26

467

Continuous-variable quantum computing in optical time-frequency modes using quantum memories.

We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate, and measure two-dimensional cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that are a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures. PMID:25302876

Humphreys, Peter C; Kolthammer, W Steven; Nunn, Joshua; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

2014-09-26

468

Gate-count estimates for performing quantum chemistry on small quantum computers

As quantum computing technology improves and quantum computers with a small but nontrivial number of N ?100 qubits appear feasible in the near future the question of possible applications of small quantum computers gains importance. One frequently mentioned application is Feynman's original proposal of simulating quantum systems and, in particular, the electronic structure of molecules and materials. In this paper, we analyze the computational requirements for one of the standard algorithms to perform quantum chemistry on a quantum computer. We focus on the quantum resources required to find the ground state of a molecule twice as large as what current classical computers can solve exactly. We find that while such a problem requires about a 10-fold increase in the number of qubits over current technology, the required increase in the number of gates that can be coherently executed is many orders of magnitude larger. This suggests that for quantum computation to become useful for quantum chemistry problems, drastic algorithmic improvements will be needed.

Wecker, Dave; Bauer, Bela; Clark, Bryan K.; Hastings, Matthew B.; Troyer, Matthias

2014-08-01

469

On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.

Farid Ablayev

2011-03-01

470

Quantum computing and communication with decoherence-free atomic states

To resist decoherence from destroying the phase factor of qubit state, it is important to use decoherence-free states for processing, transmitting and storing quantum information in quantum computing and quantum communication. We propose a practical scheme using four atoms with decoherence-free states in a single-mode cavity to realize the entanglement and fundamental quantum logic gates. The transmission of quantum information can be made directly from one atom to another, in which the cavity is only virtually excited. The possible application and the experimental requirement of our proposal are discussed

Feng, M

2001-01-01

471

We present a model for quantum computation using n steady 3-level atoms or 3-level quantum dots, kept inside a quantum electro-dynamics (QED) cavity. Our model allows one-qubit operations and the two-qubit controlled-NOT gate as required for universal quantum computation. The n quantum bits are described by two energy levels of each atom/dot. An external laser and n separate pairs of electrodes are used to address a single atom/dot independent of the others, via Stark effect...

Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, Kang L.

2000-01-01

472

General-Purpose Parallel Simulator for Quantum Computing

With current technologies, it seems to be very difficult to implement quantum computers with many qubits. It is therefore of importance to simulate quantum algorithms and circuits on the existing computers. However, for a large-size problem, the simulation often requires more computational power than is available from sequential processing. Therefore, the simulation methods using parallel processing are required. We have developed a general-purpose simulator for quantum computing on the parallel computer (Sun, Enterprise4500). It can deal with up-to 30 qubits. We have performed Shor's factorization and Grover's database search by using the simulator, and we analyzed robustness of the corresponding quantum circuits in the presence of decoherence and operational errors. The corresponding results, statistics and analyses are presented.

Niwa, J; Imai, H; Niwa, Jumpei; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi

2002-01-01

473

Architectural design for a topological cluster state quantum computer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a large scale quantum computer is a highly sought after goal of fundamental research and consequently a highly non-trivial problem. Scalability in quantum information processing is not just a problem of qubit manufacturing and control but it crucially depends on the ability to adapt advanced techniques in quantum information theory, such as error correction, to the experimental restrictions of assembling qubit arrays into the millions. In this paper, we introduce a feasible architectural design for large scale quantum computation in optical systems. We combine the recent developments in topological cluster state computation with the photonic module, a simple chip-based device that can be used as a fundamental building block for a large-scale computer. The integration of the topological cluster model with this comparatively simple operational element addresses many significant issues in scalable computing and leads to a promising modular architecture with complete integration of active error correction, exhibiting high fault-tolerant thresholds.

Devitt, Simon J; Munro, William J; Nemoto, Kae [National Institute for Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan); Fowler, Austin G [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Stephens, Ashley M; Greentree, Andrew D; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: devitt@nii.ac.jp

2009-08-15

474

Different quantum phases have different computational power

The observation that concepts from quantum information has generated many alternative indicators of quantum phase transitions hints that quantum phase transitions could possess operational significance with respect to the processing of quantum information. Yet, there has remained few studies on whether the different quantum phases that result from such transitions differ in their capacity to process information. We show there exists quantum phase transitions that cause a distinct qualitative change in our ability to simulate certain quantum systems under perturbation of an external field by local operations and classical communication. In particular, by studying the general XY model we show that in certain quantum phases, the effect of adiabatic perturbations of the external magnetic field can be simulated by local spin operations, whereas the resulting effect within other phases results in fundamentally non-local interactions. We discuss the potential implications of such phase transitions to adiabatic quant...

Cui, Jian; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Santos, Marcelo França; Fan, Heng; Vedral, Vlatko

2011-01-01

475

Integrated photonic qubit quantum computing on a superconducting chip

We study a quantum computing system using microwave photons in transmission line resonators on a superconducting chip as qubits. We show that all control necessary for quantum computing can be implemented by coupling to Josephson devices on the same chip, and take advantage of their strong inherent nonlinearities to realize qubit interactions. We analyze the gate error rate to demonstrate that our scheme is realistic even for Josephson devices with limited decoherence times. A conceptually innovative solution based on existing technologies, our scheme provides an integrated and scalable approach to the next key milestone for photonic qubit quantum computing.

Du, Lianghui; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Xingxiang

2009-01-01

476

Quantum physics has revolutionized our understanding of information processing and enables computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. This tutorial reviews the fundamental tools of photonic quantum information processing. The basics of theoretical quantum computing are presented and the quantum circuit model as well as measurement-based models of quantum computing are introduced. Furthermore, it is shown how these concepts can be implemented experimentally using photonic qubits, where information is encoded in the photons’ polarization.

Barz, Stefanie

2015-04-01

477

Computational Nuclear Quantum Many-Body Problem: The UNEDF Project

The UNEDF project was a large-scale collaborative effort that applied high-performance computing to the nuclear quantum many-body problem. UNEDF demonstrated that close associations among nuclear physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists can lead to novel physics outcomes built on algorithmic innovations and computational developments. This review showcases a wide range of UNEDF science results to illustrate this interplay.

Bogner, Scott; Carlson, Joseph A; Engel, Jonathan; Fann, George; Furnstahl, Richard J; Gandolfi, Stefano; Hagen, Gaute; Horoi, Mihai; Johnson, Calvin W; Kortelainen, Markus; Lusk, Ewing; Maris, Pieter; Nam, Hai Ah; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold; Ng, Esmond G; Nobre, Gustavo P A; Ormand, Erich; Papenbrock, Thomas; Pei, Jun