SCB Quantum Computers Using iSWAP and 1-Qubit Rotations
Williams, Colin; Echtemach, Pierre
2005-01-01
Units of superconducting circuitry that exploit the concept of the single- Cooper-pair box (SCB) have been built and are undergoing testing as prototypes of logic gates that could, in principle, constitute building blocks of clocked quantum computers. These units utilize quantized charge states as the quantum information-bearing degrees of freedom. An SCB is an artificial two-level quantum system that comprises a nanoscale superconducting electrode connected to a reservoir of Cooper-pair charges via a Josephson junction. The logical quantum states of the device, .0. and .1., are implemented physically as a pair of charge-number states that differ by 2e (where e is the charge of an electron). Typically, some 109 Cooper pairs are involved. Transitions between the logical states are accomplished by tunneling of Cooper pairs through the Josephson junction. Although the two-level system contains a macroscopic number of charges, in the superconducting regime, they behave collectively, as a Bose-Einstein condensate, making possible a coherent superposition of the two logical states. This possibility makes the SCB a candidate for the physical implementation of a qubit. A set of quantum logic operations and the gates that implement them is characterized as universal if, in principle, one can form combinations of the operations in the set to implement any desired quantum computation. To be able to design a practical quantum computer, one must first specify how to decompose any valid quantum computation into a sequence of elementary 1- and 2-qubit quantum gates that are universal and that can be realized in hardware that is feasible to fabricate. Traditionally, the set of universal gates has been taken to be the set of all 1-qubit quantum gates in conjunction with the controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate, which is a 2-qubit gate. Also, it has been known for some time that the SWAP gate, which implements square root of the simple 2-qubit exchange interaction, is as computationally universal as is the CNOT operation.
Universal quantum gates for Single Cooper Pair Box based quantum computing
Echternach, P.; Williams, C. P.; Dultz, S. C.; Braunstein, S.; Dowling, J. P.
2000-01-01
We describe a method for achieving arbitrary 1-qubit gates and controlled-NOT gates within the context of the Single Cooper Pair Box (SCB) approach to quantum computing. Such gates are sufficient to support universal quantum computation.
Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator
Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.
1999-01-19
The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.
Li, Shu-Shen; Long, Gui-Lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi
2001-01-01
Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization.
Avaliani, A
2004-01-01
This research paper gives an overview of quantum computers - description of their operation, differences between quantum and silicon computers, major construction problems of a quantum computer and many other basic aspects. No special scientific knowledge is necessary for the reader.
Kiili, Markus
1998-01-01
The aim of this thesis was to explain what quantum computing is. The information for the thesis was gathered from books, scientific publications, and news articles. The analysis of the information revealed that quantum computing can be broken down to three areas: theories behind quantum computing explaining the structure of a quantum computer, known quantum algorithms, and the actual physical realizations of a quantum computer. The thesis reveals that moving from classical memor...
Quantum Chaos & Quantum Computers
Shepelyansky, D. L.
2000-01-01
The standard generic quantum computer model is studied analytically and numerically and the border for emergence of quantum chaos, induced by imperfections and residual inter-qubit couplings, is determined. This phenomenon appears in an isolated quantum computer without any external decoherence. The onset of quantum chaos leads to quantum computer hardware melting, strong quantum entropy growth and destruction of computer operability. The time scales for development of quant...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As computers become ever more complex, they inevitably become smaller. This leads to a need for components which are fabricated and operate on increasingly smaller size scales. Quantum theory is already taken into account in microelectronics design. This article explores how quantum theory will need to be incorporated into computers in future in order to give them their components functionality. Computation tasks which depend on quantum effects will become possible. Physicists may have to reconsider their perspective on computation in the light of understanding developed in connection with universal quantum computers. (UK)
Quantum Computation and Quantum Information
WANG, YAZHEN
2012-01-01
Quantum computation and quantum information are of great current interest in computer science, mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. They will likely lead to a new wave of technological innovations in communication, computation and cryptography. As the theory of quantum physics is fundamentally stochastic, randomness and uncertainty are deeply rooted in quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum information. Consequently quantum algorithms are random in na...
Eisert, J.; M. M. Wolf
2004-01-01
This article gives an elementary introduction to quantum computing. It is a draft for a book chapter of the "Handbook of Nature-Inspired and Innovative Computing", Eds. A. Zomaya, G.J. Milburn, J. Dongarra, D. Bader, R. Brent, M. Eshaghian-Wilner, F. Seredynski (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2006).
Leske, Cavin.
Moore's Law is a famous rule of thumb that says transistor density, and hence microprocessor performance, doubles approximately every eighteen months. While this trend has stood the test of time, many experts believe it will eventually grind to a halt when physical limitations prevent further miniaturization. Although this will likely not happen for twenty years or more, researchers are already looking at a potential solution.The concept of quantum computing has been around since the 1970's, but the science is still in its infancy. To learn about its profound implications, Liquid Logic (1) is a solid article with some remarkable insights into the technology. One of the most comprehensive sources on the Web is at the Centre for Quantum Computation (2) (last mentioned in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report). This has lots of introductory materials and tutorials that explain many of the basic concepts of quantum computing. The Centre's research efforts are also detailed on the site. Another good site for people new to the subject is the home page of Magiq Technologies (3). A very informative section about quantum information processing looks at some of the history of its development and its applications for the future. The company addresses some key issues in the frequently asked questions section, such as why research in this area could be so important. The Quantum Logic and Coherent Control Project Web site (4) presents extensive advanced theory about several experiments conducted with an rf (Paul) ion trap. The discussions are replete with equations and graphs, probably most suited for post graduate research. The Institute for Quantum Information (5) offers over 30 of its publications online, most of which are very recent. Because it is located at the California Institute of Technology, there are links to course home pages with lecture notes and solutions to problems. Users of the popular Mathematica software can add a powerful library of quantum computation functions with the free QuCalc package (6). The download site has documentation for the software and a few examples that include Mathematica code. Quantum Leap: Seize the Light (7) is an insightful article that discusses two recently published papers that address two promising methods of harnessing qubits (the fundamental unit of storage for quantum computation). This is necessary for the advancement of the technology, because the current methods are quite limited. EE Times hosts another article (8) about one of the newest breakthroughs in quantum information processing. Researchers at Harvard University have successfully transferred quantum information from a laser beam into and out of the spin state of rubidium atoms. The article considers the accomplishment and looks at what the group is planning next.
Quantum interferometers as quantum computers
Ekert, A
1998-01-01
Quantum computers which use quantum interference of different computational paths to enhance correct outcomes and suppress erroneous outcomes of computations can be viewed as multiparticle interferometers. I discuss this approach to quantum computation and argue that it provides additional insights into the nature of quantum algorithms.
Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices
Lloyd, Seth
2000-01-01
This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.
Requirement for quantum computation
Bartlett, Stephen D.; Sanders, Barry C
2003-01-01
We identify "proper quantum computation" with computational processes that cannot be efficiently simulated on a classical computer. For optical quantum computation, we establish "no-go" theorems for classes of quantum optical experiments that cannot yield proper quantum computation, and we identify requirements for optical proper quantum computation that correspond to violations of assumptions underpinning the no-go theorems.
Quantum information and computation
Bub, Jeffrey
2005-01-01
This article deals with theoretical developments in the subject of quantum information and quantum computation, and includes an overview of classical information and some relevant quantum mechanics. The discussion covers topics in quantum communication, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, and concludes by considering whether a perspective in terms of quantum information sheds new light on the conceptual problems of quantum mechanics.
Prashant Anil Patil; Kanchan Vishalkumar Wankhade; Seema Nathu Lokhande
2012-01-01
This paper gives the detailed information about Quantum computer, and difference between quantum computer and traditional computers, the basis of Quantum computers which are slightly similar but still different from traditional computer. Many research groups are working towards the highly technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. Quantum computer is very much use full for computation purpose in field of Scienc...
Quantum Computational Complexity
Watrous, John
2008-01-01
This article surveys quantum computational complexity, with a focus on three fundamental notions: polynomial-time quantum computations, the efficient verification of quantum proofs, and quantum interactive proof systems. Properties of quantum complexity classes based on these notions, such as BQP, QMA, and QIP, are presented. Other topics in quantum complexity, including quantum advice, space-bounded quantum computation, and bounded-depth quantum circuits, are also discussed.
Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.
2010-01-01
We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us, and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data is encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped dire...
Quantum Robots and Quantum Computers
Benioff, Paul
1997-01-01
Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with environm...
Quantum Computing for Computer Architects
Metodi, Tzvetan
2011-01-01
Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore
Physics of quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the paper, the modern status of the theory of quantum computation is considered. The fundamental principles of quantum computers and their basic notions such as quantum processors and computational basis states of the quantum Turing machine as well as the quantum Fourier transform are discussed. Some possible experimental realizations on the basis of NMR methods are given
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prashant Anil Patil
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper gives the detailed information about Quantum computer, and difference between quantum computer and traditional computers, the basis of Quantum computers which are slightly similar but still different from traditional computer. Many research groups are working towards the highly technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. Quantum computer is very much use full for computation purpose in field of Science and Research. Large amount of data and information will be computed, processing, storing, retrieving, transmitting and displaying information in less time with that much of accuracy which is not provided by traditional computers.
Lloyd, Seth
2000-01-01
Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the construction of a hybrid quantum computer that operates on both continuous and discrete quantum variables. Such hybrid computers are shown to be more efficient than conventional quantum computers for performing a variety of quantum algorithms, such as computing eigenvectors and eigenvalues.
RAEDT, Hans De; Hams, Anthony; MICHIELSEN, Kristel; De Raedt, Koen
1999-01-01
We describe a quantum computer emulator for a generic, general purpose quantum computer. This emulator consists of a simulator of the physical realization of the quantum computer and a graphical user interface to program and control the simulator. We illustrate the use of the quantum computer emulator through various implementations of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover's database search algorithm.
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
Quantum Logic and Quantum Computation
Pavicic, Mladen; Megill, Norman D.
2008-01-01
We use classes of Hilbert lattice equations for an alternative representation of Hilbert lattices and Hilbert spaces of arbitrary quantum systems that might enable a direct introduction of the states of the systems into quantum computers. More specifically, we look for a way to feed a quantum computer with algebraic equations of n-th order underlying an infinite dimensional Hilbert space description of quantum systems. A number of new results on states defined on Hilbert lat...
Quantum robots and quantum computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benioff, P.
1998-07-01
Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.
Ground State Quantum Computation
Mizel, Ari; M.W. Mitchell; Cohen, Marvin L.
1999-01-01
We formulate a novel ground state quantum computation approach that requires no unitary evolution of qubits in time: the qubits are fixed in stationary states of the Hamiltonian. This formulation supplies a completely time-independent approach to realizing quantum computers. We give a concrete suggestion for a ground state quantum computer involving linked quantum dots.
Ladd, Thaddeus D; Laflamme, Raymond; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Monroe, Christopher; O'Brien, Jeremy L; 10.1038/nature08812
2010-01-01
Quantum mechanics---the theory describing the fundamental workings of nature---is famously counterintuitive: it predicts that a particle can be in two places at the same time, and that two remote particles can be inextricably and instantaneously linked. These predictions have been the topic of intense metaphysical debate ever since the theory's inception early last century. However, supreme predictive power combined with direct experimental observation of some of these unusual phenomena leave little doubt as to its fundamental correctness. In fact, without quantum mechanics we could not explain the workings of a laser, nor indeed how a fridge magnet operates. Over the last several decades quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we gain some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that exhibit these unique quantum properties? Today it is understood that the answer is yes. Many research groups around the world are working towards one ...
Integrable Quantum Computation
Zhang, Yong
2011-01-01
Integrable quantum computation is defined as quantum computing via the integrable condition, in which two-qubit gates are either nontrivial unitary solutions of the Yang--Baxter equation or the Swap gate (permutation). To make the definition clear, in this article, we explore the physics underlying the quantum circuit model, and then present a unified description on both quantum computing via the Bethe ansatz and quantum computing via the Yang--Baxter equation.
David P. DiVincenzo
1996-01-01
I provide an introduction to quantum computers, describing how they might be realized using language accessible to a solid state physicist. A listing of the minimal requirements for creating a quantum computer is given. I also discuss several recent developments in the area of quantum error correction, a subject of importance not only to quantum computation, but also to some aspects of the foundations of quantum theory.
Searching with Quantum Computers
Grover, Lov K.
2000-01-01
This article introduces quantum computation by analogy with probabilistic computation. A basic description of the quantum search algorithm is given by representing the algorithm as a C program in a novel way.
Quantum Computers and Quantum Coherence
Di Vincenzo, D P
1999-01-01
If the states of spins in solids can be created, manipulated, and measured at the single-quantum level, an entirely new form of information processing, quantum computing, will be possible. We first give an overview of quantum information processing, showing that the famous Shor speedup of integer factoring is just one of a host of important applications for qubits, including cryptography, counterfeit protection, channel capacity enhancement, distributed computing, and others. We review our proposed spin-quantum dot architecture for a quantum computer, and we indicate a variety of first generation materials, optical, and electrical measurements which should be considered. We analyze the efficiency of a two-dot device as a transmitter of quantum information via the ballistic propagation of carriers in a Fermi sea.
Introduction to quantum computers
Berman, Gennady P; Mainieri, Ronnie; Tsifrinovich, Vladimir I
1998-01-01
Quantum computing promises to solve problems which are intractable on digital computers. Highly parallel quantum algorithms can decrease the computational time for some problems by many orders of magnitude. This important book explains how quantum computers can do these amazing things. Several algorithms are illustrated: the discrete Fourier transform, Shorâ€™s algorithm for prime factorization; algorithms for quantum logic gates; physical implementations of quantum logic gates in ion traps and in spin chains; the simplest schemes for quantum error correction; correction of errors caused by im
Algorithms for Quantum Computers
Smith, Jamie; Mosca, Michele
2010-01-01
This paper surveys the field of quantum computer algorithms. It gives a taste of both the breadth and the depth of the known algorithms for quantum computers, focusing on some of the more recent results. It begins with a brief review of quantum Fourier transform based algorithms, followed by quantum searching and some of its early generalizations. It continues with a more in-depth description of two more recent developments: algorithms developed in the quantum walk paradigm,...
Computing quantum phase transitions
Vojta, Thomas
2007-01-01
This article first gives a concise introduction to quantum phase transitions, emphasizing similarities with and differences to classical thermal transitions. After pointing out the computational challenges posed by quantum phase transitions, a number of successful computational approaches is discussed. The focus is on classical and quantum Monte Carlo methods, with the former being based on the quantum-to classical mapping while the latter directly attack the quantum problem...
Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
I. V. Volovich
1999-01-01
The current proposals for the realization of quantum computer such as NMR, quantum dots and trapped ions are based on the using of an atom or an ion as one qubit. In these proposals a quantum computer consists from several atoms and the coupling between them provides the coupling between qubits necessary for a quantum gate. We discuss whether a {\\it single} atom can be used as a quantum computer. Internal states of the atom serve to hold the quantum information and the spin-...
Fujii, Toshiyuki; Matsuo, Shigemasa; Hatakenaka, Noriyuki
2009-01-01
We propose a fluxon-controlled quantum computer incorporated with three-qubit quantum error correction using special gate operations, i.e., joint-phase and SWAP gate operations, inherent in capacitively coupled superconducting flux qubits. The proposed quantum computer acts exactly like a knitting machine at home.
Quantum Computation as Geometry
Nielsen, Michael A.; Dowling, Mark R.; Gu, Mile; Doherty, Andrew C.
2006-01-01
Quantum computers hold great promise, but it remains a challenge to find efficient quantum circuits that solve interesting computational problems. We show that finding optimal quantum circuits is essentially equivalent to finding the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry. By recasting the problem of finding quantum circuits as a geometric problem, we open up the possibility of using the mathematical techniques of Riemannian geometry to suggest new qua...
Quantum Computers and Dissipation
Palma, GM; Suominen, KA; Ekert, AK
1997-01-01
We analyse dissipation in quantum computation and its destructive impact on efficiency of quantum algorithms. Using a general model of decoherence, we study the time evolution of a quantum register of arbitrary length coupled with an environment of arbitrary coherence length. We discuss relations between decoherence and computational complexity and show that the quantum factorization algorithm must be modified in order to be regarded as efficient and realistic.
Adiabatic topological quantum computing
Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice
2014-01-01
Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the...
Quantum computing classical physics
Meyer, David A.
2001-01-01
In the past decade quantum algorithms have been found which outperform the best classical solutions known for certain classical problems as well as the best classical methods known for simulation of certain quantum systems. This suggests that they may also speed up the simulation of some classical systems. I describe one class of discrete quantum algorithms which do so--quantum lattice gas automata--and show how to implement them efficiently on standard quantum computers.
Probabilistic Cloning and Quantum Computation
Gao, Ting; Yan, Feng-Li; Wang, Zhi-Xi
2004-06-01
We discuss the usefulness of quantum cloning and present examples of quantum computation tasks for which the cloning offers an advantage which cannot be matched by any approach that does not resort to quantum cloning. In these quantum computations, we need to distribute quantum information contained in the states about which we have some partial information. To perform quantum computations, we use a state-dependent probabilistic quantum cloning procedure to distribute quantum information in the middle of a quantum computation.
'Photosynthetic' Quantum Computers?
Hitchcock, Scott M.
2001-01-01
Do quantum computers already exist in Nature? It is proposed that they do. Photosynthesis is one example in which a 'quantum computer' component may play a role in the 'classical' world of complex biological systems. A 'translation' of the standard metabolic description of the 'front-end' light harvesting complex in photosynthesis into the language of quantum computers is presented. Biological systems represent an untapped resource for thinking about the design and operation...
Quantum Computing Without Entanglement
Biham, Eli; Brassard, Gilles; Kenigsberg, Dan; Mor, Tal
2003-01-01
It is generally believed that entanglement is essential for quantum computing. We present here a few simple examples in which quantum computing without entanglement is better than anything classically achievable, in terms of the reliability of the outcome after a xed number of oracle calls. Using a separable (that is, unentangled) n-qubit state, we show that the Deutsch-Jozsa problem and the Simon problem can be solved more reliably by a quantum computer than by the best pos...
Explorations in quantum computing
Williams, Colin P
2011-01-01
By the year 2020, the basic memory components of a computer will be the size of individual atoms. At such scales, the current theory of computation will become invalid. ""Quantum computing"" is reinventing the foundations of computer science and information theory in a way that is consistent with quantum physics - the most accurate model of reality currently known. Remarkably, this theory predicts that quantum computers can perform certain tasks breathtakingly faster than classical computers -- and, better yet, can accomplish mind-boggling feats such as teleporting information, breaking suppos
Scalable optical quantum computer
Manykin, E. A.; Mel'nichenko, E. V.
2014-12-01
A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr3+, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y2SiO5) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications.
Cloning and quantum computation
Galvao, Ernesto F.; Hardy, Lucien
2000-01-01
We discuss how quantum information distribution can improve the performance of some quantum computation tasks. This distribution can be naturally implemented with different types of quantum cloning procedures. We give two examples of tasks for which cloning provides some enhancement in performance, and briefly discuss possible extensions of the idea.
Cloning and quantum computation
Galvão, E F; Galvao, Ernesto F.; Hardy, Lucien
2000-01-01
We discuss how quantum information distribution can improve the performanceof some quantum computation tasks. This distribution can be naturallyimplemented with different types of quantum cloning procedures. We give twoexamples of tasks for which cloning provides some enhancement in performance,and briefly discuss possible extensions of the idea.
Cloning and quantum computation
Galvão, Ernesto F.; Hardy, Lucien
2000-08-01
We discuss how quantum information distribution can improve the performance of some quantum computation tasks. This distribution can be naturally implemented with different types of quantum cloning procedures. We give two examples of tasks for which cloning provides some enhancement in performance, and briefly discuss possible extensions of the idea.
Probabilistically Cloning and Quantum Computation
Ting, G; Zhi-Xi, W; Ting, Gao; Feng-Li, Yan; Zhi-Xi, Wang
2004-01-01
We discuss the usefulness of quantum cloning and present examples of quantum computation tasks for which cloning offers an advantage which cannot be matched by any approach that does not resort to it. In these quantum computations, we need to distribute quantum information contained in states about which we have some partial information. To perform quantum computations, we use state-dependent probabilistic quantum cloning procedure to distribute quantum information in the middle of a quantum computation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A quantum computer would put the latest PC to shame. Not only would such a device be faster than a conventional computer, but by exploiting the quantum-mechanical principle of superposition it could change the way we think about information processing. However, two key goals need to be met before a quantum computer becomes reality. The first is to be able to control the state of a single quantum bit (or 'qubit') and the second is to build a two-qubit gate that can produce 'entanglement' between the qubit states. (U.K.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milburn, Gerard
2003-10-01
A quantum computer would put the latest PC to shame. Not only would such a device be faster than a conventional computer, but by exploiting the quantum-mechanical principle of superposition it could change the way we think about information processing. However, two key goals need to be met before a quantum computer becomes reality. The first is to be able to control the state of a single quantum bit (or 'qubit') and the second is to build a two-qubit gate that can produce 'entanglement' between the qubit states. (U.K.)
Zak, M.
1998-01-01
Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.
Chuang, I.L.; Yamamoto, Y.
1995-01-01
We propose an implementation of a quantum computer to solve Deutsch's problem, which requires exponential time on a classical computer but only linear time with quantum parallelism. By using a dual-rail qubit representation as a simple form of error correction, our machine can tolerate some amount of decoherence and still give the correct result with high probability. The design which we employ also demonstrates a signature for quantum parallelism which unambiguously delinea...
Quantum computing with trapped ions
Haeffner, H.; C. F. Roos; Blatt, R
2008-01-01
Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain computational task much more efficiently than classical computers. We review the recent experimental advancements towards a quantum computer with trapped ions. In particular, various implementations of qubits, quantum gates and some key experiments are discussed. Furthermore, we review some implementations of quantum algorithms such as a deterministic teleportation of quantum information and an error correction scheme.
Duality and Recycling Computing in Quantum Computers
Long, Gui Lu; Liu, Yang
2007-01-01
Quantum computer possesses quantum parallelism and offers great computing power over classical computer \\cite{er1,er2}. As is well-know, a moving quantum object passing through a double-slit exhibits particle wave duality. A quantum computer is static and lacks this duality property. The recently proposed duality computer has exploited this particle wave duality property, and it may offer additional computing power \\cite{r1}. Simply put it, a duality computer is a moving qua...
Quantum Computation and Quantum Error Prevention Wiki
Mark S. Byrd
2014-04-04
The Quantum Computation and Quantum Error Prevention Wiki is a collaborative and live document to compliment courses on quantum computing. All edits must be made by registered users in order to maintain accuracy and integrity for the document. It is produced by Qunet, a network for quantum physicists, particularly those working in the fields of quantum information and quantum computation. It was developed as a part of a NSF funded project led by Prof. M. S. Byrd at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Digital computers are machines that can be programmed to perform logical and arithmetical operations. Contemporary digital computers are ''universal,'' in the sense that a program that runs on one computer can, if properly compiled, run on any other computer that has access to enough memory space and time. Any one universal computer can simulate the operation of any other; and the set of tasks that any such machine can perform is common to all universal machines. Since Bennett's discovery that computation can be carried out in a non-dissipative fashion, a number of Hamiltonian quantum-mechanical systems have been proposed whose time-evolutions over discrete intervals are equivalent to those of specific universal computers. The first quantum-mechanical treatment of computers was given by Benioff, who exhibited a Hamiltonian system with a basis whose members corresponded to the logical states of a Turing machine. In order to make the Hamiltonian local, in the sense that its structure depended only on the part of the computation being performed at that time, Benioff found it necessary to make the Hamiltonian time-dependent. Feynman discovered a way to make the computational Hamiltonian both local and time-independent by incorporating the direction of computation in the initial condition. In Feynman's quantum computer, the program is a carefully prepared wave packet that propagates through different computational states. Deutsch presented a quantum computer that exploits the possibility of existing in a superposition of computational states to perform tasks that a classical computer cannot, such as generating purely random numbers, and carrying out superpositions of computations as a method of parallel processing. In this paper, we show that such computers, by virtue of their common function, possess a common form for their quantum dynamics
Computational Methods for Simulating Quantum Computers
Raedt, H. De; Michielsen, K.
2004-01-01
This review gives a survey of numerical algorithms and software to simulate quantum computers.It covers the basic concepts of quantum computation and quantum algorithms and includes a few examples that illustrate the use of simulation software for ideal and physical models of quantum computers.
Quantum computing with defects
Weber, J. R.; Koehl, W. F.; Varley, J. B.; Janotti, A.; Buckley, B. B.; Walle, C. G.; Awschalom, D. D.
2010-01-01
Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center stands out for its robustness - its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defect...
Entanglement and Quantum Computation
Jozsa, R.
1997-01-01
We argue that entanglement is the essential non-classical ingredient which provides the computational speed-up in quantum algorithms as compared to algorithms based on the processes of classical physics.
Concurrent Quantum Computation
Yamaguchi, F; Yamamoto, Y
2000-01-01
A quantum computer is a multi-particle interferometer that comprises beam splitters at both ends and arms, where the n two-level particles undergo the interactions among them. The arms are designed so that relevant functions required to produce a computational result is stored in the phase shifts of the 2^n arms. They can be detected by interferometry that allows us to utilize quantum parallelism. Quantum algorithms are accountable for what interferometers to be constructed to compute particular problems. A standard formalism for constructing the arms has been developed by the extension of classical reversible gate arrays. By its nature of sequential applications of logic operations, the required number of gates increases exponentially as the problem size grows. This may cause a crucial obstacle to perform a quantum computation within a limited decoherence time. We propose a direct and concurrent construction of the interferometer arms by one-time evolution of a physical system with arbitrary multi-particle i...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports that current conceptions of quantum mechanical computers inherit from conventional digital machines two apparently interacting features, machine imperfection and temporal development of the computational process. On account of machine imperfection, the process would become ideally reversible only in the limiting case of zero speed. Therefore the process is irreversible in practice and cannot be considered to be a fundamental quantum one. By giving up classical features and using a linear, reversible and non-sequential representation of the computational process - not realizable in classical machines - the process can be identified with the mathematical form of a quantum steady state. This form of steady quantum computation would seem to have an important bearing on the notion of cognition
An Introduction to Quantum Computers
Zalka, Christof
1998-01-01
This is a short introduction to quantum computers, quantum algorithms and quantum error correcting codes. Familiarity with the principles of quantum theory is assumed. Emphasis is put on a concise presentation of the principles avoiding lengthy discussions.
Using Quantum Computers for Quantum Simulation
Kendon, Vivien M; Brown, Katherine L.; Munro, William J.
2010-01-01
Numerical simulation of quantum systems is crucial to further our understanding of natural phenomena. Many systems of key interest and importance, in areas such as superconducting materials and quantum chemistry, are thought to be described by models which we cannot solve with sufficient accuracy, neither analytically nor numerically with classical computers. Using a quantum computer to simulate such quantum systems has been viewed as a key application of quantum computation...
Probabilistically Cloning and Quantum Computation
Ting, Gao; Feng-li, Yan; Zhi-xi, Wang
2004-01-01
We discuss the usefulness of quantum cloning and present examples of quantum computation tasks for which cloning offers an advantage which cannot be matched by any approach that does not resort to it. In these quantum computations, we need to distribute quantum information contained in states about which we have some partial information. To perform quantum computations, we use state-dependent probabilistic quantum cloning procedure to distribute quantum information in the mi...
O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2008-01-01
In 2001 all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single photon sources, linear optical elements, and single photon detectors. Although it was in principle scalable, the massive resource overhead made the scheme practically daunting. However, several simplifications were followed by proof-of-principle demonstrations, and recent approaches based on cluster states or error encoding have dramatically ...
Towards Quantum Computational Logics
Ledda, Antonio; Sergioli, Giuseppe
2010-12-01
Quantum computational logics have recently stirred increasing attention (Cattaneo et al. in Math. Slovaca 54:87-108, 2004; Ledda et al. in Stud. Log. 82(2):245-270, 2006; Giuntini et al. in Stud. Log. 87(1):99-128, 2007). In this paper we outline their motivations and report on the state of the art of the approach to the logic of quantum computation that has been recently taken up and developed by our research group.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A quantum computer has successfully factorized a number for the first time. Quantum mechanics is an extremely successful theory, but also a troubling one. For many years progress was made by concentrating on the obvious applications, and not worrying too much about the counterintuitive world view that quantum mechanics implies. More recently, however, the development of quantum-information theory has reversed this approach. If we take seriously what quantum mechanics seems to be telling us about the world, we can use this 'quantum weirdness' to do apparently impossible things. Probably the most famous application of quantum mechanics is the quantum computer, which is capable of performing calculations that are impossible with any classical device. At first the questions that quantum computers could tackle were rather esoteric, but in 1994 Peter Shor of AT and T Laboratories showed how a quantum computer could factor large numbers, thus rendering most modern cryptographic systems potentially obsolete. In 1996 David Cory and co-workers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) showed how nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - a technique best known for its applications in medical imaging and in chemistry - could be used to build small quantum computers. NMR systems are easily controlled by the magnetic component of electromagnetic fields and are only weakly affected by decoherence, and so progress was extremely rapid. Within two years, several two-qubit computers hn two years, several two-qubit computers had been developed, and simple algorithms had been implemented. The race was on to build bigger and better NMR quantum computers, and to use them for more interesting tasks. The lead in this race has been held by several different research groups, but has now been decisively claimed by Isaac Chuang's group at Stanford University and IBM's Almaden Research Center in California. Chuang and co-workers have implemented the simplest example of Shor's quantum-factoring algorithm (L Vandersypen 2001 Nature 414 883). In the April issue of Physics World, Jonathan Jones of Oxford University, UK, describes how Chuang's group factored the number 15 using only seven qubits. (U.K.)
Quantum Computing: a Quantum Group Approach
Wang, Zhenghan
2013-01-01
There is compelling theoretical evidence that quantum physics will change the face of information science. Exciting progress has been made during the last two decades towards the building of a large scale quantum computer. A quantum group approach stands out as a promising route to this holy grail, and provides hope that we may have quantum computers in our future.
Quantum Spin Dynamics and Quantum Computation
Raedt, H. De; Hams, A. H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S; Saito, K
1999-01-01
We describe a simulation method for a quantum spin model of a generic, general purpose quantum computer. The use of this quantum computer simulator is illustrated through several implementations of Grover's database search algorithm. Some preliminary results on the stability of quantum algorithms are presented.
An Introduction to Quantum Computing
Yanofsky, Noson S.
2007-01-01
Quantum Computing is a new and exciting field at the intersection of mathematics, computer science and physics. It concerns a utilization of quantum mechanics to improve the efficiency of computation. Here we present a gentle introduction to some of the ideas in quantum computing. The paper begins by motivating the central ideas of quantum mechanics and quantum computation with simple toy models. From there we move on to a formal presentation of the small fraction of (finite...
Using Quantum Computers for Quantum Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vivien M. Kendon
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulation of quantum systems is crucial to further our understanding of natural phenomena. Many systems of key interest and importance, in areas such as superconducting materials and quantum chemistry, are thought to be described by models which we cannot solve with sufficient accuracy, neither analytically nor numerically with classical computers. Using a quantum computer to simulate such quantum systems has been viewed as a key application of quantum computation from the very beginning of the field in the 1980s. Moreover, useful results beyond the reach of classical computation are expected to be accessible with fewer than a hundred qubits, making quantum simulation potentially one of the earliest practical applications of quantum computers. In this paper we survey the theoretical and experimental development of quantum simulation using quantum computers, from the first ideas to the intense research efforts currently underway.
Polarization in Quantum Computations
Torma, P; Stenholm, S.
1996-01-01
We propose a realization of quantum computing using polarized photons. The information is coded in two polarization directions of the photons and two-qubit operations are done using conditional Faraday effect. We investigate the performance of the system as a computing device.
Simulating Chemistry Using Quantum Computers
Kassal, Ivan; Whitfield, James D.; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan
2011-01-01
The difficulty of simulating quantum systems, well-known to quantum chemists, prompted the idea of quantum computation. One can avoid the steep scaling associated with the exact simulation of increasingly large quantum systems on conventional computers, by mapping the quantum system to another, more controllable one. In this review, we discuss to what extent the ideas in quantum computation, now a well-established field, have been applied to chemical problems. We describe al...
Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language
Blaha, Stephen
2002-01-01
We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.
Simulating quantum mechanics on a quantum computer
Boghosian, Bruce M.; Taylor, Washington(Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139, U.S.A.)
1997-01-01
Algorithms are described for efficiently simulating quantum mechanical systems on quantum computers. A class of algorithms for simulating the Schrodinger equation for interacting many-body systems are presented in some detail. These algorithms would make it possible to simulate nonrelativistic quantum systems on a quantum computer with an exponential speedup compared to simulations on classical computers. Issues involved in simulating relativistic systems of Dirac and gauge ...
Spintronics and Quantum Computing with Quantum Dots
Recher, P.; Loss, D.; Levy, J.
2000-01-01
The creation, coherent manipulation, and measurement of spins in nanostructures open up completely new possibilities for electronics and information processing, among them quantum computing and quantum communication. We review our theoretical proposal for using electron spins in quantum dots as quantum bits. We present single- and two qubit gate mechanisms in laterally as well as vertically coupled quantum dots and discuss the possibility to couple spins in quantum dots via ...
Optical Holonomic Quantum Computer
Pachos, Jiannis; Chountasis, Spiros
1999-01-01
In this paper the idea of holonomic quantum computation is realized within quantum optics. In a non-linear Kerr medium the degenerate states of laser beams are interpreted as qubits. Displacing devices, squeezing devices and interferometers provide the classical control parameter space where the adiabatic loops are performed. This results into logical gates acting on the states of the combined degenerate subspaces of the lasers, producing any one qubit rotations and interact...
I, Quantum Robot: Quantum Mind control on a Quantum Computer
Zizzi, Paola
2008-01-01
The logic which describes quantum robots is not orthodox quantum logic, but a deductive calculus which reproduces the quantum tasks (computational processes, and actions) taking into account quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. A way toward the realization of intelligent quantum robots is to adopt a quantum metalanguage to control quantum robots. A physical implementation of a quantum metalanguage might be the use of coherent states in brain signals.
A Parallel Quantum Computer Simulator
Obenland, Kevin M.; Despain, Alvin M.
1998-01-01
A Quantum Computer is a new type of computer which can efficiently solve complex problems such as prime factorization. A quantum computer threatens the security of public key encryption systems because these systems rely on the fact that prime factorization is computationally difficult. Errors limit the effectiveness of quantum computers. Because of the exponential nature of quantum com puters, simulating the effect of errors on them requires a vast amount of processing and ...
QUANTUM DISCORD AND QUANTUM COMPUTING - AN APPRAISAL
Datta, A.; Shaji, A.
2011-01-01
We discuss models of computing that are beyond classical. The primary motivation is to unearth the cause of non-classical advantages in computation. Completeness results from computational complexity theory lead to the identification of very disparate problems, and offer a kaleidoscopic view into the realm of quantum enhancements in computation. Emphasis is placed on the "power of one qubit" model, and the boundary between quantum and classical correlations as delineated by quantum discord. A...
Quantum information and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the past two decades, there has emerged the new subject of quantum information and computation which both offers the possibility of powerful new modes of computing and communication and also suggests deep links between the well established disciplines of quantum theory and information theory and computer science. In recent years, the growth of the subject has been explosive, with significant progress in theory and experiment. The area has a highly interdisciplinary character with contributions from physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists in particular. Developments have occurred in diverse areas including quantum algorithms, quantum communication, quantum cryptography, entanglement and nonlocality. This progress has been reflected in contributions to Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General which traditionally provides a natural home for this area of research. Furthermore, the journal's commitment to this field has recently been strengthened by the appointments of Sandu Popescu and Nicolas Gisin to the Editorial Board, and in this special issue we take the opportunity to present a snapshot of the present state of the art. (author)
Quantum Statistical Mechanics on a Quantum Computer
Raedt, H. De; Hams, A. H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S; Saito, K
1999-01-01
We describe a quantum algorithm to compute the density of states and thermal equilibrium properties of quantum many-body systems. We present results obtained by running this algorithm on a software implementation of a 21-qubit quantum computer for the case of an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on triangular lattices of different size.
Quantum++ - A C++11 quantum computing library
Gheorghiu, Vlad
2014-01-01
Quantum++ is a general-purpose multi-threaded quantum computing library written in C++11 and composed solely of header files. The library is not restricted to qubit systems or specific quantum information processing tasks, being capable of simulating arbitrary quantum processes. The main design factors taken in consideration were ease of use, portability, and performance.
Computational quantum chemistry website
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage
Preskill, J
1997-01-01
I assess the potential of quantum computation. Broad and important applications must be found to justify construction of a quantum computer; I review some of the known quantum algorithms and consider the prospects for finding new ones. Quantum computers are notoriously susceptible to making errors; I discuss recently developed fault-tolerant procedures that enable a quantum computer with noisy gates to perform reliably. Quantum computing hardware is still in its infancy; I comment on the specifications that should be met by future hardware. Over the past few years, work on quantum computation has erected a new classification of computational complexity, has generated profound insights into the nature of decoherence, and has stimulated the formulation of new techniques in high-precision experimental physics. A broad interdisciplinary effort will be needed if quantum computers are to fulfill their destiny as the world's fastest computing devices. (This paper is an expanded version of remarks that were prepared ...
Quantum computation with abelian anyons
Lloyd, Seth
2000-01-01
A universal quantum computer can be constructed using abelian anyons. Two qubit quantum logic gates such as controlled-NOT operations are performed using topological effects. Single-anyon operations such as hopping from site to site on a lattice suffice to perform all quantum logic operations. Quantum computation using abelian anyons shares some but not all of the robustness of quantum computation using non-abelian anyons.
An optically driven quantum dot quantum computer
Sanders, G. D.; Kim, K.W.; Holton, W. C.
1999-01-01
We propose a quantum computer structure based on coupled asymmetric single-electron quantum dots. Adjacent dots are strongly coupled by means of electric dipole-dipole interactions enabling rapid computation rates. Further, the asymmetric structures can be tailored for a long coherence time. The result maximizes the number of computation cycles prior to loss of coherence.
Quantum Computation and Spin Physics
David P. DiVincenzo
1996-01-01
A brief review is given of the physical implementation of quantum computation within spin systems or other two-state quantum systems. The importance of the controlled-NOT or quantum XOR gate as the fundamental primitive operation of quantum logic is emphasized. Recent developments in the use of quantum entanglement to built error-robust quantum states, and the simplest protocol for quantum error correction, are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model, part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-z gates, and multiqubit rotations around the z axis. Every single-qubit and the controlled-z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multiqubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model requires only an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multicontrol gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrative example.
Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Veis, L.; Visnak, J.
2012-01-01
The past few years have witnessed a remarkable interest in the application of quantum computing for solving problems in quantum chemistry more efficiently than classical computers allow. Very recently, proof-of-principle experimental realizations have been reported. However, so far only the nonrelativistic regime (i.e., the Schrodinger equation) has been explored, while it is well known that relativistic effects can be very important in chemistry. We present a quantum algorithm for relativistic computations of molecular energies. We show how to efficiently solve the eigenproblem of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian on a quantum computer and demonstrate the functionality of the proposed procedure by numerical simulations of computations of the spin-orbit splitting in the SbH molecule. Finally, we propose quantum circuits with three qubits and nine or ten controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates, which implement a proof-of-principle relativistic quantum chemical calculation for this molecule and might be suitable for an experimental realization.
Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas
Georgeot, Bertrand; Giraud, Olivier
2008-01-01
We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
In everyday life, practically all the information which is processed, exchanged or stored is coded in the form of discrete entities called bits, which take two values only, by convention 0 and 1. With the present technology for computers and optical fibers, bits are carried by electrical currents and electromagnetic waves corresponding to macroscopic fluxes of electrons and photons, and they are stored in memories of various kinds, for example, magnetic memories. Although quantum physics is the basic physics which underlies the operation of a transistor (Chapter 6) or of a laser (Chapter 4), each exchanged or processed bit corresponds to a large number of elementary quantum systems, and its behavior can be described classically due to the strong interaction with the environment (Chapter 9). For about thirty years, physicists have learned to manipulate with great accuracy individual quantum systems: photons, electrons, neutrons, atoms, and so forth, which opens the way to using two-state quantum systems, such as the polarization states of a photon (Chapter 2) or the two energy levels of an atom or an ion (Chapter 4) in order to process, exchange or store information. In § 2.3.2, we used the two polarization states of a photon, vertical (V) and horizontal (H), to represent the values 0 and 1 of a bit and to exchange information. In what follows, it will be convenient to use Dirac's notation (see Appendix A.2.2 for more details), where a vertical polarization state is denoted by |V> or |0> and a horizontal one by |H> or |1>, while a state with arbitrary polarization will be denoted by |?>. The polarization states of a photon give one possible realization of a quantum bit, or for short a qubit. Thanks to the properties of quantum physics, quantum computers using qubits, if they ever exist, would outperform classical computers for some specific, but very important, problems. In Sections 8.1 and 8.2, we describe some typical quantum algorithms and, in order to do so, we shall not be able to avoid some technical developments. However, these two sections may be skipped in a first reading, as they are not necessary for understanding the more general considerations of Sections 8.3 and 8.4.
New Trends in Quantum Computing
Brassard, Gilles
1996-01-01
Classical and quantum information are very different. Together they can perform feats that neither could achieve alone, such as quantum computing, quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. Some of the applications range from helping to preventing spies from reading private communications. Among the tools that will facilitate their implementation, we note quantum purification and quantum error correction. Although some of these ideas are still beyond the grasp of curren...
Genetic Algorithms and Quantum Computation
Giraldi, Gilson A.; Portugal, Renato; Thess, Ricardo N.
2004-01-01
Recently, researchers have applied genetic algorithms (GAs) to address some problems in quantum computation. Also, there has been some works in the designing of genetic algorithms based on quantum theoretical concepts and techniques. The so called Quantum Evolutionary Programming has two major sub-areas: Quantum Inspired Genetic Algorithms (QIGAs) and Quantum Genetic Algorithms (QGAs). The former adopts qubit chromosomes as representations and employs quantum gates for the s...
Scalable Quantum Computing with "Enhancement" Quantum Dots
Lyanda-Geller, Y B; Yang, M J
2005-01-01
We propose a novel scheme of solid state realization of a quantum computer based on single spin "enhancement mode" quantum dots as building blocks. In the enhancement quantum dots, just one electron can be brought into initially empty dot, in contrast to depletion mode dots based on expelling of electrons from multi-electron dots by gates. The quantum computer architectures based on depletion dots are confronted by several challenges making scalability difficult. These challenges can be successfully met by the approach based on ehnancement mode, capable of producing square array of dots with versatile functionalities. These functionalities allow transportation of qubits, including teleportation, and error correction based on straightforward one- and two-qubit operations. We describe physical properties and demonstrate experimental characteristics of enhancement quantum dots and single-electron transistors based on InAs/GaSb composite quantum wells. We discuss the materials aspects of quantum dot quantum compu...
Quantum computer for dummies (in Russian)
Grozin, Andrey
2011-01-01
An introduction (in Russian) to quantum computers, quantum cryptography, and quantum teleportation for students who have no previous knowledge of these subjects, but know quantum mechanics. Several simple examples are considered in detail using the quantum computer emulator QCL.
Spin-Based Quantum Dot Quantum Computing
Hu, Xuedong
2004-01-01
We present a brief overview of the current theoretical and experimental progresses in the study of quantum dot-based quantum computing schemes, then focus on the spin-based varieties, which are generally regarded as the most scalable because of the relatively long coherence times of electron and nuclear spins. Reviewed topics include spin coherence, spin interaction, spin detection, and the current status of the experimental studies of spin-based quantum computing.
Decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation
Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2015-06-01
Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master-equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit T2 time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary cancellation methods, designed to improve the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computing in the closed-system setting, remain beneficial in the open-system setting. To address the high computational cost of master-equation simulations, we also demonstrate that a quantum Monte Carlo algorithm that explicitly accounts for a thermal bosonic bath can be used to interpolate between classical and quantum annealing. Our study highlights and clarifies the significantly different role played by decoherence in the adiabatic and circuit models of quantum computing.
Pulse controlled noise suppressed quantum computation
Duan, Lu-Ming; Guo, Guang-Can
1998-01-01
To make arbitrarily accurate quantum computation possible, practical realization of quantum computers will require suppressing noise in quantum memory and gate operations to make it below a threshold value. A scheme based on realistic quantum computer models is described for suppressing noise in quantum computation without the cost of stringent quantum computing resources.
THE APROACH OF CLASSICAL COMPUTER TO QUANTUM COMPUTER
SEYEDEH MOHADESEH ELTEJA
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to guide computer scientists through the barriers that separate quantum computing from conventional computing. We introduce basic principles of quantum mechanics to explain where the power of quantum computers comes from and why it is difficult to harness. We describe the diffrences between classical and quantum computers, bit and quantum bit and quantum key distribution.
THE APROACH OF CLASSICAL COMPUTER TO QUANTUM COMPUTER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SEYEDEH MOHADESEH ELTEJA
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to guide computer scientists through the barriers that separate quantum computing from conventional computing. We introduce basic principles of quantum mechanics to explain where the power of quantum computers comes from and why it is difficult to harness. We describe the diffrences between classical and quantum computers, bit and quantum bit and quantum key distribution.
Robust quantum computation by simulation
Lloyd, Seth; Rahn, Benjamin; Ahn, Charlene
1999-01-01
Simulation of quantum systems that provide intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computation is shown to preserve fault tolerance. Errors committed in the course of simulation are eliminated by the natural error-correcting features of the systems simulated. Two examples are explored, toric codes and non-abelian anyons. The latter is shown to provide universal robust quantum computation via simulation.
Quantum computation and complexity theory
Svozil, K.
1994-01-01
The Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics is reviewed with emphasis on applications to quantum computing. Standard interferomeric techniques are used to construct a physical device capable of universal quantum computation. Some consequences for recursion theory and complexity theory are discussed.
Energy Dissipation in Quantum Computers
Granik, A.; Chapline, G.
2003-01-01
A method is described for calculating the heat generated in a quantum computer due to loss of quantum phase information. Amazingly enough, this heat generation can take place at zero temperature. and may explain why it is impossible to extract energy from vacuum fluctuations. Implications for optical computers and quantum cosmology are also briefly discussed.
Quantum Computing, Metrology, and Imaging
Lee, Hwang; Lougovski, Pavel; Dowling, Jonathan P.
2005-01-01
Information science is entering into a new era in which certain subtleties of quantum mechanics enables large enhancements in computational efficiency and communication security. Naturally, precise control of quantum systems required for the implementation of quantum information processing protocols implies potential breakthoughs in other sciences and technologies. We discuss recent developments in quantum control in optical systems and their applications in metrology and im...
The universe as quantum computer
Lloyd, Seth
2013-01-01
This article reviews the history of digital computation, and investigates just how far the concept of computation can be taken. In particular, I address the question of whether the universe itself is in fact a giant computer, and if so, just what kind of computer it is. I will show that the universe can be regarded as a giant quantum computer. The quantum computational model of the universe explains a variety of observed phenomena not encompassed by the ordinary laws of physics. In particular, the model shows that the the quantum computational universe automatically gives rise to a mix of randomness and order, and to both simple and complex systems.
Interfacing External Quantum Devices to a Universal Quantum Computer
Lagana, Antonio A.; Lohe, Max A.; von Smekal, Lorenz(Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 , Darmstadt, Germany)
2011-01-01
We present a scheme to use external quantum devices using the universal quantum computer previously constructed. We thereby show how the universal quantum computer can utilize networked quantum information resources to carry out local computations. Such information may come from specialized quantum devices or even from remote universal quantum computers. We show how to accomplish this by devising universal quantum computer programs that implement well known oracle based quantum algorithms, na...
Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included
Quantum computing with defects
Weber, J R; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D
2010-01-01
Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center stands out for its robustness - its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally-coor...
Quantum computing for pattern classification
Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco
2014-01-01
It is well known that for certain tasks, quantum computing outperforms classical computing. A growing number of contributions try to use this advantage in order to improve or extend classical machine learning algorithms by methods of quantum information theory. This paper gives a brief introduction into quantum machine learning using the example of pattern classification. We introduce a quantum pattern classification algorithm that draws on Trugenberger's proposal for measur...
Multi-party Quantum Computation
Smith, Adam
2001-01-01
We investigate definitions of and protocols for multi-party quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum information-theoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to establish that any ...
Macroscopic entanglement in Quantum Computation
Ukena, Akihisa; Shimizu, Akira
2005-01-01
We investigate macroscopic entanglement of quantum states in quantum computers, where we say a quantum state is entangled macroscopically if the state has superposition of macroscopically distinct states. The index $p$ of the macroscopic entanglement is calculated as a function of the step of the computation, for Grover's quantum search algorithm and Shor's factoring algorithm. It is found that whether macroscopically entangled states are used or not depends on the numbers a...
Database Manipulation on Quantum Computers
Younes, Ahmed
2007-01-01
Manipulating a database system on a quantum computer is an essential aim to benefit from the promising speed-up of quantum computers over classical computers in areas that take a vast amount of storage and processing time such as in databases. In this paper, the basic operations for manipulating the data in a quantum database will be defined, e.g. INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, backing up and restoring a database file. This gives the ability to perform the data processing t...
Are Quantum Computing Models Realistic?
Kak, Subhash
2001-01-01
The commonly used circuit model of quantum computing leaves out the problems of imprecision in the initial state preparation, particle statistics (indistinguishability of particles belonging to the same quantum state), and error correction (current techniques cannot correct all small errors). The initial state in the circuit model computation is obtained by applying potentially imprecise Hadamard gate operations whereas useful quantum computation requires a state with no unc...
Vianna, R O; Monken, C H; Vianna, Reinaldo O.; Rabelo, Wilson R. M.
2003-01-01
We discuss the performance of the Search and Fourier Transform algorithms on a hybrid computer constituted of classical and quantum processors working together. We show that this semi-quantum computer would be an improvement over a pure classical architecture, no matter how few qubits are available and, therefore, it suggests an easier implementable technology than a pure quantum computer with arbitrary number of qubits.
Algorithms on ensemble quantum computers
Boykin, P. Oscar; Mor, Tal; Roychowdhury, Vwani; Vatan, Farrokh
2009-01-01
In ensemble (or bulk) quantum computation, all computations are performed on an ensemble of computers rather than on a single computer. Measurements of qubits in an individual computer cannot be performed; instead, only expectation values (over the complete ensemble of computers) can be measured. As a result of this limitation on the model of computation, many algorithms cannot be processed directly on such computers, and must be modified, as the common strategy of delaying the measurements u...
Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Computational Algorithms
Arvind
2000-01-01
The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We show that if no entanglement is envolved then whatever one can do with qubits can also be done with classical optical systems. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped onto a classical optical scheme. It is only ...
Quantum physics, simulation, and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The ultimate scope and power of computers will be determined by the laws of physics. Quantum computers exploit the rules of quantum mechanics, using quantum coherence and entanglement for new ways of information processing. Up to date, the realization of these systems requires extremely precise control of matter on the atomic scale and a nearly perfect isolation from the environment. The question, to what extent quantum information processing can also be exploited in 'natural' and less controlled systems, including biological ones, is exciting but still open. In this talk, I will present some of our recent work on (quantum) physically and biologically motivated models of information processing. (author)
Intermediate quantum maps for quantum computation
Giraud, O; 10.1103/.72.042312
2005-01-01
We study quantum maps displaying spectral statistics intermediate between Poisson and Wigner-Dyson. It is shown that they can be simulated on a quantum computer with a small number of gates, and efficiently yield information about fidelity decay or spectral statistics. We study their matrix elements and entanglement production, and show that they converge with time to distributions which differ from random matrix predictions. A randomized version of these maps can be implemented even more economically, and yields pseudorandom operators with original properties, enabling for example to produce fractal random vectors. These algorithms are within reach of present-day quantum computers.
The Quantum Field as a Quantum Computer
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2010-01-01
It is supposed that at very small scales a quantum field is an infinite homogeneous quantum computer. On a quantum computer the information cannot propagate faster than $c=a/\\tau$, $a$ and $\\tau$ being the minimum space and time distances between gates, respectively. It is shown that the information flow satisfies a Dirac equation, with speed $v=\\zeta c$ and $\\zeta=\\zeta(m)$ mass-dependent. For $a/\\tau=c$ the speed of light $\\zeta^{-1}$ is a vacuum refraction index increasing monotonically from $\\zeta^{-1}(0)=1$ to $\\zeta^{-1}(M)=\\infty$, $M$ being the Planck mass for $2a$ the Planck length.
Hybrid Quantum Computation in Quantum Optics
Van Loock, P; Nemoto, Kae; Spiller, T P; Ladd, T D; Braunstein, Samuel L; Milburn, G J
2008-01-01
We propose a hybrid quantum computing scheme where qubit degrees of freedom for computation are combined with quantum continuous variables for communication. In particular, universal two-qubit gates can be implemented deterministically through qubit-qubit communication, mediated by a continuous-variable bus mode ("qubus"), without direct interaction between the qubits and without any measurement of the qubus. The key ingredients are controlled rotations of the qubus and unconditional qubus displacements. The controlled rotations are realizable through typical atom-light interactions in quantum optics. For such interactions, our scheme is universal and works in any regime, including the limits of weak and strong nonlinearities.
Quantum Computation with Ballistic Electrons
Ionicioiu, Radu; Amaratunga, Gehan; Udrea, Florin
2000-01-01
We describe a solid state implementation of a quantum computer using ballistic single electrons as flying qubits in 1D nanowires. We show how to implement all the steps required for universal quantum computation: preparation of the initial state, measurement of the final state and a universal set of quantum gates. An important advantage of this model is the fact that we do not need ultrafast optoelectronics for gate operations. We use cold programming (or pre-programming), i...
Classically-Controlled Quantum Computation
Perdrix, Simon; Jorrand, Philippe
2004-01-01
Quantum computations usually take place under the control of the classical world. We introduce a Classically-controlled Quantum Turing Machine (CQTM) which is a Turing Machine (TM) with a quantum tape for acting on quantum data, and a classical transition function for a formalized classical control. In CQTM, unitary transformations and measurements are allowed. We show that any classical TM is simulated by a CQTM without loss of efficiency. The gap between classical and quan...
Quantum computing using dissipation (proceedings)
Beige, A
2003-01-01
The principal obstacle to quantum information processing with many qubits is decoherence. One source of decoherence is spontaneous emission which causes loss of energy and information. Inability to control system parameters with high precision is another possible source of error. As a solution we propose quantum computing experiments using dissipation based on an environment-induced quantum Zeno effect. As an example we present a simple scheme for quantum gate implementations with cold trapped ions in the presence of cooling.
Polynomial Simulations of Decohered Quantum Computers
Aharonov, Dorit; Ben-Or, Michael
1996-01-01
We define formally decohered quantum computers (using density matrices), and present a simulation of them by a probabalistic classical Turing Machine. We study the slowdown of the simulation for two cases: (1) sequential quantum computers, or quantum Turing machines(QTM), and (2) parallel quantum computers, or quantum circuits. This paper shows that the computational power of decohered quantum computers depends strongly on the amount of parallelism in the computation. T...
Quantum computing with defects
Varley, Joel
2011-03-01
The development of a quantum computer is contingent upon the identification and design of systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information. One of the most promising candidates consists of a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center, since it is an individually-addressable quantum system that can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. While the success of the NV-1 stems from its nature as a localized ``deep-center'' point defect, no systematic effort has been made to identify other defects that might behave in a similar way. We provide guidelines for identifying other defect centers with similar properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate systems. To elucidate these points, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). Using hybrid functionals, we report formation energies, configuration-coordinate diagrams, and defect-level diagrams to compare and contrast the properties of these defects. We find that the NC VSi - 1 center in SiC, a structural analog of the NV-1 center in diamond, may be a suitable center with very different optical transition energies. We also discuss how the proposed criteria can be translated into guidelines to discover NV analogs in other tetrahedrally coordinated materials. This work was performed in collaboration with J. R. Weber, W. F. Koehl, B. B. Buckley, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, and D. D. Awschalom. This work was supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF.
Massive Parallel Quantum Computer Simulator
De Raedt, K.; Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De; Trieu, B.; Arnold, G.; Richter, M; Lippert, Th.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, N.
2006-01-01
We describe portable software to simulate universal quantum computers on massive parallel computers. We illustrate the use of the simulation software by running various quantum algorithms on different computer architectures, such as a IBM BlueGene/L, a IBM Regatta p690+, a Hitachi SR11000/J1, a Cray X1E, a SGI Altix 3700 and clusters of PCs running Windows XP. We study the performance of the software by simulating quantum computers containing up to 36 qubits, using up to 409...
Computing on Anonymous Quantum Network
Kobayashi, Hirotada; Matsumoto, Keiji; Tani, Seiichiro
2010-01-01
This paper considers distributed computing on an anonymous quantum network, a network in which no party has a unique identifier and quantum communication and computation are available. It is proved that the leader election problem can exactly (i.e., without error in bounded time) be solved with at most the same complexity up to a constant factor as that of exactly computing symmetric functions (without intermediate measurements for a distributed and superposed input), if the...
Programming Pulse Driven Quantum Computers
Lloyd, Seth
1999-01-01
Arrays of weakly-coupled quantum systems can be made to compute by subjecting them to a sequence of electromagnetic pulses of well-defined frequency and length. Such pulsed arrays are true quantum computers: bits can be placed in superpositions of 0 and 1, logical operations take place coherently, and dissipation is required only for error correction. Programming such computers is accomplished by selecting the proper sequence of pulses.
Quantum information processing in nanostructures Quantum optics; Quantum computing
Reina-Estupinan, J H
2002-01-01
Since information has been regarded os a physical entity, the field of quantum information theory has blossomed. This brings novel applications, such as quantum computation. This field has attracted the attention of numerous researchers with backgrounds ranging from computer science, mathematics and engineering, to the physical sciences. Thus, we now have an interdisciplinary field where great efforts are being made in order to build devices that should allow for the processing of information at a quantum level, and also in the understanding of the complex structure of some physical processes at a more basic level. This thesis is devoted to the theoretical study of structures at the nanometer-scale, 'nanostructures', through physical processes that mainly involve the solid-state and quantum optics, in order to propose reliable schemes for the processing of quantum information. Initially, the main results of quantum information theory and quantum computation are briefly reviewed. Next, the state-of-the-art of ...
Quantum computation with graphene nanoribbon
Guo, Guo-Ping; Li, Xiao-Peng; Tu, Tao; Guo, Guang-Can
2008-01-01
We propose a scalable scheme to implement quantum computation in graphene nanoribbon. It is shown that electron or hole can be naturally localized in each zigzag region for a graphene nanoribbon with a sequence of Z-shaped structure without exploiting any confined gate. An one-dimensional graphene quantum dots chain is formed in such graphene nanoribbon, where electron or hole spin can be encoded as qubits. The coupling interaction between neighboring graphene quantum dots is found to be always-on Heisenberg type. Applying the bang-bang control strategy and decoherence free subspaces encoding method, universal quantum computation is argued to be realizable with the present techniques.
Focus on topological quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Topological quantum computation started as a niche area of research aimed at employing particles with exotic statistics, called anyons, for performing quantum computation. Soon it evolved to include a wide variety of disciplines. Advances in the understanding of anyon properties inspired new quantum algorithms and helped in the characterization of topological phases of matter and their experimental realization. The conceptual appeal of topological systems as well as their promise for building fault-tolerant quantum technologies fuelled the fascination in this field. This ‘focus on’ collection brings together several of the latest developments in the field and facilitates the synergy between different approaches. (editorial)
Computing methods in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Algebraic and numerical computing methods used for calculations in quantum electrodynamics are reviewed. Computer algebra systems suitable for high energy physics computations are presented. The impact of these methods on the evaluation of the Lamb shift in hydrogen and of the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons is shown. (Auth.)
Duality quantum computer and the efficient quantum simulations
Wei, Shi-Jie; Long, Gui-Lu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we firstly briefly review the duality quantum computer. Distinctly, the generalized quantum gates, the basic evolution operators in a duality quantum computer are no longer unitary, and they can be expressed in terms of linear combinations of unitary operators. All linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and unitary operators are just the extreme points of the set of generalized quantum gates. A d-slits duality quantum computer ...
Biamonte, Jacob D.; Perkowski, Marek A.
2004-01-01
The problem of quantum test is formally addressed. The presented method attempts the quantum role of classical test generation and test set reduction methods known from standard binary and analog circuits. QuFault, the authors software package generates test plans for arbitrary quantum circuits using the very efficient simulator QuIDDPro[1]. The quantum fault table is introduced and mathematically formalized, and the test generation method explained.
Distinguishing Short Quantum Computations
Rosgen, Bill
2008-01-01
Distinguishing logarithmic depth quantum circuits on mixed states is shown to be complete for $QIP$, the class of problems having quantum interactive proof systems. Circuits in this model can represent arbitrary quantum processes, and thus this result has implications for the verification of implementations of quantum algorithms. The distinguishability problem is also complete for $QIP$ on constant depth circuits containing the unbounded fan-out gat...
Quantum Computing with Very Noisy Devices
Knill, E.
2004-01-01
In theory, quantum computers can efficiently simulate quantum physics, factor large numbers and estimate integrals, thus solving otherwise intractable computational problems. In practice, quantum computers must operate with noisy devices called ``gates'' that tend to destroy the fragile quantum states needed for computation. The goal of fault-tolerant quantum computing is to compute accurately even when gates have a high probability of error each time they are used. Here we ...
Quantum Computing Using Crossed Atomic Beams
Blythe, P.; Varcoe, B.
2006-01-01
A quantum computer is a hypothetical device in which the laws of quantum mechanics are used to introduce a degree of parallelism into computations and which could therefore significantly improve on the computational speed of a classical computer at certain tasks. Cluster state quantum computing (recently proposed by Raussendorf and Briegel) is a new paradigm in quantum information processing and is a departure from the conventional model of quantum computation. The cluster s...
Experimental quantum computing without entanglement.
Lanyon, B P; Barbieri, M; Almeida, M P; White, A G
2008-11-14
Deterministic quantum computation with one pure qubit (DQC1) is an efficient model of computation that uses highly mixed states. Unlike pure-state models, its power is not derived from the generation of a large amount of entanglement. Instead it has been proposed that other nonclassical correlations are responsible for the computational speedup, and that these can be captured by the quantum discord. In this Letter we implement DQC1 in an all-optical architecture, and experimentally observe the generated correlations. We find no entanglement, but large amounts of quantum discord-except in three cases where an efficient classical simulation is always possible. Our results show that even fully separable, highly mixed, states can contain intrinsically quantum mechanical correlations and that these could offer a valuable resource for quantum information technologies. PMID:19113321
Minimal ancilla mediated quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schemes of universal quantum computation in which the interactions between the computational elements, in a computational register, are mediated by some ancillary system are of interest due to their relevance to the physical implementation of a quantum computer. Furthermore, reducing the level of control required over both the ancillary and register systems has the potential to simplify any experimental implementation. In this paper we consider how to minimise the control needed to implement universal quantum computation in an ancilla-mediated fashion. Considering computational schemes which require no measurements and hence evolve by unitary dynamics for the global system, we show that when employing an ancilla qubit there are certain fixed-time ancilla-register interactions which, along with ancilla initialisation in the computational basis, are universal for quantum computation with no additional control of either the ancilla or the register. We develop two distinct models based on locally inequivalent interactions and we then discuss the relationship between these unitary models and the measurement-based ancilla-mediated models known as ancilla-driven quantum computation. (orig.)
Minimal ancilla mediated quantum computation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proctor, Timothy J. [University of Leeds, School of Physics and Astronomy, Leeds (United Kingdom); Kendon, Viv [University of Leeds, School of Physics and Astronomy, Leeds (United Kingdom); Durham University, Department of Physics, Durham (United Kingdom)
2014-12-01
Schemes of universal quantum computation in which the interactions between the computational elements, in a computational register, are mediated by some ancillary system are of interest due to their relevance to the physical implementation of a quantum computer. Furthermore, reducing the level of control required over both the ancillary and register systems has the potential to simplify any experimental implementation. In this paper we consider how to minimise the control needed to implement universal quantum computation in an ancilla-mediated fashion. Considering computational schemes which require no measurements and hence evolve by unitary dynamics for the global system, we show that when employing an ancilla qubit there are certain fixed-time ancilla-register interactions which, along with ancilla initialisation in the computational basis, are universal for quantum computation with no additional control of either the ancilla or the register. We develop two distinct models based on locally inequivalent interactions and we then discuss the relationship between these unitary models and the measurement-based ancilla-mediated models known as ancilla-driven quantum computation. (orig.)
Entanglement Echoes in Quantum Computation
Rossini, Davide; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio
2003-01-01
We study the stability of entanglement in a quantum computer implementing an efficient quantum algorithm, which simulates a quantum chaotic dynamics. For this purpose, we perform a forward-backward evolution of an initial state in which two qubits are in a maximally entangled Bell state. If the dynamics is reversed after an evolution time $t_r$, there is an echo of the entanglement between these two qubits at time $t_e=2t_r$. Perturbations attenuate the pairwise entanglement...
Quantum computation with graphene nanoribbon
Guo, Guo-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Rong; Li, Xiao-peng; Tu, Tao; Guo, Guang-Can
2008-01-01
We propose a scalable scheme to implement quantum computation in graphene nanoribbon. It is shown that electron or hole can be naturally localized in each zigzag region for a graphene nanoribbon with a sequence of Z-shaped structure without exploiting any confined gate. An one-dimensional graphene quantum dots chain is formed in such graphene nanoribbon, where electron or hole spin can be encoded as qubits. The coupling interaction between neighboring graphene quantum dots i...
Computing quantum eigenvalues made easy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An extremely simple and convenient method is presented for computing eigenvalues in quantum mechanics by representing position and momentum operators in matrix form. The simplicity and success of the method is illustrated by numerical results concerning eigenvalues of bound systems and resonances for Hermitian and non-Hermitian Hamiltonians as well as driven quantum systems. Various MATLAB program codes are listed. (author)
Computation and Dynamics: Classical and Quantum
Kisil, Vladimir V.
2009-01-01
We discuss classical and quantum computations in terms of corresponding Hamiltonian dynamics. This allows us to introduce quantum computations which involve parallel processing of both: the data and programme instructions. Using mixed quantum-classical dynamics we look for a full cost of computations on quantum computers with classical terminals.
Towards Quantum Chemistry on a Quantum Computer
Lanyon, Bp; Whitfield, Jd; Gillett, Gg; Goggin, Me; Almeida, Mp; Kassal, I.; Biamonte, Jd; Mohseni, M.; Powell, Bj; Barbieri, M.; Aspuru-guzik, A.; White, Ag
2010-01-01
The fundamental problem faced in quantum chemistry is the calculation of molecular properties, which are of practical importance in fields ranging from materials science to biochemistry. Within chemical precision, the total energy of a molecule as well as most other properties, can be calculated by solving the Schrodinger equation. However, the computational resources required to obtain exact solutions on a conventional computer generally increase exponentially with the numb...
Organic materials for quantum computation
Rival, Olivier; Ardavan, Arzhang; Blundell, Stephen
2009-01-01
Quantum mechanics has a long history of helping computer science. For a long time, it provided help only at the hardware level by giving a better understanding of the properties of matter and thus allowing the design of ever smaller and ever more efficient components. For the last few decades, much research has been dedicated to finding whether one can change computer science even more radically by using the principles of quantum mechanics at both the hardware and algorithm levels. This field...
An Algebra of Reversible Quantum Computing
wang, Yong
2015-01-01
Based on the axiomatization of reversible computing RACP, we generalize it to quantum reversible computing which is called qRACP. By use of the framework of quantum configuration, we show that structural reversibility and quantum state reversibility must be satisfied simultaneously in quantum reversible computation. RACP and qRACP has the same axiomatization modulo the so-called quantum forward-reverse bisimularity, that is, classical reversible computing and quantum reversi...
Quantum Computing via The Bethe Ansatz
ZHANG Yong
2011-01-01
We recognize quantum circuit model of computation as factorisable scattering model and propose that a quantum computer is associated with a quantum many-body system solved by the Bethe ansatz. As an typical example to support our perspectives on quantum computation, we study quantum computing in one-dimensional nonrelativistic system with delta-function interaction, where the two-body scattering matrix satisfies the factorisation equation (the quantum Yang--Baxter equation) ...
Computing on Anonymous Quantum Network
Kobayashi, Hirotada; Tani, Seiichiro
2010-01-01
This paper considers distributed computing on an anonymous quantum network, a network in which no party has a unique identifier and quantum communication and computation are available. It is proved that the leader election problem can exactly (i.e., without error in bounded time) be solved with at most the same complexity up to a constant factor as that of exactly computing symmetric functions (without intermediate measurements for a distributed and superposed input), if the number of parties is given to every party. A corollary of this result is a more efficient quantum leader election algorithm than existing ones: the new quantum algorithm runs in O(n) rounds with bit complexity O(mn^2), on an anonymous quantum network with n parties and m communication links. Another corollary is the first quantum algorithm that exactly computes any computable Boolean function with round complexity O(n) and with smaller bit complexity than that of existing classical algorithms in the worst case over all (computable) Boolea...
The quantum field as a quantum computer
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2012-01-01
It is supposed that at very small scales a quantum field is an infinite homogeneous quantum computer. On a quantum computer the information cannot propagate faster than c=a/?, a and ? being the minimum space and time distances between gates, respectively. For one space dimension it is shown that the information flow satisfies a Dirac equation, with speed v=?c and ?=?(m) mass-dependent. For c the speed of light ? is a vacuum refraction index that increases monotonically from ?(0)=1 to ?(M)=?, M being the Planck mass for 2a the Planck length. The Fermi anticommuting field can be entirely qubitized, i.e. it can be written in terms of local Pauli matrices and with the field interaction remaining local on qubits. Extensions to larger space dimensions are discussed.
Prospective Algorithms for Quantum Evolutionary Computation
Sofge, Donald A.
2008-01-01
This effort examines the intersection of the emerging field of quantum computing and the more established field of evolutionary computation. The goal is to understand what benefits quantum computing might offer to computational intelligence and how computational intelligence paradigms might be implemented as quantum programs to be run on a future quantum computer. We critically examine proposed algorithms and methods for implementing computational intelligence paradigms, pri...
Quantum information and computing
Ohya, M; Watanabe, N
2006-01-01
The main purpose of this volume is to emphasize the multidisciplinary aspects of this very active new line of research in which concrete technological and industrial realizations require the combined efforts of experimental and theoretical physicists, mathematicians and engineers. Contents: Coherent Quantum Control of ?-Atoms through the Stochastic Limit (L Accardi et al.); Recent Advances in Quantum White Noise Calculus (L Accardi & A Boukas); Joint Extension of States of Fermion Subsystems (H Araki); Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation Model Using Beam Splittings (K-H Fichtner et al.); Quantum
Distinguishing Short Quantum Computations
Rosgen, Bill
2007-01-01
Distinguishing logarithmic depth quantum circuits on mixed states is shown to be complete for QIP, the class of problems having quantum interactive proof systems. Circuits in this model can represent arbitrary quantum processes, and thus this result has implications for the verification of implementations of quantum algorithms. The distinguishability problem is also complete for QIP on constant depth circuits containing the unbounded fan-out gate. These results are shown by reducing a QIP-complete problem to a logarithmic depth version of itself using a parallelization technique.
Physical Realizations of Quantum Computing
Kanemitsu, Shigeru; Salomaa, Martti; Takagi, Shin; Are the DiVincenzo Criteria Fulfilled in 2004 ?
2006-01-01
The contributors of this volume are working at the forefront of various realizations of quantum computers. They survey the recent developments in each realization, in the context of the DiVincenzo criteria, including nuclear magnetic resonance, Josephson junctions, quantum dots, and trapped ions. There are also some theoretical contributions which have relevance in the physical realizations of a quantum computer. This book fills the gap between elementary introductions to the subject and highly specialized research papers to allow beginning graduate students to understand the cutting-edge of r
Development and production of two explosive components using SCB technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarbell, W.W.; Sanchez, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oestreich, M.L.; Prentice, J.W. [Pacific Scientific, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States). Energy Dynamics Div.
1995-05-01
For many years, explosive components have used hotwires to convert an electrical stimulus into the thermal energy required to initiate the device. A Semi-Conductor Bridge (SCB) performs the same function, but with the advantage of requiring approximately 1/10 the input energy of a comparable hotwire, while retaining excellent no-fire characteristics. The SCB also demonstrates faster function times due to its inherently-lower thermal mass. This paper discusses the development and production of two SCB-based devices, the MC4491 Initiator and the MC4492 Actuator. The initiator is designed to shock initiate a linear shaped charge by accelerating a thin metal plate across a small gap. The actuator functions several different components, serving as either an actuator by producing a rapidly expanding gas to activate piston mechanisms or as an ignitor by providing hot particles for initiating pyrotechnic mixtures. Details are provided on the construction of both devices, methods of assembly, and performance characteristics (function time, flyer velocity, pressure in a closed bomb, heat content, and no-fire and all-fire levels).
Spintronics and Quantum Dots for Quantum Computing and Quantum Communication
Burkard, G; Loss, D; Burkard, Guido; Engel, Hans-Andreas; Loss, Daniel
2000-01-01
Control over electron-spin states, such as coherent manipulation, filtering and measurement promises access to new technologies in conventional as well as in quantum computation and quantum communication. We review our proposal of using electron spins in quantum confined structures as qubits and discuss the requirements for implementing a quantum computer. We describe several realizations of one- and two-qubit gates and of the read-in and read-out tasks. We discuss recently proposed schemes for using a single quantum dot as spin-filter and spin-memory device. Considering electronic EPR pairs needed for quantum communication we show that their spin entanglement can be detected in mesoscopic transport measurements using metallic as well as superconducting leads attached to the dots.
The quantum field as a quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is supposed that at very small scales a quantum field is an infinite homogeneous quantum computer. On a quantum computer the information cannot propagate faster than c=a/?, a and ? being the minimum space and time distances between gates, respectively. For one space dimension it is shown that the information flow satisfies a Dirac equation, with speed v=?c and ?=?(m) mass-dependent. For c the speed of light ??1 is a vacuum refraction index that increases monotonically from ??1(0)=1 to ??1(M)=?, M being the Planck mass for 2a the Planck length. The Fermi anticommuting field can be entirely qubitized, i.e. it can be written in terms of local Pauli matrices and with the field interaction remaining local on qubits. Extensions to larger space dimensions are discussed. -- Highlights: ? q-Computational approach to quantum field theory, the Wheeler's “It from Bit”. ? Dirac derived as free flow of information, without requiring Lorentz covariance. ? Info-interpretation of inertial mass and h¯ and field Hamiltonian derived from gates. ? Violation of dispersion relation as mass-dependent vacuum refraction index. ? Fermi anticommuting fields substituted by qubits.
Quantum Computation and Algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is now firmly established that quantum algorithms provide a substantial speedup over classical algorithms for a variety of problems, including the factorization of large numbers and the search for a marked element in an unsorted database. In this talk I will review the principles of quantum algorithms, the basic quantum gates and their operation. The combination of superposition and interference, that makes these algorithms efficient, will be discussed. In particular, Grover's search algorithm will be presented as an example. I will show that the time evolution of the amplitudes in Grover's algorithm can be found exactly using recursion equations, for any initial amplitude distribution
On the Problem of Programming Quantum Computers
De Raedt, Hans; Hams, Anthony; MICHIELSEN, Kristel; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji
2000-01-01
We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyse the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical implementations of quantum computers. We discuss the origin of the instabilities of quantum algorithms and explore physical mechanisms to enlarge the region(s) of stable operation.
Reversible computing fundamentals, quantum computing, and applications
De Vos, Alexis
2010-01-01
Written by one of the few top internationally recognized experts in the field, this book concentrates on those topics that will remain fundamental, such as low power computing, reversible programming languages, and applications in thermodynamics. It describes reversible computing from various points of view: Boolean algebra, group theory, logic circuits, low-power electronics, communication, software, quantum computing. It is this multidisciplinary approach that makes it unique.Backed by numerous examples, this is useful for all levels of the scientific and academic community, from undergr
Quantum computing measurement and intelligence
Ezziane, Zoheir
One of the grand challenges in the nanoscopic computing era is guarantees of robustness. Robust computing system design is confronted with quantum physical, probabilistic, and even biological phenomena, and guaranteeing high-reliability is much more difficult than ever before. Scaling devices down to the level of single electron operation will bring forth new challenges due to probabilistic effects and uncertainty in guaranteeing "zero-one" based computing. Minuscule devices imply billions of devices on a single chip, which may help mitigate the challenge of uncertainty by replication and redundancy. However, such device densities will create a design and validation nightmare with the sheer scale. The questions that confront computer engineers regarding the current status of nanocomputing material and the reliability of systems built from such minuscule devices are difficult to articulate and answer. This article illustrates and discusses two types of quantum algorithms as follows: (1) a simple quantum algorithm and (2) a quantum search algorithm. This article also presents a review of recent advances in quantum computing and intelligence and presents major achievements and obstacles for researchers in the near future.
Quantum Computation--The Ultimate Frontier
Adami, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan P.
2002-01-01
The discovery of an algorithm for factoring which runs in polynomial time on a quantum computer has given rise to a concerted effort to understand the principles, advantages, and limitations of quantum computing. At the same time, many different quantum systems are being explored for their suitability to serve as a physical substrate for the quantum computer of the future. I discuss some of the theoretical foundations of quantum computer science, including algorithms and err...
Computational model underlying the one-way quantum computer
Raussendorf, Robert; Briegel, Hans
2001-01-01
In this paper we present the computational model underlying the one-way quantum computer which we introduced recently [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5188 (2001)]. The one-way quantum computer has the property that any quantum logic network can be simulated on it. Conversely, not all ways of quantum information processing that are possible with the one-way quantum computer can be understood properly in network model terms. We show that the logical depth is, for certain algorithms, low...
Universal quantum computer from a quantum magnet
Cai J; Miyake A.; Dur W.; Briegel H.J.
2010-01-01
We show that a local Hamiltonian of spin-3/2 particles with only two-body nearest-neighbor Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki and exchange-type interactions has an unique ground state, which can be used to implement universal quantum computation merely with single-spin measurements. We prove that the Hamiltonian is gapped, independent of the system size. Our result provides a further step towards utilizing systems with condensed matter-type interactions for measurement-based quantu...
Handbook of computational quantum chemistry
Cook, David B
2012-01-01
Quantum chemistry forms the basis of molecular modeling, a tool widely used to obtain important chemical information and visual images of molecular systems. Recent advances in computing have resulted in considerable developments in molecular modeling, and these developments have led to significant achievements in the design and synthesis of drugs and catalysts. This comprehensive text provides upper-level undergraduates and graduate students with an introduction to the implementation of quantum ideas in molecular modeling, exploring practical applications alongside theoretical explanations.Wri
Theoretical issues in spin-based quantum dot quantum computation
Hu, Xuedong; Sarma, S. Das
2001-01-01
We review our recent work addressing various theoretical issues in spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and quantum information processing. In particular, we summarize our calculation of electron exchange interaction in two-electron double quantum dots and multi-electron double dots, and discuss the physical implication of our results. We also discuss possible errors and how they can be corrected in spin-based quantum dot quantum computation. We critically assess the c...
Geometrical perspective on quantum states and quantum computation
Chen, Zeqian
2013-01-01
We interpret quantum computing as a geometric evolution process by reformulating finite quantum systems via Connes' noncommutative geometry. In this formulation, quantum states are represented as noncommutative connections, while gauge transformations on the connections play a role of unitary quantum operations. Thereby, a geometrical model for quantum computation is presented, which is equivalent to the quantum circuit model. This result shows a geometric way of realizing q...
Spin-based quantum computation in multielectron quantum dots
Hu, Xuedong; Sarma, S. Das
2001-01-01
In a quantum computer the hardware and software are intrinsically connected because the quantum Hamiltonian (or more precisely its time development) is the code that runs the computer. We demonstrate this subtle and crucial relationship by considering the example of electron-spin-based solid state quantum computer in semiconductor quantum dots. We show that multielectron quantum dots with one valence electron in the outermost shell do not behave simply as an effective single...
Phase Information in Quantum Oracle Computing
Machta, J.
1998-01-01
Computational devices may be supplied with external sources of information (oracles). Quantum oracles may transmit phase information which is available to a quantum computer but not a classical computer. One consequence of this observation is that there is an oracle which is of no assistance to a classical computer but which allows a quantum computer to solve undecidable problems. Thus useful relativized separations between quantum and classical complexity classes must exclu...
Realizing the quantum baker's map on an NMR quantum computer
Brun, Todd A.; Schack, Ruediger
1998-01-01
By numerically simulating an implementation of the quantum baker's map on a 3-qubit NMR quantum computer based on the molecule trichloroethylene, we demonstrate the feasibility of quantum chaos experiments on present-day quantum computers. We give detailed descriptions of proposed experiments that investigate (a) the rate of entropy increase due to decoherence and (b) the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to perturbation.
Miao, Xijia
2011-01-01
It is shown in the paper that the unitary quantum dynamics in quantum mechanics is the universal quantum driving force to speed up a quantum computation. This assertion supports strongly in theory that the unitary quantum dynamics is the fundamental and universal principle in nature. On the other hand, the symmetric structure of Hilbert space of a composite quantum system is the quantum-computing resource that is not owned by classical computation. A new quantum-computing sp...
Quantum Walks for Computer Scientists
Venegas-Andraca, Salvador
2008-01-01
Quantum computation, one of the latest joint ventures between physics and the theory of computation, is a scientific field whose main goals include the development of hardware and algorithms based on the quantum mechanical properties of those physical systems used to implement such algorithms. Solving difficult tasks (for example, the Satisfiability Problem and other NP-complete problems) requires the development of sophisticated algorithms, many of which employ stochastic processes as their mathematical basis. Discrete random walks are a popular choice among those stochastic processes. Inspir
Quantum computing of quantum chaos and imperfection effects
Song, Pil Hun; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2000-01-01
We study numerically the imperfection effects in the quantum computing of the kicked rotator model in the regime of quantum chaos. It is shown that there are two types of physical characteristics: for one of them the quantum computation errors grow exponentially with the number of qubits in the computer while for the other the growth is polynomial. Certain similarity between classical and quantum computing errors is also discussed.
Using a quantum computer to investigate quantum chaos
Schack, Ruediger
1997-01-01
We show that the quantum baker's map, a prototypical map invented for theoretical studies of quantum chaos, has a very simple realization in terms of quantum gates. Chaos in the quantum baker's map could be investigated experimentally on a quantum computer based on only 3 qubits.
Geometric quantum computation using nuclear magnetic resonance
Jones, Ja; Vedral, V.; Ekert, A.; Castagnoli, G.
2000-01-01
A significant development in computing has been the discovery that the computational power of quantum computers exceeds that of Turing machines. Central to the experimental realization of quantum information processing is the construction of fault-tolerant quantum logic gates. Their operation requires conditional quantum dynamics, in which one sub-system undergoes a coherent evolution that depends on the quantum state of another sub-system; in particular, the evolving sub-system may acquire a...
QCE: A Simulator for Quantum Computer Hardware
MICHIELSEN, Kristel; RAEDT, Hans De
2003-01-01
The Quantum Computer Emulator (QCE) described in this paper consists of a simulator of a generic, general purpose quantum computer and a graphical user interface. The latter is used to control the simulator, to define the hardware of the quantum computer and to debug and execute quantum algorithms. QCE runs in a Windows 98/NT/2000/ME/XP environment. It can be used to validate designs of physically realizable quantum processors and as an interactive educational tool to learn about qu...
The Quantum Way of Doing Computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Since the mid nineties of the 20th century it became apparent that one of the centuries’ most important technological inventions, computers in general and many of their applications could possibly be further enormously enhanced by using operations based on quantum. This is timely since the classical road maps for the development of computational devices, commonly known as Moore’s law, will cease to be applicable within the next decade due to the ever smaller sizes of the electronic components that soon will enter the quantum physics realm. Computations, whether they happen in our heads or with any computational device, always rely on real physical processes, which are data input, data representation in a memory, data manipulation using algorithms and finally, the data output. Building a quantum computer then requires the implementation of quantum bits (qubits) as storage sites for quantum information, quantum registers and quantum gates for data handling and processing and the development of quantum algorithms. In this talk, the basic functional principle of a quantum computer will be reviewed and a few technologies for their implementation will be highlighted. In particular, the quantum way of doing computations will be illustrated by showing how quantum correlations, commonly known as entanglement can enhance computational processes. Aside from their use for quantum computers, these quantum technologies open wide perspectives for applications in many technical areas. Examples such as quantum enhanced metrology and quantum simulations will be presented. (author)
Barium Ions for Quantum Computation
Dietrich, M R; Bowler, R; Kurz, N; Salacka, J S; Shu, G; Blinov, B B
2009-01-01
Individually trapped 137Ba+ in an RF Paul trap is proposed as a qubit ca ndidate, and its various benefits are compared to other ionic qubits. We report the current experimental status of using this ion for quantum computation. Fut ure plans and prospects are discussed.
Is sequential quantum computing possible?
Lamata, L; Perez-Garcia, D; Salgado, D; Solano, E
2007-01-01
We consider a general quantum computation that can be described as a global unitary operation acting simultaneously on several qubits, performing a prescribed task without measurements. Though the design of such operations grows in difficulty with the system size, they can be implemented with universal sets of one- and two-qubit gates acting in a convenient order. Here, we study the possibility for a global unitary applied on an arbitrary number of qubits to be decomposed in a sequential unitary procedure, where an ancillary system is allowed to interact only once with each qubit. Surprisingly, we prove that sequential unitary decompositions are in general impossible for genuine entangling operations, even with an infinite-dimensional ancilla, being the paradigmatic controlled-NOT gate a striking example. Nevertheless, we find particular nontrivial operations in quantum information that can be performed in a sequential unitary manner, as is the case of quantum error correction and quantum cloning.
Self-correcting quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Is the notion of a quantum computer (QC) resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting QCs. To this end, we first give a sufficient condition on the connectedness of excitations for a stabilizer code model to be a self-correcting quantum memory. We then study the two main examples of topological stabilizer codes in arbitrary dimensions and establish their self-correcting capabilities. Also, we address the transversality properties of topological color codes, showing that six-dimensional color codes provide a self-correcting model that allows the transversal and local implementation of a universal set of operations in seven spatial dimensions. Finally, we give a procedure for initializing such quantum memories at finite temperature. (paper)
Using Quantum Computers to Learn Physics
Wiebe, Nathan
2014-01-01
Since its inception at the beginning of the twentieth century, quantum mechanics has challenged our conceptions of how the universe ought to work; however, the equations of quantum mechanics can be too computationally difficult to solve using existing computers for even modestly large systems. Here I will show that quantum computers can sometimes be used to address such problems and that quantum computer science can assign formal complexities to learning facts about nature. ...
Programming physical realizations of quantum computers
De Raedt, Hans; MICHIELSEN, Kristel; Hams, Anthony; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji
2001-01-01
We study effects of the physical realization of quantum computers on their logical operation. Through simulation of physical models of quantum computer hardware, we analyze the difficulties that are encountered in programming physical realizations of quantum computers. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation and Grover's database search algorithm are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum computation are unstable with respec...
AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM NEURAL COMPUTING
Shaktikanta Nayak
2011-01-01
The goal of the artificial neural network is to create powerful artificial problem solving systems. The field of quantum computation applies ideas from quantum mechanics to the study of computation and has made interesting progress. Quantum Neural Network (QNN) is one of the new paradigms built upon the combination of classical neural computation and quantum computation. It is argued that the study of QNN may explain the brain functionality in a better way and create new systems for informati...
The Next Generation Computing Brainwave-Quantum Computing
T. Venkat Narayana Rao; Shirish Pathania
2010-01-01
This paper is written to explicate the working of Quantum Computing and its mechanics. Quantum Computing is basically a minute field from Nanotechnology. The main purpose of this paper is to explain an inexperienced user about the technology and principles used while designing the architect of a quantum computer. Operational quantum computers would be a reality in forth coming years by the virtue of new mechanisms to explore and implementations. This paper is sectioned into 7 parts. Part 1 is...
Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing
Barz, Stefanie; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip
2011-01-01
Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.
General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.e function.
Universal Quantum Computation with Shutter Logic
Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro
2005-01-01
We show that universal quantum logic can be achieved using only linear optics and a quantum shutter device. With these elements, we design a quantum memory for any number of qubits and a CNOT gate which are the basis of a universal quantum computer. An interaction-free model for a quantum shutter is given.
Strange attractor simulated on a quantum computer
Terraneo, M.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2003-01-01
We show that dissipative classical dynamics converging to a strange attractor can be simulated on a quantum computer. Such quantum computations allow to investigate efficiently the small scale structure of strange attractors, yielding new information inaccessible to classical computers. This opens new possibilities for quantum simulations of various dissipative processes in nature.
Strange attractor simulated on a quantum computer
Terraneo, M.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2002-01-01
We show that dissipative classical dynamics converging to a strange attractor can be simulated on a quantum computer. Such quantum computations allow to investigate efficiently the small scale structure of strange attractors, yielding new information inaccessible to classical computers. This opens new possibilities for quantum simulations of various dissipative processes in nature.
Universal quantum computing with nanowire double quantum dots
Xue, P
2011-01-01
We show a method for implementing universal quantum computing using of a singlet and triplets of nanowire double quantum dots coupled to a one-dimensional transmission line resonator. This method is attractive for both quantum computing and quantum control with inhibition of spontaneous emission, enhanced spin qubit lifetime, strong coupling and quantum nondemolition measurements of spin qubits. We analyze the performance and stability of all required operations and emphasiz...
Universal quantum computation using the discrete time quantum walk
Lovett, Neil B; Everitt, Matthew; Trevers, Matthew; Kendon, Viv
2009-01-01
A proof that continuous time quantum walks are universal for quantum computation, using unweighted graphs of low degree, has recently been presented by Childs [PRL 102 180501 (2009)]. We present a version based instead on the discrete time quantum walk. We show the discrete time quantum walk is also a computational primitive and is able to implement the same universal gate set. Additionally we give a set of components on which the discrete time quantum walk provides perfect state transfer.
Exploiting locality in quantum computation for quantum chemistry
McClean, Jarrod R.; Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-01-01
Accurate prediction of chemical and material properties from first principles quantum chemistry is a challenging task on traditional computers. Recent developments in quantum computation offer a route towards highly accurate solutions with polynomial cost, however this solution still carries a large overhead. In this perspective, we aim to bring together known results about the locality of physical interactions from quantum chemistry with ideas from quantum computation. We s...
Cove: A Practical Quantum Computer Programming Framework
Purkeypile, Matt
2009-01-01
While not yet in commercial existence, quantum computers have the ability to solve certain classes of problems that are not efficiently solvable on existing Turing Machine based (classical) computers. For quantum computers to be of use, methods of programming them must exist. Proposals exist for programming quantum computers, but all of the existing ones suffer from flaws that make them impractical in commercial software development environments. Cove is a framework for programming quantum computers that extends existing classical languages to allow for quantum computation, thus providing a quantum computing toolkit for commercial software developers. Since the target users of Cove are commercial developers, it is an object oriented framework that can be used by multiple languages and also places emphasis on complete documentation. The focus of Cove is not so much on the software product, but on the fundamental concepts that make quantum computing practical for common developers.
EXPLORATIONS IN QUANTUM COMPUTING FOR FINANCIAL APPLICATIONS
Gare, Jesse
2010-01-01
Quantum computers have the potential to increase the solution speed for many computational problems. This paper is a first step into possible applications for quantum computing in the context of computational finance. The fundamental ideas of quantum computing are introduced, followed by an exposition of the algorithms of Deutsch and Grover. Improved mean and median estimation are shown as results of Grover?s generalized framework. The algorithm for mean estimation is refined to an improved M...
Experimental realization of the quantum games on a quantum computer
Du, J; Xu, X; Shi, M; Wu, J; Zhou, X; Han, R; Du, Jiangfeng; Li, Hui; Xu, Xiaodong; Shi, Mingjun; Wu, Jihui; Zhou, Xianyi; Han, Rongdian
2002-01-01
Many previous works on quantum games are based on maximally entangled state. In this letter, we investigate the role of entanglement in quantum games. For the particular case of the quantum Prisoners' Dilemma, the property of the game changes fascinatingly with the variation of the measure of the game's entanglement. Furthermore this quantum game is experimental realized on our nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer. Up to now, there is no quantum game in any form become pratical.
Models of quantum computation and quantum programming languages
Miszczak, J. A.
2010-01-01
The goal of the presented paper is to provide an introduction to the basic computational models used in quantum information theory. We review various models of quantum Turing machine, quantum circuits and quantum random access machine (QRAM) along with their classical counterparts. We also provide an introduction to quantum programming languages, which are developed using the QRAM model. We review the syntax of several existing quantum programming languages and discuss their...
Quantum computation with programmable connections between gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new model of quantum computation is considered, in which the connections between gates are programmed by the state of a quantum register. This new model of computation is shown to be more powerful than the usual quantum computation, e.g. in achieving the programmability of permutations of N different unitary channels with 1 use instead of N uses per channel. For this task, a new elemental resource is needed, the quantum switch, which can be programmed to switch the order of two channels with a single use of each one. -- Highlights: ? New model of quantum computation performing tasks not allowed by quantum circuits. ? Task requiring a single oracle evaluation instead of N. ? Computation is based on a new gate called “quantum switch”. ? Quantum switch has been achieved in the quantum optical lab.
Quantum computing and the entanglement frontier
Preskill, John
2012-01-01
Quantum information science explores the frontier of highly complex quantum states, the "entanglement frontier." This study is motivated by the observation (widely believed but unproven) that classical systems cannot simulate highly entangled quantum systems efficiently, and we hope to hasten the day when well controlled quantum systems can perform tasks surpassing what can be done in the classical world. One way to achieve such "quantum supremacy" would be to run an algorithm on a quantum computer which solves a problem with a super-polynomial speedup relative to classical computers, but there may be other ways that can be achieved sooner, such as simulating exotic quantum states of strongly correlated matter. To operate a large scale quantum computer reliably we will need to overcome the debilitating effects of decoherence, which might be done using "standard" quantum hardware protected by quantum error-correcting codes, or by exploiting the nonabelian quantum statistics of anyons realized in solid state sy...
Geometry of quantum computation with qutrits.
Li, Bin; Yu, Zu-Huan; Fei, Shao-Ming
2013-01-01
Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is an important problem in quantum computation. By using the mathematical techniques of Riemannian geometry, we investigate the efficient quantum circuits in quantum computation with n qutrits. We show that the optimal quantum circuits are essentially equivalent to the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry of SU(3(n)). As an example, three-qutrit systems are investigated in detail. PMID:24005379
The Next Generation Computing Brainwave-Quantum Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Venkat Narayana Rao
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is written to explicate the working of Quantum Computing and its mechanics. Quantum Computing is basically a minute field from Nanotechnology. The main purpose of this paper is to explain an inexperienced user about the technology and principles used while designing the architect of a quantum computer. Operational quantum computers would be a reality in forth coming years by the virtue of new mechanisms to explore and implementations. This paper is sectioned into 7 parts. Part 1 is a brief introduction to Quantum Computing i.e. basic working principle of a Qubit. Part 2 covers Qubit and the architect of the whole system. It also enlightens us about the Qubit in more detail like how data is represented, principles like superposition and state of composite system. Part 3 narrates how quantum Computing can be built using Qubits and applies the above mentioned principles. Part 4 deals with the basic introduction to Quantum Mechanics and some principles like dual nature of light and Uncertainty Principle. Part 5 depicts about the advantages of Quantum Computer over present computing systems. Part 6 discusses the overheads of Quantum Computing. Part 7 describes about implementation of Quantum Computing in today’s world. Finally this paper offers an insight about how and by when we would be able to design a full time Quantum Computer and what are the probable considerations to be taken in to account.
RISQ - reduced instruction set quantum computers
Molmer, Klaus; Sorensen, Anders,
2000-01-01
Candidates for quantum computing which offer only restricted control, e.g., due to lack of access to individual qubits, are not useful for general purpose quantum computing. We present concrete proposals for the use of systems with such limitations as RISQ - reduced instruction set quantum computers and devices - for simulation of quantum dynamics, for multi-particle entanglement and squeezing of collective spin variables. These tasks are useful in their own right, and they ...
From Monte Carlo to Quantum Computation
Heinrich, Stefan
2001-01-01
Quantum computing was so far mainly concerned with discrete problems. Recently, E. Novak and the author studied quantum algorithms for high dimensional integration and dealt with the question, which advantages quantum computing can bring over classical deterministic or randomized methods for this type of problem. In this paper we give a short introduction to the basic ideas of quantum computing and survey recent results on high dimensional integration. We discuss conne...
Transparallel mind: Classical computing with quantum power
van der Helm, Peter A.
2014-01-01
Inspired by the extraordinary computing power promised by quantum computers, the quantum mind hypothesis postulated that quantum mechanical phenomena are the source of neuronal synchronization, which, in turn, might underlie consciousness. Here, I present an alternative inspired by a classical computing method with quantum power. This method relies on special distributed representations called hyperstrings. Hyperstrings are superpositions of up to an exponential number of st...
Quantum computation with graphene nanoribbon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a scheme to implement quantum computation in graphene nanoribbon (GNR). It is shown that an electron or hole can be naturally localized in each zigzag region for a GNR with a sequence of Z-shaped structures, without using confined gates. A one-dimensional graphene quantum dot chain is formed in such a GNR, where an electron or hole spin can be used as a qubit. The coupling interaction between neighboring qubits is found to be of the always-on Heisenberg type. By exploiting the bang-bang control strategy and the decoherence-free subspaces encoding method, universal quantum gates are argued to be realizable with the present techniques.
Exponential Gain in Quantum Computing of Quantum Chaos and Localization
Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2000-01-01
We present a quantum algorithm which simulates the quantum kicked rotator model exponentially faster than classical algorithms. This shows that important physical problems of quantum chaos, localization and Anderson transition can be modelled efficiently on a quantum computer. We also show that a similar algorithm simulates efficiently classical chaos in certain area-preserving maps.
Classical computing, quantum computing, and Shor's factoring algorithm
Manin, Yuri I.
1999-01-01
This is an expository talk written for the Bourbaki Seminar. After a brief introduction, Section 1 discusses in the categorical language the structure of the classical deterministic computations. Basic notions of complexity icluding the P/NP problem are reviewed. Section 2 introduces the notion of quantum parallelism and explains the main issues of quantum computing. Section 3 is devoted to four quantum subroutines: initialization, quantum computing of classical Boolean func...
Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information
Steeb, Willi-Hans
2012-01-01
Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...
The Quantum Human Computer (QHC) Hypothesis
Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali
2008-01-01
This article attempts to suggest the existence of a human computer called Quantum Human Computer (QHC) on the basis of an analogy between human beings and computers. To date, there are two types of computers: Binary and Quantum. The former operates on the basis of binary logic where an object is said to exist in either of the two states of 1 and…
Quantum Computation with Nonlinear Optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a scheme of quantum computation with nonlinear quantum optics. Polarization states of photons are used for qubits. Photons with different frequencies represent different qubits. Single qubit rotation operation is implemented through optical elements like the Faraday polarization rotator. Photons are separated into different optical paths, or merged into a single optical path using dichromatic mirrors. The controlled-NOT gate between two qubits is implemented by the proper combination of parametric up and down conversions. This scheme has the following features: (1) No auxiliary qubits are required in the controlled-NOT gate operation; (2) No measurement is required in the course of the computation; (3) It is resource efficient and conceptually simple.
How Can Quantum Computers Fail?
Kalai, G
2006-01-01
We propose and discuss two postulates on the nature of errors in highly correlated noisy physical stochastic systems. The first postulate asserts that errors for a pair of substantially correlated elements are themselves substantially correlated. The second postulate asserts that in a noisy system with many highly correlated elements there will be a strong effect of error synchronization. These postulates appear to be damaging for quantum computers.
How Quantum Computers Can Fail
Kalai, Gil
2006-01-01
We propose and discuss two postulates on the nature of errors in highly correlated noisy physical stochastic systems. The first postulate asserts that errors for a pair of substantially correlated elements are themselves substantially correlated. The second postulate asserts that in a noisy system with many highly correlated elements there will be a strong effect of error synchronization. These postulates appear to be damaging for quantum computers.
Brain Neurons as Quantum Computers:
Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Bershadskii, J.; Yadid, G.
The question: whether quantum coherent states can sustain decoherence, heating and dissipation over time scales comparable to the dynamical timescales of brain neurons, has been actively discussed in the last years. A positive answer on this question is crucial, in particular, for consideration of brain neurons as quantum computers. This discussion was mainly based on theoretical arguments. In the present paper nonlinear statistical properties of the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) of genetically depressive limbic brain are studied in vivo on the Flinders Sensitive Line of rats (FSL). VTA plays a key role in the generation of pleasure and in the development of psychological drug addiction. We found that the FSL VTA (dopaminergic) neuron signals exhibit multifractal properties for interspike frequencies on the scales where healthy VTA dopaminergic neurons exhibit bursting activity. For high moments the observed multifractal (generalized dimensions) spectrum coincides with the generalized dimensions spectrum calculated for a spectral measure of a quantum system (so-called kicked Harper model, actively used as a model of quantum chaos). This observation can be considered as a first experimental (in vivo) indication in the favor of the quantum (at least partially) nature of brain neurons activity.
Quantum chemistry simulation on quantum computers: theories and experiments.
Lu, Dawei; Xu, Boruo; Xu, Nanyang; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Hongwei; Peng, Xinhua; Xu, Ruixue; Du, Jiangfeng
2012-07-14
It has been claimed that quantum computers can mimic quantum systems efficiently in the polynomial scale. Traditionally, those simulations are carried out numerically on classical computers, which are inevitably confronted with the exponential growth of required resources, with the increasing size of quantum systems. Quantum computers avoid this problem, and thus provide a possible solution for large quantum systems. In this paper, we first discuss the ideas of quantum simulation, the background of quantum simulators, their categories, and the development in both theories and experiments. We then present a brief introduction to quantum chemistry evaluated via classical computers followed by typical procedures of quantum simulation towards quantum chemistry. Reviewed are not only theoretical proposals but also proof-of-principle experimental implementations, via a small quantum computer, which include the evaluation of the static molecular eigenenergy and the simulation of chemical reaction dynamics. Although the experimental development is still behind the theory, we give prospects and suggestions for future experiments. We anticipate that in the near future quantum simulation will become a powerful tool for quantum chemistry over classical computations. PMID:22652702
Information and Computation Classical and Quantum Aspects
Galindo, A
2002-01-01
Quantum theory has found a new field of applications in the realm of information and computation during the recent years. This paper reviews how quantum physics allows information coding in classically unexpected and subtle nonlocal ways, as well as information processing with an efficiency largely surpassing that of the present and foreseeable classical computers. Some outstanding aspects of classical and quantum information theory will be addressed here. Quantum teleportation, dense coding, and quantum cryptography are discussed as a few samples of the impact of quanta in the transmission of information. Quantum logic gates and quantum algorithms are also discussed as instances of the improvement in information processing by a quantum computer. We provide finally some examples of current experimental realizations for quantum computers and future prospects.
The Heisenberg Representation of Quantum Computers
Gottesman, Daniel
1998-01-01
Since Shor's discovery of an algorithm to factor numbers on a quantum computer in polynomial time, quantum computation has become a subject of immense interest. Unfortunately, one of the key features of quantum computers - the difficulty of describing them on classical computers - also makes it difficult to describe and understand precisely what can be done with them. A formalism describing the evolution of operators rather than states has proven extremely fruitful in unders...
Cove: A Practical Quantum Computer Programming Framework
Purkeypile, Matt
2009-01-01
While not yet in commercial existence, quantum computers have the ability to solve certain classes of problems that are not efficiently solvable on existing Turing Machine based (classical) computers. For quantum computers to be of use, methods of programming them must exist. Proposals exist for programming quantum computers, but all of the existing ones suffer from flaws that make them impractical in commercial software development environments. Cove is a framework for prog...
Embracing the quantum limit in silicon computing.
Morton, JJ; McCamey, DR; Eriksson, MA; Lyon, SA
2011-01-01
Quantum computers hold the promise of massive performance enhancements across a range of applications, from cryptography and databases to revolutionary scientific simulation tools. Such computers would make use of the same quantum mechanical phenomena that pose limitations on the continued shrinking of conventional information processing devices. Many of the key requirements for quantum computing differ markedly from those of conventional computers. However, silicon, which plays a central par...
Efficient one-way quantum computations for quantum error correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how to explicitly construct an O(nd) size and constant quantum depth circuit which encodes any given n-qubit stabilizer code with d generators. Our construction is derived using the graphic description for stabilizer codes and the one-way quantum computation model. Our result demonstrates how to use cluster states as scalable resources for many multi-qubit entangled states and how to use the one-way quantum computation model to improve the design of quantum algorithms.
Suppression of quantum chaos in a quantum computer hardware
Lages, J
2005-01-01
We present numerical and analytical studies of a quantum computer proposed by the Yamamoto group in Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017901 (2002). The stable and quantum chaos regimes in the quantum computer hardware are identified as a function of magnetic field gradient and dipole-dipole couplings between qubits on a square lattice. It is shown that a strong magnetic field gradient leads to suppression of quantum chaos.
A theory of quantum gravity based on quantum computation
Lloyd, Seth
2005-01-01
This paper proposes a method of unifying quantum mechanics and gravity based on quantum computation. In this theory, fundamental processes are described in terms of pairwise interactions between quantum degrees of freedom. The geometry of space-time is a construct, derived from the underlying quantum information processing. The computation gives rise to a superposition of four-dimensional spacetimes, each of which obeys the Einstein-Regge equations. The theory makes explicit...
Universal Quantum Computation with Shutter Logic
Escartin, J C G; Escartin, Juan Carlos Garcia; Posada, Pedro Chamorro
2006-01-01
We show that universal quantum logic can be achieved using only linear optics and a quantum shutter device. With these elements, we design a quantum memory for any number of qubits and a deterministic CNOT gate which are the basis of an efficient alternative for quantum computation with simple optical components.
Universal quantum computation using the discrete-time quantum walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A proof that continuous-time quantum walks are universal for quantum computation, using unweighted graphs of low degree, has recently been presented by A. M. Childs [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 180501 (2009)]. We present a version based instead on the discrete-time quantum walk. We show that the discrete-time quantum walk is able to implement the same universal gate set and thus both discrete and continuous-time quantum walks are computational primitives. Additionally, we give a set of components on which the discrete-time quantum walk provides perfect state transfer.
Quantum machine learning what quantum computing means to data mining
Wittek, Peter
2014-01-01
Quantum Machine Learning bridges the gap between abstract developments in quantum computing and the applied research on machine learning. Paring down the complexity of the disciplines involved, it focuses on providing a synthesis that explains the most important machine learning algorithms in a quantum framework. Theoretical advances in quantum computing are hard to follow for computer scientists, and sometimes even for researchers involved in the field. The lack of a step-by-step guide hampers the broader understanding of this emergent interdisciplinary body of research. Quantum Machine L
Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing theory and practice
McGeoch, Catherine C
2014-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'''' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a nov
Parallel computing and quantum chromodynamics
Bowler, K C
1999-01-01
The study of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) remains one of the most challenging topics in elementary particle physics. The lattice formulation of QCD, in which space-time is treated as a four- dimensional hypercubic grid of points, provides the means for a numerical solution from first principles but makes extreme demands upon computational performance. High Performance Computing (HPC) offers us the tantalising prospect of a verification of QCD through the precise reproduction of the known masses of the strongly interacting particles. It is also leading to the development of a phenomenological tool capable of disentangling strong interaction effects from weak interaction effects in the decays of one kind of quark into another, crucial for determining parameters of the standard model of particle physics. The 1980s saw the first attempts to apply parallel architecture computers to lattice QCD. The SIMD and MIMD machines used in these pioneering efforts were the ICL DAP and the Cosmic Cube, respectively. These wer...
Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing
Gingrich, Robert M.; Williams, Colin P.
2004-01-01
We present a method for designing quantum circuits that perform non-unitary quantum computations on n-qubit states probabilistically, and give analytic expressions for the success probability and fidelity.
Quantum computing with superconductors I: Architectures
Geller, Michael R.; Pritchett, Emily J.; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Wilhelm, F.K.
2006-01-01
Josephson junctions have demonstrated enormous potential as qubits for scalable quantum computing architectures. Here we discuss the current approaches for making multi-qubit circuits and performing quantum information processing with them.
Probability Analysis of a Quantum Computer
Einarsson, Göran
2003-01-01
The quantum computer algorithm by Peter Shor for factorization of integers is studied. The quantum nature of a QC makes its outcome random. The output probability distribution is investigated and the chances of a successful operation is determined
Physics and computer science: quantum computation and other approaches
Venegas-andraca, Salvador E.
2011-01-01
This is a position paper written as an introduction to the special volume on quantum algorithms I edited for the journal Mathematical Structures in Computer Science (Volume 20 - Special Issue 06 (Quantum Algorithms), 2010).
Decoherence, Control, and Symmetry in Quantum Computers
Bacon, D J
2003-01-01
In this thesis we describe methods for avoiding the detrimental effects of decoherence while at the same time still allowing for computation of the quantum information. The philosophy of the method discussed in the first part of this thesis is to use a symmetry of the decoherence mechanism to find robust encodings of the quantum information. Stability, control, and methods for using decoherence-free information in a quantum computer are presented with a specific emphasis on decoherence due to a collective coupling between the system and its environment. Universal quantum computation on such collective decoherence decoherence-free encodings is demonstrated. Rigorous definitions of control and the use of encoded universality in quantum computers are addressed. Explicit gate constructions for encoded universality on ion trap and exchange based quantum computers are given. In the second part of the thesis we examine physical systems with error correcting properties. We examine systems that can store quantum infor...
The Essence of Quantum Theory for Computers
Parke, W. C.
2014-01-01
Quantum computers take advantage of interfering quantum alternatives in order to handle problems that might be too time consuming with algorithms based on classical logic. Developing quantum computers requires new ways of thinking beyond those in the familiar classical world. To help in this thinking, we give a description of the foundational ideas that hold in all of our successful physical models, including quantum theory. Our emphasis will be on the proper interpretation ...
Models of Quantum Computers and Decoherence Problem
I. V. Volovich
1999-01-01
Mathematical models of quantum computers such as a multidimensional quantum Turing machine and quantum circuits are described and its relations with lattice spin models are discussed. One of the main open problems one has to solve if one wants to build a quantum computer is the decoherence due to the coupling with the environment. We propose a possible solution of this problem by using a control of parameters of the system. This proposal is based on the analysis of the spin-...
Information and Computation: Classical and Quantum Aspects
Galindo, A.; Martin-delgado, M. A.
2001-01-01
Quantum theory has found a new field of applications in the realm of information and computation during the recent years. This paper reviews how quantum physics allows information coding in classically unexpected and subtle nonlocal ways, as well as information processing with an efficiency largely surpassing that of the present and foreseeable classical computers. Some outstanding aspects of classical and quantum information theory will be addressed here. Quantum teleportat...
Application of Geometric Phase in Quantum Computations
Shalyt-Margolin, A. E.; Strazhev, V. I.; Tregubovich, A. Ya.
2007-01-01
Geometric phase that manifests itself in number of optic and nuclear experiments is shown to be a useful tool for realization of quantum computations in so called holonomic quantum computer model (HQCM). This model is considered as an externally driven quantum system with adiabatic evolution law and finite number of the energy levels. The corresponding evolution operators represent quantum gates of HQCM. The explicit expression for the gates is derived both for one-qubit and...
The Halting Problem for Quantum Computers
Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu
1998-01-01
We argue that the halting problem for quantum computers which was first raised by Myers, is by no means solved, as has been claimed recently. We explicitly demonstrate the difficulties that arise in a quantum computer when different branches of the computation halt at different, unknown, times.
Blind quantum computation with AKLT chains
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2010-01-01
We propose a method for the measurement-based blind quantum computation with Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) chains. Alice, a client, prepares certain quantum states which conceal some secret information, and sends them to Bob. Bob, the server, creates a two-dimensional network of AKLT chains from Alice's states, and performs the measurement-based quantum computation on the network according to the feedback from Alice. He finally returns the result of the quantum computation to Alice. Throughout the whole process, Bob learns nothing about Alice's input, the algorithm she wants to run, and the final result of the computation. Furthermore, Alice can detect an interference by dishonest Bob if any. We also consider the blind quantum computation with other ground states than the AKLT state in the gapped Haldane phase. An advantage of using these states is that the quantum computation can be sheltered in the gapped ground states space.
Disciplines, models, and computers: the path to computational quantum chemistry.
Lenhard, Johannes
2014-12-01
Many disciplines and scientific fields have undergone a computational turn in the past several decades. This paper analyzes this sort of turn by investigating the case of computational quantum chemistry. The main claim is that the transformation from quantum to computational quantum chemistry involved changes in three dimensions. First, on the side of instrumentation, small computers and a networked infrastructure took over the lead from centralized mainframe architecture. Second, a new conception of computational modeling became feasible and assumed a crucial role. And third, the field of computa- tional quantum chemistry became organized in a market-like fashion and this market is much bigger than the number of quantum theory experts. These claims will be substantiated by an investigation of the so-called density functional theory (DFT), the arguably pivotal theory in the turn to computational quantum chemistry around 1990. PMID:25571750
Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.
Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph
2014-06-19
Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms. PMID:24919152
The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation
Divincenzo, David P.; IBM
2000-01-01
After a brief introduction to the principles and promise of quantum information processing, the requirements for the physical implementation of quantum computation are discussed. These five requirements, plus two relating to the communication of quantum information, are extensively explored and related to the many schemes in atomic physics, quantum optics, nuclear and electron magnetic resonance spectroscopy, superconducting electronics, and quantum-dot physics, for achievin...
An introduction to reliable quantum computation
Aliferis, Panos
2011-01-01
This is an introduction to software methods of quantum fault tolerance. Broadly speaking, these methods describe strategies for using the noisy hardware components of a quantum computer to perform computations while continually monitoring and actively correcting the hardware faults. We discuss parallels and differences with similar methods for ordinary digital computation, we discuss some of the noise models used in designing and analyzing noisy quantum circuits, and we sket...
Quantum computational renormalization in the Haldane phase
Bartlett, Stephen D; Miyake, Akimasa; Renes, Joseph M
2010-01-01
Single-spin measurements on the ground state of an interacting spin lattice can be used to perform a quantum computation. We show how such measurements can mimic renormalization group transformations and remove the short-ranged variations of the state that can reduce the fidelity of a computation. This suggests that the quantum computational ability of a spin lattice could be a robust property of a quantum phase. We illustrate our idea with the ground state of a spin-1 chain, which can serve as a quantum computational wire not only at the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki point, but within the rotationally-invariant Haldane phase.
Centre for Quantum Computation & Communication Technology
This is the homepage of "an Australian multi-university collaboration undertaking research on the fundamental physics and technology of building, at the atomic level, a solid state quantum computer in silicon together with other high potential implementations." Although attempts to develop a quantum computer have met with limited success, the centre has substantial resources invested in advancing toward practical uses of quantum computing technology. The site provides a very good introduction to the principles and implications of quantum computing, as well as details about various research projects underway at the Australian universities. Links to conference and journal papers produced by members of the centre, many from 2003, are also provided.
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
Computing quantum discord is NP-complete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the computational complexity of quantum discord (a measure of quantum correlation beyond entanglement), and prove that computing quantum discord is NP-complete. Therefore, quantum discord is computationally intractable: the running time of any algorithm for computing quantum discord is believed to grow exponentially with the dimension of the Hilbert space so that computing quantum discord in a quantum system of moderate size is not possible in practice. As by-products, some entanglement measures (namely entanglement cost, entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, squashed entanglement, classical squashed entanglement, conditional entanglement of mutual information, and broadcast regularization of mutual information) and constrained Holevo capacity are NP-hard/NP-complete to compute. These complexity-theoretic results are directly applicable in common randomness distillation, quantum state merging, entanglement distillation, superdense coding, and quantum teleportation; they may offer significant insights into quantum information processing. Moreover, we prove the NP-completeness of two typical problems: linear optimization over classical states and detecting classical states in a convex set, providing evidence that working with classical states is generically computationally intractable. (paper)
The Heisenberg representation of quantum computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gottesman, D.
1998-06-24
Since Shor`s discovery of an algorithm to factor numbers on a quantum computer in polynomial time, quantum computation has become a subject of immense interest. Unfortunately, one of the key features of quantum computers--the difficulty of describing them on classical computers--also makes it difficult to describe and understand precisely what can be done with them. A formalism describing the evolution of operators rather than states has proven extremely fruitful in understanding an important class of quantum operations. States used in error correction and certain communication protocols can be described by their stabilizer, a group of tensor products of Pauli matrices. Even this simple group structure is sufficient to allow a rich range of quantum effects, although it falls short of the full power of quantum computation.
Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S = 1/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation. The edge states of the graphene nano sheets are used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation. We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array of quantum dots. It is shown that both schemes contain a great amount of information for quantum computation. The corresponding gate operations are also proposed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots
Lee, Jason; Li, Zhi-Bing; Yao, Dao-Xin
2012-01-01
We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S = 1/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation. The edge states of the graphene nano sheets are used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation. We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array of quantum dots. It is shown that both schemes contain a great amount of information for quantum computation. The corre...
The one-way quantum computer - a non-network model of quantum computation
Raussendorf, R; Briegel, H J; Raussendorf, Robert; Browne, Daniel E.; Briegel, Hans J.
2001-01-01
A one-way quantum computer works by only performing a sequence of one-qubit measurements on a particular entangled multi-qubit state, the cluster state. No non-local operations are required in the process of computation. Any quantum logic network can be simulated on the one-way quantum computer. On the other hand, the network model of quantum computation cannot explain all ways of processing quantum information possible with the one-way quantum computer. In this paper, two examples of the non-network character of the one-way quantum computer are given. First, circuits in the Clifford group can be performed in a single time step. Second, the realisation of a particular circuit --the bit-reversal gate-- on the one-way quantum computer has no network interpretation. (Submitted to J. Mod. Opt, Gdansk ESF QIT conference issue.)
Efficient Simulation of Quantum Systems by Quantum Computers
Zalka, Christof
1996-01-01
We show that the time evolution of the wave function of a quantum mechanical many particle system can be implemented very efficiently on a quantum computer. The computational cost of such a simulation is comparable to the cost of a conventional simulation of the corresponding classical system. We then sketch how results of interest, like the energy spectrum of a system, can be obtained. We also indicate that ultimately the simulation of quantum field theory might be possible...
Quantum computing and quantum measurement with mesoscopic Josephson junctions
Averin, D.V.
2000-01-01
Recent experimental demonstrations of quantum coherence of the charge and flux states of Josephson junctions show that the quantum Josephson dynamics can be used to develop scalable quantum logic circuits. In this work, I review the basic concepts of Josephson tunneling and Josephson-junction qubits, and discuss two problems of this tunneling motivated by quantum computing applications. One is the theory of photon-assisted resonant flux tunneling in SQUID systems used to dem...
How big is a quantum computer?
Wallentowitz, S.; Walmsley, I. A.; Eberly, J. H.
2000-01-01
Accounting for resources is the central issue in computational efficiency. We point out physical constraints implicit in information readout that have been overlooked in classical computing. The basic particle-counting mode of read-out sets a lower bound on the resources needed to implement a quantum computer. As a consequence, computers based on classical waves are as efficient as those based on single quantum particles.
Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2012-01-01
The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…
Pattern recognition on a quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By means of a simple example, it is demonstrated that the task of finding and identifying certain patterns in an otherwise (macroscopically) unstructured picture (dataset) can be accomplished efficiently by a quantum computer. Employing the powerful tool of the quantum Fourier transform, the proposed quantum algorithm exhibits an exponential speedup in comparison with its classical counterpart
Schrodinger cat animated on a quantum computer
Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2002-01-01
We present a quantum algorithm which allows to simulate chaos-assisted tunneling in deep semiclassical regime on existing quantum computers. This opens new possibilities for investigation of macroscopic quantum tunneling and realization of semiclassical Schr\\"odinger cat oscillations. Our numerical studies determine the decoherence rate induced by noisy gates for these oscillations and propose a suitable parameter regime for their experimental implementation.
Computer simulations of strongly correlated quantum matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: In this talk I will discuss several cases, where computer simulations lead to new insights into strongly correlated quantum matter, exemplified by systems such as frustrated quantum magnets, fractional Chern insulators, or SU(N) quantum magnetism arising in ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. (author)
The General Quantum Interference Principle and the Duality Computer
Long, Gui Lu
2005-01-01
In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum...
The potential of the quantum computer
2006-01-01
The Physics Section of the University of Geneva is continuing its series of lectures, open to the general public, on the most recent developments in the field of physics. The next lecture, given by Professor Michel Devoret of Yale University in the United States, will be on the potential of the quantum computer. The quantum computer is, as yet, a hypothetical machine which would operate on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. Compared to standard computers, it represents a significant gain in computing power for certain complex calculations. Quantum operations can simultaneously explore a very large number of possibilities. The correction of quantum errors, which until recently had been deemed impossible, has now become a well-established technique. Several prototypes for, as yet, very simple quantum processors have been developed. The lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de M...
AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM NEURAL COMPUTING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaktikanta Nayak
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The goal of the artificial neural network is to create powerful artificial problem solving systems. The field of quantum computation applies ideas from quantum mechanics to the study of computation and has made interesting progress. Quantum Neural Network (QNN is one of the new paradigms built upon the combination of classical neural computation and quantum computation. It is argued that the study of QNN may explain the brain functionality in a better way and create new systems for information processing including solving some classically intractable problems. In this paper we have given an introductory representation of quantum artificial neural network to show how it can be modelled on the basis of double-slit experiment. Also an attempt is made to show the quantum mechanical representation of a classical neuron to implement Hadamard transformation.
Wavelets and Wavelet Packets on Quantum Computers
Klappenecker, Andreas
1999-01-01
We show how periodized wavelet packet transforms and periodized wavelet transforms can be implemented on a quantum computer. Surprisingly, we find that the implementation of wavelet packet transforms is less costly than the implementation of wavelet transforms on a quantum computer.
Quantum computing in a piece of glass
Miller, Warner A; Tison, Christopher; Alsing, Paul M; McDonald, Jonathan R
2011-01-01
Quantum gates and simple quantum algorithms can be designed utilizing the diffraction phenomena of a photon within a multiplexed holographic element. The quantum eigenstates we use are the photon's linear momentum (LM) as measured by the number of waves of tilt across the aperture. Two properties of quantum computing within the circuit model make this approach attractive. First, any conditional measurement can be commuted in time with any unitary quantum gate - the timeless nature of quantum computing. Second, photon entanglement can be encoded as a superposition state of a single photon in a higher-dimensional state space afforded by LM. Our theoretical and numerical results indicate that OptiGrate's photo-thermal refractive (PTR) glass is an enabling technology. We will review our previous design of a quantum projection operator and give credence to this approach on a representative quantum gate grounded on coupled-mode theory and numerical simulations, all with parameters consistent with PTR glass. We disc...
The Initialization Problem in Quantum Computing
Kak, Subhash
1998-01-01
The problem of initializing phase in a quantum computing system is considered. The initialization of phases is a problem when the system is initially present in an entangled state and also in the application of the quantum gate transformations since each gate will introduce phase uncertainty. The accumulation of these random phases will reduce the effectiveness of the recently proposed quantum computing schemes. The paper also presents general observations on the nonlocal na...
Quantum Computing and the Jones Polynomial
Kauffman, Louis H.
2001-01-01
This paper is an exploration of relationships between the Jones polynomial and quantum computing. We discuss the structure of the Jones polynomial in relation to representations of the Temperley Lieb algebra, and give an example of a unitary representation of the braid group. We discuss the evaluation of the polynomial as a generalized quantum amplitude and show how the braiding part of the evaluation can be construed as a quantum computation when the braiding representation...
On the completeness of quantum computation models
Arrighi, Pablo; Dowek, Gilles
2010-01-01
The notion of computability is stable (i.e. independent of the choice of an indexing) over infinite-dimensional vector spaces provided they have a finite "tensorial dimension". Such vector spaces with a finite tensorial dimension permit to define an absolute notion of completeness for quantum computation models and give a precise meaning to the Church-Turing thesis in the framework of quantum theory. (Extra keywords: quantum programming languages, denotational semantics, uni...
Fundamental gravitational limitations to quantum computing
Gambini, Rodolfo; Porto, Rafael A.; Pullin, Jorge
2005-01-01
Lloyd has considered the ultimate limitations physics places on quantum computers. He concludes in particular that for an ``ultimate laptop'' (a computer of one liter of volume and one kilogram of mass) the maximum number of operations per second is bounded by $10^{51}$. The limit is derived considering ordinary quantum mechanics. Here we consider additional limits that are placed by quantum gravity ideas, namely the use of a relational notion of time and fundamental gravita...
Decoherence, Control, and Symmetry in Quantum Computers
Bacon, D.
2003-01-01
In this thesis we describe methods for avoiding the detrimental effects of decoherence while at the same time still allowing for computation of the quantum information. The philosophy of the method discussed in the first part of this thesis is to use a symmetry of the decoherence mechanism to find robust encodings of the quantum information. Stability, control, and methods for using decoherence-free information in a quantum computer are presented with a specific emphasis on ...
How fast can a quantum computer search?
Grover, Lov K.
1998-01-01
This paper gives a simple proof of why a quantum computer, despite being in all possible states simultaneously, needs at least 0.707 sqrt(N) queries to retrieve a desired item from an unsorted list of items. The proof is refined to show that a quantum computer would need at least 0.785 sqrt(N) queries. The quantum search algorithm needs precisely this many queries.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Quantum Computation
Cerf, N. J.; Koonin, S. E.
1997-01-01
The many-body dynamics of a quantum computer can be reduced to the time evolution of non-interacting quantum bits in auxiliary fields by use of the Hubbard-Stratonovich representation of two-bit quantum gates in terms of one-bit gates. This makes it possible to perform the stochastic simulation of a quantum algorithm, based on the Monte Carlo evaluation of an integral of dimension polynomial in the number of quantum bits. As an example, the simulation of the quantum circuit ...
Quantum Neural Computation for Option Price Modelling
Ivancevic, Vladimir G.
2009-01-01
We propose a new cognitive framework for option price modelling, using quantum neural computation formalism. Briefly, when we apply a classical nonlinear neural-network learning to a linear quantum Schr\\"odinger equation, as a result we get a nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLS), performing as a quantum stochastic filter. In this paper, we present a bidirectional quantum associative memory model for the Black--Scholes--like option price evolution, consisting of a pair of c...
Evolutionary Design in Biological Quantum Computing
Vattay, Gabor; Kauffman, Stuart A.
2013-01-01
The unique capability of quantum mechanics to evolve alternative possibilities in parallel is appealing and over the years a number of quantum algorithms have been developed offering great computational benefits. Systems coupled to the environment lose quantum coherence quickly and realization of schemes based on unitarity might be impossible. Recent discovery of room temperature quantum coherence in light harvesting complexes opens up new possibilities to borrow concepts fr...
Quantum Simulations on a Quantum Computer
Somaroo, S. S.; Tseng, C. H.; Havel, T. F.; R. Laflamme; Cory, D. G.
1999-01-01
We present a general scheme for performing a simulation of the dynamics of one quantum system using another. This scheme is used to experimentally simulate the dynamics of truncated quantum harmonic and anharmonic oscillators using nuclear magnetic resonance. We believe this to be the first explicit physical realization of such a simulation.
Quantum Computing and the Limits of the Efficiently Computable
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
I'll discuss how computational complexity---the study of what can and can't be feasibly computed---has been interacting with physics in interesting and unexpected ways. I'll first give a crash course about computer science's P vs. NP problem, as well as about the capabilities and limits of quantum computers. I'll then touch on speculative models of computation that would go even beyond quantum computers, using (for example) hypothetical nonlinearities in the Schrodinger equation. Finally, I'll discuss BosonSampling ---a proposal for a simple form of quantum computing, which nevertheless seems intractable to simulate using a classical computer---as well as the role of computational complexity in the black hole information puzzle.
Quantum computer: an appliance for playing market games
Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sladkowski, Jan
2003-01-01
Recent development in quantum computation and quantum information theory allows to extend the scope of game theory for the quantum world. The authors have recently proposed a quantum description of financial market in terms of quantum game theory. The paper contain an analysis of such markets that shows that there would be advantage in using quantum computers and quantum strategies.
Quantum computing with electron spins in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several topics on the implementation of spin qu bits in quantum dots are reviewed. We first provide an introduction to the standard model of quantum computing and the basic criteria for its realization. Other alternative formulations such as measurement-based and adiabatic quantum computing are briefly discussed. We then focus on spin qu bits in single and double GaAs electron quantum dots and review recent experimental achievements with respect to initialization, coherent manipulation and readout of the spin states. We extensively discuss the problem of decoherence in this system, with particular emphasis on its theoretical treatment and possible ways to overcome it.
Quantum Fuzzy Sets: Blending Fuzzy Set Theory and Quantum Computation
Mannucci, M A
2006-01-01
In this article we investigate a way in which quantum computing can be used to extend the class of fuzzy sets. The core idea is to see states of a quantum register as characteristic functions of quantum fuzzy subsets of a given set. As the real unit interval is embedded in the Bloch sphere, every fuzzy set is automatically a quantum fuzzy set. However, a generic quantum fuzzy set can be seen as a (possibly entangled) superposition of many fuzzy sets at once, offering new opportunities for modeling uncertainty. After introducing the main framework of quantum fuzzy set theory, we analyze the standard operations of fuzzification and defuzzification from our viewpoint. We conclude this preliminary paper with a list of possible applications of quantum fuzzy sets to pattern recognition, as well as future directions of pure research in quantum fuzzy set theory.
Embedding quantum simulators for quantum computation of entanglement.
Di Candia, R; Mejia, B; Castillo, H; Pedernales, J S; Casanova, J; Solano, E
2013-12-13
We introduce the concept of embedding quantum simulators, a paradigm allowing the efficient quantum computation of a class of bipartite and multipartite entanglement monotones. It consists in the suitable encoding of a simulated quantum dynamics in the enlarged Hilbert space of an embedding quantum simulator. In this manner, entanglement monotones are conveniently mapped onto physical observables, overcoming the necessity of full tomography and reducing drastically the experimental requirements. Furthermore, this method is directly applicable to pure states and, assisted by classical algorithms, to the mixed-state case. Finally, we expect that the proposed embedding framework paves the way for a general theory of enhanced one-to-one quantum simulators. PMID:24483635
Simulated Quantum Computation of Molecular Energies
Aspuru-Guzik, A; Love, P J; Head-Gordon, M; Aspuru-Guzik, Al\\'an; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Love, Peter J.; Head-Gordon, Martin
2005-01-01
The calculation time for the energy of atoms and molecules scales exponentially with system size on a classical computer but polynomially using quantum algorithms. We demonstrate that such algorithms can be applied to problems of chemical interest using modest numbers of quantum bits. Calculations of the water and lithium hydride molecular ground-state energies have been carried out on a quantum computer simulator using a recursive phase-estimation algorithm. The recursive algorithm reduces the number of quantum bits required for the readout register from about 20 to 4. Mappings of the molecular wave function to the quantum bits are described. An adiabatic method for the preparation of a good approximate ground-state wave function is described and demonstrated for a stretched hydrogen molecule. The number of quantum bits required scales linearly with the number of basis functions, and the number of gates required grows polynomially with the number of quantum bits.
Quantum stochasticity and neuronal computations
Jedlicka, Peter
2010-01-01
Presented at: Quantum Mind Conference 2007, Salzburg, Austria, 17 July 2007 The nervous system probably cannot display macroscopic quantum (i.e. classically impossible) behaviours such as quantum entanglement, superposition or tunnelling (Koch and Hepp, Nature 440:611, 2006). However, in contrast to this quantum ‘mysticism’ there is an alternative way in which quantum events might influence the brain activity. The nervous system is a nonlinear system with many feedback loops at every level of...
Quantum computing and the entanglement frontier
Preskill, John
2013-04-01
Quantum information science explores the frontier of highly complex quantum states, the ``entanglement frontier.'' This study is motivated by the observation (widely believed but unproven) that classical systems cannot simulate highly entangled quantum systems efficiently, and we hope to hasten the day when well controlled quantum systems can perform tasks surpassing what can be done in the classical world. One way to achieve such ``quantum supremacy'' would be to run an algorithm on a quantum computer which solves a problem with a super-polynomial speedup relative to classical computers, but there may be other ways that can be achieved sooner, such as simulating exotic quantum states of strongly correlated matter. To operate a large scale quantum computer reliably we will need to overcome the debilitating effects of decoherence, which might be done using ``standard'' quantum hardware protected by quantum error-correcting codes, or by exploiting the nonabelian quantum statistics of anyons realized in solid state systems, or by combining both methods. Only by challenging the entanglement frontier will we learn whether Nature provides extravagant resources far beyond what the classical world would allow.
The case for biological quantum computer elements
Baer, Wolfgang; Pizzi, Rita
2009-05-01
An extension to vonNeumann's analysis of quantum theory suggests self-measurement is a fundamental process of Nature. By mapping the quantum computer to the brain architecture we will argue that the cognitive experience results from a measurement of a quantum memory maintained by biological entities. The insight provided by this mapping suggests quantum effects are not restricted to small atomic and nuclear phenomena but are an integral part of our own cognitive experience and further that the architecture of a quantum computer system parallels that of a conscious brain. We will then review the suggestions for biological quantum elements in basic neural structures and address the de-coherence objection by arguing for a self- measurement event model of Nature. We will argue that to first order approximation the universe is composed of isolated self-measurement events which guaranties coherence. Controlled de-coherence is treated as the input/output interactions between quantum elements of a quantum computer and the quantum memory maintained by biological entities cognizant of the quantum calculation results. Lastly we will present stem-cell based neuron experiments conducted by one of us with the aim of demonstrating the occurrence of quantum effects in living neural networks and discuss future research projects intended to reach this objective.
Universal quantum computation with weakly integral anyons
Cui, Shawn X.; Hong, Seung-Moon; Wang, Zhenghan
2015-05-01
Harnessing non-abelian statistics of anyons to perform quantum computational tasks is getting closer to reality. While the existence of universal anyons by braiding alone such as the Fibonacci anyon is theoretically a possibility, accessible anyons with current technology all belong to a class that is called weakly integral—anyons whose squared quantum dimensions are integers. We analyze the computational power of the first non-abelian anyon system with only integral quantum dimensions—D(S_3) , the quantum double of S_3 . Since all anyons in D(S_3) have finite images of braid group representations, they cannot be universal for quantum computation by braiding alone. Based on our knowledge of the images of the braid group representations, we set up three qutrit computational models. Supplementing braidings with some measurements and ancillary states, we find a universal gate set for each model.
Quantum computing with incoherent resources and quantum jumps
Santos M.F.; Terra Cunha M.; Chaves R.; Carvalho A.R.R.
2011-01-01
Spontaneous emission and the inelastic scattering of photons are two natural processes usually associated with decoherence and the reduction in the capacity to process quantum information. Here we show that when suitably detected, these photons are sufficient to build all the fundamental blocks needed to perform quantum computation in the emitting qubits while protecting them from deleterious dissipative effects. We exemplify by showing how to teleport an unknown quantum sta...
Scalable architecture for solid state quantum computation
Taylor, Jacob; Dür, W.; Marcus, C. M.
2005-05-01
Solid state approaches to quantum computation offer intriguing prospects for large scale integration and long term stability. Most of the current approaches restrict the computation to nearest-neighbors interactions. This condition generally decreases thresholds for fault tolerant computation. We explore the prospects for improving the scalability of solid-state quantum computation schemes via cavity QED on chip or long range transport of electron spin, and consider analogies between solid-state computation and scalable architectures for ion-based computation. Specifically we investigate dominant sources of errors in electron spin transport and study techniques to purify and correct these errors. Finally, we discuss several approaches for long-lived storage of electronic spin qubits and investigate novel architectures that utilize these resources for scalable quantum computation.
The experimental research on the principle of semi-conductor bridge (SCB) detonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When the electrical exploding semi-conductor bridge (SCB) is used to initiate the HE, the safety properties are better and required energies are smaller than the HE initiated by electrical exploding conductor bridge because the special electrical performances of semi-conductor materials. The HE initiated by SCB is researched by changing the parameters of the capacitor discharge unit (CDU) and the density of the original charge. The explosive initiated is re-crystallized PETN filled in a copper shell with diameter 6.2 mm and it's wall thickness 0.3 mm. The filled explosive's size is ?5.6 mm x 14 mm and it's density is ? = (1.0 - 1.3)g/cm3. The detonator's total size is ?6.2 mm x 20 mm. The experimental results show that it is possibly a faster DDT (deflagration to detonation transition) process that explosives initiated by SCB and the energy required for the re-crystallized PETN with density 1.0 g/cm3 reliably initiated by this SCB detonator is about 290 mJ. The function time (the time from the start of the capacitor discharge to steady detonation formation in the PETN) of this detonator is t ? 3.27?s and the distance run to detonation of the initiated explosive is ??6.31 mm. This new SCB detonator can reliably initiate the inert PETN booster (PETN/wax = 95/5) with density 1.64 g/cm3
Video Encryption and Decryption on Quantum Computers
Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.; Yang, Huamin
2015-02-01
A method for video encryption and decryption on quantum computers is proposed based on color information transformations on each frame encoding the content of the encoding the content of the video. The proposed method provides a flexible operation to encrypt quantum video by means of the quantum measurement in order to enhance the security of the video. To validate the proposed approach, a tetris tile-matching puzzle game video is utilized in the experimental simulations. The results obtained suggest that the proposed method enhances the security and speed of quantum video encryption and decryption, both properties required for secure transmission and sharing of video content in quantum communication.
Principles of quantum computation and information
Benenti, Giuliano; Strini, Giuliano
2004-01-01
Quantum computation and information is a new, rapidly developing interdisciplinary field. Therefore, it is not easy to understand its fundamental concepts and central results without facing numerous technical details. This book provides the reader a useful and not-too-heavy guide. It offers a simple and self-contained introduction; no previous knowledge of quantum mechanics or classical computation is required. Volume I may be used as a textbook for a one-semester introductory course in quantum information and computation, both for upper-level undergraduate students and for graduate students.
Measurement Based Quantum Computation on Fractal Lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michal Hajdušek
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this article we extend on work which establishes an analology between one-way quantum computation and thermodynamics to see how the former can be performed on fractal lattices. We find fractals lattices of arbitrary dimension greater than one which do all act as good resources for one-way quantum computation, and sets of fractal lattices with dimension greater than one all of which do not. The difference is put down to other topological factors such as ramification and connectivity. This work adds confidence to the analogy and highlights new features to what we require for universal resources for one-way quantum computation.
Quantum Computation Using Optically Coupled Quantum Dot Arrays
Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, K. L.; Roychowhury, V. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
A solid state model for quantum computation has potential advantages in terms of the ease of fabrication, characterization, and integration. The fundamental requirements for a quantum computer involve the realization of basic processing units (qubits), and a scheme for controlled switching and coupling among the qubits, which enables one to perform controlled operations on qubits. We propose a model for quantum computation based on optically coupled quantum dot arrays, which is computationally similar to the atomic model proposed by Cirac and Zoller. In this model, individual qubits are comprised of two coupled quantum dots, and an array of these basic units is placed in an optical cavity. Switching among the states of the individual units is done by controlled laser pulses via near field interaction using the NSOM technology. Controlled rotations involving two or more qubits are performed via common cavity mode photon. We have calculated critical times, including the spontaneous emission and switching times, and show that they are comparable to the best times projected for other proposed models of quantum computation. We have also shown the feasibility of accessing individual quantum dots using the NSOM technology by calculating the photon density at the tip, and estimating the power necessary to perform the basic controlled operations. We are currently in the process of estimating the decoherence times for this system; however, we have formulated initial arguments which seem to indicate that the decoherence times will be comparable, if not longer, than many other proposed models.
Quantum Multiplexing for Quantum Computer Networks
Garcia-Escartin, J C; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2007-01-01
In communication networks many different channels must share a limited amount of resources. In order to allow for multiple simultaneous communications, multiple access techniques are routinely employed. With quantum communication, it is possible to share a new kind of resource. All of the system channels can be accommodated into a single channel in a larger Hilbert space. In the scheme, a single line combines the information of all the users, and, at the receiver, the original quantum channels are recovered. The given multiplexer/demultiplexer circuit can perform this n qubits to qudit transformation. Connections with superdense coding and classical multiple access schemes are discussed.
Quantum Computing over Finite Fields
James, Roshan P.; Ortiz , Gerardo; Sabry, Amr
2011-01-01
In recent work, Benjamin Schumacher and Michael~D. Westmoreland investigate a version of quantum mechanics which they call "modal quantum theory" but which we prefer to call "discrete quantum theory". This theory is obtained by instantiating the mathematical framework of Hilbert spaces with a finite field instead of the field of complex numbers. This instantiation collapses much the structure of actual quantum mechanics but retains several of its distinguishing characteristi...
Why now is the right time to study quantum computing
Harrow, Aram W.
2014-01-01
Quantum computing is a good way to justify difficult physics experiments. But until quantum computers are built, do computer scientists need to know anything about quantum information? In fact, quantum computing is not merely a recipe for new computing devices, but a new way of looking at the world that has been astonishingly intellectually productive. In this article, I'll talk about where quantum computing came from, what it is, and what we can learn from it.
Elements of quantum computing history, theories and engineering applications
Akama, Seiki
2015-01-01
A quantum computer is a computer based on a computational model which uses quantum mechanics, which is a subfield of physics to study phenomena at the micro level. There has been a growing interest on quantum computing in the 1990's, and some quantum computers at the experimental level were recently implemented. Quantum computers enable super-speed computation, and can solve some important problems whose solutions were regarded impossible or intractable with traditional computers. This book provides a quick introduction to quantum computing for readers who have no backgrounds of both theory of computation and quantum mechanics. “Elements of Quantum Computing” presents the history, theories, and engineering applications of quantum computing. The book is suitable to computer scientists, physicist, and software engineers.
An introduction to quantum computing algorithms
Pittenger, Arthur O
2000-01-01
In 1994 Peter Shor [65] published a factoring algorithm for a quantum computer that finds the prime factors of a composite integer N more efficiently than is possible with the known algorithms for a classical com puter. Since the difficulty of the factoring problem is crucial for the se curity of a public key encryption system, interest (and funding) in quan tum computing and quantum computation suddenly blossomed. Quan tum computing had arrived. The study of the role of quantum mechanics in the theory of computa tion seems to have begun in the early 1980s with the publications of Paul Benioff [6]' [7] who considered a quantum mechanical model of computers and the computation process. A related question was discussed shortly thereafter by Richard Feynman [35] who began from a different perspec tive by asking what kind of computer should be used to simulate physics. His analysis led him to the belief that with a suitable class of "quantum machines" one could imitate any quantum system.
Quantum computation and pseudo-telepathic games
Bub, Jeffrey
2010-01-01
A quantum algorithm succeeds not because the superposition principle allows 'the computation of all values of a function at once' via 'quantum parallelism,' but rather because the structure of a quantum state space allows new sorts of correlations associated with entanglement, with new possibilities for information-processing transformations between correlations, that are not possible in a classical state space. I illustrate this with an elementary example of a problem for w...
The search for biological quantum computer elements
PIZZI, RITA MARIA ROSA
2008-01-01
The difficulties encountered in explaining the capacities of the human brain to generate conscious experiences with a neuron switching model has lead researchers to speculate that quantum phenomena may be involved in the human thinking process. This speculation goes beyond acknowledgement of the quantum mechanical basis for bio-molecular chemistry but suggests the architecture of brain functioning parallels the architecture of quantum computers. In this model classically observed neural compo...
Simulating a perceptron on a quantum computer
Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco
2014-01-01
Perceptrons are the basic computational unit of artificial neural networks, as they model the activation mechanism of an output neuron due to incoming signals from its neighbours. As linear classifiers, they play an important role in the foundations of machine learning. In the context of the emerging field of quantum machine learning, several attempts have been made to develop a corresponding unit using quantum information theory. Based on the quantum phase estimation algori...
Computational Complexity Measures of Multipartite Quantum Entanglement
Yamakami, Tomoyuki
2003-01-01
We shed new light on entanglement measures in multipartite quantum systems by taking a computational-complexity approach toward quantifying quantum entanglement with two familiar notions--approximability and distinguishability. Built upon the formal treatment of partial separability, we measure the complexity of an entangled quantum state by determining (i) how hard to approximate it from a fixed classical state and (ii) how hard to distinguish it from all partially separabl...
Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots
Ren, Bao-Cang; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-04-01
It is well known that a parallel quantum computer is more powerful than a classical one. So far, there are some important works about the construction of universal quantum logic gates, the key elements in quantum computation. However, they are focused on operating on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable hyper-parallel quantum computation based on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating on both the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of a two-photon system simultaneously, by exploiting the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This hyper-CNOT gate is implemented by manipulating the four qubits in the two DOFs of a two-photon system without auxiliary spatial modes or polarization modes. It reduces the operation time and the resources consumed in quantum information processing, and it is more robust against the photonic dissipation noise, compared with the integration of several cascaded CNOT gates in one DOF.
Quantum computational logic with mixed states
Freytes, Hector
2010-01-01
Using an algebraic framework we solve a problem posed in [5] and [7] about the axiomatizability of a quantum computational type logic related to fuzzy logic. A Hilbert-style calculus is developed obtaining an algebraic strong completeness theorem.
Thoughts on Noise and Quantum Computation
Kalai, G
2005-01-01
We will try to explore, primarily from the complexity-theoretic point of view, limitations of error-correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. We consider stochastic models of quantum computation on $n$ qubits subject to noise operators that are obtained as products of tiny noise operators acting on a small number of qubits. We conjecture that for realistic random noise operators of this kind there will be substantial dependencies between the noise on individual qubits and, in addition, we propose that the dependence structure of the noise acting on individual qubits will necessarily depend (systematically) on the dependence structure of the qubits themselves. We point out that the majority function can repair, in the classical case, some forms of stochastic noise of this kind and conjecture that this healing power of majority has no quantum analog. The main hypothesis of this paper is that these properties of noise are sufficient to reduce quantum computation to probabilistic classical computation. S...
Quantum Computing and Shor`s Factoring Algorithm
Volovich, Igor V.
2001-01-01
Lectures on quantum computing. Contents: Algorithms. Quantum circuits. Quantum Fourier transform. Elements of number theory. Modular exponentiation. Shor`s algorithm for finding the order. Computational complexity of Schor`s algorithm. Factoring integers. NP-complete problems.
Classical signal-flow in cluster-state quantum computation
Oshima, Kazuto
2009-01-01
We study concretely how classical signals should be processed in quantum cluster-state computation. Deforming corresponding quantum teleportation circuit, we find a simple rule of a classical signal-flow to obtain correct quantum computation results.
Directional Coupling for Quantum Computing and Communication
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.
2008-01-01
We introduce the concept of directional coupling, i.e., the selective transfer of a state between adjacent quantum wires, in the context of quantum computing and short-distance communication. Our analysis rests upon a mathematical analogy between a dual-channel directional coupler and a composite spin system.
Is the Brain a Quantum Computer?
Litt, Abninder; Eliasmith, Chris; Kroon, Frederick W.; Weinstein, Steven; Thagard, Paul
2006-01-01
We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic…
Image segmentation on a quantum computer
Caraiman, Simona; Manta, Vasile I.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we address the field of quantum information processing and analyze the prospects of applying quantum computation concepts to image processing tasks. Specifically, we discuss the development of a quantum version for the image segmentation operation. This is an important technique that comes up in many image processing applications. We consider the threshold-based segmentation and show that a quantum circuit to achieve this operation can be built using a quantum oracle that implements the thresholding function. We discuss the circuit implementation of the oracle operator and provide examples of segmenting synthetic and real images. The main advantage of the quantum version for image segmentation over the classical approach is its speedup and is provided by the special properties of quantum information processing: superposition of states and inherent parallelism.
Image segmentation on a quantum computer
Caraiman, Simona; Manta, Vasile I.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we address the field of quantum information processing and analyze the prospects of applying quantum computation concepts to image processing tasks. Specifically, we discuss the development of a quantum version for the image segmentation operation. This is an important technique that comes up in many image processing applications. We consider the threshold-based segmentation and show that a quantum circuit to achieve this operation can be built using a quantum oracle that implements the thresholding function. We discuss the circuit implementation of the oracle operator and provide examples of segmenting synthetic and real images. The main advantage of the quantum version for image segmentation over the classical approach is its speedup and is provided by the special properties of quantum information processing: superposition of states and inherent parallelism.
Quantum computation and Biological stress: A Hypothesis
Grover Monendra
2014-01-01
We propose that biological systems may behave as quantum computers.We have earlier hypothesized that patterns of quantum computation may be altered in stress and this leads to the change in the consciousness vector of biological systems. We further propose in this paper that the biological systems with a sufficient consciousness vector behave as objects which are entangled with the universal consciousness and as a consequence wormholes exist between the universal consciousness and the bio...
Thoughts on Noise and Quantum Computation
Kalai, Gil
2005-01-01
We will try to explore, primarily from the complexity-theoretic point of view, limitations of error-correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. We consider stochastic models of quantum computation on $n$ qubits subject to noise operators that are obtained as products of tiny noise operators acting on a small number of qubits. We conjecture that for realistic random noise operators of this kind there will be substantial dependencies between the noise on individual qubi...
Delayed commutation in quantum computer networks
Garcia-Escartin, J C; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2005-01-01
In the same way that classical computer networks connect and enhance the capabilities of classical computers, quantum networks can combine the advantages of quantum information and communications. We propose a non-classical network element, a delayed commutation switch, that can solve the problem of switching time in packet switching networks. With the help of some local ancillary qubits and superdense codes we can route the information after part of it has left the network node.
Accounting Principles are Simulated on Quantum Computers
Diep, Do Ngoc; Giang, Do Hoang
2005-01-01
The paper is devoted to a new idea of simulation of accounting by quantum computing. We expose the actual accounting principles in a pure mathematics language. After that we simulated the accounting principles on quantum computers. We show that all arbitrary accounting actions are exhausted by the described basic actions. The main problem of accounting are reduced to some system of linear equations in the economic model of Leontief. In this simulation we use our constructed ...
Simulating quantum computers with probabilistic methods
Nest, M. Van den
2009-01-01
We investigate the boundary between classical and quantum computational power. This work consists of two parts. First we develop new classical simulation algorithms that are centered on sampling methods. Using these techniques we generate new classes of classically simulatable quantum circuits where standard techniques relying on the exact computation of measurement probabilities fail to provide efficient simulations. For example, we show how various concatenations of matchg...
Acausal measurement-based quantum computing
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2014-01-01
In the measurement-based quantum computing, there is a natural "causal cone" among qubits of the resource state, since the measurement angle on a qubit has to depend on previous measurement results in order to correct the effect of byproduct operators. If we respect the no-signaling principle, byproduct operators cannot be avoided. In this paper, we study the possibility of acausal measurement-based quantum computing by using the process matrix framework [O. Oreshkov, F. Cos...
Geometric Control Methods for Quantum Computations
Giunashvili, Zakaria
2004-01-01
The applications of geometric control theory methods on Lie groups and homogeneous spaces to the theory of quantum computations are investigated. These methods are shown to be very useful for the problem of constructing an universal set of gates for quantum computations: the well-known result that the set of all one-bit gates together with almost any one two-bit gate is universal is considered from the control theory viewpoint.
Methodological testing: Are fast quantum computers illusions?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popularity of the idea for computers constructed from the principles of QM started with Feynman's 'Lectures On Computation', but he called the idea crazy and dependent on statistical mechanics. In 1987, Feynman published a paper in 'Quantum Implications - Essays in Honor of David Bohm' on negative probabilities which he said gave him cultural shock. The problem with imagined fast quantum computers (QC) is that speed requires both statistical behavior and truth of the mathematical formalism. The Swedish Royal Academy 2012 Nobel Prize in physics press release touted the discovery of methods to control ''individual quantum systems'', to ''measure and control very fragile quantum states'' which enables ''first steps towards building a new type of super fast computer based on quantum physics.'' A number of examples where widely accepted mathematical descriptions have turned out to be problematic are examined: Problems with the use of Oracles in P=NP computational complexity, Paul Finsler's proof of the continuum hypothesis, and Turing's Enigma code breaking versus William tutte's Colossus. I view QC research as faith in computational oracles with wished for properties. Arther Fine's interpretation in 'The Shaky Game' of Einstein's skepticism toward QM is discussed. If Einstein's reality as space-time curvature is correct, then space-time computers will be the next type of super fast computer.
Quantum Computing with Electron Spins in Quantum Dots
Vandersypen, L M K; Van Beveren, L H W; Elzerman, J M; Greidanus, J S; De Franceschi, S; Kouwenhoven, Leo P
2002-01-01
We present a set of concrete and realistic ideas for the implementation of a small-scale quantum computer using electron spins in lateral GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. Initialization is based on leads in the quantum Hall regime with tunable spin-polarization. Read-out hinges on spin-to-charge conversion via spin-selective tunneling to or from the leads, followed by measurement of the number of electron charges on the dot via a charge detector. Single-qubit manipulation relies on a microfabricated wire located close to the quantum dot, and two-qubit interactions are controlled via the tunnel barrier connecting the respective quantum dots. Based on these ideas, we have begun a series of experiments in order to demonstrate unitary control and to measure the coherence time of individual electron spins in quantum dots.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plasma ignition method has been applied in various fields particularly to the rocket propulsion, pyrotechnics, explosives, and to the automotive air-bag system. Ignition method for those applications should be safe and also operate reliably in hostile environments such as; electromagnetic noise, drift voltage, electrostatic background and so on. In the present Letter, a semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma ignition device was fabricated and its plasma characteristics including the propagation speed of the plasma, plasma size, and plasma temperature were investigated with the aid of the visualization of micro scale plasma (i.e., ?350 ?m), which generated from a micro-electro-mechanical poly-silicon semiconductor bridge (SCB)
Improving reliability of SCB initiators based on Al/Ni multilayer nanofilms
Zhu, Peng; Li, Dongle; Fu, Shuai; Hu, Bo; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua
2013-07-01
This paper exploits an energetic initiator realized by integrating Al/Ni multilayer nanofilms with semiconductor bridge (SCB). The as-deposited nanofilms have been characterized with varied analytical techniques. Results show that distinct nanofilms are sputter deposited in a layered geometry and give a heat of reaction equal to 1134 J/g. The firing tests of the initiators were accomplished using capacitor discharge unit. Results show that the initiators possess several excellent characteristics such as fast ignition time, low power consumption, high output energy and so on. Therefore, Al/Ni multilayer nanofilms are suitable heat source for improving the reliability of SCB initiators.
Fundamental gravitational limitations to quantum computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lloyd has considered the ultimate limitations the fundamental laws of physics place on quantum computers. He concludes in particular that for an 'ultimate laptop' (a computer of one liter of volume and one kilogram of mass) the maximum number of operations per second is bounded by 1051. The limit is derived considering ordinary quantum mechanics. Here we consider additional limits that are placed by quantum gravity ideas, namely the use of a relational notion of time and fundamental gravitational limits that exist on time measurements. We then particularize for the case of an ultimate laptop and show that the maximum number of operations is further constrained to 1047 per second. (authors)
Trading classical and quantum computational resources
Bravyi, Sergey; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John
2015-01-01
We propose examples of a hybrid quantum-classical simulation where a classical computer assisted by a small quantum processor can efficiently simulate a larger quantum system. First we consider sparse quantum circuits such that each qubit participates in O(1) two-qubit gates. It is shown that any sparse circuit on n+k qubits can be simulated by sparse circuits on n qubits and a classical processing that takes time $2^{O(k)} poly(n)$. Secondly, we study Pauli-based computatio...
Simulating Grover's Quantum Search in a Classical Computer
Ningtyas, D K
2010-01-01
The rapid progress of computer science has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of computation, from classical computation to quantum computation. As quantum computing is on its way to becoming an established discipline of computing science, much effort is being put into the development of new quantum algorithms. One of quantum algorithms is Grover algorithm, which is used for searching an element in an unstructured list of N elements with quadratic speed-up over classical algorithms. In this work, Quantum Computer Language (QCL) is used to make a Grover's quantum search simulation in a classical computer
Universal Blind Quantum Computing with Coherent States
Dunjko, Vedran; Leverrier, Anthony
2011-01-01
The recently proposed Universal Blind Quantum Computation (UBQC) protocol allows a client to perform an arbitrary quantum computation on a remote server such that perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing random separable single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this arguably constitutes the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of random single qubits which can be sent along long distances without loss is quite challenging and can never be achieved perfectly. In analogy to the concept of \\epsilon -security developed for other cryptographic protocols, we introduce here the concept of \\epsilon -blindness for UBQC, allowing us to characterize the robustness of the protocol to possible imperfections. Following this, we present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol, by which a client with access to realistic quantum devices (such as coherent laser light) can in a delegated fashion prepare quantum states arbitrarily ...
Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remarkable progress towards realizing quantum computation has been achieved using natural and artificial atoms as qubits. This paper presents a brief overview of the current status of different types of qubits. On the one hand, natural atoms (such as neutral atoms and ions) have long coherence times, and could be stored in large arrays, providing ideal 'quantum memories'. On the other hand, artificial atoms (such as superconducting circuits or semiconductor quantum dots) have the advantage of custom-designed features and could be used as 'quantum processing units'. Natural and artificial atoms can be coupled with each other and can also be interfaced with photons for long-distance communications. Hybrid devices made of natural/artificial atoms and photons may provide the next-generation design for quantum computers.
Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots
Pessa, Eliano
2009-01-01
The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrence of stable coherence phenomena, in turn underlying high-level mental processes such as intentions and strategies. More precisely, within the context of a dissipative Quantum Field Theory of brain operation it is possible to introduce generalized coherent states associated, within the framework of logic, to the assertions of a quantum metalanguage. The latter controls the quantum-mechanical computing corresponding to standard mental operation. It thus become possible to conceive a Quantum Cyborg in which a human mind controls, through a qu...
Consequences and Limitations of Conventional Computers and their Solutions through Quantum Computers
Sanjaykumar DALVI; Pranav BARDAPURKAR; Nilesh BARDE; Deepak THAKUR
2011-01-01
Quantum computer is the current topic of research in the field of computational science, which uses principles of quantum mechanics. Quantum computers will be much more powerful than the classical computer due to its enormous computational speed. Recent developments in quantum computers which are based on the laws of quantum mechanics, shows different ways of performing efficient calculations along with the various results which are not possible on the classical computers in an efficient peri...
Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Lattice Gas Computation
Pravia, M A; Yepez, J; Cory, D G; Pravia, Marco A.; Chen, Zhiying; Yepez, Jeffrey; Cory, David G.
2003-01-01
We report an ensemble nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) implementation of a quantum lattice gas algorithm for the diffusion equation. The algorithm employs an array of quantum information processors sharing classical information, a novel architecture referred to as a type-II quantum computer. This concrete implementation provides a test example from which to probe the strengths and limitations of this new computation paradigm. The NMR experiment consists of encoding a mass density onto an array of 16 two-qubit quantum information processors and then following the computation through 7 time steps of the algorithm. The results show good agreement with the analytic solution for diffusive dynamics. We also describe numerical simulations of the NMR implementation. The simulations aid in determining sources of experimental errors, and they help define the limits of the implementation.
Quantum computing in a piece of glass
Miller, Warner A.; Alsing, Paul M.; Kreymerman, Grigoriy; McDonald, Jonathan R.; Tison, Christopher
2011-05-01
Quantum gates and simple quantum algorithms can be designed utilizing the diffraction phenomena of a photon within a multiplexed holographic element. The quantum eigenstates we use are the photon's linear momentum (LM) as measured by the number of waves of tilt across the aperture. Two properties of quantum computing within the circuit model make this approach attractive. First, any conditional measurement can be commuted in time with any unitary quantum gate - the timeless nature of quantum computing. Second, photon entanglement can be encoded as a superposition state of a single photon in a higher-dimensional state space afforded by LM. Our theoretical and numerical results indicate that OptiGrate's photo-thermal refractive (PTR) glass is an enabling technology. We will review our previous design of a quantum projection operator and give credence to this approach on a representative quantum gate grounded on coupled-mode theory and numerical simulations, all with parameters consistent with PTR glass. We discuss the strengths (high efficiencies, robustness to environment) and limitations (scalability, crosstalk) of this technology. While not scalable, the utility and robustness of such optical elements for broader quantum information processing applications can be substantial.
Relativistic quantum chemistry on quantum computers.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Veis, Libor; Viš?ák, Jakub; Fleig, T.; Knecht, S.; Saue, T.; Visscher, L.; Pittner, Ji?í
2012-01-01
Ro?. 85, ?. 3 (2012), 030304. ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/08/0626 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : simulation * algorithm * computation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2012
Quantum computation and pseudo-telepathic games
Bub, Jeffrey
2010-01-01
A quantum algorithm succeeds not because the superposition principle allows 'the computation of all values of a function at once' via 'quantum parallelism,' but rather because the structure of a quantum state space allows new sorts of correlations associated with entanglement, with new possibilities for information-processing transformations between correlations, that are not possible in a classical state space. I illustrate this with an elementary example of a problem for which a quantum algorithm is more efficient than any classical algorithm. I also introduce the notion of 'pseudo-telepathic' games and show how the difference between classical and quantum correlations plays a similar role here for games that can be won by quantum players exploiting entanglement, but not by classical players whose only allowed common resource consists of shared strings of random numbers (common causes of the players' correlated responses in a game).
Quantum Computer with Fixed Interaction is Universal
Ozhigov, Yuri; Fedichkin, Leonid
2002-01-01
It is proved that a quantum computer with fixed and permanent interaction of diagonal type between qubits proposed in the work quant-ph/0201132 is universal. Such computer is controlled only by one-qubit quick transformations, and this makes it feasible.
Construction of a universal quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct a universal quantum computer following Deutsch's original proposal of a universal quantum Turing machine (UQTM). Like Deutsch's UQTM, our machine can emulate any classical Turing machine and can execute any algorithm that can be implemented in the quantum gate array framework but under the control of a quantum program, and hence is universal. We present the architecture of the machine, which consists of a memory tape and a processor and describe the observables that comprise the registers of the processor and the instruction set, which includes a set of operations that can approximate any unitary operation to any desired accuracy and hence is quantum computationally universal. We present the unitary evolution operators that act on the machine to achieve universal computation and discuss each of them in detail and specify and discuss explicit program halting and concatenation schemes. We define and describe a set of primitive programs in order to demonstrate the universal nature of the machine. These primitive programs facilitate the implementation of more complex algorithms and we demonstrate their use by presenting a program that computes the NAND function, thereby also showing that the machine can compute any classically computable function.
Noise-assisted quantum transport and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transmission of an excitation along a spin chain can be hindered by the presence of small fixed imperfections that create trapping regions where the excitation may get caught (Anderson localization). A certain degree of noise, ensuing from the interaction with a thermal bath, allows us to overcome localization (noise-assisted transport). In this paper, we investigate the relation between the noise-assisted transport and (quantum) computation. In particular, we prove that noise does assist classical computation on a quantum computing device, but hinders the possibility of creating entanglement. (paper)
The pre-history of quantum computation
Potgieter, P H
2004-01-01
The main ideas behind developments in the theory and technology of quantum computation were formulated in the late 1970s and early 1980s by two physicists in the West and a mathematician in the former Soviet Union. It is not generally known in the West that the subject has roots in the Russian technical literature. The author hopes to present as impartial a synthesis as possible of the early history of thought on this subject. The role of reversible and irreversible computational processes is examined briefly as it relates to the origins of quantum computing and the so-called Information Paradox in physics.
Simulating Grover's Quantum Search in a Classical Computer
Ningtyas, D. K.; A.B. Mutiara
2010-01-01
The rapid progress of computer science has been accompanied by a corresponding evolution of computation, from classical computation to quantum computation. As quantum computing is on its way to becoming an established discipline of computing science, much effort is being put into the development of new quantum algorithms. One of quantum algorithms is Grover algorithm, which is used for searching an element in an unstructured list of N elements with quadratic speed-up over cl...
Universal quantum computation with little entanglement.
Van den Nest, Maarten
2013-02-01
We show that universal quantum computation can be achieved in the standard pure-state circuit model while the entanglement entropy of every bipartition is small in each step of the computation. The entanglement entropy required for large-scale quantum computation even tends to zero. Moreover we show that the same conclusion applies to many entanglement measures commonly used in the literature. This includes e.g., the geometric measure, localizable entanglement, multipartite concurrence, squashed entanglement, witness-based measures, and more generally any entanglement measure which is continuous in a certain natural sense. These results demonstrate that many entanglement measures are unsuitable tools to assess the power of quantum computers. PMID:23432229
Quantum memory and quantum computations in the optical subradiance regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The possibilities of creation and manipulation of subradiant states in an extended atomic system by coherent 2? pulses are analysed. It is shown that excitation of the atomic system to collective subradiant states eliminates the superradiant broadening of the resonance line in quantum optical memory devices. The scheme of a nonlinear sign-shift two-qubit gate is proposed, which can be used in optical quantum computers. (fourth seminar to the memory of d.n. klyshko)
Quantum-cellular-automata quantum computing with endohedral fullerenes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a scheme to perform universal quantum computation using global addressing techniques as applied to a physical system of endohedrally doped fullerenes. The system consists of an ABAB linear array of group-V endohedrally doped fullerenes. Each molecule spin site consists of a nuclear spin coupled via a hyperfine interaction to an electron spin. The electron spin of each molecule is in a quartet ground state S=3/2. Neighboring molecular electron spins are coupled via a magnetic dipole interaction. We find that an all-electron construction of a quantum cellular automaton is frustrated due to the degeneracy of the electronic transitions. However, we can construct a quantum-cellular-automata quantum computing architecture using these molecules by encoding the quantum information on the nuclear spins while using the electron spins as a local bus. We deduce the NMR and ESR pulses required to execute the basic cellular automaton operation and obtain a rough figure of merit for the number of gate operations per decoherence time. We find that this figure of merit compares well with other physical quantum computer proposals. We argue that the proposed architecture meets well the first four DiVincenzo criteria and we outline various routes toward meeting the fifth criterion: qubit readout
Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology
Raisinghani, Mahesh S
2001-01-01
The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference). Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, i...
Towards fault-tolerant quantum computing with trapped ions
Benhelm, J.; Kirchmair, G.; Roos, C. F.; Blatt, R.
2008-01-01
Today ion traps are among the most promising physical systems for constructing a quantum device harnessing the computing power inherent in the laws of quantum physics. The standard circuit model of quantum computing requires a universal set of quantum logic gates for the implementation of arbitrary quantum operations. As in classical models of computation, quantum error correction techniques enable rectification of small imperfections in gate operations, thus allowing for pe...
Analogue Quantum Computers for Data Analysis
Vlasov, Alexander Yu.
1998-01-01
Analogue computers use continuous properties of physical system for modeling. In the paper is described possibility of modeling by analogue quantum computers for some model of data analysis. It is analogue associative memory and a formal neural network. A particularity of the models is combination of continuous internal processes with discrete set of output states. The modeling of the system by classical analogue computers was offered long times ago, but now it is not very e...
Verification for measurement-only blind quantum computing
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2012-01-01
Blind quantum computing is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client who does not have any sophisticated quantum technlogy can delegate her quantum computing to a server without leaking any privacy. It is known that a client who has only a measurement device can perform blind quantum computing [T. Morimae and K. Fujii, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf87}, 050301(R) (2013)]. It has been an open problem whether the protocol can enjoy the verification, i.e., the ability of client...
Fault-Tolerant Postselected Quantum Computation: Threshold Analysis
Knill, E
2004-01-01
The schemes for fault-tolerant postselected quantum computation given in [Knill, Fault-Tolerant Postselected Quantum Computation: Schemes, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0402171] are analyzed to determine their error-tolerance. The analysis is based on computer-assisted heuristics. It indicates that if classical and quantum communication delays are negligible, then scalable qubit-based quantum computation is possible with errors above 1% per elementary quantum gate.
Recipes for spin-based quantum computing
Cerletti, V; Gywat, O; Loss, D; Cerletti, Veronica; Gywat, Oliver; Loss, Daniel
2005-01-01
Technological growth in the electronics industry has historically been measured by the number of transistors that can be crammed onto a single microchip. Unfortunately, all good things must come to an end; spectacular growth in the number of transistors on a chip requires spectacular reduction of the transistor size. For electrons in semiconductors, the laws of quantum mechanics take over at the nanometre scale, and the conventional wisdom for progress (transistor cramming) must be abandoned. This realization has stimulated extensive research on ways to exploit the spin (in addition to the orbital) degree of freedom of the electron, giving birth to the field of spintronics. Perhaps the most ambitious goal of spintronics is to realize complete control over the quantum mechanical nature of the relevant spins. This prospect has motivated a race to design and build a spintronic device capable of complete control over its quantum mechanical state, and ultimately, performing computations: a quantum computer. In thi...
Local Search Methods for Quantum Computers
Hogg, Tad; YANIK, Mehmet
1998-01-01
Local search algorithms use the neighborhood relations among search states and often perform well for a variety of NP-hard combinatorial search problems. This paper shows how quantum computers can also use these neighborhood relations. An example of such a local quantum search is evaluated empirically for the satisfiability (SAT) problem and shown to be particularly effective for highly constrained instances. For problems with an intermediate number of constraints, it is som...
Optical quantum computer based on RDS crystal
Sazonova, Z. S.; Singh, Ranjit
2001-01-01
We have proposed the construction of optical quantum computer (OQC) on regular domain structure (RDS) crystal. By using RDS crystal, we can perform all the logical operations on one RDS crystal. Moreover, RDS crystals are parctically independent to the heating effects i.e., can perform logic operations constantly without cooling the RDS crystal. Also, we have proposed the quantum parallelsim i.e., parallel coherent laser beams are injected at the input of the RDS crystals. B...
Another Look at Quantum Neural Computing
Kak, Subhash
2009-01-01
The term quantum neural computing indicates a unity in the functioning of the brain. It assumes that the neural structures perform classical processing and that the virtual particles associated with the dynamical states of the structures define the underlying quantum state. We revisit the concept and also summarize new arguments related to the learning modes of the brain in response to sensory input that may be aggregated in three types: associative, reorganizational, and qu...
Quantum adiabatic computation and adiabatic conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, quantum adiabatic computation has attracted more and more attention in the literature. It is a novel quantum computation model based on adiabatic approximation, and the analysis of a quantum adiabatic algorithm depends highly on the adiabatic conditions. However, it has been pointed out that the traditional adiabatic conditions are problematic. Thus, results obtained previously should be checked and sufficient adiabatic conditions applicable to adiabatic computation should be proposed. Based on a result of Tong et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 150402 (2007)], we propose a modified adiabatic criterion which is more applicable to the analysis of adiabatic algorithms. As an example, we prove the validity of the local adiabatic search algorithm by employing our criterion
Methodological testing: Are fast quantum computers illusions?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Steven [Tachyon Design Automation, San Francisco, CA (United States)
2013-07-01
Popularity of the idea for computers constructed from the principles of QM started with Feynman's 'Lectures On Computation', but he called the idea crazy and dependent on statistical mechanics. In 1987, Feynman published a paper in 'Quantum Implications - Essays in Honor of David Bohm' on negative probabilities which he said gave him cultural shock. The problem with imagined fast quantum computers (QC) is that speed requires both statistical behavior and truth of the mathematical formalism. The Swedish Royal Academy 2012 Nobel Prize in physics press release touted the discovery of methods to control ''individual quantum systems'', to ''measure and control very fragile quantum states'' which enables ''first steps towards building a new type of super fast computer based on quantum physics.'' A number of examples where widely accepted mathematical descriptions have turned out to be problematic are examined: Problems with the use of Oracles in P=NP computational complexity, Paul Finsler's proof of the continuum hypothesis, and Turing's Enigma code breaking versus William tutte's Colossus. I view QC research as faith in computational oracles with wished for properties. Arther Fine's interpretation in 'The Shaky Game' of Einstein's skepticism toward QM is discussed. If Einstein's reality as space-time curvature is correct, then space-time computers will be the next type of super fast computer.
Neuromorphic quantum computation with energy dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Real parallel computing with a quantum computer attracts vast interest due to its extreme high potential. We propose a neuromorphic quantum computation algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with energy dissipation. This algorithm can be applied to problems if a cost function can be expressed in a quadratic form. This requirement results from the fact that our Hamiltonian is designed by following a method similar to an artificial neural network (ANN). The state of an ANN is often trapped at local minima, and the network outputs an error. Since the state of a quantum system with the proposed algorithm is always in the ground state according to the adiabatic theorem, it is not necessary to be concerned that the quantum state is trapped at local minima. However, there is no guarantee that a quantum algorithm based on an adiabatic Hamiltonian evolution with degeneration or level crossing is successfully executed. We show successful numerical simulation results with the proposed algorithm by introducing energy dissipation to keep the quantum state staying in the ground state, and then we show an application to the n-queen problem, which is one of the combinatorial optimization problems
Universal Dephasing Control During Quantum Computation
Gordon, Goren
2007-01-01
Dephasing is a ubiquitous phenomenon that leads to the loss of coherence in quantum systems and the corruption of quantum information. We present a universal dynamical control approach to combat dephasing during all stages of quantum computation, namely, storage, single- and two-qubit operators. We show that (a) tailoring multi-frequency gate pulses to the dephasing dynamics can increase fidelity; (b) cross-dephasing, introduced by entanglement, can be eliminated by appropriate control fields; (c) counter-intuitively and contrary to previous schemes, one can increase the gate duration, while simultaneously increasing the total gate fidelity.
Universal dephasing control during quantum computation
Gordon, Goren; Kurizki, Gershon
2007-10-01
Dephasing is a ubiquitous phenomenon that leads to the loss of coherence in quantum systems and the corruption of quantum information. We present a universal dynamical control approach to combat dephasing during all stages of quantum computation, namely, storage and single- and two-qubit operators. We show that (a) tailoring multifrequency gate pulses to the dephasing dynamics can increase fidelity; (b) cross-dephasing, introduced by entanglement, can be eliminated by appropriate control fields; (c) counterintuitively and contrary to previous schemes, one can increase the gate duration, while simultaneously increasing the total gate fidelity.
Statistical mechanics of classical and quantum computational complexity
Laumann, C. R.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.; Sondhi, S. L.
2010-01-01
The quest for quantum computers is motivated by their potential for solving problems that defy existing, classical, computers. The theory of computational complexity, one of the crown jewels of computer science, provides a rigorous framework for classifying the hardness of problems according to the computational resources, most notably time, needed to solve them. Its extension to quantum computers allows the relative power of quantum computers to be analyzed. This framework ...
Quantum learning for a quantum lattice gas computer
Behrman, Elizabeth; Steck, James
2015-03-01
Quantum lattice gas is the logical generalization of quantum cellular automata. In low energy the dynamics are well described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the mean field limit, which is an effective nonlinear interaction model of a Bose-Einstein condensate. In previous work, we have shown in simulation that both spatial and temporal models of quantum learning computers can be used to ``design'' non-trivial quantum algorithms. The advantages of quantum learning over the usual practice of using quantum gate building blocks are, first, the rapidity with which the problem can be solved, without having to decompose the problem; second, the fact that our technique can be used readily even when the problem, or the operator, is not well understood; and, third, that because the interactions are a natural part of the physical system, connectivity is automatic. The advantage to quantum learning obviously grows with the size and the complexity of the problem. We develop and present our learning algorithm as applied to the mean field lattice gas equation, and present a few preliminary results.
Quantum learning in a quantum lattice gas computer
Behrman, Elizabeth; Steck, James
2015-04-01
Quantum lattice gas is the logical generalization of quantum cellular automata. At low energy the dynamics are well described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the mean field limit, which is an effective nonlinear interaction model of a Bose-Einstein condensate. In previous work, we have shown in simulation that both spatial and temporal models of quantum learning computers can be used to ``design'' non-trivial quantum algorithms. The advantages of quantum learning over the usual practice of using quantum gate building blocks are, first, the rapidity with which the problem can be solved, without having to decompose the problem; second, the fact that our technique can be used readily even when the problem, or the operator, is not well understood; and, third, that because the interactions are a natural part of the physical system, connectivity is automatic. The advantage to quantum learning obviously grows with the size and the complexity of the problem. We develop and present our learning algorithm as applied to the mean field lattice gas equation, and present a few preliminary results.
Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of H-dot as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated. (paper)
Mizel, Ari
2003-01-01
Ground-state quantum computers mimic quantum mechanical time evolution within the amplitudes of a time-independent quantum state. We explore the principles that constrain this mimicking. A no-cloning argument is found to impose strong restrictions. It is shown, however, that there is flexibility that can be exploited using quantum teleportation methods to improve ground-state quantum computer design.
Random Numbers and Quantum Computers
McCartney, Mark; Glass, David
2002-01-01
The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…
Strohm, Gianna Sophia
The move from conventional energetic composites to nano scale energetic mixtures (nano energetics) has shown dramatic improvement in energy release rate and sensitivity to ignition. A possible application of nano energetics is on a semiconductor bridge (SCB). An SCB typically requires a tenth of the energy input as compared to a bridge wire design with the same no-fire and is capable of igniting in tens of microseconds. For very low energy applications, SCBs can be manufactured to extremely small sizes and it is necessary to find materials with particle sizes that are even smaller to function. Reactive particles of comparable size to the bridge can lead to problems with ignition reliability for small bridges. Nano-energetic composites and the use of SCBs have been significantly studied individually, however, the process of combining nano energetics with an SCB has not been investigated extensively and is the focus of this work. Goals of this study are to determine if nano energetics can be used with SCBs to further reduce the minimum energy required and improve reliability. The performance of nano-scale aluminum (nAl) and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) with nitrocellulose (NC), Fluorel(TM) FC 2175 (chemically equivalent to VitonRTM) and Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as binders where quantified initially using the SenTest(TM) algorithm at three weight fractions (5, 7, and 9%) of binder. The threshold energy was calculated and compared to previous data using conventional materials such as zirconium potassium chlorate (ZPC), mercuric 5-Nitrotetrazol (DXN-1) and titanium sub-hydride potassium per-chlorate (TSPP). It was found that even though there where only slight differences in performance between the binders with nAl/Bi2O 3 at any of the three binder weight fractions, the results show that these nano energetic materials require about half of the threshold energy compared to conventional materials using an SCB with an 84x42 mum bridge. Binder limit testing was conducted to find the critical limit of binder when the output of the SCB declines. The binder was evaluated at 13, 17 and 20% and it was found that the limit amount of binder falls between 17 and 20% by weight of material. Scaling of the SCB bridge was evaluated using a 36x15 mum bridge size and tested using 5, 7 and 9% nAl/Bi2O 3 FC 2175 slurry, creating a functioning SCB compared to previous no-ignition results using TSPP. It was also postulated that the compaction of a secondary material onto the SCB would alter the SCB output during testing. It was found that increased energy values where required for both the 5 and 7% binder amounts and no change was seen at the 9% level.
Universal Single-Server Blind Quantum Computation for Classical Client
Xu, Hai-ru; Wang, Bang-hai
2014-01-01
Blind quantum computation allows a client without enough quantum technologies to delegate her quantum computation to quantum server, while keeping her input, output and algorithm secure. In this paper, we propose a universal single-server and classical-client blind quantum computation protocol based on entanglement swapping technology. In our protocol, the client interface with only one server and the only ability of the client requires is to get particles from trusted cente...
Simulation of chemical reaction dynamics on an NMR quantum computer
Lu, Dawei; Xu, Nanyang; Xu, Ruixue; Chen, Hongwei; Gong, Jiangbin; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
Quantum simulation can beat current classical computers with minimally a few tens of qubits and will likely become the first practical use of a quantum computer. One promising application of quantum simulation is to attack challenging quantum chemistry problems. Here we report an experimental demonstration that a small nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) quantum computer is already able to simulate the dynamics of a prototype chemical reaction. The experimental results agree we...
Dominant Strategies in Two Qubit Quantum Computations
Khan, Faisal Shah
2014-01-01
Nash equilibrium is a solution concept in non-strictly competitive, non-cooperative game theory that finds applications in various scientific and engineering disciplines. A non-strictly competitive, non-cooperative game model is presented here for two qubit quantum computations that allows for the characterization of Nash equilibrium in these computations via the inner product of their state space. Nash equilibrium outcomes are optimal under given constraints and therefore o...
Quantum Computer as an Inference Engine
Tucci, R R
2000-01-01
We propose a new family of quantum computing algorithms which generalize the Deutsch-Jozsa, Simon and Shor ones. The goal of our algorithms is to estimate conditional probability distributions. Such estimates are useful in applications of Decision Theory and Artificial Intelligence, where inferences are made based on uncertain knowledge. The family of algorithms that we propose is based on a construction method that generalizes a Fredkin-Toffoli (FT) construction method used in the field of classical reversible computing. FT showed how, given any binary deterministic circuit, one can construct another binary deterministic circuit which does the same calculations in a reversible manner. We show how, given any classical stochastic network (classical Bayesian net), one can construct a quantum network (quantum Bayesian net) which can perform the same calculations as the classical one, but in a (piecewise) reversible manner. Thus, we extend the FT construction method so that it can be applied to any stochastic cir...
The resource theory of stabilizer quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent results on the non-universality of fault-tolerant gate sets underline the critical role of resource states, such as magic states, to power scalable, universal quantum computation. Here we develop a resource theory, analogous to the theory of entanglement, that is relevant for fault-tolerant stabilizer computation. We introduce two quantitative measures—monotones—for the amount of non-stabilizer resource. As an application we give absolute bounds on the efficiency of magic state distillation. One of these monotones is the sum of the negative entries of the discrete Wigner representation of a quantum state, thereby resolving a long-standing open question of whether the degree of negativity in a quasi-probability representation is an operationally meaningful indicator of quantum behavior. (paper)
Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2011-01-01
We propose a protocol of blind topological measurement-based quantum computation. It is fault-tolerant, and the threshold is $4.3\\times10^{-3}$ for erroneous preparation of initial states, erroneous CZ gates, and erroneous local measurements. Our protocol is also fault-tolerant against the detectable qubit loss.
Quantum computation with Turaev-Viro codes
Koenig, Robert; Kuperberg, Greg; Reichardt, Ben W.
2010-12-01
For a 3-manifold with triangulated boundary, the Turaev-Viro topological invariant can be interpreted as a quantum error-correcting code. The code has local stabilizers, identified by Levin and Wen, on a qudit lattice. Kitaev's toric code arises as a special case. The toric code corresponds to an abelian anyon model, and therefore requires out-of-code operations to obtain universal quantum computation. In contrast, for many categories, such as the Fibonacci category, the Turaev-Viro code realizes a non-abelian anyon model. A universal set of fault-tolerant operations can be implemented by deforming the code with local gates, in order to implement anyon braiding. We identify the anyons in the code space, and present schemes for initialization, computation and measurement. This provides a family of constructions for fault-tolerant quantum computation that are closely related to topological quantum computation, but for which the fault tolerance is implemented in software rather than coming from a physical medium.
Quantum computation with Turaev-Viro codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For a 3-manifold with triangulated boundary, the Turaev-Viro topological invariant can be interpreted as a quantum error-correcting code. The code has local stabilizers, identified by Levin and Wen, on a qudit lattice. Kitaev's toric code arises as a special case. The toric code corresponds to an abelian anyon model, and therefore requires out-of-code operations to obtain universal quantum computation. In contrast, for many categories, such as the Fibonacci category, the Turaev-Viro code realizes a non-abelian anyon model. A universal set of fault-tolerant operations can be implemented by deforming the code with local gates, in order to implement anyon braiding. We identify the anyons in the code space, and present schemes for initialization, computation and measurement. This provides a family of constructions for fault-tolerant quantum computation that are closely related to topological quantum computation, but for which the fault tolerance is implemented in software rather than coming from a physical medium.
Simulations of Probabilities for Quantum Computing
Zak, M.
1996-01-01
It has been demonstrated that classical probabilities, and in particular, probabilistic Turing machine, can be simulated by combining chaos and non-LIpschitz dynamics, without utilization of any man-made devices (such as random number generators). Self-organizing properties of systems coupling simulated and calculated probabilities and their link to quantum computations are discussed.
Can quantum computing solve classically unsolvable problems?
Hodges, Andrew
2005-01-01
T. D. Kieu has claimed that a quantum computing procedure can solve a classically unsolvable problem. Recent work of W. D. Smith has shown that Kieu's central mathematical claim cannot be sustained. Here, a more general critique is given of Kieu's proposal and some suggestions are made regarding the Church-Turing thesis.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Deutsch's Algorithm
Das, Saurya; Kobes, Randy; Kunstatter, Gabor
2001-01-01
We show that by a suitable choice of a time dependent Hamiltonian, Deutsch's algorithm can be implemented by an adiabatic quantum computer. We extend our analysis to the Deutsch-Jozsa problem and estimate the required running time for both global and local adiabatic evolutions.
Temporal resources for global quantum computing architectures
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Juan D., Jaramillo; John H., Reina.
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Using the methods for optimal simulation of quantum logic gates, we perform a quantitative estimation of the time resources involved in the execution of universal gate sets for the case of three representative models of quantum computation based on global control. The importance of such models stems [...] from the solution to the problem of experimentally addressing and locally manipulating the qubits in a given quantum register. The numerical estimation of the temporal efficiency for each model is performed by assuming that the qubits in the register can be coupled to each other via the Ising and the Förster interactions. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of the physical realization of such architectures under quantum error correction conditions.
Quantum computing implementations with neutral particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Negretti, Antonio; Treutlein, Philipp
2011-01-01
We review quantum information processing with cold neutral particles, that is, atoms or polar molecules. First, we analyze the best suited degrees of freedom of these particles for storing quantum information, and then we discuss both single- and two-qubit gate implementations. We focus our discussion mainly on collisional quantum gates, which are best suited for atom-chip-like devices, as well as on gate proposals conceived for optical lattices. Additionally, we analyze schemes both for cold atoms confined in optical cavities and hybrid approaches to entanglement generation, and we show how optimal control theory might be a powerful tool to enhance the speed up of the gate operations as well as to achieve high fidelities required for fault tolerant quantum computation.
Another Look at Quantum Neural Computing
Kak, Subhash
2009-01-01
The term quantum neural computing was coined to indicate a unity in the functioning of the brain. We revisit the concept and also summarize new arguments related to the learning modes of the brain in response to sensory input that may be aggregated in three types: associative, reorganizational, and quantum. The associative and reorganizational types are quite apparent based on experimental findings; it is much harder to establish that the brain as an entity exhibits quantum properties. We argue that the reorganizational behavior of the brain may be viewed as inner adjustment corresponding to its quantum behavior at the system level. Not only neural structures but their higher abstractions also may be seen as whole entities. We consider the dualities associated with the behavior of the brain and how these dualities are bridged.
Quantum Annealing and Computation: A Brief Documentary Note
Ghosh, Asim; Mukherjee, Sudip
2013-01-01
Major breakthrough in quantum computation has recently been achieved using quantum annealing to develop analog quantum computers instead of gate based computers. After a short introduction to quantum computation, we retrace very briefly the history of these developments and discuss the Indian researches in this connection and provide some interesting documents (in the Figs.) obtained from a chosen set of high impact papers (and also some recent news etc. blogs appearing in t...
Solving systems of linear equations on a quantum computer
Barz, Stefanie; Kassal, Ivan; Ringbauer, Martin; Lipp, Yannick Ole; Dakic, Borivoje; Aspuru-guzik, Ala?n; Walther, Philip
2013-01-01
Systems of linear equations are used to model a wide array of problems in all fields of science and engineering. Recently, it has been shown that quantum computers could solve linear systems exponentially faster than classical computers, making for one of the most promising applications of quantum computation. Here, we demonstrate this quantum algorithm by implementing various instances on a photonic quantum computing architecture. Our implementation involves the application...
Quantum Computers: A New Paradigm in Information Technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahesh S. Raisinghani
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The word 'quantum' comes from the Latin word quantus meaning 'how much'. Quantum computing is a fundamentally new mode of information processing that can be performed only by harnessing physical phenomena unique to quantum mechanics (especially quantum interference. Paul Benioff of the Argonne National Laboratory first applied quantum theory to computers in 1981 and David Deutsch of Oxford proposed quantum parallel computers in 1985, years before the realization of qubits in 1995. However, it may be well into the 21st century before we see quantum computing used at a commercial level for a variety of reasons discussed in this paper. The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This paper discusses some of the current advances, applications, and chal-lenges of quantum computing as well as its impact on corporate computing and implications for management. It shows how quantum computing can be utilized to process and store information, as well as impact cryptography for perfectly secure communication, algorithmic searching, factorizing large numbers very rapidly, and simulating quantum-mechanical systems efficiently. A broad interdisciplinary effort will be needed if quantum com-puters are to fulfill their destiny as the world's fastest computing devices.
Quantum Computation and Information From Theory to Experiment
Imai, Hiroshi
2006-01-01
Recently, the field of quantum computation and information has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields in theoretical and practical areas. This book consists of the reviews of selected topics charterized by great progress and cover the field from theoretical areas to experimental ones. It contains fundamental areas, quantum query complexity, quantum statistical inference, quantum cloning, quantum entanglement, additivity. It treats three types of quantum security system, quantum public key cryptography, quantum key distribution, and quantum steganography. A photonic system is highlighted for the realization of quantum information processing.
Measurement-Based Interference in Quantum Computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interference has been measured by the visibility in two-level systems, which, however, does not work for multi-level systems. We generalize a measure of the interference based on decoherence process, consistent with the visibility in qubit systems. By taking cluster states as examples, we show in the one-way quantum computation that the gate fidelity is proportional to the interference of the measured qubit and is inversely proportional to the interference of all register qubits. We also find that the interference increases with the number of the computing steps. So we conjecture that the interference may be the source of the speedup of the one-way quantum computation. (general)
A Note on Adiabatic Quantum Computing
Schaller, G; Schützhold, R; Mostame, Sarah; Sch\\"utzhold, Ralf; Schaller, Gernot
2005-01-01
Most investigations devoted to the conditions for adiabatic quantum computing are based on the first-order correction ${\\bra{\\Psi_{\\rm ground}(t)}\\dot H(t)\\ket{\\Psi_{\\rm excited}(t)} /\\Delta E^2(t)\\ll1}$. However, it is demonstrated that this first-order correction does not yield a good estimate for the computational error. Therefore, a more general criterion is proposed, which includes higher-order corrections as well and shows that the computational error can be made exponentially small. Based on this criterion and rather general arguments, it can be demonstrated that a run-time $T$ of order of the inverse minimum energy gap $\\Delta E_{\\rm min}$ is sufficient and necessary, i.e., $T=\\ord(\\Delta E_{\\rm min}^{-1})$. For the example of Grovers quantum search algorithm, these analytical investigations are confirmed by numerical simulations. PACS: 03.67.Lx, 03.67.-a.
Interactive Quantum Mechanics Quantum Experiments on the Computer
Brandt, S; Dahmen, H.D
2011-01-01
Extra Materials available on extras.springer.com INTERACTIVE QUANTUM MECHANICS allows students to perform their own quantum-physics experiments on their computer, in vivid 3D color graphics. Topics covered include: • harmonic waves and wave packets, • free particles as well as bound states and scattering in various potentials in one and three dimensions (both stationary and time dependent), • two-particle systems, coupled harmonic oscillators, • distinguishable and indistinguishable particles, • coherent and squeezed states in time-dependent motion, • quantized angular momentum, • spin and magnetic resonance, • hybridization. For the present edition the physics scope has been widened appreciably. Moreover, INTERQUANTA can now produce user-defined movies of quantum-mechanical situations. Movies can be viewed directly and also be saved to be shown later in any browser. Sections on spec...
Belaga, Edward G.; Grucker, Daniel
2003-01-01
We briefly summarize here the history, conceptual base, as well as challenges and implications of quantum computing. Then, we present the theoretical requirements for viable quantum computation, as well as thestate-of-the-art experimental approach and a project of solid 129Xe NMR-based quantum computer.
Optical quantum computer based on RDS crystal
Sazonova, Z S; Singh, Ranjit
2001-01-01
We have proposed the construction of optical quantum computer (OQC) on regular domain structure (RDS) crystal. By using RDS crystal, we can perform all the logical operations on one RDS crystal. Moreover, RDS crystals are parctically independent to the heating effects i.e., can perform logic operations constantly without cooling the RDS crystal. Also, we have proposed the quantum parallelsim i.e., parallel coherent laser beams are injected at the input of the RDS crystals. By using the RDS crystal we can perform the reduce the requirements of the linear and nonlinear optical components.
Scheme for Quantum Computing Immune to Decoherence
Williams, Colin; Vatan, Farrokh
2008-01-01
A constructive scheme has been devised to enable mapping of any quantum computation into a spintronic circuit in which the computation is encoded in a basis that is, in principle, immune to quantum decoherence. The scheme is implemented by an algorithm that utilizes multiple physical spins to encode each logical bit in such a way that collective errors affecting all the physical spins do not disturb the logical bit. The scheme is expected to be of use to experimenters working on spintronic implementations of quantum logic. Spintronic computing devices use quantum-mechanical spins (typically, electron spins) to encode logical bits. Bits thus encoded (denoted qubits) are potentially susceptible to errors caused by noise and decoherence. The traditional model of quantum computation is based partly on the assumption that each qubit is implemented by use of a single two-state quantum system, such as an electron or other spin-1.2 particle. It can be surprisingly difficult to achieve certain gate operations . most notably, those of arbitrary 1-qubit gates . in spintronic hardware according to this model. However, ironically, certain 2-qubit interactions (in particular, spin-spin exchange interactions) can be achieved relatively easily in spintronic hardware. Therefore, it would be fortunate if it were possible to implement any 1-qubit gate by use of a spin-spin exchange interaction. While such a direct representation is not possible, it is possible to achieve an arbitrary 1-qubit gate indirectly by means of a sequence of four spin-spin exchange interactions, which could be implemented by use of four exchange gates. Accordingly, the present scheme provides for mapping any 1-qubit gate in the logical basis into an equivalent sequence of at most four spin-spin exchange interactions in the physical (encoded) basis. The complexity of the mathematical derivation of the scheme from basic quantum principles precludes a description within this article; it must suffice to report that the derivation provides explicit constructions for finding the exchange couplings in the physical basis needed to implement any arbitrary 1-qubit gate. These constructions lead to spintronic encodings of quantum logic that are more efficient than those of a previously published scheme that utilizes a universal but fixed set of gates.
Mathematical optics classical, quantum, and computational methods
Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan
2012-01-01
Going beyond standard introductory texts, Mathematical Optics: Classical, Quantum, and Computational Methods brings together many new mathematical techniques from optical science and engineering research. Profusely illustrated, the book makes the material accessible to students and newcomers to the field. Divided into six parts, the text presents state-of-the-art mathematical methods and applications in classical optics, quantum optics, and image processing. Part I describes the use of phase space concepts to characterize optical beams and the application of dynamic programming in optical wave
Dynamical description of quantum computing: Generic nonlocality of quantum noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a dynamical non-Markovian description of quantum computing in the weak-coupling limit, in the lowest-order approximation. We show that the long-range memory of the quantum reservoir (such as the 1/t4 one exhibited by electromagnetic vacuum) produces a strong interrelation between the structure of noise and the quantum algorithm, implying nonlocal attacks of noise. This shows that the implicit assumption of quantum error correction theory--independence of noise and self-dynamics--fails in long time regimes. We also use our approach to present pure decoherence and decoherence accompanied by dissipation in terms of the spectral density of the reservoir. The so-called dynamical decoupling method is discussed in this context. Finally, we propose a minimal decoherence model, in which the only source of decoherence is vacuum. We optimize the fidelity of quantum-information processing under the trade-off between the speed of the gate and the strength of decoherence
[Studies on the genome size and structure of Gluconobacter oxydans SCB329].
Lin, W; Yin, G
2001-10-01
In the "Two-step fermentation" of Vitamin C synthesis, Gluconobacter oxydans SCB329 is responsible for the production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG), which is an important precuror of vitamin C synthesis. The intact chromosome was prepared from logarithmic phase cells by agaraseembedded method and was analysized by restriction endonucleases and contour-clamped homogeneous electric field pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Spe I (5-ACTAGT) produced 24 fragments, ranging in size from 10 to 320 kilobases (kb). Xba I (5-TCTAGA) yielded 40 fragments (4 to 200 kb). A total genome size of approximately 2,700 kb was determined by summing the fragment length. Analysis of the entire genome of SCB329 by PFGE revealed that the genome of SCB329 consist of a chromosome which is 2,500 Kb in length and a large plasmid which is 245 kb. After linearization of the DNA by DNase I and S1 nuclease, in contrast with the band which can not be viewed, the band of chromosome and plasmid were appeared, this suggest that structure of the chromosome and the plasmid were circular. PMID:12552798
Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing circuit and method
Williams, Colin P. (Inventor); Gingrich, Robert M. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A quantum circuit performing quantum computation in a quantum computer. A chosen transformation of an initial n-qubit state is probabilistically obtained. The circuit comprises a unitary quantum operator obtained from a non-unitary quantum operator, operating on an n-qubit state and an ancilla state. When operation on the ancilla state provides a success condition, computation is stopped. When operation on the ancilla state provides a failure condition, computation is performed again on the ancilla state and the n-qubit state obtained in the previous computation, until a success condition is obtained.
Efficiency of open quantum walk implementation of dissipative quantum computing algorithms
Sinayskiy, I.; Petruccione, F.
2014-01-01
An open quantum walk formalism for dissipative quantum computing is presented. The approach is illustrated with the examples of the Toffoli gate and the Quantum Fourier Transform for 3 and 4 qubits. It is shown that the algorithms based on the open quantum walk formalism are more efficient than the canonical dissipative quantum computing approach. In particular, the open quantum walks can be designed to converge faster to the desired steady state and to increase the probabil...
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christ, H.
2008-01-24
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin ensemble can be utilized for the important task of sequentially generating entanglement between electrons. This is true despite the fact that electrons and nuclei become only very weakly entangled through the hyperfine interaction. Straightforward experimentally feasible protocols for the generation of multipartite entangled (GHZ- and W-)states are presented. (orig.)
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin ensemble can be utilized for the important task of sequentially generating entanglement between electrons. This is true despite the fact that electrons and nuclei become only very weakly entangled through the hyperfine interaction. Straightforward experimentally feasible protocols for the generation of multipartite entangled (GHZ- and W-)states are presented. (orig.)
Q#, a quantum computation package for the .NET platform
A.S. Tolba; M.Z.Rashad; El-Dosuky, M. A.
2013-01-01
Quantum computing is a promising approach of computation that is based on equations from Quantum Mechanics. A simulator for quantum algorithms must be capable of performing heavy mathematical matrix transforms. The design of the simulator itself takes one of three forms: Quantum Turing Machine, Network Model or circuit model of connected gates or, Quantum Programming Language, yet, some simulators are hybrid. We studied previous simulators and then we adopt features from thr...
An Introduction to Quantum Computing for Non-Physicists
Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Polak, Wolfgang
1998-01-01
Richard Feynman's observation that quantum mechanical effects could not be simulated efficiently on a computer led to speculation that computation in general could be done more efficiently if it used quantum effects. This speculation appeared justified when Peter Shor described a polynomial time quantum algorithm for factoring integers. In quantum systems, the computational space increases exponentially with the size of the system which enables exponential parallelism. Thi...
Artificial Decoherence and its Suppression in NMR Quantum Computer
Kondo, Yasushi; Nakahara, Mikio; Tanimura, Shogo
2006-01-01
Liquid-state NMR quantum computer has demonstrated the possibility of quantum computation and supported its development. Using NMR quantum computer techniques, we observed phase decoherence under two kinds of artificial noise fields; one a noise with a long period, and the other with shorter random period. The first one models decoherence in a quantum channel while the second one models transverse relaxation. We demonstrated that the bang-bang control suppresses decoherence ...
Quantum Computation and Quantum Information: Are They Related to Quantum Paradoxology?
Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Von Spakovsky, Michael R.
2004-01-01
We review both the Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR) paper about the completeness of quantum theory, and Schrodinger's responses to the EPR paper. We find that both the EPR paper and Schrodinger's responses, including the cat paradox, are not consistent with the current understanding of quantum theory and thermodynamics. Because both the EPR paper and Schrodinger's responses play a leading role in discussions of the fascinating and promising fields of quantum computation and...
Gate count estimates for performing quantum chemistry on small quantum computers
Wecker, Dave; Bauer, Bela; Clark, Bryan K.; Hastings, Matthew B.; Troyer, Matthias
2013-01-01
As quantum computing technology improves and quantum computers with a small but non-trivial number of N > 100 qubits appear feasible in the near future the question of possible applications of small quantum computers gains importance. One frequently mentioned application is Feynman's original proposal of simulating quantum systems, and in particular the electronic structure of molecules and materials. In this paper, we analyze the computational requirements for one of the st...
Quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weitenberg, Christof; Kuhr, Stefan
2011-01-01
We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the nonadiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 ?s, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10?3. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.
Quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the nonadiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 ?s, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10-3. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.
Quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weitenberg, Christof [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kuhr, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University of Strathclyde, Department of Physics, SUPA, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Moelmer, Klaus; Sherson, Jacob F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
2011-09-15
We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits require the transport of atoms to neighboring sites. We numerically optimize the nonadiabatic transport of the atoms through the lattice and the intensity ramps of the optical tweezer in order to maximize the gate fidelities. We find overall gate times of a few 100 {mu}s, while keeping the error probability due to vibrational excitations and spontaneous scattering below 10{sup -3}. The requirements on the positioning error and intensity noise of the optical tweezer and the magnetic field stability are analyzed and we show that atoms in optical lattices could meet the requirements for fault-tolerant scalable quantum computing.
Strange attractor simulated on a quantum computer
Terraneo, M; Shepelyansky, D L
2003-01-01
Starting from the work of Lorenz, it has been realized that the dynamics of many various dissipative systems converges to so-called strange attractors. These objects are characterized by fractal dimensions and chaotic unstable dynamics of individual trajectories. They appear in nature in very different contexts, including applications to turbulence and weather forecast, molecular dynamics, chaotic chemical reactions, multimode solid state lasers and complex dynamics in ecological systems and physiology. The efficient numerical simulation of such dissipative systems can therefore lead to many important practical applications. Here we study a simple deterministic model where dynamics converges to a strange attractor, and show that it can be efficiently simulated on a quantum computer. Even if the dynamics on the attractor is unstable, dissipative and irreversible, a realistic quantum computer can simulate it in a reversible way, and, already with 70 qubits, will provide access to new informations unaccessible f...
Quantum computation and Biological stress: A Hypothesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grover Monendra
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We propose that biological systems may behave as quantum computers.We have earlier hypothesized that patterns of quantum computation may be altered in stress and this leads to the change in the consciousness vector of biological systems. We further propose in this paper that the biological systems with a sufficient consciousness vector behave as objects which are entangled with the universal consciousness and as a consequence wormholes exist between the universal consciousness and the biological systems.The decrease in the consciousness vector of the biological systemsdue to stress(abiotic and/or bioticleads to disruption of wormholes between biological systems and the universal consciousness. This leads to appearance of the stress symptoms in the biological systems. However the application of pesticides/fertilisers or introduction of novel proteins through genetic engineering leads torestoration of wormholes and increase in consciousness vector of the biological systemsand in turn results in to alleviation of stress symptoms.
Photonic entanglement as a resource in quantum computation and quantum communication
Prevedel, Robert; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Brukner, Caslav; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton
2008-01-01
Entanglement is an essential resource in current experimental implementations for quantum information processing. We review a class of experiments exploiting photonic entanglement, ranging from one-way quantum computing over quantum communication complexity to long-distance quantum communication. We then propose a set of feasible experiments that will underline the advantages of photonic entanglement for quantum information processing.
Quantum Computer as a Probabilistic Inference Engine
Tucci, Robert R.
2000-01-01
We propose a new class of quantum computing algorithms which generalize many standard ones. The goal of our algorithms is to estimate probability distributions. Such estimates are useful in, for example, applications of Decision Theory and Artificial Intelligence, where inferences are made based on uncertain knowledge. The class of algorithms that we propose is based on a construction method that generalizes a Fredkin-Toffoli (F-T) construction method used in the field of cl...
Data Structures in Classical and Quantum Computing
Fillinger, Maximilian
2013-01-01
This survey summarizes several results about quantum computing related to (mostly static) data structures. First, we describe classical data structures for the set membership and the predecessor search problems: Perfect Hash tables for set membership by Fredman, Koml\\'{o}s and Szemer\\'{e}di and a data structure by Beame and Fich for predecessor search. We also prove results about their space complexity (how many bits are required) and time complexity (how many bits have to b...
Dynamical localization, measurements and quantum computing
Terraneo, M
2004-01-01
We study numerically the effects of measurements on dynamical localization in the kicked rotator model simulated on a quantum computer. Contrary to the previous studies, which showed that measurements induce a diffusive probability spreading, our results demonstrate that localization can be preserved for repeated single-qubit measurements. We detect a transition from a localized to a delocalized phase, depending on the system parameters and on the choice of the measured qubit.
Dynamical localization, measurements and quantum computing
Terraneo, M.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2003-01-01
We study numerically the effects of measurements on dynamical localization in the kicked rotator model simulated on a quantum computer. Contrary to the previous studies, which showed that measurements induce a diffusive probability spreading, our results demonstrate that localization can be preserved for repeated single-qubit measurements. We detect a transition from a localized to a delocalized phase, depending on the system parameters and on the choice of the measured qubit.
Brain-Computer Interfaces and Quantum Robots
Pessa, Eliano; zizzi, Paola
2009-01-01
The actual (classical) Brain-Computer Interface attempts to use brain signals to drive suitable actuators performing the actions corresponding to subject's intention. However this goal is not fully reached, and when BCI works, it does only in particular situations. The reason of this unsatisfactory result is that intention cannot be conceived simply as a set of classical input-output relationships. It is therefore necessary to resort to quantum theory, allowing the occurrenc...
A New Way to Implement Quantum Computation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gennaro Auletta
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I shall sketch a new way to consider a Lindenbaum-Tarski algebra as a 3D logical space in which any one (of the 256 statements occupies a well-defined position and it is identified by a numerical ID. This allows pure mechanical computation both for generating rules and inferences. It is shown that this abstract formalism can be geometrically represented with logical spaces and subspaces allowing a vectorial representation. Finally, it shows the application to quantum computing through the example of three coupled harmonic oscillators.
Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits
Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey
2014-08-26
A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.
How detrimental is decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation?
Albash, Tameem
2015-01-01
Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time-scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit $T_2$ time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary canc...
Extending scientific computing system with structural quantum programming capabilities
Gawron, P; Miszczak, J A; Winiarczyk, R
2010-01-01
We present a basic high-level structures used for developing quantum programming languages. The presented structures are commonly used in many existing quantum programming languages and we use quantum pseudo-code based on QCL quantum programming language to describe them. We also present the implementation of introduced structures in GNU Octave language for scientific computing. Procedures used in the implementation are available as a package quantum-octave, providing a library of functions, which facilitates the simulation of quantum computing. This package allows also to incorporate high-level programming concepts into the simulation in GNU Octave and Matlab. As such it connects features unique for high-level quantum programming languages, with the full palette of efficient computational routines commonly available in modern scientific computing systems. To present the major features of the described package we provide the implementation of selected quantum algorithms. We also show how quantum errors can be...
Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices
Gamble, John King
In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques, while using a fraction of the computational resources and providing considerably more physical insight. Using this technique, we demonstrate that large dipole moments can exist between valley states in disordered systems, and calculate corrections to intervalley tunnel rates..
Symmetrically private information retrieval based on blind quantum computing
Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling
2015-05-01
Universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) is a new secure quantum computing protocol which allows a user Alice who does not have any sophisticated quantum technology to delegate her computing to a server Bob without leaking any privacy. Using the features of UBQC, we propose a protocol to achieve symmetrically private information retrieval, which allows a quantum limited Alice to query an item from Bob with a fully fledged quantum computer; meanwhile, the privacy of both parties is preserved. The security of our protocol is based on the assumption that malicious Alice has no quantum computer, which avoids the impossibility proof of Lo. For the honest Alice, she is almost classical and only requires minimal quantum resources to carry out the proposed protocol. Therefore, she does not need any expensive laboratory which can maintain the coherence of complicated quantum experimental setups.
Applications of computational quantum mechanics
Temel, Burcin
This original research dissertation is composed of a new numerical technique based on Chebyshev polynomials that is applied on scattering problems, a phenomenological kinetics study for CO oxidation on RuO2 surface, and an experimental study on methanol coupling with doped metal oxide catalysts. Minimum Error Method (MEM), a least-squares minimization method, provides an efficient and accurate alternative to solve systems of ordinary differential equations. Existing methods usually utilize matrix methods which are computationally costful. MEM, which is based on the Chebyshev polynomials as a basis set, uses the recursion relationships and fast Chebyshev transforms which scale as O(N). For large basis set calculations this provides an enormous computational efficiency in the calculations. Chebyshev polynomials are also able to represent non-periodic problems very accurately. We applied MEM on elastic and inelastic scattering problems: it is more efficient and accurate than traditionally used Kohn variational principle, and it also provides the wave function in the interaction region. Phenomenological kinetics (PK) is widely used in industry to predict the optimum conditions for a chemical reaction. PK neglects the fluctuations, assumes no lateral interactions, and considers an ideal mix of reactants. The rate equations are tested by fitting the rate constants to the results of the experiments. Unfortunately, there are numerous examples where a fitted mechanism was later shown to be erroneous. We have undertaken a thorough comparison between the phenomenological equations and the results of kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations performed on the same system. The PK equations are qualitatively consistent with the KMC results but are quantitatively erroneous as a result of interplays between the adsorption and desorption events. The experimental study on methanol coupling with doped metal oxide catalysts demonstrates the doped metal oxides as a new class of catalysts with novel properties. Doping a metal oxide may alter its intrinsic properties drastically. A catalytically non-active material can be activated by doping. In this study, we showed that pure zirconia (ZrO2) has almost no activity in methanol coupling reaction, whereas when it is doped with aluminum, the doped catalyst produces dimethyl ether (DME), which is valuable as an alternative future energy source.
Computational costs of data definition at the quantum - classical interface
Fields, Chris
2010-01-01
Model-independent semantic requirements for user specification and interpretation of data before and after quantum computations are characterized. Classical computational costs of assigning classical data values to quantum registers and to run-time parameters passed across a classical-to-quantum application programming interface are derived. It is shown that the classical computational costs of data definition equal or exceed the classical computational cost of solving the p...
Shortening Grover's search algorithm for an expectation value quantum computer
Collins, David
2002-01-01
Quantum algorithms are conventionally formulated for implementation on a single system of qubits amenable to projective measurements. However, in expectation value quantum computation, such as nuclear magnetic resonance realizations, the computer consists of an ensemble of identical qubit-systems amenable only to expectation value measurements. The prevalent strategy in such expectation value implementations of quantum algorithms has been to retain the conventional formulati...
A 2 rebit gate universal for quantum computing
Rudolph, Terry; Grover, Lov
2002-01-01
We show, within the circuit model, how any quantum computation can be efficiently performed using states with only real amplitudes (a result known within the Quantum Turing Machine model). This allows us to identify a 2-qubit (in fact 2-rebit) gate which is universal for quantum computing, although it cannot be used to perform arbitrary unitary transformations.
An Introduction to Quantum Computing using Cavity QED concepts
Burell, Zachary
2012-01-01
We present a concise but complete conceptual treatment of quantum computing implemented with Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (CQED. The paper is intended as a brief overview for professionals who are coming over to the field from other areas and who may have not discussed the concepts behind quantum computing during their technical training.
Solving Satisfiability Problems by the Ground-State Quantum Computer
Mao, Wenjin
2005-01-01
A quantum algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problems by the ground-state quantum computer. The scale of the energy gap of the ground-state quantum computer is analyzed for the 3-bit Exact Cover problem. The time cost of this algorithm on the general SAT problems is discussed.
PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
2007-07-01
The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable systems, the second by T Prosen, discussing chaos and complexity in quantum systems. Both topics have theoretical as well as experimental relevance and are likely to witness a fast growing development in the near future. The remaining contributions present more specific and very recent results. They involve the study of the structure of quantum states and their estimation (B Baumgartner et al, C King et al, S Olivares et al, D Petz et al and W van Dam et al), of entanglement generation and its quantification (G Brida et al, F Ciccarello et al, G Costantini et al, O Romero-Isart et al, D Rossini et al, A Serafini et al and D Vitali et al), of randomness related effects on entanglement behaviour (I Akhalwaya et al, O Dahlsten et al and L Viola et al), and of abstract and applied aspects of quantum computation and communication (K Audenart, G M D'Ariano et al, N Datta et al, L C Kwek et al and M Nathanson et al). We would like to express our gratitude to the European Commission, the Abdus Salam ICTP, SISSA and Eurotech SpA (Amaro, Udine, Italy) for financial and/or logistic support. Special thanks also go to the workshop secretary Marina De Comelli, and the secretaries of the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Sabrina Gaspardis and Rosita Glavina for their precious help and assistance.
Computing the Exit Complexity of Knowledge in Distributed Quantum Computers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A.Abbas
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Distributed Quantum computers abide from the exit complexity of the knowledge. The exit complexity is the accrue of the nodal information needed to clarify the total egress system with deference to a distinguished exit node. The core objective of this paper is to compile an arrogant methodology for assessing the exit complexity of the knowledge in distributed quantum computers. The proposed methodology is based on contouring the knowledge using the unlabeled binary trees, hence building an benchmarked and a computer based model. The proposed methodology dramatizes knowledge autocratically calculates the exit complexity. The methodology consists of several amphitheaters, starting with detecting the baron aspect of the tree of others entitled express knowledge and then measure the volume of information and the complexity of behavior destining from the bargain of information. Then calculate egress resulting from episodes that do not lead to the withdrawal of the information. In the end is calculated total egress complexity and then appraised total exit complexity of the system. Given the complexity of the operations within the Distributed Computing Quantity, this research addresses effective transactions that could affect the three-dimensional behavior of knowledge. The results materialized that the best affair where total exit complexity as minimal as possible is a picture of a binary tree is entitled at the rate of positive and negative cardinal points medium value. It could be argued that these cardinal points should not amass the upper bound apex or minimum.
Trapped Ion Quantum Computer Research at Los Alamos
James, D F V; Holzscheiter, M H; Hughes, R J; Kwiat, P G; Lamoreaux, S K; Peterson, C G; Sandberg, V D; Schauer, M M; Simmons, C M; Tupa, D; Wang, P Z; White, A G
1998-01-01
We briefly review the development and theory of an experiment to investigate quantum computation with trapped calcium ions. The ion trap, laser and ion requirements are determined, and the parameters required for simple quantum logic operations are described
Universal Quantum Computing with Spin and Valley
Rohling, Niklas
2012-01-01
We investigate a two-electron double quantum dot with both spin and valley degrees of freedom as they occur in graphene, carbon nanotubes, or silicon, and regard the 16-dimensional space with one electron per dot as a four-qubit logic space. In the spin-only case, it is well known that the exchange coupling between the dots combined with arbitrary single-qubit operations is sufficient for universal quantum computation. The presence of the valley degeneracy in the electronic band structure alters the form of the exchange coupling and in general leads to spin-valley entanglement. Here, we show that universal quantum computation can still be performed by exchange interaction and single-qubit gates in the presence of the additional (valley) degree of freedom. We present an explicit pulse sequence for a spin-only controlled-NOT consisting of the generalized exchange coupling and single-electron spin and valley rotations. We also propose state preparations and projective measurements with the use of adiabatic trans...
Computational advantage from quantum-controlled ordering of gates.
Araújo, Mateus; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, ?aslav
2014-12-19
It is usually assumed that a quantum computation is performed by applying gates in a specific order. One can relax this assumption by allowing a control quantum system to switch the order in which the gates are applied. This provides a more general kind of quantum computing that allows transformations on blackbox quantum gates that are impossible in a circuit with fixed order. Here we show that this model of quantum computing is physically realizable, by proposing an interferometric setup that can implement such a quantum control of the order between the gates. We show that this new resource provides a reduction in computational complexity: we propose a problem that can be solved by using O(n) blackbox queries, whereas the best known quantum algorithm with fixed order between the gates requires O(n^{2}) queries. Furthermore, we conjecture that solving this problem in a classical computer takes exponential time, which may be of independent interest. PMID:25554864
Experimental realization of order-finding with a quantum computer
Vandersypen, L M K; Breyta, G; Yannoni, C S; Cleve, R; Chuang, I L; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K.; Steffen, Matthias; Breyta, Gregory; Yannoni, Costantino S.; Cleve, Richard; Chuang, Isaac L.
2000-01-01
Quantum computers offer the potential for efficiently solving certain computational tasks which are too hard for even the fastest conceivable classical computers. However, difficulties in maintaining coherent control over quantum systems have limited experimental quantum computations to demonstrations of Grover's search algorithm and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. Shor's remarkable quantum factoring algorithm has remained beyond the reach of these small-scale realizations. Here we report the experimental implementation of a quantum algorithm which generalizes Shor's algorithm to find the order of a permutation in fewer steps than is possible using a deterministic or probabilistic classical computer. The heart of the speed-up lies in the use of the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) which allows one to efficiently determine the unknown periodicity of a function which is given as a black box. In this experiment, the spins of five $^{19}$F nuclei in a molecule subject to a static magnetic field acted as the quantum b...
An Overview of Quantum Computing for Technology Managers
Rieffel, Eleanor G.
2008-01-01
Faster algorithms, novel cryptographic mechanisms, and alternative methods of communication become possible when the model underlying information and computation changes from a classical mechanical model to a quantum mechanical one. Quantum algorithms perform a select set of tasks vastly more efficiently than any classical algorithm, but for many tasks it has been proved that quantum algorithms provide no advantage. The breadth of quantum computing applications is still bein...
One-Way Quantum Computing in the Optical Frequency Comb
Flammia, Steven T; Pfister, Olivier
2008-01-01
One-way quantum computing allows any quantum algorithm to be implemented easily using just measurements. The difficult part is creating the universal resource, a cluster state, on which the measurements are made. We propose a radically new approach: a scalable method that uses a single, multimode optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The method is very efficient and generates a continuous-variable cluster state, universal for quantum computation, with quantum information encoded in the quadratures of the optical frequency comb of the OPO.
From Cbits to Qbits: Teaching computer scientists quantum mechanics
Mermin, N. David
2002-01-01
A strategy is suggested for teaching mathematically literate students, with no background in physics, just enough quantum mechanics for them to understand and develop algorithms in quantum computation and quantum information theory. Although the article as a whole addresses teachers of physics, well versed in quantum mechanics, the central pedagogical development is addressed directly to computer scientists and mathematicians, with only occasional asides to their teacher. Ph...
Measurement-Only Topological Quantum Computation via Anyonic Interferometry
Bonderson, Parsa; Freedman, Michael; Nayak, Chetan
2008-01-01
We describe measurement-only topological quantum computation using both projective and interferometrical measurement of topological charge. We demonstrate how anyonic teleportation can be achieved using "forced measurement" protocols for both types of measurement. Using this, it is shown how topological charge measurements can be used to generate the braiding transformations used in topological quantum computation, and hence that the physical transportation of computational ...
Qcmpi: A Parallel Environment for Quantum Computing
Tabakin, F
2009-01-01
QCMPI is a quantum computer (QC) simulation package written in Fortran 90 with parallel processing capabilities. It is an accessible research tool that permits rapid evaluation of quantum algorithms for a large number of qubits and for various "noise" scenarios. The prime motivation for developing QCMPI is to facilitate numerical examination of not only how QC algorithms work, but also to include noise, decoherence, and attenuation effects and to evaluate the efficacy of error correction schemes. The present work builds on an earlier Mathematica code QDENSITY, which is mainly a pedagogic tool. In QCMPI, the stress is on state vectors, in order to employ a large number of qubits. The parallel processing feature is implemented by using the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) protocol. Codes for Grover's search and Shor's factoring algorithms are provided as examples. A major feature of this work is that concurrent versions of the algorithms can be evaluated with each version subject to alternate noise effects, whic...
Computational intelligence applied to the growth of quantum dots
Singulani, Anderson P.; Vilela Neto, Omar P.; Aurélio Pacheco, Marco C.; Vellasco, Marley B. R.; Pires, Maurício P.; Souza, Patrícia L.
2008-11-01
We apply two computational intelligence techniques, namely, artificial neural network and genetic algorithm to the growth of self-assembled quantum dots. The method relies on an existing database of growth parameters with a resulting quantum dot characteristic to be able to later obtain the growth parameters needed to reach a specific value for such a quantum dot characteristic. The computational techniques were used to associate the growth input parameters with the mean height of the deposited quantum dots. Trends of the quantum dot mean height behavior as a function of growth parameters were correctly predicted and the growth parameters required to minimize the quantum dot mean height were provided.
Extending scientific computing system with structural quantum programming capabilities
Gawron, P.; Klamka, J.; Miszczak, J. A.; Winiarczyk, R.
2010-01-01
We present a basic high-level structures used for developing quantum programming languages. The presented structures are commonly used in many existing quantum programming languages and we use quantum pseudo-code based on QCL quantum programming language to describe them. We also present the implementation of introduced structures in GNU Octave language for scientific computing. Procedures used in the implementation are available as a package quantum-octave, providing a libr...
Computational Role of Collective Tunneling in a Quantum Annealer
Boixo, Sergio; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Shabani, Alireza; Isakov, Sergei V.; Dykman, Mark; Denchev, Vasil S.; Amin, Mohammad; Smirnov, Anatoly; Mohseni, Masoud; Neven, Hartmut
2014-01-01
Quantum tunneling is a phenomenon in which a quantum state traverses energy barriers above the energy of the state itself. Tunneling has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization. Here we present the first experimental evidence of a computational role of multiqubit quantum tunneling in the evolution of a programmable quantum annealer. We develop a theoretical model based on a NIBA Quantum Master Equation to describe the multiqubit dissipative tu...
Globally controlled artificial semiconducting molecules as quantum computers
Tribollet, Jerome
2005-01-01
Quantum computers are expected to be considerably more efficient than classical computers for the execution of some specific tasks. The difficulty in the practical implementation of thoose computers is to build a microscopic quantum system that can be controlled at a larger mesoscopic scale. Here I show that vertical lines of donor atoms embedded in an appropriate Zinc Oxide semiconductor structure can constitute artificial molecules that are as many copy of the same quantum...
Quantum computing accelerator I/O : LDRD 52750 final report.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Modine, Normand Arthur; Ganti, Anand; Pierson, Lyndon George; Tigges, Christopher P.
2003-12-01
In a superposition of quantum states, a bit can be in both the states '0' and '1' at the same time. This feature of the quantum bit or qubit has no parallel in classical systems. Currently, quantum computers consisting of 4 to 7 qubits in a 'quantum computing register' have been built. Innovative algorithms suited to quantum computing are now beginning to emerge, applicable to sorting and cryptanalysis, and other applications. A framework for overcoming slightly inaccurate quantum gate interactions and for causing quantum states to survive interactions with surrounding environment is emerging, called quantum error correction. Thus there is the potential for rapid advances in this field. Although quantum information processing can be applied to secure communication links (quantum cryptography) and to crack conventional cryptosystems, the first few computing applications will likely involve a 'quantum computing accelerator' similar to a 'floating point arithmetic accelerator' interfaced to a conventional Von Neumann computer architecture. This research is to develop a roadmap for applying Sandia's capabilities to the solution of some of the problems associated with maintaining quantum information, and with getting data into and out of such a 'quantum computing accelerator'. We propose to focus this work on 'quantum I/O technologies' by applying quantum optics on semiconductor nanostructures to leverage Sandia's expertise in semiconductor microelectronic/photonic fabrication techniques, as well as its expertise in information theory, processing, and algorithms. The work will be guided by understanding of practical requirements of computing and communication architectures. This effort will incorporate ongoing collaboration between 9000, 6000 and 1000 and between junior and senior personnel. Follow-on work to fabricate and evaluate appropriate experimental nano/microstructures will be proposed as a result of this work.
Superconducting system for adiabatic quantum computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the Hamiltonian of a system of inductively coupled flux qubits, which has been theoretically proposed for adiabatic quantum computation to handle NP problems. We study the evolution of a basic structure consisting of three coupled rf-SQUIDs upon tuning the external flux bias, and we show that the adiabatic nature of the evolution is guaranteed by the presence of the single-SQUID gap. We further propose a scheme and the first realization of an experimental device suitable for verifying the theoretical results
Vertical Josephson interferometers for quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We characterize a niobium-based vertical Josephson interferometer which we propose to include in a superconducting loop for applications to quantum computation using flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is that the Josephson current is precisely modulated by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to superconducting loop plane from a maximum to zero, with fine control and precision. This device can be used to independently control the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of flux qubits and/or to control the flux transfer function of a superconducting transformer for inter-qubits coupling
Superconducting system for adiabatic quantum computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Roscilde, T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (Canada); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E.Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E.Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)
2006-06-01
We study the Hamiltonian of a system of inductively coupled flux qubits, which has been theoretically proposed for adiabatic quantum computation to handle NP problems. We study the evolution of a basic structure consisting of three coupled rf-SQUIDs upon tuning the external flux bias, and we show that the adiabatic nature of the evolution is guaranteed by the presence of the single-SQUID gap. We further propose a scheme and the first realization of an experimental device suitable for verifying the theoretical results.
Vertical Josephson interferometers for quantum computation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruggiero, B. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Granata, C. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' lnformazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Silvestrini, P. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy) and Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' lnformazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy)]. E-mail: p.silvestrini@cib.na.cnr.it
2005-02-28
We characterize a niobium-based vertical Josephson interferometer which we propose to include in a superconducting loop for applications to quantum computation using flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is that the Josephson current is precisely modulated by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to superconducting loop plane from a maximum to zero, with fine control and precision. This device can be used to independently control the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of flux qubits and/or to control the flux transfer function of a superconducting transformer for inter-qubits coupling.
Electronic structure, phonon spectra and electron-phonon interaction in ScB2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electronic structure, Fermi surface, angle dependence of the cyclotron masses and extremal cross sections of the Fermi surface, phonon spectra, electron-phonon Eliashberg and transport spectral functions, temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of the ScB2 diboride were investigated from first principles using the fully relativistic and full potential linear muffin-tin orbital methods. The calculations of the dynamic matrix were carried out within the framework of the linear response theory. A good agreement with experimental data of electron-phonon spectral functions, electrical resistivity, cyclotron masses and extremal cross sections of the Fermi surface was achieved.
A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic
Bickes, R. W., Jr.; Grubelich, M. C.; Hartman, J. K.; McCampbell, C. B.; Churchill, J. K.
1994-01-01
A conventional NSI (NASA Standard Initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.
Statistical mechanics of classical and quantum computational complexity
Laumann, C R; Scardicchio, A; Sondhi, S L
2010-01-01
The quest for quantum computers is motivated by their potential for solving problems that defy existing, classical, computers. The theory of computational complexity, one of the crown jewels of computer science, provides a rigorous framework for classifying the hardness of problems according to the computational resources, most notably time, needed to solve them. Its extension to quantum computers allows the relative power of quantum computers to be analyzed. This framework identifies families of problems which are likely hard for classical computers (``NP-complete'') and those which are likely hard for quantum computers (``QMA-complete'') by indirect methods. That is, they identify problems of comparable worst-case difficulty without directly determining the individual hardness of any given instance. Statistical mechanical methods can be used to complement this classification by directly extracting information about particular families of instances---typically those that involve optimization---by studying ra...
Classical and quantum computing with C++ and Java simulations
Hardy, Y
2001-01-01
Classical and Quantum computing provides a self-contained, systematic and comprehensive introduction to all the subjects and techniques important in scientific computing. The style and presentation are readily accessible to undergraduates and graduates. A large number of examples, accompanied by complete C++ and Java code wherever possible, cover every topic. Features and benefits: - Comprehensive coverage of the theory with many examples - Topics in classical computing include boolean algebra, gates, circuits, latches, error detection and correction, neural networks, Turing machines, cryptography, genetic algorithms - For the first time, genetic expression programming is presented in a textbook - Topics in quantum computing include mathematical foundations, quantum algorithms, quantum information theory, hardware used in quantum computing This book serves as a textbook for courses in scientific computing and is also very suitable for self-study. Students, professionals and practitioners in computer...
Quantum Annealing and Computation: A Brief Documentary Note
Ghosh, Asim
2013-01-01
Major breakthrough in quantum computation has recently been achieved using quantum annealing to develop analog quantum computers instead of gate based computers. After a short introduction to quantum computation, we retrace very briefly the history of these developments and discuss the Indian researches in this connection and provide some interesting documents (in the Figs.) obtained from a chosen set of high impact papers (and also some recent news etc. blogs appearing in the Internet). This note is also designed to supplement an earlier note by Bose (Science and Culture, 79, pp. 337-378, 2013).
Consequences and Limitations of Conventional Computers and their Solutions through Quantum Computers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nilesh BARDE
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Quantum computer is the current topic of research in the field of computational science, which uses principles of quantum mechanics. Quantum computers will be much more powerful than the classical computer due to its enormous computational speed. Recent developments in quantum computers which are based on the laws of quantum mechanics, shows different ways of performing efficient calculations along with the various results which are not possible on the classical computers in an efficient period of time. One of the most striking results that have obtained on the quantum computers is the prime factorization of the large integer in a polynomial time. The idea of involvement of the quantum mechanics for the computational purpose is outlined briefly in the present work that reflects the importance and advantages of the next generation of the 21st century classical computers, named as quantum computers, in terms of the cost as well as time period required for the computation purpose. Present paper presents a quantum computer simulator for executing the limitations of classical computer with respect to time and the number of digits of a composite integer used for calculating its prime factors.
Quantum computing with trapped ions, atoms and light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider experimental issues relevant to quantum computing, and discuss the best way to achieve the essential requirements of reliable quantum memory and gate operations. Nuclear spins in trapped ions or atoms are a very promising candidate for the qubits. We estimate the parameters required to couple atoms using light via cavity QED in order to achieve quantum gates. We briefly comment on recent improvements to the Cirac-Zoller method for coupling trapped ions via their vibrational degree of freedom. Error processes result in a trade-off between quantum gate speed and failure probability. A useful quantum computer does appear to be feasible using a combination of ion trap and optical methods. The best understood method to stabilize a large computer relies on quantum error correction. The essential ideas of this are discussed, and recent estimates of the noise requirements in a quantum computing device are given
Spin-free quantum computational simulations and symmetry adapted states
Whitfield, James Daniel
2013-01-01
The ideas of digital simulation of quantum systems using a quantum computer parallel the original ideas of numerical simulation using a classical computer. In order for quantum computational simulations to advance to a competitive point, many techniques from classical simulations must be imported into the quantum domain. In this article, we consider the applications of symmetry in the context of quantum simulation. Building upon well established machinery, we propose a form of first quantized simulation that only requires the spatial part of the wave function, thereby allowing spin-free quantum computational simulations. We go further and discuss the preparation of N-body states with specified symmetries based on projection techniques. We consider two simple examples, molecular hydrogen and cyclopropenyl cation, to illustrate the ideas. While the methods here represent adaptations of known quantum algorithms, they are the first to explicitly deal with preparing N-body symmetry-adapted states.
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J
2012-10-13
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034
Lecture Script: Introduction to Computational Quantum Mechanics
Schmied, Roman
2014-01-01
This document is the lecture script of a one-semester course taught at the University of Basel in the Fall semesters of 2012 and 2013. It is aimed at advanced students of physics who are familiar with the concepts and notations of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics lectures can often be separated into two classes. In the first class you get to know Schroedinger's equation and find the form and dynamics of simple physical systems (square well, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom); most calculations are analytic and inspired by calculations originally done in the 1920s and 1930s. In the second class you learn about large systems such as molecular structures, crystalline solids, or lattice models; these calculations are usually so complicated that it is difficult for the student to understand them in all detail. This lecture tries to bridge the gap between simple analytic calculations and complicated large-scale computations. We will revisit most of the problems encountered in introductory quantum mechanics, fo...
Quantum dot quantum computation in III-V type semiconductor
Prabhakar, Sanjay Kumar
Among recent proposals for next-generation, non-charge-based logic is the notion that a single electron can be trapped and spin of the electron can be manipulated through the application of gate potentials. In the thesis, there are two major contributions of the manipulation of electron spin. In regard to the first contribution, we present numerical simulations of such a spin in single electron devices for realistic asymmetric potentials in electrostatically confined quantum dot. Using analytical and numerical techniques we show that breaking in-plane rotational symmetry of the confining potential by applied gate voltage leads to a significant effect on the tuning of the electron g-factor. In particular, we find that anisotropy extends the tunability to larger quantum dots in the GaAs case. Although the same extension of tunability exists in the InAs quantum dot case, we find a new effect in the InAs case. The new discovery is that broken in-plane rotational symmetry due to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling in an asymmetric potential results in a significant reverse effect in the tuning of the electron g-factor. This effect can not be observed in symmetric case. The derivative of the g-factor with respect to the electric field has the opposite sign in the above two potentials. The manipulation of Berry phases of spin in nano-scale devices is a topic that has received recent attention as a promising candidate for solid state quantum computation and non-charge-based logic devices. A single electron in an electrostatically defined quantum dot located in a 2 dimensional electron gas (2DEG), for example, can be trapped and the spin can be manipulated by simply moving the center of mass of the quantum dot adiabatically along a closed loop in the 2D plane via the application of gate potentials. In relation to the second contribution, we present numerical simulations and analytical expressions for the spin-dependent electron propagator (a matrix-valued function of position) for an electron trapped in a quantum dot, while the center of mass of the quantum dot is adiabatically moved in the 2D plane in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. We apply the Feynman disentangling technique to determine the non-abelian matrix Berry phase, we find exact analytical expression for the propagator in three cases: (a) pure Rashba coupling; (b) pure Dresselhaus coupling; and (c) a combination of equally strong Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. For other cases of interest where the solution of the propagator can not be found analytically, we present results obtained by numerically solving the Riccati equation resulting from the disentangling procedure. We also find that the presence of both spin-orbit couplings leads to a larger spin-flip probability than what would result from either mechanism considered separately.
Multiple network alignment on quantum computers
Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre
2014-12-01
Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.
Transitions in the computational power of thermal states for measurement-based quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the usefulness of the thermal state of a specific spin-lattice model for measurement-based quantum computing exhibits a transition between two distinct 'phases' - one in which every state is a universal resource for quantum computation, and another in which any local measurement sequence can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer. Remarkably, this transition in computational power does not coincide with any phase transition, classical, or quantum in the underlying spin-lattice model.
Simulation of Electronic Structure Hamiltonians Using Quantum Computers
Whitfield, James D.; Biamonte, Jacob; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2010-01-01
Over the last century, a large number of physical and mathematical developments paired with rapidly advancing technology have allowed the field of quantum chemistry to advance dramatically. However, the lack of computationally efficient methods for the exact simulation of quantum systems on classical computers presents a limitation of current computational approaches. We report, in detail, how a set of pre-computed molecular integrals can be used to explicitly create a quant...
The sum-over-histories formulation of quantum computing
Rudiak-Gould, Ben
2006-01-01
Since Deutsch (1985), quantum computers have been modeled exclusively in the language of state vectors and the Schroedinger equation. We present a complementary view of quantum circuits inspired by the path integral formalism of quantum mechanics, and examine its application to some simple textbook problems.
Computer Visualization of Many-Particle Quantum Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper I show the importance of computer visualization in researching of many-particle quantum dynamics. Such a visualization becomes an indispensable illustrative tool for understanding the behavior of dynamic swarm-based quantum systems. It is also an important component of the corresponding simulation framework, and can simplify the studies of underlying algorithms for multi-particle quantum systems.
Simulation of Quantum Computation: A deterministic event-based approach
K. Michielsen; De Raedt, K.; Raedt, H. De
2005-01-01
We demonstrate that locally connected networks of machines that have primitive learning capabilities can be used to perform a deterministic, event-based simulation of quantum computation. We present simulation results for basic quantum operations such as the Hadamard and the controlled-NOT gate, and for seven-qubit quantum networks that implement Shor's numbering factoring algorithm.
Preparing projected entangled pair states on a quantum computer
Schwarz, Martin; Temme, Kristan; Verstraete, Frank
2011-01-01
We present a quantum algorithm to prepare injective PEPS on a quantum computer, a class of open tensor networks representing quantum states. The run-time of our algorithm scales polynomially with the inverse of the minimum condition number of the PEPS projectors and, essentially, with the inverse of the spectral gap of the PEPS' parent Hamiltonian.
Baianu,I C
2004-01-01
The concepts of quantum automata and quantum computation are studied in the context of quantum genetics and genetic networks with nonlinear dynamics. In previous publications (Baianu,1971a, b) the formal concept of quantum automaton and quantum computation, respectively, were introduced and their possible implications for genetic processes and metabolic activities in living cells and organisms were considered. This was followed by a report on quantum and abstract, symbolic computation based on the theory of categories, functors and natural transformations (Baianu,1971b; 1977; 1987; 2004; Baianu et al, 2004). The notions of topological semigroup, quantum automaton, or quantum computer, were then suggested with a view to their potential applications to the analogous simulation of biological systems, and especially genetic activities and nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks. Further, detailed studies of nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks were carried out in categories of n-valued, Lukasiewicz Logic Algebra...
Quantum computing based on space states without charge transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vyurkov, V., E-mail: vyurkov@ftian.r [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Filippov, S., E-mail: sergey.filippov@phystech.ed [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Gorelik, L., E-mail: gorelik@chalmers.s [Chalmers University of Technology and Goteborg University, Goteborg (Sweden)
2010-07-19
An implementation of a quantum computer based on space states in double quantum dots is discussed. There is no charge transfer in qubits during a calculation, therefore, uncontrolled entanglement between qubits due to long-range Coulomb interaction is suppressed. Encoding and processing of quantum information is merely performed on symmetric and antisymmetric states of the electron in double quantum dots. Other plausible sources of decoherence caused by interaction with phonons and gates could be substantially suppressed in the structure as well. We also demonstrate how all necessary quantum logic operations, initialization, writing, and read-out could be carried out in the computer.
Topological quantum computation--from basic concepts to first experiments.
Stern, Ady; Lindner, Netanel H
2013-03-01
Quantum computation requires controlled engineering of quantum states to perform tasks that go beyond those possible with classical computers. Topological quantum computation aims to achieve this goal by using non-Abelian quantum phases of matter. Such phases allow for quantum information to be stored and manipulated in a nonlocal manner, which protects it from imperfections in the implemented protocols and from interactions with the environment. Recently, substantial progress in this field has been made on both theoretical and experimental fronts. We review the basic concepts of non-Abelian phases and their topologically protected use in quantum information processing tasks. We discuss different possible realizations of these concepts in experimentally available solid-state systems, including systems hosting Majorana fermions, their recently proposed fractional counterparts, and non-Abelian quantum Hall states. PMID:23471401
Enhanced Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computing in d -Level Systems
Campbell, Earl T.
2014-12-01
Error-correcting codes protect quantum information and form the basis of fault-tolerant quantum computing. Leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation require codes with an exceedingly rare property, a transversal non-Clifford gate. Codes with the desired property are presented for d -level qudit systems with prime d . The codes use n =d -1 qudits and can detect up to ˜d /3 errors. We quantify the performance of these codes for one approach to quantum computation known as magic-state distillation. Unlike prior work, we find performance is always enhanced by increasing d .
Universal Quantum Computation with Continuous-Variable Abelian Anyons
Milne, Darran F; van Loock, Peter
2011-01-01
We describe how continuous-variable abelian anyons, created on the surface of a continuous-variable analogue of Kitaev's lattice model can be utilized for quantum computation. In particular, we derive protocols for the implementation of quantum gates using topological operations. We find that the topological operations alone are insufficient for universal quantum computation which leads us to study additional non-topological operations such as offline squeezing and single-mode measurements. It is shown that these in conjunction with a non-Gaussian element allow for universal quantum computation using continuous-variable abelian anyons.
Practical experimental certification of computational quantum gates via twirling
Moussa, Osama; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-01-01
Due to the technical difficulty of building large quantum computers, it is important to be able to estimate how faithful a given implementation is to an ideal quantum computer. The common approach of completely characterizing the computation process via quantum process tomography requires an exponential amount of resources, and thus is not practical even for relatively small devices. We solve this problem by demonstrating that twirling experiments previously used to characterize the average fidelity of quantum memories efficiently can be easily adapted to estimate the average fidelity of the experimental implementation of important quantum computation processes, such as unitaries in the Clifford group, in a practical and efficient manner with applicability in current quantum devices. Using this procedure, we demonstrate state-of-the-art coherent control of an ensemble of magnetic moments of nuclear spins in a single crystal solid by implementing the encoding operation for a 3 qubit code with only a 1% degrada...
Gate sequence for continuous variable one-way quantum computation
Su, Xiaolong; Hao, Shuhong; Deng, Xiaowei; Ma, Lingyu; Wang, Meihong; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2013-01-01
Measurement-based one-way quantum computation using cluster states as resources provides an efficient model to perform computation and information processing of quantum codes. Arbitrary Gaussian quantum computation can be implemented sufficiently by long single-mode and two-mode gate sequences. However, continuous variable gate sequences have not been realized so far due to an absence of cluster states larger than four submodes. Here we present the first continuous variable gate sequence consisting of a single-mode squeezing gate and a two-mode controlled-phase gate based on a six-mode cluster state. The quantum property of this gate sequence is confirmed by the fidelities and the quantum entanglement of two output modes, which depend on both the squeezing and controlled-phase gates. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of implementing Gaussian quantum computation by means of accessible gate sequences.
From transistor to trapped-ion computers for quantum chemistry
Yung, M.-H.; Casanova, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; McClean, J.; Lamata, L.; Aspuru-Guzik, A.; Solano, E.
2014-01-01
Over the last few decades, quantum chemistry has progressed through the development of computational methods based on modern digital computers. However, these methods can hardly fulfill the exponentially-growing resource requirements when applied to large quantum systems. As pointed out by Feynman, this restriction is intrinsic to all computational models based on classical physics. Recently, the rapid advancement of trapped-ion technologies has opened new possibilities for quantum control and quantum simulations. Here, we present an efficient toolkit that exploits both the internal and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions for solving problems in quantum chemistry, including molecular electronic structure, molecular dynamics, and vibronic coupling. We focus on applications that go beyond the capacity of classical computers, but may be realizable on state-of-the-art trapped-ion systems. These results allow us to envision a new paradigm of quantum chemistry that shifts from the current transistor to a near-future trapped-ion-based technology.
A Quantum Computer Foundation for the Standard Model and SuperString Theories
Blaha, Stephen
2002-01-01
We show the Standard Model and SuperString Theories can be naturally based on a Quantum Computer foundation. The Standard Model of elementary particles can be viewed as defining a Quantum Computer Grammar and language. A Quantum Computer in a certain limit naturally forms a Superspace upon which Supersymmetry rotations can be defined - a Continuum Quantum Computer. Quantum high-level computer languages such as Quantum C and Quantum Assembly language are also discussed. In th...
Dynamical localization simulated on a few qubits quantum computer
Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Montangero, Simone; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2002-01-01
We show that a quantum computer operating with a small number of qubits can simulate the dynamical localization of classical chaos in a system described by the quantum sawtooth map model. The dynamics of the system is computed efficiently up to a time $t\\geq \\ell$, and then the localization length $\\ell$ can be obtained with accuracy $\
The Brain Is both Neurocomputer and Quantum Computer
Hameroff, Stuart R.
2007-01-01
In their article, "Is the Brain a Quantum Computer,?" Litt, Eliasmith, Kroon, Weinstein, and Thagard (2006) criticize the Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" quantum computational model of consciousness, arguing instead for neurocomputation as an explanation for mental phenomena. Here I clarify and defend Orch OR, show how Orch OR and neurocomputation are…
Possibilities of a classical alternative to a quantum computer
Kundu, A
2003-01-01
The dramatic increase in the efficiency of a quantum computer over a classical computer, raises a natural question asking, how much of this success could be attributed to its quantum nature and how much to its probabilistic content. To highlight this issue, we put forward the novel idea of a possible chemical computer driven by reaction-diffusion (RD) processes based on a probabilistic but classical approach. Such computers, obeying non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, can describe superpositions of empty and filled states with certain probabilities. With these {probit} states serving as computational basis states, such RD computers with operations satisfying a necessary semi-group property could mimic some well known quantum logic gates and carry out teleportation like procedure using entangled states, believed to be a prerogative of the quantum world. Moreover, assuming a nonlinear extension the RD computers could be used for cloning of arbitrary states, which is a famous forbidden operation in standard q...
A Review of Freely Available Quantum Computer Simulation Software
Brandhorst-Satzkorn, Johan
2012-01-01
A study has been made of a few different freely available Quantum Computer simulators. All the simulators tested are available online on their respective websites. A number of tests have been performed to compare the different simulators against each other. Some untested simulators of various programming languages are included to show the diversity of the quantum computer simulator applications. The conclusion of the review is that LibQuantum is the best of the simulators tested because of ea...
The lambda-q calculus can efficiently simulate quantum computers
Maymin, Philip
1997-01-01
We show that the lambda-q calculus can efficiently simulate quantum Turing machines by showing how the lambda-q calculus can efficiently simulate a class of quantum cellular automaton that are equivalent to quantum Turing machines. We conclude by noting that the lambda-q calculus may be strictly stronger than quantum computers because NP-complete problems such as satisfiability are efficiently solvable in the lambda-q calculus but there is a widespread doubt that they are ef...
Spacetime at the Planck Scale: The Quantum Computer View
Zizzi, Paola
2003-01-01
We assume that space-time at the Planck scale is discrete, quantised in Planck units and "qubitsed" (each pixel of Planck area encodes one qubit), that is, quantum space-time can be viewed as a quantum computer. Within this model, one finds that quantum space-time itself is entangled, and can quantum-evaluate Boolean functions which are the laws of Physics in their discrete and fundamental form.
Applying quantitative semantics to higher-order quantum computing
Pagani, Michele; Selinger, Peter; Valiron, Benoît
2013-01-01
Finding a denotational semantics for higher order quantum computation is a long-standing problem in the semantics of quantum programming languages. Most past approaches to this problem fell short in one way or another, either limiting the language to an unusably small finitary fragment, or giving up important features of quantum physics such as entanglement. In this paper, we propose a denotational semantics for a quantum lambda calculus with recursion and an infinite data t...
Finding Matches between Two Databases on a Quantum Computer
Heiligman, M
2000-01-01
Given two unsorted lists each of length N that have a single common entry, a quantum computer can find that matching element with a work factor of $O(N^{3/4}\\log N)$ (measured in quantum memory accesses and accesses to each list). The amount of quantum memory required is $O(N^{1/2})$. The quantum algorithm that accomplishes this consists of an inner Grover search combined with a partial sort all sitting inside of an outer Grover search.
Quantum computation of multifractal exponents through the quantum wavelet transform
Garcia-Mata, I.; Giraud, O.; Georgeot, B.
2008-01-01
We study the use of the quantum wavelet transform to extract efficiently information about the multifractal exponents for multifractal quantum states. We show that, combined with quantum simulation algorithms, it enables to build quantum algorithms for multifractal exponents with a polynomial gain compared to classical simulations. Numerical results indicate that a rough estimate of fractality could be obtained exponentially fast. Our findings are relevant e.g. for quantum s...
Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Renlund, Anita M. (Albuquerque, NM); Stanton, Philip L. (Albuquerque, NM)
1994-01-01
A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.
Magnetic qubits as hardware for quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose two potential realisations for quantum bits based on nanometre scale magnetic particles of large spin S and high anisotropy molecular clusters. In case (1) the bit-value basis states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1> are the ground and first excited spin states Sz = S and S-1, separated by an energy gap given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. In case (2), when there is significant tunnelling through the anisotropy barrier, the qubit states correspond to the symmetric, vertical bar-0>, and antisymmetric, vertical bar-1>, combinations of the two-fold degenerate ground state Sz = ± S. In each case the temperature of operation must be low compared to the energy gap, ?, between the states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1>. The gap ? in case (2) can be controlled with an external magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis of the molecular cluster. The states of different molecular clusters and magnetic particles may be entangled by connecting them by superconducting lines with Josephson switches, leading to the potential for quantum computing hardware. (author)
The Universe as a Quantum Computer
Gudder, Stan
2014-01-01
This article presents a sequential growth model for the universe that acts like a quantum computer. The basic constituents of the model are a special type of causal set (causet) called a $c$-causet. A $c$-causet is defined to be a causet that is independent of its labeling. We characterize $c$-causets as those causets that form a multipartite graph or equivalently those causets whose elements are comparable whenever their heights are different. We show that a $c$-causet has precisely two $c$-causet offspring. It follows that there are $2^n$ $c$-causets of cardinality $n+1$. This enables us to classify $c$-causets of cardinality $n+1$ in terms of $n$-bits. We then quantize the model by introducing a quantum sequential growth process. This is accomplished by replacing the $n$-bits by $n$-qubits and defining transition amplitudes for the growth transitions. We mainly consider two types of processes called stationary and completely stationary. We show that for stationary processes, the probability operators are t...
TUTORIAL: Recipes for spin-based quantum computing
Cerletti, Veronica; Coish, W. A.; Gywat, Oliver; Loss, Daniel
2005-04-01
Technological growth in the electronics industry has historically been measured by the number of transistors that can be crammed onto a single microchip. Unfortunately, all good things must come to an end; spectacular growth in the number of transistors on a chip requires spectacular reduction of the transistor size. For electrons in semiconductors, the laws of quantum mechanics take over at the nanometre scale, and the conventional wisdom for progress (transistor cramming) must be abandoned. This realization has stimulated extensive research on ways to exploit the spin (in addition to the orbital) degree of freedom of the electron, giving birth to the field of spintronics. Perhaps the most ambitious goal of spintronics is to realize complete control over the quantum mechanical nature of the relevant spins. This prospect has motivated a race to design and build a spintronic device capable of complete control over its quantum mechanical state, and ultimately, performing computations: a quantum computer. In this tutorial we summarize past and very recent developments which point the way to spin-based quantum computing in the solid state. After introducing a set of basic requirements for any quantum computer proposal, we offer a brief summary of some of the many theoretical proposals for solid-state quantum computers. We then focus on the Loss-DiVincenzo proposal for quantum computing with the spins of electrons confined to quantum dots. There are many obstacles to building such a quantum device. We address these, and survey recent theoretical, and then experimental progress in the field. To conclude the tutorial, we list some as-yet unrealized experiments, which would be crucial for the development of a quantum dot quantum computer.
Parallel Photonic Quantum Computation Assisted by Quantum Dots in One-Side Optical Microcavities
Luo, Ming-Xing; Wang, Xiaojun
2014-07-01
Universal quantum logic gates are important elements for a quantum computer. In contrast to previous constructions on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we investigate the possibility of parallel quantum computations dependent on two DOFs of photon systems. We construct deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gates operating on the spatial-mode and the polarization DOFs of two-photon or one-photon systems by exploring the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. These hyper-CNOT gates show that the quantum states of two DOFs can be viewed as independent qubits without requiring auxiliary DOFs in theory. This result can reduce the quantum resources by half for quantum applications with large qubit systems, such as the quantum Shor algorithm.
Multivariable optimization: Quantum annealing and computation
Mukherjee, S.; Chakrabarti, B. K.
2015-02-01
Recent developments in quantum annealing techniques have been indicating potential advantage of quantum annealing for solving NP-hard optimization problems. In this article we briefly indicate and discuss the beneficial features of quantum annealing techniques and compare them with those of simulated annealing techniques. We then briefly discuss the quantum annealing studies of some model spin glass and kinetically constrained systems.
Two-bit gates are universal for quantum computation
Di Vincenzo, D P
1994-01-01
A proof is given, which relies on the commutator algebra of the unitary Lie groups, that quantum gates operating on just two bits at a time are sufficient to construct a general quantum circuit. The best previous result had shown the universality of three-bit gates, by analogy to the universality of the Toffoli three-bit gate of classical reversible computing. Two-bit quantum gates may be implemented by magnetic resonance operations applied to a pair of electronic or nuclear spins. A ``gearbox quantum computer'' proposed here, based on the principles of atomic force microscopy, would permit the operation of such two-bit gates in a physical system with very long phase breaking (i.e., quantum phase coherence) times. Simpler versions of the gearbox computer could be used to do experiments on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states and related entangled quantum states.
From transistor to trapped-ion computers for quantum chemistry
M.-H. Yung; Casanova, J (Joseph); A. Mezzacapo; McClean, J.; Lamata, L.; A. Aspuru-Guzik; Solano, E.
2014-01-01
Over the last few decades, quantum chemistry has progressed through the development of computational methods based on modern digital computers. However, these methods can hardly fulfill the exponentially-growing resource requirements when applied to large quantum systems. As pointed out by Feynman, this restriction is intrinsic to all computational models based on classical physics. Recently, the rapid advancement of trapped-ion technologies has opened new possibilities for ...
Impossibility of secure cloud quantum computing for classical client
Morimae, Tomoyuki; Koshiba, Takeshi
2014-01-01
The first generation quantum computer will be implemented in the cloud style, since only few groups will be able to access such an expensive and high-maintenance machine. How the privacy of the client can be protected in such a cloud quantum computing? It was theoretically shown [A. Broadbent, J. F. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundation of Computer Science, 517 (2009)], and experimentally demonstrated [S. Barz, E. Kashefi, A....
Insights into classical irreversible computation using quantum information concepts
Groisman, Berry
2008-01-01
The method of using concepts and insight from quantum information theory in order to solve problems in reversible classical computing (introduced in Ref. [1]) have been generalized to irreversible classical computing. The method have been successfully tested on two computational tasks. Several basic logic gates have been analyzed and the nonlocal content of the associate quantum transformations have been calculated. The results provide us with new interesting insight into th...
Insights into classical irreversible computation using quantum information concepts
Groisman, Berry
2008-01-01
The method of using concepts and insight from quantum information theory in order to solve problems in reversible classical computing (introduced in Ref. [1]) have been generalized to irreversible classical computing. The method have been successfully tested on two computational tasks. Several basic logic gates have been analyzed and the nonlocal content of the associate quantum transformations have been calculated. The results provide us with new interesting insight into the notion of complexity of logic operations.
Quantum Computers: Noise Propagation and Adversarial Noise Models
Kalai, Gil
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider adversarial noise models that will fail quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. We describe known results regarding high-rate noise, sequential computation, and reversible noisy computation. We continue by discussing highly correlated noise and the "boundary," in terms of correlation of errors, of the "threshold theorem." Next, we draw a picture of adversarial forms of noise called (collectively) "detrimental noise." ...
The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing
2004-01-01
1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental ...
The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing
2004-01-01
1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental...
The 2004 Latsis Symposium: Quantum optics for Communication and Computing
2004-01-01
1-3 March 2004 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Auditoire SG1 The field of Quantum Optics covers topics that extend from basic physical concepts, regarding the quantum description of light, matter, and light-matter interaction, to the applications of these concepts in future information and communication technologies. This field is of primary importance for science and society for two reasons. Firstly, it brings a deeper physical understanding of the fundamental aspects of modern quantum physics. Secondly, it offers perspectives for the invention and implementation of new devices and systems in the fields of communications, information management and computing. The themes that will be addressed in the Latsis Symposium on Quantum Optics are quantum communications, quantum computation, and quantum photonic devices. The objective of the symposium is to give an overview of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field. The different talks will establish links between new fundamental c...
Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.
Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-01-25
Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0? and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity. PMID:21266968
Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing
Souza, Alexandre M; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond; 10.1038/ncomms1166
2011-01-01
Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error correcting or error avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states such as |0> and the Magic State. Here we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity.
Quantum computing and the entanglement frontier
Preskill, John
2012-01-01
Quantum information science explores the frontier of highly complex quantum states, the "entanglement frontier." This study is motivated by the observation (widely believed but unproven) that classical systems cannot simulate highly entangled quantum systems efficiently, and we hope to hasten the day when well controlled quantum systems can perform tasks surpassing what can be done in the classical world. One way to achieve such "quantum supremacy" would be to run an algorit...
Nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces.
Xu, G F; Zhang, J; Tong, D M; Sjöqvist, Erik; Kwek, L C
2012-10-26
Quantum computation that combines the coherence stabilization virtues of decoherence-free subspaces and the fault tolerance of geometric holonomic control is of great practical importance. Some schemes of adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces have been proposed in the past few years. However, nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces, which avoids a long run-time requirement but with all the robust advantages, remains an open problem. Here, we demonstrate how to realize nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces. By using only three neighboring physical qubits undergoing collective dephasing to encode one logical qubit, we realize a universal set of quantum gates. PMID:23215167
Towards fault-tolerant quantum computing with trapped ions
Benhelm, J; Roos, C F; Blatt, R
2008-01-01
Today ion traps are among the most promising physical systems for constructing a quantum device harnessing the computing power inherent in the laws of quantum physics. The standard circuit model of quantum computing requires a universal set of quantum logic gates for the implementation of arbitrary quantum operations. As in classical models of computation, quantum error correction techniques enable rectification of small imperfections in gate operations, thus allowing for perfect computation in the presence of noise. For fault-tolerant computation, it is commonly believed that error thresholds ranging between 10^-4 and 10^-2 will be required depending on the noise model and the computational overhead for realizing the quantum gates. Up to now, all experimental implementations have fallen short of these requirements. Here, we report on a Molmer-Sorensen type gate operation entangling ions with a fidelity of 99.3(1)% which together with single-qubit operations forms a universal set of quantum gates. The gate op...
How Quantum Computers Fail: Quantum Codes, Correlations in Physical Systems, and Noise Accumulation
Kalai, Gil
2011-01-01
The feasibility of computationally superior quantum computers is one of the most exciting and clear-cut scientific questions of our time. The question touches on fundamental issues regarding probability, physics, and computability, as well as on exciting problems in experimental physics, engineering, computer science, and mathematics. We propose three related directions towards a negative answer. The first is a conjecture about physical realizations of quantum codes, the sec...
Is Quantum Mechanics Falsifiable? A computational perspective on the foundations of Quantum Mechanic
Dorit Aharonov; Umesh Vazirani
2013-01-01
Quantum computation teaches us that quantum mechanics exhibits exponential complexity. We argue that the standard scientific paradigm of "predict and verify" cannot be applied to testing quantum mechanics in this limit of high complexity. We describe how QM can be tested in this regime by extending the usual scientific paradigm to include {\\it interactive experiments}.
A Quantum Full Adder for a Scalable Nuclear Spin Quantum Computer
Berman, G. P.; Doolen, G. D.; Lopez, G. V.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.
2001-01-01
We demonstrate a strategy for implementation a quantum full adder in a spin chain quantum computer. As an example, we simulate a quantum full adder in a chain containing 201 spins. Our simulations also demonstrate how one can minimize errors generated by non-resonant effects.
Quantum Monte Carlo Endstation for Petascale Computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lubos Mitas
2011-01-26
NCSU research group has been focused on accomplising the key goals of this initiative: establishing new generation of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) computational tools as a part of Endstation petaflop initiative for use at the DOE ORNL computational facilities and for use by computational electronic structure community at large; carrying out high accuracy quantum Monte Carlo demonstration projects in application of these tools to the forefront electronic structure problems in molecular and solid systems; expanding the impact of QMC methods and approaches; explaining and enhancing the impact of these advanced computational approaches. In particular, we have developed quantum Monte Carlo code (QWalk, www.qwalk.org) which was significantly expanded and optimized using funds from this support and at present became an actively used tool in the petascale regime by ORNL researchers and beyond. These developments have been built upon efforts undertaken by the PI's group and collaborators over the period of the last decade. The code was optimized and tested extensively on a number of parallel architectures including petaflop ORNL Jaguar machine. We have developed and redesigned a number of code modules such as evaluation of wave functions and orbitals, calculations of pfaffians and introduction of backflow coordinates together with overall organization of the code and random walker distribution over multicore architectures. We have addressed several bottlenecks such as load balancing and verified efficiency and accuracy of the calculations with the other groups of the Endstation team. The QWalk package contains about 50,000 lines of high quality object-oriented C++ and includes also interfaces to data files from other conventional electronic structure codes such as Gamess, Gaussian, Crystal and others. This grant supported PI for one month during summers, a full-time postdoc and partially three graduate students over the period of the grant duration, it has resulted in 13 published papers, 15 invited talks and lectures nationally and internationally. My former graduate student and postdoc Dr. Michal Bajdich, who was supported byt this grant, is currently a postdoc with ORNL in the group of Dr. F. Reboredo and Dr. P. Kent and is using the developed tools in a number of DOE projects. The QWalk package has become a truly important research tool used by the electronic structure community and has attracted several new developers in other research groups. Our tools use several types of correlated wavefunction approaches, variational, diffusion and reptation methods, large-scale optimization methods for wavefunctions and enables to calculate energy differences such as cohesion, electronic gaps, but also densities and other properties, using multiple runs one can obtain equations of state for given structures and beyond. Our codes use efficient numerical and Monte Carlo strategies (high accuracy numerical orbitals, multi-reference wave functions, highly accurate correlation factors, pairing orbitals, force biased and correlated sampling Monte Carlo), are robustly parallelized and enable to run on tens of thousands cores very efficiently. Our demonstration applications were focused on the challenging research problems in several fields of materials science such as transition metal solids. We note that our study of FeO solid was the first QMC calculation of transition metal oxides at high pressures.