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1

Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature. 

Maher S. Al-Jadid

2013-05-01

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Smoking in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

This article reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, consumption, trade, control, prevention, and treatment of tobacco smoking in Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of current smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% (median = 17.5%. Among school students, the prevalence of current smoking ranges from 12-29.8% (median = 16.5%, among university students from 2.4-37% (median = 13.5%, and among adults from 11.6-52.3% (median = 22.6%. In elderly people, the prevalence of current smoking is 25%. The prevalence of smoking in males ranges from 13-38% (median = 26.5%, while in females it ranges from 1-16% (median = 9%. To conclude, smoking is prevalent in the Saudi population at different age groups. The prevalence of current smoking is much higher in males than in females at different ages. More research is needed in the area of prevention and treatment of smoking.

Medhat M. Bassiony

2009-07-01

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Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed.

Ibrahim S. Alkhalife

2006-12-01

4

Brucellosis in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the history of brucellosis and the current public health picture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Health protection is made more difficult by several factors: (a) the local custom of drinking raw and warm milk of sheep, goats, and camels, (b) the animal reservoir of infection in the country complicated by importation of live animals both for sacrifice during Haj periods and to increase commercial flocks, and (c) by uncontrolled movements of humans and stock across political borders. PMID:2814586

Kiel, F W; Khan, M Y

1989-01-01

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Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and inciden...

Al-jadid, Maher S.

2013-01-01

6

Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

7

Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

Martiradonna, Luigi

2014-04-01

8

Rock Art of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity, economy, environment, human activities, and variety of animal types, according to particular climatic and environmental conditions. The rock art of Saudi Arabia is the mirror of its rich cultural heritage of so-called Bedouin or desert dwellers that surprises the world with its 4000 archaeological and more than 1500 rock art sites.

Majeed Khan

2013-12-01

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Family Boraginaceae in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was pointed the need of more ecological studies to know the reasons of the change in the flora and to study how much the ecological stress may affect the speciation.

Wafaa K.Taia

2004-01-01

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Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

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Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.

Kheyami Ali

2006-01-01

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Hypertension in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hypertension is increasing in prevalence in KSA affecting more than one fourth of the adult Saudi population. We recommend aggressive management of hypertension as well as screening of adults for hypertension early to prevent its damaging consequences if left untreated. Public health awareness of simple measures, such as low salt diet, exercise, and avoiding obesity, to maintain normal arterial blood pressure need to be implemented by health care providers.

Mansour M. Al-Nozha

2007-01-01

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Saudi Arabia plans future strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

14

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)

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Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol  

CERN Multimedia

On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

2008-01-01

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Saudi Arabia: Problems and prospects. Arabia Saudita: Problemi e prospettive  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia has a central role in the world oil market. After analyzing the country's political and economic situation with all its possible outgrowths, this article indicates the various development prospects relevant to Saudi oil production and its future impacts on the market.

Granata, V.; Palermo, M. (AGIP SpA, Rome (Italy))

1993-06-01

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Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

Fitzhugh, William

2006-01-01

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Research and Scientific Publishing in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses current trends in scientific research and the publication of research results in Saudi Arabia. Areas discussed include fields of research; marketing of scholarly publications; publication of books, scholarly journals, conference papers, monographs, and research reports; local and foreign publishers serving researchers; leading Saudi

Islam, Manzurul

1989-01-01

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Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

F. R. Pazheri

2014-09-01

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Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and Decembe...

Abdullah, Layla S.; Alghanmi, Najla M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

Hamdan, Amani

2005-01-01

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Petroleum production in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil exploration in Saudi Arabia began in September 1933, and test drilling in 1934. Annual commercial production averaging 100,000 bbl/day started in 1938 from Damman oil field. Abquaiq and Quatif fields tacked on 200,000 and 5,000 bbl/day in 1941 and 1945, respectively. Production increased to more than 246,000 bbl/day in 1947, reached 300,000 by 1948 and jumped to 500,000 in 1949. Safaniya, the world's largest offshore reservoir, and Ghawar, the world's largest onshore oil field, were discovered in 1951 and 1954 consecutively. Among other notable fields, Khursaniyah, Khurais, and Manifa were discovered, the first in 1956, and the rest in 1957 successively. Berri, a reservoir which underlies both land and water, was divested in 1964. The Kingdom reached its 9.9 million bbl/day production peak in 1980, and has shrunk to its prevalent 4.34 million bbl/day Opec quota level. The proven oil reserves have risen by 85 billion bbl to 255 billion in January following a six year study. With additional development and exploration, the remaining reserves could be as high as 313 billion bbl of oil. During most of its geologic history, the producing area protracted between the Arabian shield and Tethyan seaway. The principal reservoir beds are composed of four members of the productive Arab Formation that expound quadruple major cycles of porous calcarenitic limestones and dolomites alternating with impervious evaporitic cap rocks favorably located on the foreland shelf. The area is characterized by structural traps with maximum oil-filled closure of about 1,300 feet. Crude oil export output appears certain to rise again this year to meet world demand.

Billo, S.M. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

1989-09-01

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Polyoma Virus Nephropathy, First Reported Case in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the Poly chain reaction technique (PCR. The patient?s renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued.

Siddiqi N

2006-01-01

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Polyoma Virus Nephropathy, First reported case in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus) is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the polychain reaction techniques (PCR). The patient's renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued. (author)

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Pediatric burns in Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire.

Alaa Sultan; Alandonisi, Munzir M.; Mandili, Faisal A.; Qutbuddeen, Hamed S.; Al-ghamdi, Yahya A.; Gari, Abdulatif A.

2012-01-01

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Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-10-28

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Radioactivity of dates in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of dates from three regions of Saudi Arabia were measured for the radioactivity of both natural and artificial origins. The results were compared with gross ..beta.. and /sup 187/Cs activity of coffee beans produced in different countries. No significant activity in date samples was detected.

Nasser Al-Mohawes; Pao-Shan Weng

1984-06-01

28

Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

2008-01-01

29

Thunderstorm distribution and frequency in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

A new average annual thunder day map for Saudi Arabia is presented. Based on this map, the distribution of thunderstorms over Saudi Arabia is analysed in terms of the factors related to the lightning performance of transmission lines such as thunderstorm days per year (Td/yr). Lightning activity continues for the present to be represented by thunderstorm frequency, which is routinely recorded at meteorological observation sites. Thunderstorm occurrence at a particular location is usually expressed as the number of days in a calendar year when thunder was heard, averaged over several years. This paper examines thunderstorm days in different areas of Saudi Arabia and specifically those areas where lightning strikes are more frequent; for this purpose, the software ArcGIS is used to produce contour maps which demonstrate areas of concern in Saudi Arabia in the period 1985-2003. Establishing the annual and seasonal Td/yr for Saudi Arabia enables transmission and distribution line engineers to calculate and better design a lightning protection system. Maps of thunder days/year (Td/yr) were constructed on the basis of the database records available on lightning incidence in Saudi Arabia at the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) (http://www.pme.gov.sa/). Annual thunderstorms are most frequent over the southwestern parts of the country, and generally decrease towards the west and east. Due to its low latitude and less temporal change, the west coast of the Red Sea recorded the lowest Td/yr. A secondary maximum Td/yr is apparent in the southeast to central part of the country. Thunderstorm frequency does not, in general, appear to vary in any consistent way with rainfall. There appears to be no evidence of any widespread temporal trend in thunderstorm frequency. The southern region in general, and especially the cities of Abha, Taif and Al-Baha, has shown greater numbers of thunderstorm days all year round. Similarly, this variation did show higher frequency throughout the year. The development of lightning incidence and the counting of Td/yr, as well as the establishment of annual and seasonal lightning maps of Saudi Arabia, are initiating a new era of producing and archiving thunderstorm maps and data records which serve the PME, the utilities, industry and the public.

Shwehdi, M. H.

2005-09-01

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Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female decant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

31

Evaluation of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA between 2010 and 2011. Methods: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi Arabia as a keyword. The search was limited to the studies published in the period of 2 years from January 2010 to December 2011. The year 2012 was not included to give at least one year for citation. The total number of studies during the stated period was compared with those published from other countries in the same period, and adjusted per population size. Impact factor and number of citations were used to assess the quality of the studies. Results: A total of 1905 published articles/studies were from KSA in the said period. Australia had the maximum number of studies (100% published per million population (1258.571+. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had 72.71 articles per million population, and was ranked 16th among the other countries. Most of the articles (65.3% were published from Riyadh followed by Jeddah (13.3%, and most of them were from the fields of Community Medicine (15.5%, Pathology (13.7%, Medicine (13.2%, and Surgery (13.1%. King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh had the highest impact factor with a mean of 2.74 ± 3.45. Conclusion: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is lagging behind in biomedical research. While King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre appears to be doing better than other institutions in biomedical research, there is an urgent need for greater investment in biomedical research in the kingdom. NOTICE FOR CORRECTION OF DATE OF STUDY IN: SAUDI MED J 2014; VOL. 35 (5: 511. 

Jamal Al-Bishri

2013-09-01

32

Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)

33

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431 with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5% pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and 248 (57.5% extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA (86.3% and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA 59 (13.7%. The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years. The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9% compared to SA patients (55.1%. Females had higher proportion (59.5% of EPTB than males (55.6%. The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%. In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.

Al-Otaibi Fawzia

2010-04-01

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Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author)d preventive measures implemented (Author).

35

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2011-01-01

36

Assessing Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as "harrats." The largest of these, Harrat Rahat (Figure 1), produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 C.E. with lava flows traveling within 20 kilometers of the city Al-Madinah, which currently has a population of 1.5 million plus an additional 3 million pilgrims annually. With more than 950 visible vents and periodic seismic swarms, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital.

Lindsay, Jan Marie; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed

2014-08-01

37

Saudi Arabia's oil policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia's oil policy is based on support for the Imperial rule, and a strategy of minimal risk takes first priority. This country with vast oil resources is characterized by a lower level of needed oil revenue because of its little population, by low producing cost, and by dependence on the American majors. Differing from other OPEC countries, Saudi have maintained moderate policy toward western developed countries: avoiding a sudden rise of oil prices, making best use of its vast oil resources, and consideration for the Third World, especially for Islamic countries. Through detailed analyses on seven periods, from 1973 until now, Saudi was proved to have a well-balanced sense on its oil policy and to have a fundamental attitude to avoid risk throughly. A stable price of oil with long-term competitiveness should be set in the future. Saudi's future oil policy is likely to be the control of OPEC contries'oil production to avoid a sudden rise of oil prices, and the oil production as much as its quota. (3 figs, 26 refs)

Hatanaka, Yoshiki

1988-08-01

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Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

39

Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kawasaki disease in this study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 3.1+/-2.4 years. Most patients were younger than 5 years (83.3%). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Diagnosis was made 8.1+/-3.3 days after start of fever with a range from 4-15 days. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with 2 requiring another dose of IVIG. Echocardiography was performed 10.1+/-3.9 days from onset of fever with a range of 4-20 days. The duration of hospital stay was 7.9+/-5.8 days with a range from 3-25 days. Three patients had coronary artery abnormalities and still have coronary artery dilatation at last follow-up appointment. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease as delayed diagnosis may lead to coronary lesions. A national awareness program on Kawasaki disease is recommended (Author).

40

Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period  is scarce. This article also  is concerned with describing the evolution  of certain striking  aspects of the close  relation  between  the pilgrimage to Mecca  and Indonesian migrants  looking  for work.  We need to consider  the methods  of hiring  labor,  the networks  involved  in recruiting it, the organization  of travel,  as well as the increasing indebtedness  of the migrants  through  intermediaries  who, more and more professionally, arrange  these attempts  to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire  for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767

Laurence Husson

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Healthcare risk waste in Saudi Arabia. Rate of generation.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Healthcare establishments in Saudi Arabia produce healthcare risk waste. Much care is given by the responsible authorities for the management of that type of waste. A program is being established to formulate standards for healthcare waste management

M. A. Al-Zahrani

2000-03-01

42

Hydroxyurea in sickle cell disease patients from Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

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Hydroxyurea seems to be effective in decreasing the frequency of vasooclusive crises in patient with sickle cell disease from Eastern Saudi Arabia. In this preliminary analysis no major side effects were observed. Long term side effects need to be monitored.

Ali H. Al-Jam'a

2002-03-01

43

Pattern of management of urologic cancer in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: To compare the current uro-oncologic practice pattern in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care practice and to identify obstacles in our health care system that prevent offering such a treatment. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 247 practicing urologists in Saudi Arabia using a designed questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 19 questions focusing on management of bladder and renal cancers. Results: Of the 247 contacted urologists, 86 completed the ...

Al-Othman Khalid; Al-Hathal Naif

2010-01-01

44

Sand Dune and Sabkha Vegetations of Eastern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Eastern Saudi Arabia to provide the needed information about the vegetation of sand dunes and sabkhas in the region and to provide insight into the factors controlling community distribution. Eastern Saudi Arabia with arid climatic conditions has sparsely distributed sand dune and sabkha vegetation cover. The vegetation comprises of perennial herbs, dwarf shrubs and few tree species. Seven major plant communities were recognized according to their dominant and co-dominant species: Panicum turgidum-Stipa capensis, Panicum turgidum-Pennisetum divisum, Panicum turgidum-Zygophyllum coccineum, Lasiurus scindicus-Stipagrostis plumose, Aeluropus lagopoides-Halopeplis perfoliata, Tamafix arabica-Aeluropus lagopoides and Zygophyllum coccineum-Cyperus conglomeratus. The seven communities represented different combinations of species. Soil organic carbon, soil salinity and soil water holding capacity appear to have a substantial influence on determining vegetation composition and abundance. In general, there are 45 species in the study area differing in their relative abundance, frequency and richness.

Mohammed A. Al-Fredan

2008-01-01

45

Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

2014-01-01

46

Toxoplasmosis in Goats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1 along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2 were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the control goats (herd 2. About >80% of the former goats had ELISA percent optical densities (O.D.% ?100 while >86% of the control goats were weakly positive with ELISA O.D.’s (% T. gondii as the cause of abortion in herd 1.

R.S. Aljumaah

2011-01-01

47

The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field. PMID:24953076

Alkhenizan, Abdullah

2014-08-01

48

EER Improvement for Room Air-Conditioners in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) for Room Air Conditioners (RACs) that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC). This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number ...

Al-shaalan, Abdullah M.

2012-01-01

49

Black (samsum) ant induced anaphylaxis in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ant allergy is a rare clinical problem that ranges from local to systemic reaction and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Different types of ants including the imported fire ants, the black (samsum) ants, and others, are considered health hazard in many parts of the world. We report a 32-year-old Saudi female from Hafr-Al-Batin in the Northern region of Saudi Arabia, with history of recurrent anaphylaxis following black (samsum) ant stings and we review the related literature. This is the first report of black (samsum) ant allergy in Saudi Arabia. PMID:17106560

Al-Shahwan, Mohammed; Al-Khenaizan, Sultan; Al-Khalifa, Mohammed

2006-11-01

50

Electronic-health in Saudi Arabia. Just around the corner?  

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The Saudi health sector has witnessed significant progress in recent decades with some local hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this has not been accompanied by advancement of the electronic-health e-health field, whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals to achieve certain objectives such as enhancing the quality of healthcare, and reducing the time and cost for healthcare delivery. In this paper we investigate the advancement of e-health in the world and in Saudi Arabia. A new model for e-health diffusion in Saudi Arabia is also proposed.

Majid M. Altuwaijri

2008-02-01

51

Black (samsum ant induced anaphylaxis in Saudi Arabia.  

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Ant allergy is a rare clinical problem that ranges from local to systemic reaction and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Different types of ants including the imported fire ants, the black (samsum ants, and others, are considered health hazard in many parts of the world. We report a 32-year-old Saudi female from Hafr-Al-Batin in the Northern region of Saudi Arabia, with history of recurrent anaphylaxis following black (samsum ant stings and we review the related literature. This is the first report of black (samsum ant allergy in Saudi Arabia.

Mohammed Al-Shahwan

2006-11-01

52

Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs in Saudi Arabia (SA and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%, trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%, gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%, syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%, human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%, genital warts (1382, 3.5%, genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%, and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%. The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

Madani Tariq A

2006-01-01

53

The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

2014-05-01

54

Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

2013-09-01

55

Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students’ attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector. PMID:17136159

Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

2006-01-01

56

Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.

Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

57

Peak expiratory flow rate in Saudi school boys at Al-Khobar City, Saudi Arabia.  

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Peak expiratory flow rate values in this study were lower than those reported from Riyadh, other Arab countries, Europe and North America. However, they are close to those reported from Yanbu (Saudi Arabia. Normal values of peak expiratory flow rate for Saudi children should be developed.

K. Al-Dawood

2000-06-01

58

New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

Bin Fayez, A.

2006-05-01

59

Information Privacy Status in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Privacy is one of the most fundamental rights that must be preserved for individuals because it is integral to their integrity, self-respect, and safety. However, it is also a vague concept with a number of controversial issues that need to be addressed from ethical, jurisdictional, and sociological perspectives. The perceptions of both organizations and individuals have undergone noticeable changes since the introduction of communication and processing technologies. Furthermore, with the dominance of the Internet and social networks in business and personal lives, information privacy appears to be a myth as massive volumes of personal information and data are stored in the Cloud and back end systems of organizations. Such systems have created serious legal, ethical, and technological challenges related to information collection, processing, and dissemination. This paper presents the findings of the first phase of a countrywide research project that aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of information privacy practices in the public, health, banking, and private sectors. The results presented in this paper are based on a survey and structured interviews with key stakeholders in multiple organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to measure organizational compliance and personal perceptions of information privacy.

Laith A. Alsulaiman

2014-07-01

60

Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November 2009, when flooded water and sediments (torrents invaded the urban areas and resulted decease of many people and destroyed the infrastructure and civilized zones. The lack of mitigation implements exacerbated the problem. This study implies an assessment of flood hazard risk in Jeddah region. It aims to identify the zones subjected to flood and then inducing the influencing factors at different levels of effect. For this purpose space techniques were utilized, with a focus on IKONOS satellite images, which are characterized by high resolution in identifying terrain features. In addition Geographic Information System (GIS was also used to support space techniques. Thus, damaged areas and the mechanism of flooding process were recognized. This helps avoiding further urban expansion in areas under flood risk and will aid decision maker to put new strategies for hazard management.

Mashael Al Saud

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), PCR and direct sequencing to identify muta...

Rashed Mohamed S; Alsmadi Osama; Al-Mubarak Bashair R; Trabzuni Danyah; Al-Sayed Moeen; Imtiaz Faiqa; Meyer Brian F

2010-01-01

62

Assessment of hepatitis B vaccination and compliance with infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage and the use of infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during the Third International Conference at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, held on March 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi or expatriate dentists working in Saudi Arabia were included in the study. The questionnaires were designed to meet the obje...

Al-samadani, Khalid H.; Al-dharrab, Ayman A.

2012-01-01

63

A need for One Health approach – lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000 and Sudan (2007 from a One Health perspective. Methods: Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘Sudan’, and ‘RVF’, articles were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and web pages of international organizations as well as local sources in Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Results: The outbreak in Saudi Arabia caused 883 human cases, with a case fatality rate of 14% and more than 40,000 dead sheep and goats. In Sudan, 698 human cases of RVF were recognized (case fatality, 31.5%, but no records of affected animals were available. The ecology and environment of the affected areas were similar with irrigation canals and excessive rains providing an attractive habitat for mosquito vectors to multiply. The outbreaks resulted in livestock trade bans leading to a vast economic impact on the animal market in the two countries. The surveillance system in Sudan showed a lack of data management and communication between the regional and federal health authorities, while in Saudi Arabia which is the stronger economy, better capacity and contingency plans resulted in efficient countermeasures. Studies of the epidemiology and vectors were also performed in Saudi Arabia, while in Sudan these issues were only partly studied. Conclusion: We conclude that a One Health approach is the best option to mitigate outbreaks of RVF. Collaboration between veterinary, health, and environmental authorities both on national and regional levels is needed.

Osama Ahmed Hassan

2014-02-01

64

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection. PMID:24206838

Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2013-01-01

65

Aetiology of Neonatal Septicaemia in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)

Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others

1994-01-01

66

Hemoglobin H disease in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia.  

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Hb H disease is not infrequently encountered in the Dammam region. This condition should be kept in mind while evaluating patients for anemia. The genetic studies to determine the exact alpha-thalassemia determinants producing Hb H disease in eastern Saudi Arabia are needed.

M. I. Qadri

2000-07-01

67

Gender differences in smoking behavior among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.  

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For the suppression of the use of tobacco by adolescents in Saudi Arabia differential intervention strategies and policies in males and females are needed, such as reducing youth access to cigarettes-in addition to intensive school and community anti-tobacco programs.

Abdelshakour M. Abdalla

2007-07-01

68

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2014-04-13

69

University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

2012-01-01

70

Perspectives of petroleum and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion

71

Cooperative Cataloging: Prospects and Problems for Libraries in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the current state of bibliographic cooperation in Saudi Arabia, discusses prospects for further cooperation, and highlights difficulties. Concludes with recommendations that King Fahd National Library develop a national cooperative cataloging program and prepare rules and procedures for participating libraries to contribute in various…

Khurshid, Zahiruddin

1997-01-01

72

Sickle cell hemoglobin C disease in Saudi Arabia.  

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Sickle cell hemoglobin C (HbSC is a disease confined to people of West African ancestry and it has not been reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. We are reporting 2 patients with HbSC disease from the western province of KSA (Madinah; one patient presented with severe form of the disease which include transient hypertension.

Zakaria M. Al-Hawsawi

2003-02-01

73

Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

2009-01-01

74

Social responsibility of the multinational corporations operating in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation explores the social responsibility of MNCs operating in Saudi Arabia (SA) and their social impact on Saudi society through survey research using both primary and secondary data. To furnish the reader with a better understanding of this subject, to develop the hypothesis to be tested, and to define NMCs and social responsibility, this author reviewed literature related to MNCs and social responsibility with specific reference to developing countries, particularly SA; described briefly the Saudi environment in which MNCs operate; and determined the number and type of MNCs and their activities in SA as reported in Saudi government records. The author examined the social responsibility of MNCs toward Saudi society by comparing the perception of MNCs' non-Saudi managers with Saudis (managers, government officials, and elite) regarding some specific issues (e.g., MNCs' concerns for profit versus public good); regarding some suggested programs (e.g., training); and through looking at the actual programs undertaken by MNCs (e.g., medical care). The study helped to understand better the nature of MNCs. It indicated that MNCs seem to be attracted to SA, that their number is greater than government records indicate, and that a large number of MNCs have Saudi nationality.

Kurashi, M.F.Y.

1984-01-01

75

Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyrks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)

76

Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia

Abolfotouh MA

2014-08-01

77

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. RESULTS: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. PMID:19584586

Al Gelban, Khalid S.

2009-01-01

78

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi secondary school girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R, a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. Results: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%, psychoticism (14.8%, anxiety (14.3%, and somatization (14.2%. The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8% and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%. Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

79

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

80

Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs. PMID:22048511

Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Ministerial presentation: Saudi Arabia [International ministerial conference on nuclear power for the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turki bin Saud bin Mohammed Al-Saud, Vice President, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia, welcomed this opportunity to study the role of nuclear energy with ministers and noted that political decisions and public concerns relate to fear of the risk of the operation and disposal of waste from nuclear plants. He indicated that his government continues to investigate the pros and cons of nuclear energy. He stressed the importance of the verification of nuclear material security. As the world's largest oil producer, he stated that Saudi Arabia looks to balance short and long term benefits for both producers and consumers, looking for a policy of price stability and noting the expectations of an increased demand. He recognized the close relationship between energy and the environment and identified efforts to encourage cleaner oil use. He reminded the conference of the need to ensure continuing support for the IAEA's role in ensuring nuclear security and safety

82

Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia  

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This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...

Al-maghrabi, T.; Dennis, C.

2010-01-01

83

Congenital heart defects in Down syndrome patients from western Saudi Arabia  

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Objectives: To characterize congenital heart defects in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and compare with studies from other regions of Saudi Arabia and with international figures. Methods: We conducted a prospective study including all patients attending the DS clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between October 2007 and October 2011. All patients underwent full his...

Bondagji, Nabeel S.; El-harouni, Ashraf A.; Al-aama, Jumana Y.

2012-01-01

84

Cephalometric norms for saudi adults living in the western region of Saudi Arabia.  

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European-American norms are still used in the orthodontic treatment of Saudi patients, despite the different ethnic backgrounds of Saudis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cephalometric features of a Saudi population and to establish cephalometric norms for Saudis living in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Seventy lateral cephalometric radiographs of Saudis (32 females and 38 males; aged 18-28 years) with acceptable profiles and Class I dental relationships were traced and analyzed. The mean value, standard deviation, and range of 16 angular and linear variables were calculated. The resulting norms for Saudis were compared with European-American norms using an independent t-test. Male and female groups were also compared using the t-test. Saudis tend to have an increased ANB angle because of retrognathic mandibles and bimaxillary protrusion as compared with European-Americans. Males tend to have more prognathic mandibles than females as indicated by the statistically significant increase in facial angle (P < .05) and SNB angle (P < .05). Although the anterior lower face height was similar in males and females, males tend to have a steeper mandibular plane angle when related to the anterior cranial base than females (P < .05). Saudis have distinct cephalometric features, which should be used as a reference in treating Saudi orthodontic patients. PMID:16448278

Hassan, Ali H

2006-01-01

85

Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)

86

Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA, PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. Conclusions Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

Rashed Mohamed S

2010-03-01

87

Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168

Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

2010-01-01

88

Knowledge of healthy diets among adolescents in eastern Saudi Arabia.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bad dietary habits, such as eating high-fat/high-energy food, can contribute to obesity in adolescents, which tends to persist into adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the level and sources of knowledge about foods and healthy diets among male and female adolescents. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of male (n=1240 and female (n=1331 adolescents from third grade, intermediate and all three grades of secondary school students in the Al-Khobar Area, eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Approximately 51% of the male and 65% of the female students recognized unsaturated fats as healthy foods. However, 10% of the males and 8% of females reported saturated fats as healthy food items. About 49% of the males and 66% of the females correctly defined cholesterol. Dietary knowledge of both male and female students on the dangers of unhealthy foods and the benefits of fiber-rich diets was found to be unsatisfactory. The main sources of knowledge about health and disease reported by the male and female respondents were television (58% and 61%, respectively, magazines (31% and 39% and daily newspaper (33% and 34%. Primary health care centers (PHCCs staff were the least source of knowledge (17% and 16%. CONCLUSIONS : Knowledge of healthy diets among school students was inadequate. It is recommended that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in school curricula.

Al-Almaie Sameeh

2005-01-01

89

Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia  

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Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...

Hm, Al-kadri; Madkhali A; Mt, Al-kadi; Bakhsh H; Nn, Alruwaili; Hm, Tamim

2014-01-01

90

The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and English classes in particular. It is believed that if the teacher of English has undergone a pre-service teacher training it is better for the learners of Saudi Arabia. In the other case, those who have not attended pre-service teacher training, they should go for in-service professional development programs in order to equip them further for innovative teaching and educational output.

Intakhab Alam Khan

2011-06-01

91

Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

92

The Econometrics of Investment in Date Production in Saudi Arabia  

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Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inade...

Abdulaziz Alshuaibi

2011-01-01

93

Incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations in Western Saudi Arabia  

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Objectives: To present the incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and associated anomalies and to compare the findings with published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted during the period January 2011 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of all cases with ARMs admitted at Al-Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1998-2010. The inci...

Almaramhy, Hamdi H.

2012-01-01

94

Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait  

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The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

Al-wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-younes, Abla; Al-omran, Ola A.

2006-01-01

95

Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia  

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A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na) is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration w...

Al-zarah, Abdullah I.

2007-01-01

96

Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market  

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Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.

Roula Baki

2004-06-01

97

Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the Eastern province, followed by the southwestern provinces. The reported prevalence for sickle-cell trait ranges from 2% to 27%, and up to 2.6% will have SCD in some areas. Clinical and hematological variability exists in SCD in Saudi Arabia with two major phenotypes: a mild phenotype and a severe phenotype. Further studies on the prevalence, molecular and clinical epidemiology of SCD may help predict disease severity and risk stratification of patients to determine whether to receive early intensive care or continued symptomatic care.

Jastaniah Wasil

2011-01-01

98

Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation ofled investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

99

Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of epidemiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, population-based survey of COPD was conducted between June 2010 and December 2011 across the country of Saudi Arabia. A total of 56,000 randomly selected telephone numbers were called, which identified 10,001 eligible subjects; of whom 9,779 agreed to participate. A screening questionnaire included 6 questions related to cigarette consumption and water-pipe use was administered to each participant. Subjects with positive screening results were invited to provide input for a detailed COPD questionnaire. Results: The adjusted proportion of subjects who reported a current, or past smoking history was 27.9%. Gender-speci?c smoking rates adjusted by age were 38.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.5-39.9% in men, and 7.4% (95% CI: 6.5-8.3% in women. The epidemiological definition of symptomatic COPD was met by a total of 249 subjects. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of COPD was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.1-2.7%. Overall, COPD was more frequently documented (p<0.0001 in men (3.5% [95% CI: 3-4%] than in women (1% [95% CI: 0.7-1.3%]. Conclusion: The prevalence of epidemiologically defined COPD in the general population of Saudi Arabia is 2.4%, which is lower than that reported in industrialized countries. 

Siraj O. Wali

2014-07-01

100

New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

Bin Fayez, A. A.

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25%, 16% and 7% respectively. Following 1983, the Saudi real exchange rate rose above the equilibrium exchange rate thus starting an era of undervaluation of the Saudi currency that lasted until the year 2009.The downward slide began in 1983 when the riyal fell below its equilibrium exchange rate by 1% with the declining trend deteriorating further to 10% in 1984, 19% percent in 1985, 27% in 1986 and so on until it hit an all-time low of 84 percent below estimated equilibrium in 2006. Thereafter, the decline started receding gradually with the misalignment below exchange rate equilibrium improving to about 80 percent in 2009.

Emad Omar Elhendawy

2012-10-01

102

The incidence of leukemia in Saudi Arabia. Descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry (2001-2008  

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Full Text Available To describe the epidemiological data of leukemia cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among male and female Saudis, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR stratified by leukemia subtype, region, and year of diagnosis.Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi leukemia cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The study was carried out in 2013 to investigate the pattern of leukemia in the Saudi population. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression model were used. Results: A total of 3852 leukemia cases were registered in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR among Saudi males at 5.2 per 100,000 males, followed by both the Eastern region and Northern region at 4.9 per 100,000 males. Furthermore, the region of Najran recorded the highest overall ASIR among Saudi females at 4.5 per 100,000 females. However, Jazan had the lowest average ASIRs of leukemia in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs of leukemia in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and the Northern region had the highest overall ASIRs of leukemia among Saudi males, and Najran had the highest overall ASIRs of leukemia among Saudi females; while Jazan had the lowest rates among the Saudi population.  

Ibrahim G. Alghamdi

2014-07-01

103

Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

1995-01-01

104

75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-09-28

105

78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia...materially injured by reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia...allegedly subsidized by the Governments of India and Turkey...f) of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (19 CFR...

2013-08-22

106

Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects. These forecasts become possible when the movement and the development of the mid-latitude disturbances are known very well. To further increase our understanding of the inter-annual variability of thunderstorms in semi-arid areas such as Saudi Arabia, it is necessary to consider the relationship between this variability and the large-scale atmospheric parameters in addition to the geographical features. Moreover, better insight into the monthly variations of the synoptic situations in Saudi Arabia is considered to be important for understanding the broad mechanisms responsible for thunderstorm occurrences in this geographical area. This information is highly important for aviation and other sectors in Saudi Arabia - both public and private. This paper aims to investigate the favourable synoptic environments for heavy thunderstorm initiation and development in Saudi Arabia. The importance of the monthly synoptic analysis of all days (1998-2003), heavy thunderstorm days, and dry days was intended to be demonstrated. Therefore, the monthly mean charts and deviations from the mean (anomalies) of specific meteorological parameters for heavy thunderstorm days and dry days for the months of January-December for the period 1998-2003, was illustrated to examine the synoptic conditions leading to heavy thunderstorm events in Saudi Arabia.

Ghulam, Ayman S.

2010-05-01

107

Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

Al-maghrabi, T.

2010-01-01

108

Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

109

Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results Approximately half of all subjects (53.3%) reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01), a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001), and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001) were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively), whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%). Conclusion Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals’ places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. PMID:25152628

Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Al-Omani, Manar; Al Johar, Alwaleed; Al Hakbani, Abdulaziz; Alaskar, Ahmed S

2014-01-01

110

E-Commerce Adoption Factors and Their Implications for E-Commerce Business Strategy in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research project provides a comprehensive overview and current perspective of e-commerce usage and adoption factors in Saudi Arabia and seeks to explain why ecommerce use is still in a relatively immature state when compared to other regions. This study examines Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure readiness for online shopping and explores Saudi consumers’ behaviour and attitudes with regard to shopping online. An online survey was conducted to elicit general perceptions of Saudi consumers...

Alsharif, Mohammed

2011-01-01

111

Recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia; Saikin no Saudi Arabia no sekiyu tanko to kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia. At present Saudi Arabia yielding crude oil of 8 million BPD is the biggest oil yield and export country in the world. The estimated amount of oil deposits of nearly 2.6 hundred billion bbl accounts for nearly 25% of that over the world. Oil exploration was started by American enterprise in 1933, and a promising oil deposit was first confirmed in carbonate rocks in Jurassic Arabian stratum in 1938. The survey area of oil exploration gradually expanded up to all of eastern provinces and Arabian Bay. Ghawar oil field largest in the world and Safaniya oil field largest in the world as marine oil field were found in 1948 and 1951, respectively. Oil exploration in Central Arabia started in 1988 after nearly 50 years from oil exploration in eastern provinces, and low-sulfur/super-light oil was found in Paleozoic sand rock stratum. Up to this day light oil was confirmed at 15 sites in these areas, and further oil exploration is now in promotion. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Murata, N. [Arabian Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-01-01

112

Nutrition Knowledge of Primary Care Physicians in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a lack of nutritional knowledge among physicians. As there is no published data in nutritional knowledge among physicians in Saudi Arabia, hence the purpose of this current study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nutrition knowledge questionnaire consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions, was mailed to 105 primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was pre- tested in a pilot study. Non-respondents received a second questionnaire and a phone call. Of the 105 primary care physicians, 59 replies were received (56.2%. The mean mark for correctly answered questions was 51.7%. Approximately 75 % of the physicians described their knowledge of nutrition as `Poor`. The results indicate that physicians are generally aware of information which has been publicized in the medical press: nutrient which helps prevent thrombosis (omega-3 fat; the preventive action of fruit and vegetables against cancer; which nutrients are antioxidants; the nutrient associated with the prevention of neural tube defects (folate. By contrast they have a poor knowledge of other important topics in nutrition: the major type of fat in olive oil; hydrogenated fats; source of vitamin B12; Substance raises the blood HDL-cholesterol level (Alcohol; the association between excess protein intake and calcium loss; the type of dietary fiber helpful in lowering the blood cholesterol level (soluble fiber and Nutrient is protective against hypertension. These results support other data that physicians need more education in nutrition. Nutrition should be an essential part in continuing medical education.

Khalid S. Al-Numair

2004-01-01

113

Organic geochemistry of the Paleozoic petroleum system of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Palaeozoic petroleum system of the central and Northern Provinces of Saudi Arabia contains one of the most prolific oil-prone source rocks of Silurian age worldwide, the Qusaiba shale of the Qalibah Formation. This source rock is responsible for charging the large, gentle structures of the Central Province with billions of barrels of light, sweet, crude oil. Organic geochemical methods such as biomarkers, organic petrography, and characterization of the source rock facies have been used to determine the most likely candidate source rock for the Paleozoic oils of Saudi Arabia. By using detailed extract and oil characterizations, the basal hot shales of the Quasiba Member of the Silurian Qalibah Formation have been correlated to the oils reservoired in the Permian sands of the Central Province of Saudi Arabia. The Qusaiba shales consist of light to dark gray, clastic, marine shales and can be divided into two main zones: a low gamma-ray response and a high gamma-ray response, both having their own organic geochemical signatures. The low gamma ray zone has almost no source potential and comprises most of the Qalibah shale sequence. The hot gamma-ray zone is located at the base of the Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation and consists of abundant amorphous matter, marine algae, acritarchs, and abundant chitinozoans and graptolites. Carbon isotopes and sterane biomarkers resulted in an excellent correlation between the basal Quasaiba shales and the oils. No other potential source rocks correlated as well, nor did these other potential sources contain the source rock quality, or vertical and lateral regional persistence as the Silurian basal Qusaiba shales. 51 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Cole, G.A.; Abu-Ali, M.A.; Aoudeh, S.M.; Carrigan, W.J.; Chen, H.H.; Colling, E.L.; Gwathney, W.J.; Al-Hajii, A.A.; Halpern, H.I.; Jones, P.J.; Al-Sharidi, S.H.; Tobey, M.H. (Saudi Arabian Oil Company, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

114

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2010. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic category were divided into melanocytic and non-melanocytic subcategories. Non-neoplastic category was divided into the following subcategories: dermatitis, infection, vascular, vesiculobullous, connective tissue disease, drugs, panniculitis, non-infectious granuloma, degenerative, metabolic, and pigmentary. Results: Three hundred and sixty skin biopsies were reviewed. Out of these, 207 (57.5% were non-neoplastic skin diseases, while 153 (42.5% were neoplastic. Both non-neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.3:1 and neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.2: 1 categories were more common in females than in males. Among the non-neoplastic category, the most common diagnosed subcategory was vesiculobullous disease (n=46, 22.2%, followed by dermatitis (n=30, 14.5%. The neoplastic category was divided into melanocytic (n=31, 20.3% and non-melanocytic neoplasms (n=122, 79.7%. Both neoplastic and non-neoplastic categories were most common in the age group of 46 years and older. Conclusion: Vesiculobullous diseases, dermatitis, and infections are the 3 most common non-neoplastic skin diseases and the most common neoplastic are benign non-melanocytic neoplasms. The prevalence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin diseases in general increases with age. 

Layla S. Abdullah

2013-01-01

115

A Web-Based Cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available There is a distinct lack of online atlases to visualize and explore cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries despite the clear benefit that such tools can deliver. This paper describes the development and implementation of a cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia, which is a web-based client-server application with built-in analysis functions for analyzing patterns of cancer incidence. Built using ESRI’s ArcGIS Server API and ASP.NET, the atlas contains 45,532 incidences of cancer for the period from 1998 to 2004, which were provided by the Saudi Arabian National Cancer Registry. This tool is aimed at health care practitioners and researchers, who can use this tool for exploring cancer distribution and investigating trends, and as a decision support tool for service allocation. The tool allows users to map cancer incidence and undertake analyses at four spatial scales from city to national level.  

Khalid Al-Ahmadi

2013-10-01

116

Dermatological manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, urticaria, pruritus, thrombocytopenic purpura, and psoriasis. The current article indicates that HCV infection is increasing in Saudi Arabia and approximately 12% of the reported dermatological manifestations are caused by HCV infection. We recommend the urgent need for large-scale, case-control studies to understand the impact of HCV infection in patients with skin disease. PMID:24888650

Halawani, Mona R

2014-06-01

117

Dermatological manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV. It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, urticaria, pruritus, thrombocytopenic purpura, and psoriasis. The current article indicates that HCV infection is increasing in Saudi Arabia and approximately 12% of the reported dermatological manifestations are caused by HCV infection. We recommend the urgent need for large-scale, case-control studies to understand the impact of HCV infection in patients with skin disease.NOTICE OF CORRECTION IN THE AUTHOR'S AFFILIATION IN SEPTEMBER 2014 VOL. 35, ISSUE 6, 2014. P. 1162.  

Mona R. Halawani

2014-06-01

118

Drilling and completion of Khuff gas wells, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the program for drilling and completing the primary well configurations for 4-1/2 in. (114.3 mm) and 7 in. (177.8 mm) Khuff gas completions in Saudi Arabia. The drilling programs associated with these configurations and the typical drilling problems and geological considerations relevant to casing point selections are outlined, as well as types, weights and grades of casings typically run. In addition, drilling fluids, cementing programs and wellhead equipment will be reviewed. Finally, completion procedures are discussed and drilling performance to date is reviewed showing improvement since initial wells were drilled.

Turki, W.H.

1985-03-01

119

A passive solar test facility for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A passive solar test facility has been designed for Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It will be located on the campus of King Faisal University, adjacent to the Persian Gulf. This maritime desert climate is terribly sevre, and one for which it is a formidable challenge to design a year around thermally efficient building. This facility incorporates seven different passive strategies: proper orientation, operable shading for windows, flow-through ventilation, externally insulated thermal mass, wind tower with direct evaporative cooling, indirect evaporative cooling through a double shell, and solar water heating. Construction should begin in June of 1983. Upon completion, the building will be monitored for at least two years.

Woods, P.K.

1983-06-01

120

Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

M. Usman

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers w...

Al-Naami Mohammed; Arafah Maria; Al-Ibrahim Fatimah

2010-01-01

122

The Ablah succession of Saudi Arabia (dating and geological significance)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ablah sedimentary succession represents a molasse basin in the Neo-Proterozoic Shield of Saudi Arabia. A rhyolite flow interbedded in the succession has been dated by the Pb/Pb method at 641± 1 Ma, indicating that the basin is a local expression of Panafrican tectonism in the south of the shield. Consequently, the Panafrican phase that has previously been described in the north can now be extrapolated to the south of the shield. This age determination also enables post-Panafrican events, which differ between the south and the north, to be analysed over the entire shield. (authors)

123

Fungal flora in house dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi in the house-dust of houses in the less populated and densely populated areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were screened. The screened area included drawing rooms, living rooms, kitchens, bedrooms and bathrooms. A total of 74 fungal species were isolated. The highest number of fungal colonies were found in the living rooms followed by bedrooms. The number of fungal colonies isolated were higher in densely populated areas compared with less populated areas. Aspergillus was the predominant genus represented by highest number of species followed by Penicillium. PMID:10424107

Bahkali, A H; Parvez, S

1999-01-01

124

Perceived Barriers to Research Publishing in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Academic research represents the backbone of human activity in the way that it improves our quality of life through expanding frontiers of academic knowledge and making further research possible throughout the world. Academic research aims to provide solutions for many current problems. The importance of academic research has grown at universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, fuelled by dramatic increases in governmental and private funding for research. This study focuses on the academic publication processes in Saudi Arabia, the barriers that affect researchers’ ability to carry out and publish research and the potential advantages and disadvantages offered by the Internet in the area of academic publishing. The data collection and analysis presented in this study addresses the extent to which such benefit could be realised in practice. This research reviews the limitations of research publishing in Saudi Arabia by focusing on the nature of academic journals, in terms of their numbers and purpose, the barriers that academic staff faced when they wished to publish their research work in local or international academic journals, and the attitudes of academics towards electronic publishing and publishing in general. This research uses questionnaire tool. The data are tabulated and analysed in a systematic method to show findings in accordance with required objectives. The most prominent findings from this study are the lack of academic staff encouragement to conduct and publish research, lack of financial support to the research publishing sector, lack of a research publishing infrastructure and a lack of private sector support for funding research and publishing. An interesting finding is that unlike many other countries, there is no culture of volunteering for work that does not provide direct financial benefit. This could be an important factor affecting the adoption of an online open publishing approach in which reviewers and editors are not paid directly for the work. This research ultimately aims at proposing and implementing suitable processes and policies to solve these problems and to identifying means of overcoming the research publishing barriers in Saudi Arabia.

Jumaan Abdulqader Alzahrani

2011-07-01

125

Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Hypermarkets of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the perception of retail service quality and its relationship withsatisfaction for customers of hypermarkets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Data was collected throughself-administered questionnaires using convenience sampling technique. Out of 220 responses, 185 were finallychosen and analyzed for descriptive statistics as well as significant relationship between hypermarket servicequality and customer satisfaction. The respondents reported high levels of perceived quality and significantrelationship was found between retail service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction. Out of all thedimensions of service quality, physical aspects had the maximum effect on customer satisfaction, which wasattributed to the cultural traits and lifestyle of Saudi society. Retail service providers need to recognize theimportance of service quality dimensions in order of their significance, and implement appropriate strategy forcompetitive advantage over domestic and international players vying for share of an expanding consumer base.

Yasser Mahfooz

2014-07-01

126

Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

127

Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1 <16 years, group 2 (G2 ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3 ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery.Results: The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81, and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51.Conclusion: The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed.Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, maternal mortality, maternal morbidity, neonatal mortality, neonatal morbidity

Al-Kadri HM

2014-04-01

128

Natural background radiation in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF2Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a 137Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 ?R h-1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 ?R h-1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

129

The status of cadaveric organ donation for liver transplantation in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The number and quality of organs offered for liver transplantation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the past 6 years has been deteriorating with a negative impact on the liver transplant programs. Adopting new strategies is required to support the donor program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is proposed that establishment of donor promotion offices in major hospitals can change the dismal picture of organ donation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia even at the current consent rate by better utilization of the available donors.

Mohammed I. Al-Sebayel

2002-05-01

130

A Phytogeographical Analysis of the Floristic Elements in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available An analysis has been carried out on the chorological units of Saudi Arabia. Three chorological units have been identified within the country, based on the richness of endemism. They are: Saharo-Sindian regional zone, Somalia-Masai regional centre of endemism and the Afro-montane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism. The Saharo-Sindian regional zone is divided into three subzones; of which, Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism and the Arabian regional subzone are present in the Kingdom. The boundary line of the Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism within Saudi Arabia has been extended towards the eastern region to cover most of the regions in the western Najd. The Somalia-Masai region contains the highest percentage (25.66% of species. The highest number of uni-regional endemics per unit area is found in the Afromontane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism while the lowest of that is in the Arabian regional subzone.

Ahmed H. Alfarhan

1999-01-01

131

Allergic fungal sinusitis in children in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)

132

Determination of Prevalence of Strangles in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Strangles is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect the respiratory system of the horse. The disease is characterized by fever, nasal discharges and enlargement of the associated lymph nodes. Strptococcus equi the causative agent of strangles, is a Gram positive bacteria. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of strangles among horses residing on horse farms in main regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, field visits were made to horse farms in Al-Ahsa, Dammam, Jubail, Riyadh, Jeddah and Tayf. A total of 75 farms that contain 926 horses were visited. Farm owners and managers were questioned regarding the presence of signs similar to strangles. In the meantime, horses were clinically evaluated. This survey indicated no horses were strangles confirmed. Finally, 35 horses admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at King Faisal University were examined. These horses were admitted for signs of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination as well as bacterial culture indicated they were strangles free. Strangles seems not to be a threat to horses in Saudi Arabia.

2008-01-01

133

Organizational E-Government Readiness: An Investigation in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Given the significant investment in e-government programs internationally and the pertinent need fore-government readiness to allow such programs to germinate, the purpose of this study is to assessOrganizational E-Government Readiness (OEGR in Saudi Arabia. Based on interviews held with leadinge-Government officials in Saudi Arabia, the study contributes a conceptual framework to evaluate OEGR factorsin order to advance public sector transformation to E-Government. The study reveals that key factors pertainingto strategy, integration with national E-Government programs, access, portal, process, technology and peopleissues should be critically assessed in evaluating OEGR. The OEGR framework provided in this study issignificant as it can be used by a range of stakeholders including information technology managers and policymakers in improving OEGR within the public sector and thus, in increasing the quality of public service delivery.Academic research examining the main internal organization factors leading to e-Government readiness is stillsparse. The research extends the literature on e-readiness by adopting an organizational level perspective in ane-Government context.

Ibrahim A. Alghamdi

2014-04-01

134

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence. PMID:23613632

Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Almadi, Majid A; Alhammad, Alwaleed; Al Faleh, Faleh Z

2013-01-01

135

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1 Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2 Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3 Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%. There were 26 (2.2% students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1% and 9 males (1.5%. Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%. The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479, Madinah 1.8% (8/436, and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252. The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

Abdulrahman M Aljebreen

2013-01-01

136

Obesity and Associated Factors — Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors. Methods We interviewed 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older (51.1% women) through a multistage survey. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, access to and use of health care, and anthropometric measurements were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews. We first compared sociodemographic factors and body mass index between men and women. Next, we conducted a sex-specific analysis for obesity and its associated factors using backward elimination multivariate logistic regression models. We used SAS 9.3 for the statistical analyses and to account for the complex sampling design. Results Of the 10,735 participants evaluated, 28.7% were obese (body mass index ?30 kg/m2). Prevalence of obesity was higher among women (33.5% vs 24.1%). Among men, obesity was associated with marital status, diet, physical activity, diagnoses of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Among women, obesity was associated with marital status, education, history of chronic conditions, and hypertension. Conclusion Obesity remains strongly associated with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension in the KSA, although the epidemic’s characteristics differ between men and women. PMID:25299980

El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Robinson, Margaret; Daoud, Farah; Jaber, Sara; Mikhitarian, Sarah; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2014-01-01

137

Prevalence of ?-1-Antitrypsin Gene Mutations in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aim: ?-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from mutations of the protease inhibitor (PI). The AAT gene is mapped on chromosome 14 and has been associated with chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: To determine the frequency of AAT mutations on S and Z carrier alleles in healthy Saudi individuals from Qassim Province in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A total of 158 healthy, unrelated participants from Qassim Province were recruited. They were genotyped for the two AAT-deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, using polymerase chain reaction, with primers designed throughout to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. Results: Of the 158 subjects, 11.39% were carriers for the S mutation (i.e., had the MS genotype), whereas 2.53% were carriers for the Z mutation (i.e., had the MZ genotype). The SZ genotype was present in 3.8% of subjects, while the homozygous genotype SS was present in 1.9% of subjects. No subjects showed the ZZ mutant genotype. Accordingly, frequency of the mutant S and Z alleles of AAT gene was 9.49% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained showed a high prevalence of the AAT deficiency allele in the Saudi population. This probably warrants adoption of a screening program for at-risk individuals, so that they might initiate adequate prophylactic measures. PMID:21727732

Aljarallah, Badr; Ali, Ahmed; Dowaidar, Moataz; Settin, Ahmad

2011-01-01

138

EER Improvement for Room Air-Conditioners in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER for Room Air Conditioners (RACs that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC. This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number of condenser and evaporator rows, fins density, frontal area, compressor types, and refrigerant types. The experimental data obtained is through testing the units in Calorimeter according to standard ASHRAE-16. Also, the uncertainty in measurements and its propagation are included in this study. This paper reports the results of a set of measurements carried out on a modified RAC and compares them with the tested baseline RAC unit at similar load conditions. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of increasing the number of condenser rows in comparison with other design options considered for achieving higher EER for RACs.

Abdullah M. Al-Shaalan

2012-11-01

139

The willingness toward deceased organ donation among university students. Implications for health education in Saudi Arabia.  

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The majority of students were willing to donate organs, and more dissemination of information can increase the awareness of the public, including students, to the importance of organ donation and transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

Saad A. Al-Ghanim

2009-10-01

140

Human infection with Bertiella studeri (Cestode: Anoplocephalidae) in an Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perhaps this is the first case of bertiellosis studeri record in Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia. The patient was resistant to Niclosamide but successfully treated with Commiphora molmol extract. PMID:20503589

Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Saleh, Nagla Mostafa K; Morsy, Tosson A

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula  

CERN Document Server

The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

2012-01-01

142

75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...

2010-11-02

143

Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL Approach and Multivariate Granger Causality  

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Full Text Available The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999 for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license are Granger-causes each other in Saudi Arabia. With these findings, we affirm that there is a strong relationship and effect between road traffic accidents and its population, GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license. The findings suggest that the  coefficients are negative signed and statistically significant in all VECMs, implying that there is bi-directional causality between the variables of interest in the long run.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli

2013-06-01

144

Confirmed record of Monodactylus argenteus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Family Monodactylidae from Jubail, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf  

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Full Text Available The first record of M. argenteus from the Arabian Gulf coasts of Saudi Arabia is confirmed, based on a sample measuring 158 mm in SL. Morphometric and meristic data are provided for this specimen.

Jawad, L. A.

2014-02-01

145

E-Commerce Adoption in Saudi Arabia: an Assessment of International, Regional and Domestic Web Presence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) has a growing potential in Saudi Arabia, due to widespread use of the internet and the maturity of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of E-Commerce websites in Saudi Arabia, using a proposed evaluation instrument. To achieve this aim, six E-Commerce websites were selected for evaluation and then categorized into three categories: domestic, regional and international. Each category consisted of two...

Alotaibi, Mutlaq B.

2013-01-01

146

Hysterectomy for benign conditions in a university hospital in Saudi Arabia  

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Background and Objective: Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure among women with a lifett time prevalence of 10%. The indications and complications of this procedure have not been previously reported from a teaching institution in Saudi Arabia. We examined the indications for hysterectomy and the surgical morbidity for women undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the records of women who underwent hyst...

Sait Khalid; Alkhattabi Maysoon; Boker Abdulaziz; Alhashemi Jamal

2008-01-01

147

Enclosed and open spaces in the arid region-Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study of the enclosed (sheltered) and open (unsheltered) spaces in two tradiational and three-contemporary settlements in Saudi Arabia - comparative analysis of micro climatic conditions - solar exposure - analysis of the differences in the design approaches of the old and new ''modern'' developments - recommendations for the appropriate approach to the design of enclosed and open spaces in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia.

Talib, K.; Al-Zamil, A.A.

1986-01-01

148

Drugs for the treatment of malaria in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current malaria treatments are based on the use of artemisinin based combinations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the combination of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine/artesunate is the first line of treatment of uncomplicated malaria, while lumefantrine/artemether (Coartem®) is used as a second option. The treatment of severe malaria rests on the use of quinine or artesunate. In Saudi Arabia, most cases of malaria are imported, mainly from emigrant workers from the Indian subcontinent...

Alexis Nzila; Ibrahim Al-Zahrani

2013-01-01

149

Outcome of corneal transplantation in a private institution in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nazri Omar,1,2 Charbel T Bou Chacra,1 Khalid F Tabbara1,3,4 1The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and...

Ct, Bou Chacra

2013-01-01

150

The prevalence of hepatitis B core antibody positivity in donors for liver transplantation in Saudi Arabia.  

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In the view of this high prevalence, we believe that all donors considered for liver transplantation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia should be tested for hepatitis B core antibody. Furthermore, an algorithmic approach should be developed to minimize the risk of transmitting hepatitis B virus from donors to liver recipients, at the same time not to affect the existing small pool of available donor organs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Mohammed I. Al-Sebayel

2002-03-01

151

Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care

Al-Aujan S

2012-10-01

152

Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia  

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Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud b...

Alkhayal A; Aldhukair S; Alselaim N; Aldekhayel S; Alhabdan S; Altaweel W; Me, Magzoub; Zamakhshary M

2012-01-01

153

GIST in Saudi Arabia: multicentric histopathological genetic study of 75 surgically excised cases.  

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The availability of CD117 (Ckit) immunohistochemical testing in most hospital laboratories has facilitated the diagnosis of GIST in cKit positive cases. The aim of this study was to describe the histopathological variations of GIST in Saudi Arabia. The study involved analysis of paraffin blocks of 75 surgically excised GIST and GIST-like stromal tumors obtained from four major referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh Military Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center and Aramco's hospital) between 1998 and 2009. Patient sex and age were noted in addition to the following tumor variables: size, site, histological grade and type, immunohistochemical profile and genetic analysis of the cKit mutation. The stomach was the commonest site for tumors and spindle cell type was the most frequently seen variant. Further sub classification of the histopathological type was made in order to recognize the morphological pattern of the tumor. The most common tumor grades seen were of low-risk and high-risk groups. There was one case of familial GISTparaganglioma syndrome and the youngest subject was an 8-year-old girl with high-risk spindle cell gastric GIST. Genetic study in 34 cases revealed exon 11 mutations in all of the cKit genes. PMID:22227543

Al Hussaini, H F F

2012-01-01

154

Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1) <16 years, group 2 (G2) ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3) ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery. Results The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81), and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51). Conclusion The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed. PMID:24729733

Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Madkhali, Azza; Al-Kadi, Mohammed T; Bakhsh, Hanadi; Alruwaili, Nourah N; Tamim, Hani M

2014-01-01

155

IISD RS @ First International Conference on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

...Climate Change, First International Conference on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Your Meeting Bulletin at the First International Conference ...on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia IISD RS @ First International Conference on the Clean Development Mechanism (...CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia // IISD RS Linkages Home JOIN THE IISD-RS INITIATIVE IISD's Summary HTML PDF 24 ...September Following on from the First International Conference on the CDM in Saudi Arabia, an EU-OPEC Roundtable on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage ...

156

Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi

Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

2009-01-01

157

The occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis. PMID:4014781

Sørensen, H; Gravesen, S; Lind, P; Schwartz, B; Ashoor, A A; Maglad, S

1985-06-01

158

Crohn’s disease. Increasing trend in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available We attempted, through systematic review to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of Crohn’s disease (CD with special attention to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. We selected articles that contained population-based, epidemiological, and clinical character studies of CD. We collected data concerned with the prevalence, demographic features, and the possible etiology of CD that might explain its emergence in KSA. The prevalence of CD in Western countries ranged between 11-43/100,000 with flawless evidence of CD prevalence emerging in previously low incidence areas like Asia. Prevalence in KSA has markedly increased over the last 3 decades. Combined ileal and colonic involvement was the most frequently affected site. Diet, smoking, drugs, and westernization of life are assumed to contribute to the pathogenesis. There is convincing evidence of CD emerging in Asia, including KSA. Westernization of lifestyle and smoking is probably the major contributing factors. Genetic studies are warranted. 

Ibrahim A. Al-Mofleh

2013-11-01

159

The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Many countries now struggle to provide cost-effective, quality healthcare services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia has experienced high costs along with concerns about quality of care in its public facilities. To address these issues the country is currently restructuring their healthcare system to privatize public hos--pitals and introduce insurance coverage for both foreign workers and citizens. The changes provide an interesting and insightful case for the challenges in radically changing a country?s healthcare system. The situation also demonstrates a unique case in the Middle East for greater reliance of the private sector to address rapidly escalating healthcare costs and deteriorating quality. The complexity of changing a healthcare system is discussed with the many challenges associated with the change.

Walston Stephen

2008-01-01

160

Measuring Studentsâ Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-10-02

 
 
 
 
161

Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

2009-11-01

162

Energy and exergy utilization in agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures

163

Implications of radiation monitoring for radwaste management in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste generated in Saudi Arabia has its origin in the use of various radionuclides in medical, industrial and research applications. Minimization of radwaste generation is an important aspect of good radwaste management. Towards this end surveillance of all establishments nation wide employing radionuclides was conducted. Data on the distribution of these establishments in the different cities and on the technical training of the employed radiation workers were gathered. Radiation monitoring of the radioisotope work areas for evidence of contaminations was carried out. Unnecessary generation of radwaste, if any, at whatever level of the respective application of isotopes was determined. Radwaste that will give trivial radiological risks is determined and is considered exemptible radwaste and hence the net radwaste destined for treatment will thus be minimized further

164

Geotechnical properties of expansive clay shale in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Expansive soils prevail in several parts of Saudi Arabia. Tabuk city, in the northwest, is underlain by a shale formation of Ordovician to Devonian age. Arid climate accelerates the development of expansive clays through desiccation and weathering of the shale. The expansion of the city limits extends to potential areas of swelling and urbanization increases the clay moisture content which leads to soil volume change. This causes significant damage to low-rise buildings and pavements. In this paper, the subsurface conditions and geotechnical properties of the expansive soils in Tabuk are presented. The clay type was identified and its degree of expansion was determined. The swelling parameters were measured utilizing the standard oedometer test and modeled by multiple linear regression. The effect of geological and environmental conditions on the swelling behavior of expansive soils in Tabuk were considered. The modeled swelling values are in good agreement with the measured values.

Sabtan, Abdullah A.

2005-08-01

165

Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.

Suaad S. Alwakeel

2011-01-01

166

Marjan Field system features coating innovations in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovations and advanced techniques in pipecoating and field joints for offshore pipelines are features of the 147-mile offshore oil and gas pipeline system installed for Aramco in the Marjan Field offshore Saudi Arabia. The project involved a network of oil and gas lines including 77 miles of 30-in. pipe, 62 miles of 36-in. pipe, and 8 miles of 16-in. pipe. Project is scheduled for completion by the end of 1984. Corrosion coating for all of the pipe, applied by Bredero Price Saudi Arabia Ltd., is 5/32-in. coal tar enamel over a synthetic primer, plus a reinforcing glass fiber wrap and an asbestos felt overwrap. Hevicote /SUP r/ concrete-weight coating was applied at a density of 190 lb per cu ft; thickness varies from 1- to 6.375-in. Pipecoating improvements pioneered in Europe for demanding North Sea projects were further developed by Bredero Price at its Jubail pipecoating facility for use on the Persian Gulf project. These included: Waterslotting. This is considered the most efficient method to control concrete cracking and subsequent spalling and to reduce stress on the concrete coating. Welded wire mesh. The 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm welded wire cross-sectional area is 36% greater than standard wire netting, increasing the amount of reinforcing steel in the concrete coating. New joint fill method. The Marjan project is the first offshore pipeline to use Joint Systems Corp's new IMAD automatic joint fill machine to coat the field joints on the pipe after welding and inspection.

1984-10-01

167

Incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations in Western Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To present the incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations (ARMs and associated anomalies and to compare the findings with published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted during the period January 2011 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of all cases with ARMs admitted at Al-Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1998-2010. The incidence and spectrum of ARMs, associated regional anomalies, and those with a positive family history of ARMs were identified. The 95% confidence interval and Chi square trend test were used to quantify the significance of variation in annual incidence. Results: One hundred eighty-eight cases of ARMs were detected from 189,145 live births with an incidence of approximately 1/1000 live births with a male-to-female ratio of 1.9:1. The incidence showed yearly stability (p=0.3509. The most common ARMs was perineal fistula (32.9%. There was a statistically significant gender difference (p=0.000. The most common in boys was rectourethral fistula (47.2% and in girls was vestibular fistula (46.2%. Isolated non-familial ARMs was found in 106 (56.3%, isolated familial 9 (4.7%, and associated ARMs in 73 (38.8% cases. In terms of associated anomalies, genitourinary (34%, and cardiovascular (19.2% systems reported a high incidence. Conclusion: The incidence of ARMs in Madinah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is higher than the reported data. Isolated ARMs was more common than the associated category, and the familial one was rarely reported. 

Hamdi H. Almaramhy

2012-11-01

168

Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges  

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Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

BaHammam Ahmed

2011-01-01

169

An aerobiological survey of allergens in al Khobar, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A nationwide aerobiologic study is in progress in Saudi Arabia using Burkard 7-day volumetric spore traps to determine the major airborne allergens and their seasonal patterns. Eights months readings have been completed at Al-Khobar, an important coastal city on the Arabian Gulf. Pollen levels showed a double season. An autumnal peak reached its maximum in October rising sharply from the low summer values before falling during the short winter then rising again in springtime. Both local and imported flora were represented with chenopodiaceae, grasses and Ambrosia as the most common botanical groups, identification of the most significant individual species is still in progress. Fungal spores also show distinctive seasonal patterns. In descending rank order from the most common genera were Cladosporium, Ustilago, Alternaria, with Chaetomium and Ulocladium as consistent but minor components. Basiodiospores and Ascospores represented less than 10% of the total spore population, indicative of the dry nature of the climate. Desert dust added an important irritant to the Saudi atmosphere but a major contaminating factor to the aerobiological material being analysed. PMID:2789674

al-Nahdi, M; al-Frayh, R; Hasnain, S M

1989-09-01

170

Calculation of sky turbidity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The atmospheric turbidity has been calculated and averaged for 29 places around the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using a nine years solar radiation data covering the period from 1971 to 1980. The turbidity values were found to range from 0.1 to 0.4, and the overall average of the turbidity was 0.281±0.056. The minimum value was in Sirr-Lasan (0.168±0.028) and the maximum value was 0.474±0.090 in Riyadh. The low value of the turbidity indicates that the sky of Sirr-Lasan (2100 meter above sea level) may be the clearest sky in the country if the turbidity is taken to be the main factor in preliminary site selection for astronomical observatory. Correlations between the turbidity and geographical coordinates have been investigated and have shown a weak relation between them. Also, seasonal variations studies have shown no significant distribution, which means that each station has its own trend. The low values of the turbidity indicate that the Saudi Arabian sky has relatively small disturbance in the atmosphere.

Al-Mostafa, Z. A.

171

Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. PMID:23232848

Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul M; El-Maghraby, Salem E; Aly, Anwar A; Al-Wabel, Mohammed I; Al-Asmari, Zafer A; Nadeem, Mahmoud E

2013-08-01

172

Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.

Ashraf E.M. Khater

2014-01-01

173

Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planningergy planning

174

Cephalometric norms for the Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia: a research report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to establish cephalometric norms for children living in the western...

2005-01-01

175

Environmental benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy in Saudi Arabia's electric sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of electric system expansion in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental concerns are important to consider because they represent costs to society that are not typically reflected in the price that consumers pay for electricity. In past analyses of electric expansion options in Saudi Arabia, the tendency has been to stress the direct financial costs of expanding electricity generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure without characterizing the environment impacts of building and operating the expanded electricity system in monetary terms. Emerging national and global environmental concerns, however, suggest that an expansion of the methods traditionally used for electricity resource planning and selection to include environmental considerations would greatly benefit the Kingdom. The criteria by which resource plans are evaluated can readily be broadened to address environmental and other concerns. As part of an illustrative Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) effort undertaken by a team of Saudi utility planners and international consultants, an expanded IRP framework was used to assess the environmental costs and benefits of various approaches to meeting electricity demand projections in Saudi Arabia. The results show that making use of renewable energy and energy efficiency resources to provide energy services to the electricity consumers of Saudi Arabia can provide significant s of Saudi Arabia can provide significant environmental benefits for the Kingdom

176

Usefulness of molecular techniques to identify ongoing tuberculosis transmission in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study represents the first time that molecular tracing techniques have been used to identify patterns of tuberculosis TB infection in Saudi Arabia. The 2 strains were isolated from a socio-economically advantaged family who share a number of common facilities including a car and a driver. There are several factors that may play vital roles in on-going transmission of TB in Saudi Arabia including a high number of expatriates, the Hajj pilgrimage, and the social habits of Saudi citizens. Our sibling case series is believed to be a frequent pattern of disease transmission in this country. Control measures such as health education, active case finding, and prompt and supervised medical treatment are needed. More studies using molecular techniques are recommended to find the incidence of cross infection in Saudi Arabia. In addition, molecular techniques have to be established in all reference laboratories to help the detection of ongoing active transmission, molecular epidemiology and detect sources of infection. (author)

177

Awareness and attitude of cancer patients about participation in clinical research (CR) in Saudi Arabia. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

178

Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of companies have websites only to present products.Accordingly, new research has been conducted to explore the attraction of customers in Saudi Arabia to buyfrom businesses online. This will assist the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME sector, which represents 90%of companies in Saudi Arabia, to increase communication channels with its customers electronically. Aquantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 381 consumer participants from Saudi Arabia whowere interested to buy online to see what factors would attract them to online shopping. Several factors emergedas attracting factors which were divided into organizational, technical, and cultural factors.

Adel Aboud Bahaddad

2013-03-01

179

The Econometrics of Investment in Date Production in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inadequate information in this area, only the past investment period was considered to determine the effect of past decision on new decision of investment. The government policies, which directed to low grade varieties probably, led to inefficiency as the domestic consumption of dates is very high and growing high quality will lead to higher revenue to farmers with almost the same cost of production. To deal with investment in date palm production locally, Saudi Arabia needs to estimate a very high discount rate to observe any value related or based on the discount rate. The Durbin Watson parameter is significant for both the varieties (Khalas and Ruzaiz at 95% confidence interval (LSD0.05. The past investment appeared very significant for its effect on planting new date trees due to the fact that farmers who planted new trees in the past is continuously carrying with date industry and investing in future. Overall, the investment in tree plantation like date palm is not an easy decision by the farmers, because it needs couple of years spending without revenue. The farmers in the date growing areas were hesitant in providing information about the date variety, number of trees per hectare, tree age, fertilizers, pesticides, land ownership, intercropping, cost of production, total yield, quantity sold and price received. The study suggested further investigations on growing high quality date palms, date production and marketing aspects to harvest maximum profit by the farmers as well as support by the government for facilitating proper market and subsidies to date growers.

Abdulaziz Alshuaibi

2011-01-01

180

The stratigraphy, depositional environments and periods of deformation of the Wajid outcrop belt, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wajid outcrop belt in southwestern Saudi Arabia is an area of over 22,000 square kilometers where strata of Middle(?) Cambrian through to Jurassic crop out. The Early Palaeozoic sediments in southwestern Arabia have been placed in the Wajid sandstone. This paper elevates this unit to group status and recognizes its former members as formations. The remaining Palaeozoic successions are placed in the Qalibah and Khuff formations. The Middle(?) Cambrian through to Early(?) Ordovician Dibsiyah Formation, Wajid Group, correlates with the Saq sandstone of central and northern Saudi Arabia. The 'lower' Dibsiyah buries a topography developed on the Arabian shield during the Late Precambrian Pan-African and/or the late Early Cambrian periods of uplift. The late Early Cambrian period of deformation is documented in southwestern Saudi Arabia and adjacent Oman by an angular unconformity which separates the Dibsiyah Formation correlative from the underlying Late Precambrian-Early Cambrian Lower Haima Group. The 'lower' Dibsiyah was deposited in a northward prograding fluvial apron. The 'upper' Dibsiyah was deposited in intertidal to shallow subtidal marine settings during a period of coastal onlap. The Late(?) Ordovician Sanamah Formation overlies the Dibsiyah Formation in angular and/or erosional unconformity. This unconformity was developed during a period of regional uplift which began near the close of the Middle Ordovician. The Sanamah Formation was deposited in broad valley complexes excavated in fluvial settings. The Early Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation unconformably overlies the Sanamah. The Qalibah Formation was deposited in shallow marine to mid-shelf settings during a major period of coastal onlap. The angular unconformity to disconformity, which separates the Qalibah Formation from underlying units, resulted from diastrophism of Late Ordovician to earliest Silurian age. The Early Devonian to Middle(?) Carboniferous Khusayyayn Formation unconformably overlies the Qalibah Formation. The Khusayyayn Formation was deposited in shallow marine, lagoonal, eolian and fluvio-deltaic settings. The unconformity separating the Khusayyayn Formation from the Qalibah Formation documents a period of regional diastrophism of late Early Silurian to late Early Devonian age. Unconformably overlying the Khusayyayn is the Middle Carboniferous through Early Permian Juwayl Formation. This unit was deposited in broad valley complexes excavated in fluvial settings. The base Juwayl unconformity was produced by the Hercynian orogeny. The Permian Khuff Formation unconformably overlies the Juwayl and the former deposited in shallow marine settings. The base Khuff Formation unconformity resulted from a period of major coastal onlap. The Early Triassic Sudair shale succeeds the Khuff and the former was deposited during a period of coastal offlap in lagoonal to coastal plain settings. Near the end of the Early Triassic the Arabian Peninsula underwent another period of tectonism. In central and southwest Saudi Arabia this event is reflected by the erosion of the Sudair shale and older units from the higher portions of reactivated fault blocks and the syndepositional thickening of the Jilh Formation on the down thrown sides of these fault blocks.

Stump, T. E.; Van der Eem, J. G.

1995-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four stages. The outcomes of the studypoint to distrust in the online retailing environment in Saudi Arabia as a key inhibitory factor for growth. As such,a five-part model is proposed to promote trust in the online shopping environment in the KSA.

Rayed AlGhamdi

2012-02-01

182

Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis  

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Full Text Available Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR, Impulse Response Function (IFR and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

Hassan Alhajhoj

2007-01-01

183

Extreme Temperature Trends on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The extreme temperature trends are analyzed for a meteorological data collection station in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia over approximately last four decades stretching between years 1970 and 2006. The long-term change in temperature has been assessed by Mann-Kendell rank statistics and linear trend analysis. The study also includes the estimation of hot and cold days and nights frequencies and finally the temperature anomalies on yearly basis. The ratio between the seasonal mean temperatures (Tmmean of the daily mean of hottest (July and coldest (January months was 1.032. Similarly the ratios between the seasonal mean temperature of daily maximum (Tmmax of hottest and coldest months was 1.033 while for seasonal mean temperature of daily minimum (Tmmin was 1.030. Significant increase was observed in hot days per year and relatively smaller decrease in hot nights. Significant increase in summer time temperatures was confirmed by both linear regression analysis and M-K rank statistics. The monthly and annual mean maximum temperatures have increased more than the mean and mean minimum temperatures.

Luai M. Al-Hadhrami

2012-07-01

184

Precipitation Patterns Observed over the Southwest Region of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2008 and 2009, an intensive field program has been conducted in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia, which is adjacent to the Red Sea and is bounded by the Yemen border to the south and the region around Jeddah to the north. The period of study focused on analysis of observations for the months of June-August. This period coincides with a climatological peak in precipitation over the region. This region is mountainous with terrain ranging from sea level to a maximum height of about 2800 m. During the field program, convection was observed almost daily during mid-afternoon was focused along the mountain peaks. This peak in convection coincided with the sea breeze reaching the top of the tallest terrain features. The intensity of convection was modulated by the strength of the sea breeze (predominate wind direction, amount of moisture in the boundary layer, etc.) and strength of a persistent mid-level inversion. The main objective of this study focuses on characterizing the spatial and temporal features of convection and related it to the atmospheric conditions that were observed during the months of June-August. The study examines precipitation and atmospheric conditions using a network of C-Band radars (Abha, Baha, Jeddah, Jizan, and Taif) and surface and upper data collected from the site located in Abha. The presentation will provide an overview of the field program and give a summary of the precipitation and atmospheric characteristics for the two years used in the study.

Kucera, Paul; Chapman, Michael

2010-05-01

185

Patterns of Skin Cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skin cancer is a common malignant neoplasm in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and it is the most common malignant neoplasm in Al-Baha area. This study was performed to determine the pattern of skin cancers seen at King Fahad Hospital, Al-Baha, KSA. Histologically diagnosed skin cancers, seen between 1990 and 2003, were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, race and site of distribution. Of a total of 193 patients, there were 79 (41%) cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 56 (29%) cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 34 (18%) cases of Kaposis sarcoma. Malignant melanomas represent 4.1% of the cases. The male to female ratio for all cancer was 1.6:1. The peak age distribution was in the 70-80-year group. The most common site involved in BCC was the head and neck (90%) and in Kaposis sarcoma were the lower limbs (59%). Acral distribution of malignant melanoma was seen in 62% cases. The most common skin cancers seen are BCC and SCC followed by Kaposis sarcoma. The site of distribution of BCC and SCC in our study is similar to studies in Caucasians. The site of distribution of BCC in sun exposed area supports the role of the ultraviolet light in the pathogenesis of such tumor. In contrast to the western countries, melanoma is a rare skin neoplasm in KSA. (author)

186

Passive cooling: Traditional climatic devices in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent time the concern has been expressed by various individuals and government agencies not only about learning from the past experiences and achievements of the man as builder of his own environment but also about preservation and restoration of historic/traditional architecture from which there is a lot to learn. The traditional architecture with its climatic and cultural/communal solution also poses questions of how they could be utilized or transplanted in the new urban context. This paper is a brief review of a more detailed field and theoretical survey carried out by the author in his efforts to understand the role of climate in formation of the traditional environment in Saudi Arabia. The examples are only representative of the main aspects of the climatic response in traditional architecture in the four dominant climatic regions 1. Hot Dry, 2. Hot Humid, 3. Composite, 4. Upland. The nearby areas in the Eastern province as well as the far away places in the southern provinces are described from author's personal experiences. Most of the climatic design elements are discussed with illustrations. The presentation of the paper will be accompanied with colour slides (from which some of the diagrams are prepared) not included in the publication of this paper.

Talib, K.

1980-12-01

187

Food poisoning in Saudi Arabia. Potential for prevention?  

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Food poisoning is becoming a very important health problem both internationally and in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Salmonella species (spp is the most important pathogen, but due to the extensive effort carried by the health authorities to prevent or eradicate communicable diseases, new pathogens are now emerging such as Escherichia coli (E. coli and Norwalk like viruses. This review paper highlights the magnitude and determinants of food poisoning internationally and in KSA, and proposes some recommendations on its prevention. Clearly, there is a steady increase in the food poisoning accidents in KSA, especially during the summer months and Hajj season. These accidents are seen in other countries such as England, United States of America and Japan. Meat and chicken are the main items incriminated in these accidents. Knowledge on food safety in the food preparation process and the risk factors that can lead to food poisoning is low. Training and proper health education messages are needed to raise the awareness of food handlers as well as the public in general.

Yagob Y. Al-Mazrou

2004-01-01

188

Measles in Saudi Arabia : From control to elimination.  

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Full Text Available This article describes the tremendous efforts made in the field of measles immunization in Saudi Arabia in the past 20 years, from the control phase to the elimination phase. Mandatory measles vaccination with one-dose Schwartz vaccine was introduced in 1982 by a royal decree, a step aimed at increasing vaccine coverage. In 1991, a two-dose schedule was implemented using Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine , with a first dose at 6 months to protect children younger than 9 months and a second dose of MMR at 12 months of age to protect those who did not respond to the first dose. A marked reduction in the epidemic peak and a shift of infection to older age were noticed. But the same data showed that 50% of measles cases in the 1- to 4-year age group occurred in vaccinated children. In 1998, with the start of elimination phase, an MMR campaign was launched in two phases, targeting school children in 1998 (secondary schools and in 2000 (primary and intermediate schools. Evaluation of the MMR campaign and surveillance data was reflected in the measles immunization policy by shifting the age of measles immunization to 12 months and to preschool using the two-dose MMR schedule.

Khalil Mohamed

2005-01-01

189

Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

Khater, Ashraf E M

2012-01-01

190

Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

2014-09-01

191

Metamorphic evolution of the Qazaz metamorphic complex, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Precambrian accretionary orogens largely contributed to continental growth, owing to their high production rates of juvenile crust compared to Phanerozoic accretionary orogens. The Pan-African orogeny is responsible for the evolution and growth of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Qazaz metamorphic complex in Saudi Arabia is one of the metamorphic complexes that were exhumed due to the activity of the largest Proterozoic shear zone system on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Qazaz complex is an example of an unusual new type of core-complex associated with crustal scale strike-slip faulting. Petrography and thermodynamic modelling were used to study the metamorphic evolution of the complex. The core of the complex records peak metamorphic conditions of 560 - 640 oC and 7-8 kbar. The bounding strike-slip shear zones operated at a temperature range of 400-600 oC while the pressure range varied from 5 to 0.5 kbar over a very short distance within the shear zone. The complex shows exhumation of about 25 km due to the activity of the Najd Fault System.

Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

2014-05-01

192

Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

193

Osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)

194

Patterns of thyroid cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the pattern of thyroid cancer, assess the magnitude of the problem, and evolve a management plan for such malignancies. This is a retrospective cohort study of all thyroid cases operated at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1998 and December 2007. Clinical presentations, management regimens, and recurrence were reviewed. Five hundred and sixteen patients were operated for different thyroid lesions. Ninety-two (17.8%) were malignant (20 males and 72 females). Mean age for males was 41.35 +/- 15.52 years compared to 36.59 +/- 13.28 years for females. Papillary carcinoma constituted 50%, while follicular carcinoma formed only 4.3% of malignant cases. Lymphoma ranked third with only 1.1% of all malignant thyroid lesions. No cases of medullary carcinoma were found. Of 92 patients, 75 reported for follow-up. The recurrence rate for follow-up patients was 29 (31.5%). High resolution neck ultrasonography and image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology should be considered as routine investigative tools in patients with suspicious thyroid swelling. Total thyroidectomy and removal of all lymph nodes in the central compartment of the neck seem to be the ideal management plan, until such trials emerge. Residual thyroid tissues, following surgery, should be ablated using radioiodine I131 isotope (Author).

195

Stratigraphic palynology of Devonian boreholes from northern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This extended abstract describes well-preserved palynomorph assemblages recovered from Devonian strata in five shallow boreholes in the northern part of Saudi Arabia. These fully cored holes overlap stratigraphically to form a 1,640 ft composite section spanning the upper Tawil, Jauf and lower Jubah formations. Only the Jauf and lower Jubah, represented by 188 samples taken over a 1,300 ft stratigraphic interval, are addressed here as the sandy Tawil lithologies are unsuitable for palynological analysis. The 900 feet of alternating of siliciclastic and carbonate units, that together comprise the five members of the Jauf Formation, were sampled comprehensively. However, the Jubah Formation, like the Tawil Formation, is mostly sandstone and is productive palynologically at only two levels separated by a 300 ft barren interval. The age of the sampled succession is assessed using index species from the established Euramerican Devonian palynozonations of Richardson & McGregor (1986 and Streel et alii (1987, and is shown to span the late Early and Middle Devonian.

Breuer Pierre

2005-12-01

196

Gas bubble disease in farmed fish in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four outbreaks of gas bubble disease were encountered among farmed fish in Saudi Arabia. Two of them occurred among subadult (52.5 g) saltwater tilapia (Oreochromis spilurus), the first affecting about 50 per cent of the stock and resulting in about 30 per cent mortality, and the second affecting about 25 per cent of the population with about 5 per cent mortality. Another outbreak occurred among adult (270 g) brackish water (0.5 per cent salinity) tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), affecting about 40 per cent of the population with about 25 per cent mortality. The fourth outbreak occurred among three-month-old (15 g) grouper (Epinephelus fuscogutiatus) and resulted in 10 per cent mortality. In all cases the total water gas pressure ranged between 111.2 and 113.4 per cent saturation and nitrogen was supersaturated while oxygen was undersaturated. The outbreaks were alleviated by reducing the gas pressure by splashing the source water or by switching to a source of water with lower gas pressure. However, in O niloticus the conditions of gas supersaturation resulted in a heavy infection by monogenetic trematodes which was treated with formalin at 40 mg/litre for seven hours on five successive days. PMID:9234554

Saeed, M O; al-Thobaiti, S A

1997-06-28

197

Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia  

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The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

Abdou, Adel A.

2003-03-01

198

Epidemiology of diarrhoea in two major cities in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiological pattern of diarrhoeal diseases, causative agents and risk factors of their occurrence in two referral hospitals of Saudi Arabia is presented in this study. Stool specimens from 1726 admitted diarrhoeal cases were examined for parasites, yeast, enteropathogenic bacteria and rotavirus using the ELISA test. 41.3% of cases were due to rotavirus (RVGE) while 53.1% of cases showed no causative pathogens. Mean age of all cases was 20.2 months and RVGE cases showed a steady rise from the neonatal period onward, reaching a peak between 6-14 months. Males accounted for higher percentage of all diarrhoeal cases. Mothers of diarrhoea cases were mostly housewives with low educational level. Bottle fed children showed higher proportion (53.1%) of diarrhoea than other types of feeding suggesting the faeco-oral route of infection and the effect of poor sanitation. A pattern of higher RVGE cases was seen in warmer months in Al-taif and in cooler months in Jeddah. Findings demonstrated the interaction between host, pathogen and environmental factors in the epidemiology of infectious diarrhoeas in developing countries and the areas of possible prevention. PMID:7499777

Milaat, W A; Elassouli, S M

1995-06-01

199

Assessment of Reading Comprehension of Saudi Students Majoring in English at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on their reading comprehension. One hundred three students participated in the study in which quantitative method was used. Two reading passages with different length and topics were given to the students followed by 10 multiple questions for each passage. Major findings of the study indicate that 1 participants of the study showed an overall low reading comprehension X= 9.8, 2 GPA was found a statistically significant factor that impacted students’ reading comprehension, 3 students’ age, on the other hand, had no significant effect, 4 reading courses at the mentioned department seemed to generally focus on reading strategies whereas they should have adequately considered comprehension instruction since reading and decoding words without comprehension becomes meaningless.

Waleed B. Al Abiky

2014-08-01

200

Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1-5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

Darwish, Magdy A; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A

2014-01-01

202

Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects. PMID:24568491

Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

2014-01-01

203

A cyclone over Saudi Arabia on 5 January 2002: A case study  

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A shallow and short-lived subsynoptic cyclone is discussed as one of typical events causing natural disasters over Saudi Arabia on 5 January 2002 using the Japan Meteorological Agency global analysis dataset. The main cause for its formation was vorticity stretching. On the same day widespread rainfall over Saudi Arabia with enhanced precipitation over the mountainous Jeddah region was also observed using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project dataset. Owing to eastward-moving wintertime synoptic-scale Mediterranean disturbances, this rainfall was associated with frontal activity, modified by the local orography.

Chakraborty, A.; Mujumdar, M.; Behera, S. K.; Ohba, R.; Yamagata, T.

2006-06-01

204

New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M; Al-Ansari, A M; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A A

2014-11-01

205

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae  

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Full Text Available Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, C. riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L. (Acanthaceae. The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided.

Abdulaziz Alqarni

2012-06-01

206

Arsenic, Lead and Microorganisms in Hair and Nails of Some Women from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As, lead (Pb and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might be important in dealing with metal pollution in Saudi Arabia.

A. R. Hashem

2002-01-01

207

New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations.

Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M.; Al-Ansari, A.M.; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A.A.

2014-01-01

208

Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.

Khaled A. ALASMARI

2014-06-01

209

Environmental benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy in Saudi Arabia's electric sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of electric system expansion in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental concerns are important to consider because they represent costs to society that are not typically reflected in the price that consumers pay for electricity. In past analyses of electric expansion options in Saudi Arabia, the tendency has been to stress the direct financial costs of expanding electricity generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure without characterizing the environment impacts of building and operating the expanded electricity system in monetary terms. Emerging national and global environmental concerns, however, suggest that an expansion of the methods traditionally used for electricity resource planning and selection to include environmental considerations would greatly benefit the Kingdom. The criteria by which resource plans are evaluated can readily be broadened to address environmental and other concerns. As part of an illustrative Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) effort undertaken by a team of Saudi utility planners and international consultants, an expanded IRP framework was used to assess the environmental costs and benefits of various approaches to meeting electricity demand projections in Saudi Arabia. The results show that making use of renewable energy and energy efficiency resources to provide energy services to the electricity consumers of Saudi Arabia can provide significant environmental benefits for the Kingdom.

Alnatheer, Othman [Saudi Arabian National Coordinator UN Sustainable Energy Project, Energy Research Institute-KACST, PO Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)] e-mail: onatheer@kacst.edu.sa

2006-01-01

210

An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabiahas witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been able to catch up with the pace of digitaldevelopment in the rest of the world. The research paper attempts to identify the problems in implementinge-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research paper on the basis of analysis of data throughhierarchical multiple regression modeling and multiple response analysis of the data has identified statisticallysignificant problems in implementation of e-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outlined key policyoptions that this country as well as other GCC nations can consider in formulation of policies to stimulate,support and maximize the effect e-commerce has on their economies.

Iftekhar Ahmad

2012-07-01

211

FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influe...

Rayed AlGhamdi; Jeremy Nguyen; Ann Nguyen; Steve Drew

2012-01-01

212

Petroleum and international relations: Saudi Arabia, victim of the new world energy deal?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country

213

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

Kamel RM

2013-06-01

214

Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action  

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Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution.

Al-Naami Mohammed

2010-01-01

215

Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

216

Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. Results: The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 ± 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%, kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%, caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%, hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB in eight patients (11.1%, and other material in seven patients (9.7%. Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%, 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Conclusion: Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine.

Al-Binali Ali

2009-01-01

217

Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms in endogenous, exogenous and nosocomial infections was emphasized.

Rajaa M. Milyani

2001-12-01

218

Ash Shutbah: A possible impact structure in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be studied in escarpment outcrops in the vicinity of the structure.

Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl

2014-10-01

219

A need for managed care in Saudi Arabia.  

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Is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia getting value for money invested in health? Quality care is being provided throughout health facilities in the Kingdom, however there is minimal control of utilization in all health sectors, consequently leading to abuse and over utilization, particularly in the public sector. Managed care programs have proven effective in reducing unnecessary inpatient and ancillary service utilization by reducing use of expensive procedures and unnecessary, highly specialized services, and shifting to less expensive care options. Health maintenance organizations are the best example of a managed health care model; tracking good performance and cost savings averaging between 20-40% compared to more traditional health plans. Key features of health maintenance organizations include serving a defined population voluntarily enrolled in the health plan; assumption of contractual responsibility and financial risk by plan to provide a range of services, and payment of a fixed periodic payment by the enrollee, independent of the actual use of services. The key characteristic that distinguishes health maintenance organizations from other delivery systems is prepayment for the care that is provided. Preferred Provider Organizations offer discounts for services received from a selected set of physicians and hospitals. Services received by enrollees are not fully reimbursed from this selected list of providers. Preferred Provider Organizations use health maintenance organizations administrative processes for controlling costs but do not include some of the intrinsic cost and quality controls of health maintenance organizations. Review of several studies indicate that patients enrolled in prepaid group practices (managed care organizations were hospitalized 15-40% less often than those enrolled in fee-for-service health plans.

M. H. Mufti

2000-04-01

220

Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia  

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The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview  

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Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take care of Saudi patients who are from the dominant culture. In this scenario, a lack of knowledge of Saudi culture among nurses can lead to cultural conflicts and misunderstanding of some of the behaviours and practices of the indigenous Saudi people. Culture is a complex notion; however, being aware of cultural differences and having cultural knowledge can help people to interact safely. Educating expatriate nurses about the cultural heritage of the Saudi people, which is mainly influenced by Islamic teachings, is important to increase cultural harmony.

Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

2012-01-01

222

Stalled eruption or dike intrusion at Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia?  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5) Finally seismic data showed features similar to other volcanic swarms, including high rates of occurrence of small events, shallow event locations that clustered beneath the lava field and were coincident with the area of maximum deformation, RSAM values that peaked during periods of increased InSAR inflation, and a mixture of event types- high frequency, low frequency, possible very low frequency, and tremor. Based on our analysis of similar active volcanic systems worldwide and associated earthquakes in rift settings, we determined that for the three month period following 19 May 2009 there was a moderate probability that the activity could culminate in an eruption, and a very low probability of additional large earthquakes of M6 or greater. Subsequent to this hazard assessment and once the stability of structures in Al Ays was adequately addressed, the evacuees were allowed to return to their homes and daily lives.

Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.

2009-12-01

223

Causes of uveitis in a tertiary center in Western Saudi Arabia  

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Objectives: To analyze the causes of uveitis and compare our results with national and international published studies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of medical records of patients who attend the uveitic clinic of Magrabi Eye & Ear Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from  January 1999 to December 2011.

Bawazeer, Ahmed M.; Hm, Shaik Nizamuddin

2013-01-01

224

Online Search Service at the King Abdulaziz University Library, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a study of the online search service at a university in Saudi Arabia which used personal interviews and questionnaires to evaluate the demand from faculty in different institutions and departments and to discover which subjects were requested the most. Guidelines for improvements to the service are proposed. (Contains seven references.)…

Marghalani, Mohammad Amin; Hafez, Abdulrashid A.

1993-01-01

225

The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

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Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

2012-01-01

226

Forming an Institutional Culture with Multinational Administrators and Teachers at Effat College, Saudi Arabia  

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This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…

Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie

2011-01-01

227

Salmonella species and serotypes isolated from farm animals, animal feed, sewage, and sludge in Saudi Arabia*  

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A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro.

Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-nakhli, H. M.

1982-01-01

228

Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia  

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The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

2010-01-01

229

Teachers' Continuing Professional Development Programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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This article aims to review the historical development of continuing professional development programmes (CPDPs) for teachers, as well as the policies and objectives of such programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the inception of these programmes until now. Styles of CPDPs that the Education Training Centres (ETCs) offer are…

Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

2011-01-01

230

Epidemiology of travel-related malaria in a non-malarious area in Saudi Arabia.  

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There were no active cases of malaria transmission within the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia; however, the continued presence of imported malaria into this region may pose a significant health problem especially in the presence of the malaria vector. Thus, effective treatment and vigilance for cases of malaria is needed.

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

2006-01-01

231

Characteristics of the Home Context for the Nurturing of Gifted Children in Saudi Arabia  

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This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth…

Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2014-01-01

232

Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting s [...] ite, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%), the lowest in February (2.52%). Most patients were male (61.8%); the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%). Nocturnal envenomation (47.74%) was more common than diurnal (43.91%); most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%), mainly in the lower limbs (63%). Most envenomings were mild (74.48%) and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828), Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807), and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807) were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

M. K., Al-Sadoon; B. M., Jarrar.

233

Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia  

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This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

2010-01-01

234

Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification  

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Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

2011-01-01

235

The costs of energy : impact on gaseous industry in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is an answer, in political terms, to the question : what are, for a petroleum and natural gas exporter country (Saudi Arabia), the data and priorities to take into consideration for the use of natural gas in electric power and industrial development ? (O.L.)

236

Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study  

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The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

2011-01-01

237

Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality and Water Management in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview  

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A comprehensive review summarized the total available water supplies, water quality evaluation and the potential management strategies for efficient utilization of the available water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The review discussed different water quality classifications applied elsewhere on the use of different types of surface, drainage waters and groundwater irrespective of the total salinity status and the conditions of use.

Hussain, G.; Alquwaizany, A.; Al-zarah, A.

2010-01-01

238

The Institute of Diplomatic Studies Library in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

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Describes the role of and services offered by the Institute of Diplomatic Studies Library in Saudi Arabia. Topics covered include the objectives of the institute and the library facilities, collections, acquisitions programs, cataloging procedures, administrative policies, and future plans. (seven references) (CLB)

Tameem, Jamal A.

1988-01-01

239

Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia  

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Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

Alnahdi, Ghaleb

2014-01-01

240

Erythraeid mites (Prostigmata, Erythraeidae) from Saudi Arabia, description of three new species and a new record.  

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Three erythraeid genera Balaustium von Heyden, Charletonia Oudemans, and Erythraeus Latreille (Trombidiformes: Prostigmata) are reported for first time from Saudi Arabia based on three new larval species, Balaustiumyousifi sp. n., Charletoniabahaensis sp. n., and Erythraeus (Erythraeus) uhadisp. n. and one new record Erythraeus (Zaracarus) lancifer Southcott. All the three new species are described and illustrated from larvae. PMID:25349508

Kamran, Muhammad; Alatawi, Fahad J

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Biodiversity of the Plant Species in Bisha, Asir Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The study focused on plant diversity and species richness in each landform in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. One hundred and forty five species were recorded, belonging to 39 families. The most dominant families were Compositae (20 %, Graminae (14.5 %, Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae (7 %. The contribution of the study area for ferns (25 %, gymnospermae (10 %, dicot (12 % and monocot (11.9 of the total species in Saudi Arabia. The maximum number of plant species was attained in wadis followed by sandy plain habitats (111 and 109 respectively. The highest species richness/ habitat (111 sp./habitat was recorded in wadis, while the lowest (56 sp./habitat was recorded in rocky ridges . Beta diversity was estimated as the ratio between the total number of species and species richness (alpha diversity where, there was little variation among four habitats (e.g. maximum ratio was 15.1 in sandy flat plateaus and minimum was 10.0 in both sandy rocky ridges and rocky ridges. About 10, 12, 12, and 25 % of the ferns, gymnospermae, dicotyledoneae, and monocotyledoneae were respectively the flora of Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, about 24 %, of the flowering plant occur in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia.

S. Z. Heneidy

2001-01-01

242

The Institutional Context of School to Work Transition in Saudi Arabia.  

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Using questionnaire data collected in 2000 from 524 senior general high school students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, researchers explored the gap between national development goals and student educational interests. They analyzed the relationship between available curriculum and student perceptions of the curriculum's ability to prepare them for the…

Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.

243

Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies  

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Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

2010-01-01

244

Evaluation of Preparation Program for Teachers Specializing in Learning Disabilities in Saudi Arabia  

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The purpose of this study was to provide an evaluation of the undergraduate special education teacher preparation program at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A final sample of 160 LD teachers provided the data used for analysis. Data for the study were collected by a survey consisting of five subscales: coursework, internship quality,…

Hussain, Omer A.

2009-01-01

245

Lifestyle related risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia.  

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Healthy diet and active lifestyle may significantly decrease the risk of T2DM in spite of having a family history of diabetes. Effective health education programs promoting healthy diet and regular exercise are needed to reduce the burden of diabetes in Saudi Arabia.

Farid M. Midhet

2010-07-01

246

Business Process Re-engineering in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of Understanding and Attitudes  

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Full Text Available This survey was conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA to investigate the level of awareness of BPR. Respondents (customers, employees, and Managers had different educational backgrounds and were from private and public sectors. Findings of the study indicate a general awareness of BPR in KSA.

Christopher Chiu

2009-12-01

247

Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment  

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Full Text Available This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment in the subject mentioned above.

Ali Alshayea

2013-09-01

248

Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

249

FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influence Saudi retailers in deciding whether or not to adopt online channels. As part of a larger research project using mixed methods, this paper focuses on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of retailers in Saudi Arabia. The design of the questionnaire instrument was based on the findings of a qualitative analysis reported in a previous paper. The main findings of the current study include a list of key factors that affect retailers’ e-commerce adoption, such as lack of online payment options and lack of clear legislation on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships.

Rayed AlGhamdi

2012-06-01

250

An Analysis of Benchmarking of Business Functions in Organizations of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includes four sizes of organizations. The finding of the study shows that the practiceof benchmarking in Saudi Arabian organizations’ is not in advance level. The sequence of the application ofbenchmarking is found to be as follows; marketing, operations, quality, finance and human resources,respectively. The study further shows that the practice of performance benchmarking in private firms better thanpublic organizations. However, the study concludes that there is no significant difference between companiesbased on their sizes.

Nasser Akeil Kadasah

2013-05-01

251

Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

252

Inward Strategy: An Optimal Solution to Build a Software Industry in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Employing the appropriate strategy was critical in building successful software industry in many developing countries. Through innovative strategies, a number of developing nations were able to create unique software industry models that emerged as strong software exporters at the global level. The main similarity among these strategies was the market orientation; almost all of these strategies were export oriented, software products were produced in the developing countries to satisfy external market demands in the developed world. The need for newer innovative strategies remains a critical success factor for new entrants to the software industry. One of the suggested strategies by the literature was the inward strategy or the focus on the domestic market needs. This paper employs a quantitative approach to identify a possible strategy that Arab countries may adopt to build their own software industry when industry success factors exist in these countries. An analysis of data from published reports and from public databases was used to examine the situation in Saudi Arabia. The goals of this study were, first to pin point the possible strategy that Saudi Arabia may adopt to build its own software industry, second to examine the existence of the software industry success factors in Saudi Arabia. The most significant finding from this study suggested that Saudi Arabia can adopt the inward strategy to build a new software industry model to serve the country’s oil and gas industry needs of software. Additionally, this study revealed that Saudi Arabia acquire a number of the software industry success factors like the software demand, the financial resources, and the IT infrastructure while other factors like the quantity of science and technology graduates and the intellectual property and copy right laws are weak and need improvements.

Ayman Talib

2011-03-01

253

Palynological and Cytological Characters of Three Species of Genus Solanum (Family: Solanaceae from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study aims to explore the relationship between cytology and palynology relationship between the species under consideration. Pollen morphology and cytology of three species (Solanum forsskalii, S. macracanthum and S. glabrata var. sepicula of genus Solanum of the family Solanaceae from Saudi Arabia has been investigated by using Light Microscope (LM and electron microscope (SEM and TEM. Pollen grains are generally radially symmetrical, isopolar, tricolporates, zonoaperturates, prolate and with non perforate tectum. Tecta scabrate often punctuate. The dimensions of the pollen of the three species vary according to polar and equatorial axis. On the other hand according to pollen shape, two distinct pollen types are recognized, prolate-subprolate for Solanum forsskalii and S. macracanthum and prolate-spheroidal for S. glabrata var. sepicula. In addition, on the basis of exine columella, three types are recognized, viz., S. glabrata var. sepicula (regularly columellate, S. forsskalii (less and irregular columellate and Solanum macracanthum (columella indistinct. It is obviously that solanaceae is considered an europalynous family. Chromosomal characters of the three species provides that Solanum forsskalii and S. glabrata var. sepicula are cytologically stable and higher pollen fertility (80-90% while Solanum macracanthum shows irregular meiosis and less pollen fertility (35%. The Pollen fertility and cross-pollination between the studdied species were also discussed. These data could furnish adequate information that support the relation characters between the species.

Hussein M. Al-Wadi

2007-01-01

254

Level of evidence of clinical orthopedic surgery research in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. Methods: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93 affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012. The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded. The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. Results: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%. The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades.  North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p   Conclusion: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia

Neil Saran

2013-04-01

255

Multi nodular goiter management in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data and summarize the different modalities of management of multinodular goiters (MNG) in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 135 patients had MNG, which were diagnosed by ultrasonography at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, KSA between January 2003 and June 2004. The data collected includes the age, gender, physical examination of the thyroid gland ( trifluorothymidine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone), ultrasonographic findings and Tc 99 radioiodine nuclear scan of the thyroid gland, fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the gland and antithyroid antibodies. The study group was divided according to the thyroid status: nontoxic euthyroid MNG, hypothyroid MNG and toxic hyperthyroid MNG. The management of MNGs according to patient's clinical presentations and thyroid status was reviewed. The mean age was 39+- 12.66 years with a range of 10-79 years. Forty-two patients (31%), with no history of thyroid cancer, had ultrasound guided FNA; 41(97.6%) of the FNAs were benign. One FNA (2.3%) was positive for papillary carcinoma in a 56-year-old female patient. Thyroid antibodies (anti-microsomal antibodies and anti-thymoglobulin antibodies) were measured in 50 patients (37%). thirty-one (62%)were positive, 11(35%) of which were positive in patients with documented hypothyroidism. All patients with hypothyrodism were treated with levothyroxine ; however, only 25.6% with euthyroid MNG were treated with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Twelve patients (44.4%) with toxic MNG were treated with antithyroid medications. Radioiodine therapy was not given to any patient with nontoxic MNG; however, 48% of those with hyperthyroid MNG received radioactive iodine treatment. Surgery was carried out 25.6% of patients with euthyroid nontoxic MNG and in 11 patients with toxic MNG (46.5%)and 14.8% of those with a subclinical hyperthyroid MNG refrained from any therapy. They were followed up by their clinician in the outpatient clinic. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels, ultrasound and fine needle biopsy were the cornerstones of the diagnostic evaluations of patient with MNG. Review of the management of these patients was comparable to that found in the literature. The treatment strategy was similar to the recommendations by the American Thyroid Society; however, radioactive iodine treatment was not used as a treatment for patients with nontoxic goiters. (author)

256

HIV Case Notification Rates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the Past Decade (2000–2009)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective To study trends in HIV case notification rates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design A ten year retrospective review of annual HIV case notification returns to the Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods Annual Registry statistics covering the period 2000 to 2009 were reviewed. Annual incidence trends were stratified according to the following demographics: age, nationality, geographical region of residence, gender, and mode of disease acquisition. ...

Al Mazroa, M. A.; Kabbash, I. A.; Felemban, S. M.; Stephens, G. M.; Al-hakeem, R. F.; Zumla, A. I.; Memish, Z. A.

2012-01-01

257

HIV Case Notification Rates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the Past Decade (2000-2009)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective To study trends in HIV case notification rates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design A ten year retrospective review of annual HIV case notification returns to the Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods Annual Registry statistics covering the period 2000 to 2009 were reviewed. Annual incidence trends were stratified according to the following demographics: age, nationality, geographical region of residence, gender, and mode of disease acquisition. ...

2012-01-01

258

Determinants of Competitive Advantages of Dates Exporting: An Applied Study on Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The study focus on testing the determinants of competitive advantage of dates marketing from Saudi Arabia through multi- regression model based on Porter’s diamond, which is determined the factor that affecting on competitiveness of nations in international marketing, such as factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and company strategy; structure; and rivalry. Our study selected the most competitive countries for Saudi Arabia in marketing dates in its markets (like Egypt, Iraq, and Tunisia. The results of study showed that the four determinants are significant and R square is high more than 95% in all equations this is agree with our assumptions, but the signs parameters of these determinants are different from our expectations specially with the quantity of production in Saudi Arabia which appear negative with the value of export of dates from KSA, that is because the consumption of dates in domestic market is high and it absorbs the high quality kind of dates, which is needed for external market. We tested also the same determinants for the competitive countries (Egypt, Iraq, and Tunisia; we found the same results, except Egypt, which have huge domestic demand that is effect on demand conditions in this country. Our study suggested more studies are needed for related and supporting industries of dates with this crop, to save data base in this field, and give more attention for quality of dates, packaging and prices for Saudi exporting of dates. 

Gaber Mohamed M. Abdel Gawad

2014-03-01

259

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

260

Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Teacher Knowledge That Supports Student Processes in Learning Mathematics: A Study at All-Female Middle Schools in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers in Saudi Arabia are attempting to advance their teaching in mathematics to address specific reforms by the Ministry of Education. Saudi teachers must improve their students' thinking through engagement in problem solving. This qualitative study investigated how teachers use knowledge of student mathematical learning and how they…

Alsaeed, Maha Saad

2012-01-01

262

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

263

Factors That Affect Consumption Patterns and Market Demands for Honey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Despite the significant annual consumption of honey in Saudi Arabia, information gaps remain with regard to the marketing and market structure of honey along the value chain. This study analyzed the major factors that influenced the consumption, expenditure patterns, and demand of honey in Saudi Arabia. This study forecasted the near-future expected market demands for honey in Saudi Arabia by collecting and analyzing the primary data using questionnaires. A total of 331 respondents from representative regions and large cities were randomly selected and interviewed. The data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods as well as appropriate econometric models. Respondents characterized honey quality using organoleptic words, and these characterizations varied based on the relative significance of perception parameters. Taste, aroma, physical state, and color had aggregated average scores of 4.58, 4.44, 3.54, and 3.28, respectively. In addition to the above parameters, honey source, brand name, and confidence in the producers influenced its perceived quality. The major outlets for honey in Saudi Arabia included producers, specialized honey stores, and auction markets in major cities during the harvesting seasons. Medication, food, and sweetening were the major motivations for buying honey in the Saudi market, with aggregate scores of 4.52, 3.71, and 1.52, respectively. Significant honey price variations were observed within and among different honeys and packaging volumes; this finding might be due to factors such as botanical and geographical origins, package volume size economics (i.e., bulk purchases, honey variety blending, brand names, and producer policies. The average price of locally produced honey was approximately $73 per kg, which is 10 times more than the average price of honey in the US and the EU. The estimated consumption/income elasticity was 0.27. These results suggest that honey is a basic commodity in Saudi Arabia. Based on econometric model forecasts, the Saudi market demand for honey is expected to reach approximately 29,784 tons in 2025.

Sobhy Ismaiel

2014-09-01

264

Assessing the current state of dental informatics in saudi arabia: the new frontier.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental informatics is an emerging field that has the potential to transform the dental profession. This study aims to summarize the current applications of dental informatics in Saudi Arabia and to identify the challenges facing expansion of dental informatics in the Saudi context. Search for published articles and specialized forum entries was conducted, as well as interviews with dental professionals familiar with the topic. Results indicated that digital radiography/analysis and administrative management of dental practice are the commonest applications used. Applications in Saudi dental education included: web-based learning systems, computer-based assessments and virtual technology for clinical skills' teaching. Patients' education software, electronic dental/oral health records and the potential of dental research output from electronic databases are yet to be achieved in Saudi Arabia. Challenges facing Saudi dental informatics include: lack of IT infrastructure/support, social acceptability and financial cost. Several initiatives are taken towards the research in dental informatics. Still, more investments are needed to fully achieve the potential of various application of informatics in dental education, practice and research. PMID:25000042

Al-Nasser, Lubna; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Househ, Mowafa

2014-01-01

265

Evaluating the role of health informatics professionals in saudi arabia: the need for collaboration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi health authorities have acknowledged the role of health informatics professionals in improving the quality of medical services in Saudi Arabia. Different academic programs have been launched by different universities and medical colleges to produce qualified Saudi health informatics professionals. To date, there are no studies that have explained the role of health informaticians and their contribution towards the development of the Saudi health information infrastructure. In this study, the authors clarify health informatics practices and the different skills and job activities accomplished by health informaticians. With the growth in the number of Health Informatics programs within the country, there is a need to identify the current and future of HI professionals and to specify and clearly define the type of job titles describing health informatics roles. The Saudi HI educational programs need to work on linking their program objectives with a Saudi Health Informatics Career Framework (SHICF) and labor market needs. Ignoring such an important issue may result in unemployed Saudi HI graduates or HI graduates working in related fields other than HI. PMID:25000031

Alkraiji, Abdullah I; Househ, Mowafa

2014-01-01

266

Frequency of ABO blood groups in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia.  

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Our results show that the most frequent blood group in Saudis is O-positive. Blood group A is observed at a lower frequency relative to values from Western populations, whereas a significant increase in blood group B combined with a slight increase in blood group AB was recorded. Knowledge of the frequencies of the different blood groups in Saudi Arabia is very important for Blood Banks and transfusion service policies. Knowledge of blood group phenotype distribution is also important for clinical studies (for example disease association, as well as for population studies.

L. A. Bashwari

2001-11-01

267

Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

2013-09-01

268

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

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Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.Keywords: cancer epidemiology, ovarian cancer, Saudi Cancer Registry, incidence rate

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

269

Overweight and obesity in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.  

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Obesity and overweight constitute an important health problem affecting a high proportion of Saudi population. Addressing associated factors, and enhancing public health education is an important aim to focus on for weight control.

Nadira A. Al-Baghli

2008-09-01

270

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing. An underutilized diagnostic tool in Saudi Arabia.  

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Cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a diagnostic tool for cardiopulmonary diseases was extremely underutilized in Saudi hospitals and medical centers. Much greater efforts are needed to raise the awareness among physicians on the usefulness of CPET.

Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa

2004-10-01

271

Uncertainty of Mitigation Measures to Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.

Al Saud, M.

2011-12-01

272

Risk Assessment of Poly Cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Holy City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available There is a lack of information on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as environmental pollutants in Saudi Arabia. The current study focuses on the risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs,in the Holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during Hajj season 1431H. Atmospheric particulate matter was collected using High Volume samplers. Samples of 24h were collected at three sampling sites, Al-Shebakah, Al-Aziziah and Mina. PAH compounds were quantified by using GC. The total PAH concentrations (ng/m3 ranged from 103.5 - 195.2 with mean values of 164.67, 137.81 and 132.40 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, respectively. The higher percentages of the total carcinogenic compounds were recorded at Al-Shebakah, with a maximum value of 63.5 % in PM10. The carcinogenic PAHs, dibenzo[a]pyrene was found at low concentrations.

Turki M. Habeebullah

2013-04-01

273

The Use of Software Project Management Tools in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Survey  

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Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an online survey study, which was conducted to investigate the use of software project management tools in Saudi Arabia. The survey provides insights of project management in the local context of Saudi Arabia from ten different companies which participated in this study. The aim is to explore and specify the project management tools used by software project management teams and their managers, to understand the supported features that might influence their selection. Moreover, the existence of the Arabic interface, the Hijri calendar and the Arabic documentation has been specially considered, due to the nature of the local context in dealing with the Hijri calendar and the prolific use of Arabic as the formal language in communication with clients in the public sector.

Nouf AlMobarak

2013-08-01

274

Demonstration and development of control mechanism for radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.

Al-Kheliewi, A. S.

2012-06-01

275

Serological Survey on Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Commercial Poultry Farms in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to detect the presence of avian pneumovirus (APV antibodies in commercial poultry farms using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and virus neutralization test (VN. Eighty seven chicken serum samples were collected from several commercial poultry farms in Al-Qassium area, Saudi Arabia during 2007-2008. The serum samples were collected from birds of various ages (from one-day old to 62 weeks of age. Antibodies to APV were detected in 50% (8 out of 16 by both ELISA and virus neutralization (VN test at farms in birds of 11-18 weeks of age only. The total positive samples were 8/87 (9.2% of all examined samples. In conclusion, this study indicated the presence of antibodies to APV among 11-18 weeks old commercial chicken at farms in Saudi Arabia.

A. N. Alkhalaf

2010-04-01

276

Thalassemia syndromes in Saudi Arabia. Meta-analysis of local studies.  

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The geographical distribution of Alpha and Beta-Thalassemias differ markedly. Alpha-Thalassemia being particularly prevalent in Southeast Asia and Beta-Thalassemia in the Mediterranean basin. Thalassemia syndromes are common in Saudi Arabia: the Beta-Thalassemia genes occur with variable frequency in different regions of Saudi Arabia and both B+ and Bo thalassemia have been reported. Alpha-Thalassemia is also highly prevalent here and the interaction with the sickle cell gene is commonly observed. Over the last few years, a great deal of information regarding the clinical, molecular and management of these disorders has accumulated in the literature. In this paper we summarize some of the recent studies on the subject along with our experience and our attempt to highlight a number of questions still awaiting answers.

B. H. Al-Awamy

2000-01-01

277

Siting of nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia based on verbal judgement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Site selection of nuclear desalination plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a complex task since it depends on many interrelated factors. Two candidate sites are considered, one near Jeddah - a major port on the Red Sea and the second on the Arabian Gulf near Dhahran. Using verbal judgment, the fuzzy set theory and the MAFDA computer code are employed to examine the most suitable site. Thirteen main criteria were considered for the selction, namely safety of nuclear fuel shipment; living conditions for foreign manpower; acceptability for expansion; land availability; topography and oceanography; geology, hydrology, and seismology; meteorology; transportation; population density; availability of cooling water; suitability for construction and availability of support services and domestic water. The final results show that the site near Dhahran is preferred to Jeddah for the first nuclear desalination plant in Saudi Arabia. (orig.)

278

Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; PAdvertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (Peffects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364

Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

2014-03-01

279

Siting of nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia: A seismic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the selection criteria generally and seismic criteria specifically to select a suitable site in Saudi Arabia for a nuclear desalination plant. These criteria include geological, meteorological, cooling water supply discharge, transport infrastructure, population, electric grid, water network capacity, environmental impact and airport movement. The seismicity of the Arabian peninsula for the locations of seismic activity along the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf coastlines from 1973 to 2000 was studied carefully. This study included towns and locations along the east and west coastlines and their distances from the seismic event site. The results showed that Rabigh City along the west coast of Saudi Arabia is a good site to build a nuclear desalination plant. This is because of the following reasons: good seismic stability; good weather statistics; no flooding; mild wave conditions; good supply and discharge; good transportation infrastructure; low population area; very close to the huge electric grid. (author)

280

Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: a report on seven plant families.  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with seven families: Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae, as an initial study. These families are represented in the flora with 254 species (i.e. 12% of the total species), and individually with 21, 7, 29, 66, 76, 22 and 33 species, respectively. Of these, 86 species, so far investigated, are medicinal, distributed in these seven families as follows: 7, 5, 12, 20, 23, 7 and 12, respectively. The Labiatae have the highest number (23) of medicinal plants among them while maximum medicinal plant diversity within the family has been observed with the Apocynaceae. An enumeration of these 86 medicinal species is presented with the current nomenclature, Arabic names and medicinal uses. This communication aims at emphasizing the importance of setting up conservation priorities, and sustained development of various medicinal plants of Saudi Arabia. PMID:15030919

Rahman, M Atiqur; Mossa, Jaber S; Al-Said, Mansour S; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A

2004-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Micro-seismic Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia y  

Science.gov (United States)

Having experience with monitoring Earthquakes plus the fact that Riyadh is yconstantly subjected to Micro-earthquakes through out the year. Riyadh city and ycentral part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a yrelativity stable platform. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at yKing Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed 9 earthquake portable ystations in central part of Saudi Arabia to record micro-seismicty that caused by local yfaults and natural artificial. We recorded many events in study area mostly theses yevents were not felt. We used digital digitizer recorders ( RefTek 72A) in collecting ythe data and SAISAN software for analyses. The main objective of this study is to ydefine the active faults in Riyadh city and surrounded area that can affect the city. y

Bin Fayez, A.

2005-05-01

282

Privacy Policy in E Government Websites: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Information privacy has been one of the areas of extended discussion over a past decade. There has been a lot of discussion about the information privacy online. Presence of a privacy page in a website is one way of ensuring privacy in a website. This paper is concerned with the presence of privacy policy in e government websites of Saudi Arabia. During the course of this study we looked for the presence of privacy policy in E government websites of Saudi Arabia. This paper presents the result of the study, and the aim is to draw attention of the governing bodies and Administrators towards the privacy policy implementation in their websites.

Sami M. Alhomod

2012-02-01

283

Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008  

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Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, incidence rate, age standardized incidence rate, Saudi Cancer Registry

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

284

Teachers Dietary Practices during School Day in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The schools teachers dietary practices during the school day should reflect a healthy dietary pattern both in quality and quantity of foods consumed particularly in countries that witness an epidemic of obesity related Type-2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to identify the local dietary practices of the schools teachers in Jeddah, western Saudi Arabia. A Cross-section observational study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of dietary practices d...

Balkees Abed Bakhotmah

2012-01-01

285

Mosquito Vectors Survey in the AL-Ahsaa District of Eastern Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study aimed to identify the mosquito vectors distributed throughout AL-Ahsaa district situated in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Mosquito larvae were collected seasonally for one year (October 2009 to September 2010) from different breeding sites in seven rural areas utilizing long aquatic nets. Salinity and pH of these breeding sites were also measured seasonally. The survey revealed the presence of five mosquito species, Aedes caspius Pallas (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles ...

Ahmed, Ashraf M.; Shaalan, Essam A.; Aboul-soud, Mourad A. M.; Tripet, Fre?de?ric; Al-khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

2011-01-01

286

A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially unnecessary desalination infrastructure that is likely to become more energy and cost efficient in future. PMID:22504624

Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

2012-07-15

287

Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: ...

Tarek Tawfik Amin; Feroze Kaliyadan; Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib

2011-01-01

288

Body Shape Dissatisfaction, Weight Status and Physical Activity among a Sample University Students in Saudi Arabia  

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The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction, weight and physical activity status among university students and predictors for body shape dissatisfaction. A cross sectional study was carried out in a sample comprising of 368 female and male university students aged 18 years or more at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Body weight, height, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and physical activity level were used as assessment tools. Chi-square and indepe...

Raouf, Tarek A.; Hala Hazam AL-Otaibi; Nassef, Shereen L.

2013-01-01

289

Predictors of smoking among male junior secondary school students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among intermediate (junior secondary) schoolboys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 1382 students (ages 12-19 years) in 45 classes randomly selected from 15 schools, using a two- stage stratified cluster sampling scheme. DESIGN: Students in the selected classes were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire, under the supervision of trained interviewers. Univariate and multivariate statis...

Jarallah, J. S.; Bamgboye, E. A.; Al-ansary, L. A.; Kalantan, K. A.

1996-01-01

290

New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

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In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on ...

Ak, Al-asmari; Aa, Al-saief; Nm, Abdo; Kr, Al-moutaery

2009-01-01

291

Financial Stability of Islamic and Conventional Banks in Saudi Arabia: Evidence using Pooled and Panel Models  

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The financial crises are considered the major challenges facing the prosperity and stability of the banking system and menace its stability. Several studies on financial and banking sector have demonstrated that Islamic banks have shown more financial robustness and stability compared to conventional banks, over periods of financial crises. This research aims to measure the stability extent of the Saudi Arabia banks including Islamic banks and conventional banks using quarterly data from 2005...

Ghassan, Hassan B.; Taher, Farid B.

2013-01-01

292

Safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in details. Hazards and potential threat, material control and responsible parties, in addition to management and the technical requirements, are the main topics that are discussed. Some interest is given to the responsibilities of the regulatory authority, with special emphasis on the role of King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology as a national competent authority. (author)

293

Current iodine nutrition status and progress toward elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Jazan, Saudi Arabia  

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Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Meth...

Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed; Gaffar Abdelrahim; Khalafalla Husam Eldin; Mahfouz Mohamed; Zaid Abdel Naser; Bani Ibrahim

2012-01-01

294

Profiling E-buyers in Saudi Arabia: Demographic, Experiential, and Attitudinal Factors  

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The purpose of this research study is to develop profiles of adopters and non-adopters of internet shopping in Saudi Arabia based on their demographic variables and internet usage patrons and to investigate consumers’ attitude towards online shopping and perception and formation of attitude by using Fishbein and Ajzin (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). A profile of internet shopping adopter and non-adapters was drawn. Among the investigated demographic variablesand internet usage patte...

Moudi Almousa

2011-01-01

295

Epidemiological patterns of scoliosis in a spinal center in Saudi Arabia.  

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The pattern of scoliosis in our study is comparable in many aspects with other studies carried out elsewhere, with the exception of delay in patients age at referral. We believe that our data could reflect a possible pattern of the epidemiology of scoliosis in Saudi Arabia, given the fact that there is no National Registry. To avoid delay in management, community education will help in the early detection of cases.

A. M. Al-Arjani

2000-06-01

296

Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia  

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Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water). These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled,...

Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

2009-01-01

297

Classification and Evaluation of Commercial Bottled Drinking Waters in Saudi Arabia  

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This study reports an evaluation on the quality of 54 brands of bottled drinking waters currently consumed in Saudi Arabia. The relationships among eight selected major chemical ion variables (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate and nitrate) were examined by correlation analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Principal component analysis identified three factors, which are responsible for the data structure explaining ~64% of...

Ghrefat, H. A.

2013-01-01

298

Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia  

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Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1), bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological...

Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud; Mohamed Rabie Yousef; Samir Mohamed Ali; Mohamed Hamad Al-Blowi

2013-01-01

299

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency rickets in adolescent school girls in Western region, Saudi Arabia.  

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Vitamin D deficiency is common among adolescent females in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Cases are missed due to lack of symptoms in most cases and normal bone chemistry. Serum vitamin D level should be carried out in suspected cases. Health and nutritional education should be encouraged in schools. Focusing on the importance of adequate milk intake and sun exposure should be given a priority in any health education program.

Aisha M. Siddiqui

2007-03-01

300

Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality and Water Management in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview  

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Full Text Available A comprehensive review summarized the total available water supplies, water quality evaluation and the potential management strategies for efficient utilization of the available water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The review discussed different water quality classifications applied elsewhere on the use of different types of surface, drainage waters and groundwater irrespective of the total salinity status and the conditions of use.

G. Hussain

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Swedish Companies in Saudi Arabia : The Struggle to Maintain Corporate Culture  

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Saudi Arabia is increasingly becoming one of the most attractive areas in the world for foreign investors. At the same time the country has a major influence on the economy in the Middle-East. However there exist reasons for why companies previously have been reluctant to enter this market, these reasons have mainly been related to political turbulence, foreign traditions and culture. In recent years some research has been dedicated to this area however there is still more to investigate. The...

Hartvigson, Johannes; Hourani, Rayan

2009-01-01

302

Obstetric and Gynecologic Patients' Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Medical Students in Saudi Arabia  

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Objective: To identify patients’ attitudes, preferences and comfort levels regarding the presence and involvement of medical students during consultations and examinations. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2011 to December 2011 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants were randomly selected from the outpatient and inpatient clinics at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Emergency Department, prov...

Nisrin Anfinan; Nadine Alghunaim; Abdulaziz Boker; Amro Hussain; Ahmad Almarstani; Hussain Basalamah; Hesham Sait; Rawan Arif; Khalid Sait

2014-01-01

303

Celiac disease in children and adolescents at a singe center in Saudi Arabia  

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Background and Objectives : Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy, induced by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical pattern of CD in children from the western region of Saudi Arabia. Design and Setting : Retrospective, hospital-based. Patients and Methods : This study included children with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of CD made between September 2002 and July 2007. Children were admitted to...

Saadah Omar

2011-01-01

304

Measurement of atmospheric particle size distribution during sand/duststorm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents new results of measuring and analyzing atmospheric sand/dust particles during storms. Particles are collected at various heights in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a typical arid inland city. It is found that most of the particle size distributions can be described by a lognormal or normal distribution depending on the storm condition and height. The average diameter of sand/dust particles decreases with the increase of height according to a power law.

Ahmed, Abobakr S.; Ali, Adel A.; Alhaider, Mohammed A.

305

Birth anthropometric parameters in high and low altitude areas of Southwest Saudi Arabia.  

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Neonates of Southwestern Saudi Arabia are significantly lighter and shorter than those of the reference population, as well as neonates in other areas of the Kingdom, with prevalent LBW especially in high altitude area, possibly due to intra-uterine growth retardation of secondary type. Ponderal index is significantly associated with birth weight even after adjusting for gender and place of birth. This might encourage the use of PI as an alternative to birth weight especially when gestational age is not available.

Mohamed A. Al-Shehri

2005-04-01

306

Novel Program to Promote Critical Thinking among Higher Education Students: Empirical Study from Saudi Arabia  

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Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) u...

Huda Umar Alwehaibi

2012-01-01

307

GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC PATIENTS IN THE HEALTH CENTERS OF SAUDI ARABIA  

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This paper presents general guidelines for the management of diabetic patients within the primary health care (PHC) system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It intends to enhance PHC physicians’ knowledge and improve clinical practice to ensure better management of people with diabetes mellitus. A stepwise (Algorithm) management approach for different categories of diabetic patients, including diet, exercise, and drugs, is suggested. The peculiarities of Family Medicine, e.g., adopting ...

Al-faris, Eiad A.

1997-01-01

308

Broadband Seismic Station Deployment at Hadabat Al-Marhi, Halban, Saudi Arabia  

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A broadband three-component seismic station was deployed on the Arabian Shield near the town of Halban in central Saudi Arabia. This site is near the proposed site of a primary seismic array (PS38) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The purpose of this deployment was to collect calibration data for the primary array to be deployed in the future.

Rodgers, A; Lewis, J P; Al-Amri, A

2002-02-11

309

A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender on outcome was assessed in a univariate fashion using the Chi-square or Fisher exact test when appropriate. A P-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant for all analyses. Results: A total of 68 out of 85 residents (80% responded to the survey. Over one-half of the residents preferred to pursue a fellowship within Saudi Arabia (53%, while others (25% planned to train in North America. The majority of respondents wished to practice in an urban setting (63%. Anterior segment was the most desired subspecialty, while general ophthalmology and glaucoma were not a popular choice. Most residents were interested in refractive surgery (77% and research (75%. The main factor influencing the decision to pursue ophthalmology was the ability to combine medicine and surgery (97%, while a positive elective experience was also an important factor, particularly for female respondents (91% vs. 57%; P < 0.001. Conclusion: Concerted efforts are required to encourage adoption to ophthalmic practice in public institutions rather than in private practice. In addition training in underrepresented subspecilaties should be encouraged to ensure adequate ophthalmic care for all citizens of Saudi Arabia.

Alwadani Fahad

2010-01-01

310

An eruptive moderate form of camelpox infection in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An eruptive moderate form of camelpox infection is reported in camels aged three to four years from the Al-Ahsa region of Saudi Arabia. The clinical signs were moderate in nature (between the 'mild' and the 'severe' form). The morbidity rate was 100% while the case fatality rate was 0%. Camelpox virus was isolated and identified using electron microscopy and serological analysis. PMID:10588019

Abu Elzein, E M; Gameel, A A; Ramadan, R O; Housawi, F M

1999-12-01

311

Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS and Organizational Learning (OL, might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1 the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2 the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is practical, according to its purpose, and descriptive according to its data collection method. Three groups of employees at Saudi banks were reviewed. Of the 335 questionnaires that were distributed, 285 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 85%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards LS and OL. Also, this study reveals that the aspects of LS have a significantly direct effect on OL.Accordingly, the study provides a set of recommendations that included the need for Transactional Leadership Styles (TALS in general, and Transformational Leadership Style (TFLS in particular, in order to achieve the best response to the needs and wishes of the workers at Saudi banks to increase their contribution to the achievement of OL on the one hand, and raise the level of their performance and enhance competitive advantage of these organizations on the other hand.

Wageeh A. Nafei

2012-02-01

312

Congenital heart defects in Down syndrome patients from western Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize congenital heart defects in individuals with Down syndrome (DS in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and compare with studies from other regions of Saudi Arabia and with international figures. Methods: We conducted a prospective study including all patients attending the DS clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between October 2007 and October 2011. All patients underwent full history and physical evaluations, dysmorphologic assessment, chromosomal studies, and echocardiography. Results: A total of 130 individuals (59% males and 41% females with ages ranging between 0-33 years (mean=5±4.9 were included. Most individuals (90.9% had trisomy 21 due to non-disjunction, 5.05% due to Robertsonian translocation, and 4% had mosaicism. Congenital heart defects were found in 86.8% of patients. The majority 71/92 (77% showed combined cardiac defects, while 21/92 (23% of DS patients had isolated congenital heart defects (CHD. The most frequent CHDs detected in this study were: patent ductus arteriosis in 44/92 (47.8%, atrial septal defect in 38/92 (41.3%, trivial tricuspid regurge in 31/92 (33.7%, ventricular septal defect in 27/92 (29.3%, and patent foramen oval in 26/92 (28.3%. Conclusion: We found a higher incidence of CHDs among DS individuals from the Western Region, compared to national and international figures. We detected more combined CHD and a different pattern of distribution.

Nabeel S. Bondagji

2012-11-01

313

Stock Market Development, Banks and Firms Growth: Empirical Evidence from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study provides new and updated empirical investigate the effect of stock market development, banks development and firms growth using Saudi Arabia industrial firm-level data set for the period (1995–2013 and applying GMM, MG techniques technique model developed for dynamic panels. The econometric results reveal that with more development in the stock market firms that use equity finance heavily grow faster than firms that do not. These findings provide firm-level support for the proposition that the development of the stock market facilitates economic growth in Saudi Arabia. Our results also show that both the stock market and the banking sector development are significant in facilitating the firm’s growth in Saudi Arabia. In particular, we find that measures of both market and banking development independently predict firm’s growth when entered together in firm growth regressions. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the stock market and the banking sector development have different effects on small and large firms.

Najeb Masoud

2014-05-01

314

Prevalence of non-strongyle gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were found. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyloides westeri (64.4%) and Parascaris equorum (28.8%) followed by Habronema muscae (22.2%). Trichostrongylus axei and Oxyuris equi were less common at (11.1%) and (8.8%), respectively. Habronema megastoma and Setaria equine were found in two horses only (4.4%). Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae were recovered from 39 horses (86.6%) and Gasterophilus nasalis larvae were found in 17 horses (37.7%). Season had a significant effect on the prevalence of P. equorum and G. nasalis, while age of horses had a significant effect only on the prevalence of P. equorum. The husbandry in Saudi Arabia appears to be conductive to parasites transmitted in stables or by insects rather than in pasture. PMID:23961139

Al Anazi, Abdullah D; Alyousif, Mohamed S

2011-07-01

315

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in the western province of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1990, an outbreak of suspected viral haemorrhagic fever involving 7 individuals occurred in Mecca in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), not previously known to be present in Saudi Arabia, was incriminated. A study of the epidemiology of this virus was therefore carried out in Mecca, and in nearby Jeddah and Taif in 1991-1993; 13 species of ixodid ticks (5 Hyalomma spp., 5 Rhipicephalus spp., 2 Amblyomma spp., 1 Boophilus sp.) were collected from livestock (camels, cattle, sheep, goats), and of these 10 were capable of transmitting CCHF. Camels had the highest rate of tick infestation (97%), and H. dromedarii was the commonest tick (70%). Attempts to isolate virus from pools of H. dromedarii and H. anatolicum anatolicum were unsuccessful. The source of infection in 3 confirmed cases of CCHF was contact with fresh mutton and, in a suspected case, slaughtering sheep. An investigation in Mecca, which included a serological survey of abattoir workers, identified 40 human cases of confirmed or suspected CCHF between 1989 and 1990, with 12 fatalities. Significant risk factors included exposure to animal blood or tissue in abattoirs, but not tick bites. It is suspected that the CCHF virus may have been introduced to Saudi Arabia by infected ticks on imported sheep arriving at Jeddah seaport, and that it is now endemic in the Western Province. PMID:9231193

el-Azazy, O M; Scrimgeour, E M

1997-01-01

316

Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety  

Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

Alsalah, Dhafer

2014-12-01

317

A Country on the Verge of Malaria Elimination - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant headway has been made in the global fight against malaria in the past decade and as more countries enter the elimination phase, attention is now focused on identifying effective strategies to shrink the malaria map. Saudi Arabia experienced an outbreak of malaria in 1998, but is now on the brink of malaria elimination, with just 82 autochthonous cases reported in 2012. A review of published and grey literature was performed to identify the control strategies that have contributed to this achievement. The number of autochthonous malaria cases in Saudi Arabia decreased by 99.8% between 1998 and 2012. The initial steep decline in malaria cases coincided with a rapid scaling up of vector control measures. Incidence continued to be reported at low levels (between 0.01 and 0.1 per 1,000 of the population) until the adoption of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment and the establishment of a regional partnership for a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula, both of which occurred in 2007. Since 2007, incidence has decreased by nearly an order of magnitude. Malaria incidence is now very low, but a high proportion of imported cases, continued potential for autochthonous transmission, and an increased proportion of cases attributable to Plasmodium vivax all present challenges to Saudi Arabia as they work toward elimination by 2015. PMID:25250619

Coleman, Michael; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed H.; Coleman, Marlize; Hemingway, Janet; Omar, Abdiasiis; Stanton, Michelle C.; Thomsen, Eddie K.; Alsheikh, Adel A.; Alhakeem, Raafat F.; McCall, Phillip J.; Rabeeah, Abdullah A. Al; Memish, Ziad A.

2014-01-01

318

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative pathogens in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a worldwide problem, including in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with major concerns regarding Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacteriaceae. Although over half of the isolates of P. aeruginosa remain susceptible to carbapenems, quinolones, and aminoglycosides in most reports from Saudi Arabia, resistance is on increase, with a worrying high prevalence of multidrug resistance. Ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and aminoglycosides remain active against A. baumannii isolates in some studies from the Kingdom, but recent data suggest increased resistance. Carbapenems are now the treatment of choice for Acinetobacter infections but their activity too is being eroded. Among Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp. are the most clinically relevant species. Rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production by these species vary among studies but are generally high in Saudi Arabia, with many ESBL-producing isolates multiresistant to other agents, except carbapenems and nitrofurantoin. A similar pattern is seen for Klebsiella, although with more resistance to quinolones, aminoglycosides, and to nitrofurantoin than in E. coli. Enterobacter is commonly resistant to penicillins, monobactams, and cephalosporins but mostly susceptible to carbapenems. Carbapenemases are beginning to emerge in Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24669827

Yezli, Saber; Shibl, Atef M; Livermore, David M; Memish, Ziad A

2014-10-01

319

Epidemiology, Clinical and complications profile of diabetes in Saudi Arabia: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diabetes mellitus is emerging as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia in parallel with the world wide diabetes pandemic, which is having a particular impact on upon the Middle East and the third world. This pandemic has accompanied the adoption of a modern life style and the abandonment of a traditional lifestyle, with a resultant increase in rates of obesity and other chronic non-communicable diseases. The indigenous Saudi population seems to have a special genetic predisposition to develop type 2 diabetes, which is further amplified by a rise in obesity rates, a high rate of consanguinity and the presence of other variables of the insulin resistance syndrome. We highlight the epidemiology, clinical and complication profile of diabetes in Saudi people. Diabetes is well studied in Saudi Arabia: however, there seems to be little research in the area of education and health acre delivery. This is of paramount importance to offset the perceived impact on health care delivery services, to lessen chronic diabetes complications and to reduce the expected morbidity and mortality from diabetes. (author)

320

Epidemiology, clinical and complications profile of diabetes in Saudi Arabia : A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is emerging as a major public health probelm in Saudi Arabia in parallel with the worldwide diabetes pandemic, which is having a particular impact upon the Middle East and the third world. This pandemic has accompanied the adoption of a modern lifestyle and the abandonment of a traditional lifestyle, with a resultant increase in rates of obesity and other chronic non-communicable diseases. The indigenous Saudi population seems to have a special genetic predisposition to develop type 2 diabetes, which is further amplified by a rise in obesity rates, a high rate of consanguinity and the presence of other variables of the insulin resistance syndrome. We highlight the epidemiology, clinical and complications profiles of diabetes in Saudi people. Diabetes is well studied in Saudi Arabia; however, there seems to be little research in the area of education and health care delivery. This is of paramount importance to offset the perceived impact on health care delivery services, to lessen chronic diabetes complications, and to reduce the expected morbidity and mortality from diabetes.

Elhadd Tarik

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilntegral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).

322

Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia:effects of sociodemographic factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (autcilities caring for medical students. (author)

323

Experience in and future prospects for sea water desalination in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The national programme for sea water desalination in Saudi Arabia is assigned to the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), a government entity loosely affiliated with the Ministry of Agriculture. In addition to water production, SWCC generates considerable electric power in its dual purpose power/water plants, selling excess power to the national grid. SWCC also builds and maintains certain major fresh water pipelines that connect its plants to important municipal water systems. SWCC's pride is the Research, Development and Training Center (RDTC) located in Al-Jubail. The goals at RDTC include improving plant efficiency and minimizing scale formation and corrosion problems. It also trains Saudi engineers and technicians in the operation and management of SWCC plants. As a result, Saudi nationals now represent 65% of the workforce and are heavily involved with all aspects of plant specification and tender analysis

324

Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intentions: Impact of Employee’s Training in Private Sector of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate impacts of training on organizational commitment and turnoverintentions in private sector of Saudi Arabia. The study seeks to focus the relationship between organizationalcommitment and turnover intentions of the employees. A literature review of organizational commitment andemployee turnover provides the basis for the research model and hypotheses. A self-administered questionnairewas used, involving 251 respondents from leading private organizations of Saudi Arabia to collect data andtesting the existing theory. The results provide strong support for the hypothesis that is the negative relationshipbetween organizational commitment and turnover intention. Employees’ training is significantly correlated withorganizational commitment, turnover intentions and the commitment-turnover relationship.The sample waslimited to private organization in Saudi Arabia. It may not be appropriate to generalize the findings across otherpopulations or settings. However, the sample can be viewed as a representative case typical of many otherorganizations in the same industry. The results provides insight into the impact of organizational commitment onturnover intentions in the specific private sector of Saudi Arabia, which might benefit for managers and policymakers of the concerned organizations and in general for the whole sector. The paper studies the problems thatexist in the private sector of Saudi Arabia.

Khawaja Jehanzeb

2013-03-01

325

Pediatric living-related liver transplantation in Saudi Arabia.  

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Our experience has shown pediatric living-related liver transplantation to be a success whilst alleviating the need for sending Saudi patients overseas for treatment and providing a solution to organ shortages for pediatric patients. In general, this endeavor has broadened the spectrum of our experience in surgery, anesthetics, intensive care and pediatrics.

Afef F. Bassas

2002-06-01

326

Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

Jamjoom, Mounira I.

2010-01-01

327

Evaluation of Vitamin B6 Status of Adult Saudis in Al-Qassim Region-Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin B6 status of adult Saudis in Al-Qassim region-Saudi Arabia. A sample of 239 (127 males and 112 females healthy Saudi adults was recruited. Vitamin B6 status was evaluated by dietary intake and biochemical measurements. Results of dietary intake measurements showed that means of vitamin B6 intake and intake of vitamin B6 to protein ratio for males and females were 1.97±0.58 mg/day, 0.021±0.003 and 1.89±0.61 mg/day, 0.020±0.04, respectively. Results of biochemical measurements showed that means of plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP concentration and average urinary 4-Pyridoxic Acid (4-PA excretion for males and females were 29.6±9.6 nmol L-1 and 7.0±2.4 ?mol day-1 and 31.7±10.4 nmol L-1 and 6.8±2.5 ?mol day-1, respectively. The study also investigated and discussed other health indicators that are related to vitamin B6 status including Body Mass Index (BMI, plasma albumin concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results of dietary intakes and biochemical measurements indicated an adequate status of vitamin B6. There were no significant differences between males and females in any of the previous measurements. This study indicated an adequate status of vitamin B6 among healthy adult Saudis in Al-Qassim region, however due to the numerous functions and the importance of the vitamin, the study suggested a further evaluation in various groups of the Saudi population in other regions of the country.

Khalid S. Al-Numair

2009-01-01

328

Vitamin D levels in healthy men in eastern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Studies in 1980s and 1990s indicated that vitamin D levels in the ethnic Saudi Arabian population were low but no studies since that time have evaluated vitamin D levels among healthy young or middle-aged Saudi men. Thus, we assessed the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD among healthy Saudi Arabian men living in the Eastern Province. Subjects and Methods : One hundred males aged 25-35 years (the age range of peak bone mass and 100 males aged 50 years or older were randomly selected and evaluated clinically, including measurement of serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH and serum 25OHD levels. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum level of 25OHD of ?20 ng/mL and insufficiency as a serum level between> 20 ng/mL and < 30 ng/mL and normal ?30 ng/mL. Results: The mean (SD age of subjects in the younger age group was 28.2 (4.5 years. Twenty-eight (28% had low 25OHD levels; 10 (10% subjects were vitamin D deficient with a mean level of 16.6 (3.4 ng/mL and 18 (18% were vitamin D insufficient with a mean level of 25.4 (2.7 ng/mL. In the older age group, the mean age was 59.4 (15.6 years and 37 (37% had low 25OHD; 12 (12% subjects were deficient with a mean 25OHD level of 16.7 (3.4 ng/mL and 25 (25% were insufficient with a mean 25OHD level of 25.3 (3.3 ng/mL. Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Saudi men is between 28% to 37%. Vitamin D deficiency among young and middle age Saudi Arabian males could lead to serious health consequences if the issue is not urgently addressed.

Sadat-Ali Mir

2009-01-01

329

Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is takenogramming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this paper, the major challenges facing the Saudi electrical power sector in implementing sustainable development are discussed and analyzed. The paper also looks at a number of developed countries and examines their experiences with energy conservation programs. The paper highlights current Saudi programs and experience for promoting awareness and participation in energy conservation. Strategies and major policy measures for energy conservation in Saudi Arabia are proposed

330

Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to concerns…

Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

2006-01-01

331

Body Mass Index and Dietary Intake of Saudi Adult Males in the Riyadh Region-Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate intake of macronutrients and its relation to Body Mass Index (BMI as well as intake of selected micronutrients in urban and rural healthy adults in Riyadh region-Saudi Arabia. 170 health adults were recruited, 85 of which were urbans and 85 were rurals. Three consecutive days food records were collected and dietary intakes were analyzed by the food processor and other food composition tables. Results showed high intake of macronutrients and prevalence of overweight and obesity in both groups with no significant differences. Subjects of both groups also had high intake of saturated fat. Results also showed inadequate intake of vitamin D, calcium and folate. Few of the participants of both groups had inadequate intake of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamin B1, vitamin B3, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and vitamin B2 was adequate. No significant differences between the two groups were observed except for vitamin D, calcium and vitamin B2 that their mean intakes were significantly higher in urban group compared to rural group. Mean intake of vitamin B3 was higher in rural group compared to urban group. These findings suggested that overweight and obesity among adult Saudis are due to high intake of macronutrients combined with inadequate intake of some micronutrients, which are results of non-balanced diet and inappropriate consumption patterns. The study also suggests that there is a need of increasing the nutritional education and awareness among adult Saudi males.

Abdullah H. Al-Assaf

2007-01-01

332

First shale gas experience in Saudi Arabia - lessons learned  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowled...

Alexeyenko, A. V.; Bartko, K. M.; Adebiyi, I. A.; Faraj, O. A.; Campo, C.

2013-01-01

333

Ibn Sina plans giant methanol plant in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following an announcement last week by Saudi Basic Industries Corp. that its Ar Razi joint venture plans to build an 850,000 m.t./year methanol plant at Al Jubail (CW December 7, p. 20) comes word that Sabic`s other domestic methanol production subsidiary, Ibn Sina, plans to add 1 million m.t./year of capacity. The new project will likely exceed $300 million.

NONE

1994-12-14

334

Identifying the Factors Influencing the Development of eGovernment in Saudi Arabia: The Employment of Grounded Theory Techniques  

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Full Text Available The implementation of eGovernment across countries is rapidly increasing. However, with this increase in the development of eGovernment projects especially in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia, there are still some difficulties facing the proper development of eGovernment. This paper aims to explore how eGovernment implementation and development can be understood in the context of Saudi Arabia based on the developers’ perspectives. An attempt is made to identify the factors influencing the development of eGovernment and contribute to cause the delay of its initiatives at government organisations in Saudi Arabia. To achieve the aim, an unstructured interview within a qualitative approach was adopted in this study. Grounded theory techniques based on Strauss and Corbin approach (1990 were employed in this study in order to analyze the collected data.

O. Alfarraj

2013-06-01

335

Progress Report for Annex II-Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1987, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) signed a five-year Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development (R and D), which has been extended to 2000. Tasks include: (1) upgrade solar radiation measurements in Saudi Arabia; (2) assemble a database of concurrent solar radiation, satellite (METEOSAT), and meteorological data; (3) adapt NREL models and other software for Saudi Arabia; (4) develop procedures, algorithms, and software to estimate solar irradiance; and (5) prepare a grid of solar radiation data for preparing maps and atlases and estimating solar radiation resources and solar energy system performances at locations in Saudi Arabia

336

Knowledge and attitude toward the hemoglobinopathies premarital screening program in Saudi Arabia: population-based survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic screening is an important tool to control, minimize, and prevent genetic disorders. Saudi Arabia started the first national premarital screening (PMS) program to control inherited hemoglobin (Hb) disorders that are the most commonly inherited genetic disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and attitude among the Saudi population about the PMS program through a questionnaire-based survey. A total of 1,047 candidates were included, divided into three groups. Group A represented the general population, group B was composed of couples presenting for PMS, and group C represented couples who had received their results. There was a fair knowledge among participants of the three groups about the nature of the tests and the targeted disorders, with more than 80% believing that it should include both sexually and genetically transmitted diseases. The concept of genetic counseling was liked by most of the participants. There was a positive attitude toward the program and the majority agreed to apply the PMS program to all couples in all country regions. More than 60% of all the participants were in favor of preventing at-risk marriages. PMID:19065330

Al Sulaiman, Ayman; Suliman, Ahmed; Al Mishari, May; Al Sawadi, Aziza; Owaidah, Tarek M

2008-01-01

337

Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Pallister, J. S.; McCausland, W. A.; Jonsson, S.; Lu, Z.; Zahran, H. M.; El, Hadidy, S.; Aburukbah, A.; Stewart, I. C. F.; Lundgren, P. R.; White, R. A.; Moufti, M. R. H.

2010-01-01

338

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

Al-Aqeel SA

2013-09-01

339

Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu and the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia based its industrialization program on a world view operating under a free market. The program's goals were to increase the value of petroleum products and manufactured goods as a way to diminish the country's dependence upon oil exports. An internal free market exists, with competition serving as the impetus for economic growth. Responsibility for economic development lies with the private sector, but the government has participated in support of the private sector. An overview of the accomplishments of the Royal Commission, headed by King Fahd since its inception in 1975, include the building of two new industrial cities in the desert and investment in the infrastructure for a petrochemicals and minerals-based industry. Modernization is progressing without disrupting the cultural traditions. Foreign investment has joined with the Saudi private sector to form a truly international approach. Changes in oil trade due to non-OPEC production have accompanied a shift in the comparative advantage to the industrial countries, but OAPEC is proud of its role in encouraging orderly and profitable trade. Saudi Arabia will be joining the worldwide search for and development of renewable energy sources and a shift toward a sustainable energy supply.

Hisham Nazer, H.E.

1987-05-01

340

Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Argic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Optimization of Broadband Seismic Network in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.

Alshuhail, Abdulrahman

2011-05-01

342

Between the Fears and Hopes for a Different Future for the Nation-states: Scholarship Programs in Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates from a Public Policy Standpoint  

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Full Text Available As Bereday (1964 once said, comparative education research, in its most rudimentary form, begins with juxtaposition. When juxtaposing contemporary trends concerning higher education in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates---both of which currently provide substantial support to improve their higher education systems---differences abound in terms of approach, strategic 'cultural' foresight, openness, and outreach. What do Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates aim to achieve via overseas scholarship programs? How do overseas Saudi and Emirati students evaluate the scholarship programs in terms of its negative and positive impacts on Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates? Among other things, this research highlights some of the similarities and differences between Saudi and Emirati students regarding their evaluation of Saudi Arabia’s and United Arab Emirates’ scholarship programs. This research has been conducted by a Saudi-PhD-sponsored by King Abdullah Scholarship Program; therefore, more emphasis will be placed on Saudi Arabia. While, in some parts, the study compares Saudi and Emiratis students, Emiratis and/or United Arab Emirates has been chosen in order to set KSA higher education in the context of another major Arab state.

Kholoud T Hilal

2013-03-01

343

Attractiveness Factors Influencing Shoppers’ Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Word of Mouth: An Empirical Investigation of Saudi Arabia Shopping Malls  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the attractiveness factors influencing shoppers’ satisfaction, loyalty, and word of mouth in Saudi shopping mall centers. The independent variables were attractiveness factors represented by these variables namely aesthetic, convenience and accessibility, product variety, entertainment, and service quality. The dependent variables were shopper satisfaction, loyalty and WOM. A structured questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 600 shopping mall customers, representing all of the shopping malls shoppers in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A purposive sampling technique was employed in this research. The multiple regression analysis showed the impact of shopping malls attractiveness factors on the shopper satisfaction. The attractiveness factors aesthetic, convenience and accessibility, product variety, entertainment, and service quality, had a positive effect on Saudi shopping mall shoppers’. The most significant factor was product variety. This research potentially contributes to shopping malls attractiveness factors and their impact on shoppers’ satisfaction in shopping malls of Saudi Arabia.

Ala'Eddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad

2012-10-01

344

The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources

345

Molecular tests to detect human papillomavirus infection in patients with cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Khalid H Sait1, Faten S Gazzaz21Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, 2Medical Virology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the actual human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype that presents in cervical dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in the Saudi population, and the feasibility of using Hybrid Capture 2 technique (HC2) on biopsy specimens to detect certain HPV subtypes.Patients and methods: A prospective st...

Kh, Sait; Fs, Gazzaz

2011-01-01

346

First shale gas experience in Saudi Arabia - lessons learned  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand (Saudi Aramco. 2010.During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.The Multidisciplinary task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both companies and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011. All targets set for the SHALE-1 well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.

ALEXEYENKO A.V

2013-09-01

347

Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = - 0.59o). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

Alharbi, O.A., E-mail: omar.alharbi@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Phillips, M.R., E-mail: m.phillips@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Williams, A.T., E-mail: allan.williams@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Gheith, A.M., E-mail: amingheith@mans.edu.eg [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Bantan, R.A., E-mail: rbantan@kau.edu.sa [Marine Geology Department, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rasul, N.M., E-mail: rasul.nm@sgs.org.sa [Saudi Geological Survey, Centre for Marine Geology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2012-04-01

348

HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.

GhaziAlsbeih

2014-03-01

349

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula and has an area of 872,722 sq miles, or 2,260,350 sq km. The ancient Arabian Shield of igneous and metamorphic rocks comprises most of the western third of the country. The shield contains many extinct volcanoes surrounded by lava beds. Sloping eastwards are the newer sedimentary areas in which rich oil fields are found. In Saudi Arabia oil is paramount and less effort has been put into searching for mineral deposits than in other countries of similar size and geology. Pour aerial radiometric surveys have been undertaken and some of the anomalies discovered in the earlier ones were ground checked by an IAEA expert in 1963-64. Two anomalies warranted more detailed work, these were the Jabal Said anomaly in the Central Shield area and the Al Ghrayyat in Wadi Sawawin about 70 miles from the Jordan border. The Jabal Said anomaly consists of a zone of altered rocks consisting largely of pegmatite and pegmatite granite= Allanite, pyrochlore, cyrtolite, xenotime and monazite are the ore minerals,, The deposit was estimated to have 2.2 million tons of ore grading 0.2 - 0.3 percent Nb2O5 and 0.03 - 0,05% U3O8. The other occurrence at Al Ghrayyat is similar but with much lower grade uranium content. In view of the huge size of Saudi Arabia, the existence of many geologically favourable rock types and the poor coverage by sophisticated uranium exploration techniques, the Speculative Potential is placed between 10,000 and 50,000 Tonnes uranium. (author)

350

Chromosomal aberration analysis among underground water well workers in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the absence of permanent rivers or bodies of water, half of the Saudi Arabia domestic water consumption is provided through desalination. The other half is derived from groundwater. Groundwater from the Disi aquifer is already used for drinking water in parts of Jordan and, more extensively, in Saudi Arabia, where it is known as the Saq aquifer. Some of the geological analyses of the host sandstone aquifer rocks show 228Ra and 226Ra. The usefulness of chromosomal aberrations analysis as a bioindicator for ionising radiation effect was tested in underground water well workers of Saudi Arabia in this industry producing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations was evaluated using the metaphase analysis method in the lymphocytes of peripheral blood of 10 persons working in underground water well. The age range of the workers was 25-40 y and their duration of service ranged from 3-7 y. For comparison, blood samples were also collected from 10 subjects (controls) who belonged to same age and socioeconomic status. Subjects in the both groups were non-smokers and non-alcoholics. Results showed that the mean frequencies of dicentrics and acentrics in underground water well workers are significantly higher than those in controls. The higher frequency of chromosomal aberration in lymphocytes of underground water well workers compared with controls could be due to the accumulative effect of radiation. The results of this study demonstrated that occupational exposure to radiation leads to a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers engaged in underground water well. (authors)

351

Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499

Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

352

New Records of Eriophyoid Mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea, fig (Ficus carica, grapes (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, citrus (Citrus spp., pomegranate (Punica granatum and pear (Pyrus communis. Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah, Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad, Rhynchaphytoptus ficifolia (Keifer and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer, belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites.

Fahad J. Al-Atawi

2011-01-01

353

New records of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptusficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites. PMID:21916261

Al-Atawi, Fahad J; Halawa, Alaa M

2011-01-15

354

Saudi-Arabia's way in to mineral oil sovereignty from 1932-1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four main phases of the history of Saudi-Arabian mineral oil politics are described, each of which marks one stage on the way to full oil-related sovereignty of the kingdom: 1. finding concession-holders for mineral oil, 2. Cooperation with ARAMCO in order to build up the country's mineral oil industry, 3. Cooperation with other OPEC-states in nationalising the oil industries, 4. participation in the 2nd Gulf War in order to achieve full sovereignty in matters of energy politics. Special attention is given to the specifically Saudian connection of foreign - and oil politics and the importance of historical ''coincidences'' for the success of Saudi Arabia's type of mineral oil politics. (orig./UA)

355

Characteristics of Rheumatoid Arthritis relative to HLA-DR in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to determine the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia in relation to human leukocyte antigen type. A group of 91 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 72 females and 19 males were studied for the various clinical, laboratory and radiological parameters along with human leukocyte antigen-DR phenotypes. Since human leukocyte antigen-DR10 was most commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis in our population, we compared those patients with human leukocyte antigen-DR10 to those without. The comparison yielded differences in the presence of rheumatoid nodules, erosions, corticosteroid treatment, and joint involvement at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and white cell count. Only the last 3 parameters showed a statistical significance. Human leukocyte antigen type of Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis influenced the course of the disease but only to a limited extent. (author)

356

Nutritional assessment and obesity in Down syndrome children and their siblings in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and prevalence of obesity among children with Down syndrome (DS. Methods: The study group comprised pre-pubertal children, with clinically and cytogenetically proven DS. Healthy siblings, closest in age to the DS children, were used as a control group. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT, and macro- and micronutrient intakes were measured in both groups. The study was conducted in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between February and May 2011. Results: Children with DS were shorter than their siblings, but had comparable weights. The DS children had higher BMIs and higher TSFTs, compared with their siblings. The prevalence of overweight and obesity differed significantly between the DS and control groups. The DS children had significantly lower intakes of fat, protein, retinol, riboflavin, and potassium compared with their siblings. Conclusion: Obesity appears to be a prominent feature among Saudi DS children.

Manal M. Samarkandy

2012-11-01

357

Pubertal characteristics among schoolgirls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puberty is the gradual transition period between childhood and adulthood. Many factors may contribute to the onset of puberty. The objective of the study was to determine the age of onset of secondary pubertal characteristics among Saudi Arabian girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a cluster sample design. Seven hundred and twenty-five schoolgirls between the ages of 6 and 16 years from diverse socioeconomic levels were included. During physical examinations, the height and weight of the girls were recorded, and the stages of breast and pubic hair development were determined according to Tanner stages; axillary hair development was determined according to modified stages. The median age at Tanner stage 2 for breast and pubic hair development was 10 years. The median age at stage 2 in modified scales for axillary hair development was 12 years. In conclusion, the median age of the onset of breast development at Tanner stage 2 for Saudi girls in Riyadh is lower than what has been reported in some countries in Europe, South Africa, Turkey and India but similar to girls in Hong Kong, China and white girls in the USA, which may support secular trends of an earlier onset of puberty. PMID:23640021

Felimban, Naila; Jawdat, Dunia; Al-Twaijri, Yasmin; Al-Mutair, Angham; Tamimi, Waleed; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamim, Hani; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim

2013-07-01

358

Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

2014-08-01

359

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Tagetes Minuta growing in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the essential oil of Tagetes Minuta L. growing in Saudi Arabia by gas-chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique confirmed that tagetone (11.52%), 5-octyn-4-one, 2, 7-dimethyl (11.52%), propanedinitrile, dicyclohexyl (10.45%) and 2-pinen-4-one (8.03%) being the main components. Lesser amounts of 1-acetoxy-p-menth-3-one (0.17%) and9-octacenamide (Z) (0.48%) were also found in this oil. The oil did not show neither antimicrobial nor antifungal activity. (author)

360

Elevation-angle variation of LEO satellite over the Kingdom of SaudiArabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new and simple method to calculate the time variation of the elevationangle for LEO satellites is presented in this article. The method is usefulto predict the link availability of LEO satellites due to propagationimpairments. The method has been applied as a realistic study of LEOsatellite flying over different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).It is found that the percentage of time during which this satellite isvisible (P%) over KSA decreases with the increase of the elevation angle. Thevariation of P% could be modeled either by an exponential function, or simplyby a decreasing power's law relation. (author)

 
 
 
 
361

A Threatened Fish Species (Aphanius dispar in Saudi Arabia, A Case Study  

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Full Text Available The present study showed that the population density of a native fish (A. dispar in the freshwater environments of Saudi Arabia is declining. It is concluded from the present investigations that A. dispar is not threatened by a single isolated factor, but instead faces numerous stressors that jeopardize multiple stages of their life cycle. Reduced availability of food, habitat degradation, chemical contamination, introduction of exotic species and exploitation have contributed to the decline of such native fish`s abundance. Protecting fishes will help to protect aquatic biodiversity and in conservation of biological heritage of the country.

H.F. Al-Kahem-Al-Balawi

2008-01-01

362

Creating and Mapping Flash Flood Social and Physical Vulnerability Index of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past couple of years, the frequency and magnitude of flash floods are increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective planning and mitigation purposes, it is necessary to identify and visualize areas that are vulnerable to the flooding. In this paper, we will first create a flash flood social and physical vulnerability index for the city of Riyadh based on physical and social-economic data. Building upon the index, the areas of Riyadh that are highly vulnerable to flash floods will be identified and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Finally, possible mitigation measures that can be used to reduce the impacts of flooding will be discussed in details.

Tauhidur Rahman, Muhammad; Aldosary, Adel S.; Nahiduzzaman, Khondokar Mohammad

2014-05-01

363

Petrochemical study of Al-Mizil plutonic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A petrochemical study of some rock samples was carried out using different experimental techniques. The rock samples were collected from the Al-Mizil area, Saudi Arabia. This area consists of Precambrian metasediments which belong to the Halaban Formation. The plutonic rocks intruded later into the Halaban Formation. Major oxides and the trace elements in these rocks are presented. The study indicates that the rocks are mainly of granitic composition. The petrochemical data suggest a magmatic origin for Al-Mizil granitic rocks. (author)

364

Role of tuberculosis laboratories in Saudi Arabia: A call to implement standardized procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is no doubt that the laboratory is the backbone for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Only through testing in the laboratory can the physician confirm suspicion of TB despite any previous clinical and x-ray findings. Recent visits to several laboratories in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia showed that some need considerable improvement. Unless there are standardized procedures to diagnose TB, and safety measures are implemented in all laboratories, it will be impossible to diagnose accurately and control TB. The laboratories should be redesigned to conform to international TB Diagnostic Centers, with well trained staff and proper safety procedures. (author)

365

Development of Local health Care Planning and Demanding in Saudi Arabia By Using GIS Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose and the goal of the paper is to show how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used to support health planning and demanding on a micro-scale and explore the possibilities of using GIS for health care services in hospitals at Saudi Arabia sub_areas. GIS as a computer system that stores and links non-graphic attributes or geographically referenced data with graphic map features to allow a wide rang of information processing and display operations, as well as map production,...

Magdy Shayboub Ali Mahmoud

2013-01-01

366

Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic approach using a documentary and content analysis technique was used to develop test blueprints with additional input from an expert panel as appropriate. Test blueprinting is an important step to ensure the test validity in all residency programs.Keywords: test blueprinting, psychiatry, residency program, summative assessment, documentary and content analysis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 

Gaffas EM

2012-05-01

367

Medical social sciences. Their potential contributions to medical education reforms in Saudi Arabia.  

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This article emphasizes a holistic definition of health. It then introduces the concept of Medical social sciences, and drawing from the literature, argues for the inevitability of social sciences in medical education, especially in the health systems of developing countries including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. This is followed by a brief history of medical education in KSA, and an examination of some important social science issues. Finally, this article suggests how a holistic approach involving inputs from the social and behavioral sciences could be incorporated into undergraduate medical education to produce medical professionals who could better meet the community and public health needs of the country.

Hussein M. Al-Borie

2012-07-01

368

Arsenic, Lead and Microorganisms in Hair and Nails of Some Women from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might...

Hashem, A. R.; Abed, K. F.

2002-01-01

369

A Check List of Weeds in Al-kharj Area of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A Check list of 51 weeds, belonging to 27 families in Al-Kharj area of Saudi Arabia, was listed. All these weeds species were found in agricultural fields or in neglected farms. Most of these weeds cause moderate to severe infestations to various agricultural crops and fodder plants. Correct identification and the methods of eradication of these weeds from the agricultural fields are one of the primary objectives to improve the crop yields, further, a concise regional weed flora would serve much and help farmers in these regions. A brief description of each weed species is provided to make its identification easier.

Mohammed N. Al-Yemeny

1999-01-01

370

Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ? 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ? 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.Keywords: quality of life, skin disease, Saudi Arabia

Abolfotouh MA

2012-07-01

371

Glutamate and Caffeine intake of Some Snacks and Drinks in Saudi Arabia  

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The aim of this study was to estimate the intake level of glutamate and caffeine from some snacks and drinks. The survey was carried out during 2008 to 2009 in 3 selected governorates (Al-Hassa, Al- Katif and AD-Dammam) localized in the eastern area of Saudi Arabia. The age of study participants (298) was ranged between less than 4 – over 30 years. The snacks and drinks consumption data were gathered and calculated using the frequency methods. Forty nine samples of snacks and beverages were...

Al-abbad, Najat A.; Hassan, Magda I.

2011-01-01

372

A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

2004-01-01

373

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

374

Diffuse fraction of daily global radiation at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relationship between the diffuse fraction of daily global solar radiation and clearness index (the ratio of global to extraterrestrial radiation) is obtained from the radiation data measured at Dhahran (26{degree}32{prime}N, 50{degree}13{prime}E), Saudia Arabia. Two years of daily radiation data calculated from measured one-minute values are used to develop the relationship. Another year of data is used to validate the relationship. Comparison between the present correlation and previous correlations is presented. The present data confirm the seasonal dependence and the location independence of the correlation reported in literature. The diffuse and global solar radiation are presented for dusty and clear days. The results show that the dust significantly increases the diffuse fraction of the global radiation. The diffuse fraction on a typical clear day in March is 0.11, while on a dusty day, in the same month, may be as high as 0.91.

Elhadidy, M.A.; Abdel-Nabi, D.Y. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1991-01-01

375

Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Recent developments in the field of internetcommunication in the last decade worldwide have crossed allthe physical boundaries laid down by human being and this erawitnessed a major development in the field of InformationTechnology and made a large number of computer users in theworld. Every common man is influenced by this new world ofcommunication named as cyber world. But there are alwaystwo aspects associated with every technology; the destructiveside is threats associated with this internet communication incyberspace. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formationof laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem.This paper discusses the stand of Saudi Arabian governmentagainst cyber crime and its IT act. It analyzes the cybercrimein the Kingdom and the associated legislation to combat thesame.

Naasir Kamaal Khan

2012-10-01

376

Saudi Arabia to build another world-scale plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Methanol Co. (AR-RAZI), a 50-50 joint venture of Sabic and a consortium of Japanese companies led by Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC), says it will invest more than $200 million in a new 850,000-m.5./year chemical-grade methanol plant at Al Jubail. The plant, Ar-Razi`s fourth methanol unit, is scheduled for completion in May 1999. The jv will bring its third methanol plant onstream in July. This unit, also 850,000 m.t./year, will raise Ar-Razi`s total capacity to 2.25 million m.t./year. Its complex at Al Jubail is already the largest single producer of chemical-grade methanol in the world. When the fourth unit comes onstream in 1999 the jv will have 3.1 million m.t./year of methanol capacity.

Alperowicz, N.

1997-05-07

377

Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002). The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (PEducational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents’ progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers.

Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Alrabai, Hamza M; Alrehaili, Osama A; Aljurayyan, Abdulaziz N; Alsaif, Ranyah M; Algarni, Nizar; Al-Khawashki, Hazem M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D

2014-01-01

378

Perceptions of the Educational Contract among Saudi Residents and Western Staff Physicians in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-year study investigated the attitudes of 63 Saudi medical residents and their 74 Western clinical teachers concerning the teacher-student relationship. Conflicts in perceptions in the first year were found to be largely resolved in the second year, possibly because of the study itself. (MSE)

Al-Rajeh, Saad

1995-01-01

379

Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

380

Dismantling the Perceived Barriers to the Implementation of National Higher Education Accreditation Guidelines in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in its social sector, especially in setting up new schools and universities. The aim of the development is to prepare the Kingdom for a future that is not dependent on its oil resources which are predicted to run out in less than a hundred years. Driven by the country's monarch, King Abdullah, many…

Onsman, Andrys

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The Quality Assurance System for Post-Secondary Education in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive, Developmental and Unified Approach  

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The rapid growth in the number of post-secondary institutions in Saudi Arabia over the last few years necessitated the creation of a government agency for accreditation and quality assurance. The National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment was established in 2004 for this purpose. Between 2005 and 2008, it developed a new…

Darandari, Eqbal Z.; Al-Qahtani, Saleh A.; Allen, Ian D.; Al-Yafi, Wafaa A.; Al-Sudairi, Abdulsalam A.; Catapang, Joey

2009-01-01

382

The prevalence of dental anomalies in the Western region of saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for congenitally missing teeth, supernumerary teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, transposition, germination, fusion, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dent, and any other unusual conditions that can be assessed with OPG. Results. The prevalence of patient that exhibited at least one dental anomaly was 396 (45.1%) patients. The prevalence of congenitally missing teeth was 226 (25.7%), impacted teeth 186 (21.1%), dilacerated teeth 10 (1.1%), supernumerary teeth 3 (0.3%), odontoma 1 (0.1%), and taurodontism was also 1 case (0.1%) of the total radiographs reviewed. Conclusions. Congenitally missing teeth were found to be the most prevalent anomaly (25.7%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (21.1%), whereas root dilacerations, supernumerary teeth, and taurodontism were the least frequent anomalies (1.1%, 0.3% and 0.1%, resp.). PMID:22778974

Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H

2012-01-01

383

Learning strategies of medical students in the surgery department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Hasan A Alzahrani,1 Owiss H Alzahrani21Department of Surgery, 2Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: To identify medical students' perceptions of their learning strategies including, learning habits, resources, and preferred teaching methods, in the Department of Surgery (DOS of the King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine (KAU-FoM, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study which was designed to identify students' perceptions of their learning in the DOS of the KAU-FoM. A questionnaire was administered to a random group of 549 medical students, to explore student perceptions of their learning strategies including methods of learning and learning resources.Results: The majority believed that clinical session attendance is always important compared with lectures (88.9% vs 21.9%. Nevertheless, clinical sessions were selected as the third source of learning after learning from assigned textbooks and previous examination model answers. The majority (74.1% believed that self-instruction at home is the preferred method of learning.Conclusion: Student perspectives should be taken into consideration prior to any future reforms of curriculum. Reforms should adopt a “think globally; act locally” educational strategy based on learner needs.Keywords: education, medical, learning, surgery, developing countries

Alzahrani HA

2012-08-01

384

Lead Exposure: A Summary of Global Studies and the Need for New Studies from Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead poisoning (plumbism) can cause irreversible genetic and reproductive toxicity, hematological effects, neurological damage, and cardiovascular effects. Despite many efforts to minimize lead poisoning, it continues to be a major health concern in many developing and developed countries. Despite efforts to control lead exposure and toxicity, serious cases of lead poisoning increasingly occur as a result of higher vehicular traffic and industrialization. The biomarkers for identification of genetic susceptibility to a particular disease are useful to identify individuals who are at risk for lead poisoning. Although many such studies have been taken up elsewhere, very few studies were performed in Saudi Arabia to assess susceptibility to lead poisoning. This indicates an urgent need for testing of susceptible individuals. The present paper was planned to understand the genetic susceptibility to lead toxicity in the various population studies conducted worldwide and also to correlate it with the current scenario in Saudi Arabia. Such studies are necessary for appropriate precautions in terms of diet and avoiding exposure to be used in order to prevent adverse health effects.

Shaik, A. P.; Sultana, S. A.; Alsaeed, A. H.

2014-01-01

385

SECONDARY SCHOOL HEAD TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA: THE RESULTS OF A MIXED METHODS APPROACH  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships with students and parents, head teachers’ authority, relationship with educational supervision and relationships with teachers. The quantitative data reveal that factors causing dissatisfaction are: lack of authority to transfer underperforming teachers, lack of finance and manpower for the cleaning of school buildings, lack of financial resources to improve school buildings, salary, poor revenue from school meals as a financial resource, and lack of financial reward. To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and the selected variables, a Kruskal-Wills (non parametric statistical test revealed significant differences between job satisfaction in terms of morale, relationship with the educational administration, the school environment, head teachers’ authority and overall job satisfaction according to educational supervision centers. In addition, a kruskal-Wills test revealed significant differences between job satisfactions in head teachers’ practices according to completion of the head teachers’ training programme. However, there were no significant differences between job satisfaction related to experience, student numbers, head teachers’ qualification, age and school building type. The paper identifies that the highly centralised educational system in Saudi Arabia and the lack of autonomy are factors that affect job satisfaction.

AHMED MOHAMED ALZAIDI

2008-11-01

386

Lead exposure: a summary of global studies and the need for new studies from Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead poisoning (plumbism) can cause irreversible genetic and reproductive toxicity, hematological effects, neurological damage, and cardiovascular effects. Despite many efforts to minimize lead poisoning, it continues to be a major health concern in many developing and developed countries. Despite efforts to control lead exposure and toxicity, serious cases of lead poisoning increasingly occur as a result of higher vehicular traffic and industrialization. The biomarkers for identification of genetic susceptibility to a particular disease are useful to identify individuals who are at risk for lead poisoning. Although many such studies have been taken up elsewhere, very few studies were performed in Saudi Arabia to assess susceptibility to lead poisoning. This indicates an urgent need for testing of susceptible individuals. The present paper was planned to understand the genetic susceptibility to lead toxicity in the various population studies conducted worldwide and also to correlate it with the current scenario in Saudi Arabia. Such studies are necessary for appropriate precautions in terms of diet and avoiding exposure to be used in order to prevent adverse health effects. PMID:25214703

Shaik, A P; Sultana, S A; Alsaeed, A H

2014-01-01

387

End-of-life practices in a tertiary intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to evaluate end-of-life practices in a tertiary intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia. A prospective observational study was conducted in the medical-surgical intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over the course of the one-year study period, 176 patients died and 77% of these deaths were preceded by end-of-life decisions. Of these, 66% made do-not-resuscitate decisions, 30% decided to withhold life support and 4% withdrew life support. These decisions were made after a median time of four days (Q1 to Q3: 1 to 9) and at least one day before death (Q1 to Q3: 1 to 4). The patients' families or surrogates were informed for 88% of the decisions and all decisions were documented in the patients' medical records. Despite religious and cultural values, more than three-quarters of the patients whose deaths were preceded by end-of-life decisions gave do-not-resuscitate decisions before death. These decisions should be made early in the patients' stay in the intensive care unit. PMID:22313074

Aldawood, Abdulaziz S; Alsultan, Mohammad; Arabi, Yaseen M; Baharoon, Salim A; Al-Qahtani, S; Al-Qahtani, M; Haddad, Samir H; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Jahdali, Hamdan A; Alatassi, Abdulaleem; Rishu, Asgar H

2012-01-01

388

Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

Afify AR

2013-10-01

389

Comparative study on three locally developed live orf virus vaccines for sheep in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemiology of orf virus infection in Saudi Arabia (SA) has been researched since 1990. The results obtained during this period indicate that the disease is widespread, has great economic impact and that no vaccine has been used against it. The present study compares the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of three locally developed live orf virus vaccines. Two of them differ in their passage history in Vero cell culture and the third was used as a virulent virus in glycerine buffer. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no similar comparative study has been conducted in the Middle East utilising three types of vaccines prepared from the same virus strain. Selection of the candidate seed orf virus and performance of the quality control tests were as laid out by the OIE for veterinary vaccine production. The vaccine seed virus was a field orf virus isolated from a previous orf outbreak in Saudi Arabia. A simple novel formula was developed to calculate the rate of reduction in the healing time (RHT %) in the challenged sheep. This allowed direct comparison of the efficacy of the three types of vaccines employed in the present study. The efficacy of each vaccine was tested on a cohort of local Noemi sheep. PMID:23327314

Housawi, Fahdel M; Abuelzein, Eltayb M; Gamee, Ahmed A; Alafaleq, Adel I

2012-01-01

390

Ecological significance of wood anatomy in two lianas from arid southwestern Saudi Arabia.  

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The hot and arid lowlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia are home to two common lianas, Cocculus pendulus and Leptadenia arborea. This paper attempts to relate the adaptation of these two climbing woody perennials to such a harsh environment to the anatomy and hydraulic characteristics of their wood. The stems of these lianas have wood with wide xylem vessels and high hydraulic conductivity which should enhance water flow to the upper canopy despite their severe twisting. Hydraulic conductivity is further helped by the simple perforation plates of xylem vessels. The circular thickening of xylem walls gives them strength and reduces the risk of their collapse and the ensuing embolism in the advent of high tension created by severe water deficit and high evapo-transpiration demand. Wide vessels, on the other hand, are more susceptible to embolism. This problem may be overcome by reducing the solute potential of xylem sap by hydrolysis of starch grains which were found to be abundant in the vicinity of the vessels. This should help absorb water by the deep roots from the capillary fringes of the typically shallow water table in this particular habitat. Furthermore, the abundance of ray parenchyma cells between xylem groups of both lianas provides great flexibility with minimum damage to water conduits in the stem during climbing and twisted growth. It was concluded that these wood features in both lianas are crucial for survival under the harsh conditions of arid Tihama plains of southwestern Saudi Arabia. PMID:25183944

Masrahi, Yahya S

2014-09-01

391

Lower Silurian-Upper Ordovician subsurface glacial outwash deposits, northern Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently acquired seismic data reinterpreted well information in northwest Saudi Arabia extends outcropping Lower Silurian to Upper Ordovician Zarqa/Sarah glacial and periglacial deposits into the subsurface. These deposits range from northeast-trending outwash-filled channels deeply incised into the underlying Ordovician Qasim and the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation in the east. A southwest source for these sediments is implied by this new data. This supports previously interpreted source directions mapped from outcrop. It also correlates with the position of the Arabian plate relative to known Gonwanaland ice caps during the Early Silurian-Late Ordovician. The recognition of glacial outwash sediments in the subsurface provides new insight into the continuity and environments of deposition of the Qasim Formation members in northwest Saudi Arabia. The hydrocarbon-prone Lower Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation overlies the Zarqa/Sarah Formations. The Qusaiba represents a rapid transgression of the Paleo-Tethys Sea during the final melting of the Gondwanaland ice caps. The seal-source characteristics of the Qusaiba Member, combined with the good porosity and permeability of the underlying outwash deposits, suggest a prospective hydrocarbon exploration play. Gas is produced from this reservoir in the Risha field of eastern Jordan.

Dobson, P.B. (Northern Area Exploration, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1991-08-01

392

Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Amaranthus pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and a potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A. viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samplers were operated continuously for one year at each location. Results: The data revealed A. viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%, Jeddah (87%, Qassim (85%, Taif (84%, Dammam (83% and Jizan (61%. These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. viridis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000/m 3 of air in October and 1827/m 3 of air in September. The data also exhibited a seasonal pattern in their maximum appearance. Conclusion: Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Hasnain Syed

2007-01-01

393

Determining the Self-Service Technology Adoption in Saudi Arabia: A Multi-Industry Approach  

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Full Text Available This study investigates the adoption of self-service technologies (SST among consumers in Saudi Arabia using the multi-industry approach. Unlike the majority of previous studies which either focuses on a specific industry or a specific SST, this study looks at SST adoption across multiple industries and across various SST platforms. In addition, it proposes a new construct—“consumers seek values” comprising of time convenience, ease of use, usefulness, secure/privacy, autonomy, service ubiquity and enjoyment adopting the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM as the research framework. The model includes consumer demographic characteristics which represents the exogenous variable while consumer adoption of SST as the endogenous variable. Based from a mall-intercept technique, a final usable sample comprises of 400 respondents was collected in four major cities in Saudi Arabia. This represents an effective response rate of 44%. The hypothesis was tested using SEM and WrapPLS to illustrate the relationship. The results showed that the proposed framework was significant.   

Abdul Rahim Abu Bakar

2014-05-01

394

Trends in Residential Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia with Particular Reference to the Eastern Province  

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Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.

Farajallah Alrashed

2014-12-01

395

Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

2013-02-01

396

Pharmacoeconomic Analysis in Saudi Arabia: An Overdue Agenda Item for Action  

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Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics is a branch of health economics related to the most economical and efficient use of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacoeconomic research identifies, measures and compares the costs and outcomes (clinical, economic and humanistic of pharmaceutical products and services. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation can play a significant role in the efficient allocation of resources in healthcare systems with constrained budgets. Countries are trying to control the rising costs of health care in their aging population. They are all asking the same question: Is the new drug good value for money; and if so, what is the society willing to pay for it? This article reviews the importance of, and the need for, adaptation of pharmacoeconomic analysis to the conditions in Saudi Arabia. It will shed some light on the important steps for converting the concept into practice, including the need for identifying the willing-to-pay (WTP or the threshold cutoff, the existence of a real cost for each utility, the nonexistence of an pharmacoeconomic advisory forum, pharmaceutical budget allocation, and the impact of pharmaceutical marketing. It will also provide recommendations for easing any challenges that might jeopardize the conduct of such analysis in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Jazairi Abdulrazaq

2011-01-01

397

Gender and risk of depression in Saudi Arabia, a systematic review and meta-analysis  

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Full Text Available Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.

Nagi A.M. Elawad

2010-09-01

398

Conceptual Model of Successful Educational online Community of Practice for Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The community of practice is an internet application that nourishes knowledge management and innovation. Implementing the community of practice in education can enhance the learning process and make it an enjoyable, exiting and lifelong experience. In this paper, the researchers intend to create a conceptual model for the successful implementation of community of practice in Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through evaluate the literature review about the educational community of practice. Then, a prototype is developed followed by a survey to collect feed-backs about the experiment. Using the Chi-Square statistical method of qualitative analysis associated with the Design Science Methodology of research, the research is fulfilled. The results illustrated the conceptual model of the effective implementation of the community of practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, that define the seven factors to be considered which are network density, culture perceptions, distributed production, knowledge complexity and richness, government enforcement, IT specialist role, and senior members role.

Fatimah Al-Shahrani

2014-10-01

399

Attitudes of Managers towards the Potential Effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia: Factor Analysis  

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Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the attitudes of managers in Saudi Arabia towards the effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia. The study includes 143 firms in three sectors of activities; private manufacturing, private service and public firms. The study reveals that the five most significant benefits are; safer environment, improvement of image of the certified firms with the international environmental organizations, ensure the safety of workers inside the organizations, improvement of firms image with customers and the reduction of pollution. When using Factor Analysis, it produces five factors; employee morale, efficiency and quality, relations with government, safety of products and relations with environmental organizations. Furthermore, the study shows that the five most difficulties are related to the costs and fees; fees of consultants, costs of changing within organizations, costs of maintain the system, fees of the certification agencies and costs of internal auditing. The Factor Analysis suggests two factors for difficulties namely; preparation and documentation and costs and fees. The study also finds that there is an overwhelming satisfaction about ISO 14001 among managers where the private service firms come first followed by public firms then the private manufacturing firms.

Nasser Akeil Kadasah

2013-06-01

400

Geophysical Imaging of Fault Structures Over the Qadimah Fault, Saudi Arabia  

The purpose of this study is to use geophysical imaging methods to identify the conjectured location of the ‘Qadimah fault’ near the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’, Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 2-D resistivity and seismic surveys were conducted at two different locations, site 1 and site 2, along the proposed trace of the ‘Qadimah fault’. Three processing techniques were used to validate the fault (i) 2-D travel time tomography, (ii) resistivity imaging, and (iii) reflection trim stacking. The refraction traveltime tomograms at site 1 and site 2 both show low-velocity zones (LVZ’s) next to the conjectured fault trace. These LVZ’s are interpreted as colluvial wedges that are often observed on the downthrown side of normal faults. The resistivity tomograms are consistent with this interpretation in that there is a significant change in resistivity values along the conjectured fault trace. Processing the reflection data did not clearly reveal the existence of a fault, and is partly due to the sub-optimal design of the reflection experiment. Overall, the results of this study strongly, but not definitively, suggest the existence of the Qadimah fault in the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’ region of Saudi Arabia.

AlTawash, Feras

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can help the public sector telecom companies of Saudi Arabia to combat the future challenges on the basis of these variables: Quality of Work Life and Welfare Measures, Organizational Development, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards and Participative Management. The present study brings out the fact that appropriate HRD Practices provide an essential springboard for enhancing the Satisfaction and Commitment of the employees in the Telecom Industry. Appropriate Practices in HRD are subjective. What is best for one company may not be best for another. ‘Appropriate practices are not a set of discrete actions but rather a holistic approach to management. Thus, to study the appropriateness of the HRD Practices, an attempt was made to identify those HRD practices that are prevalent in the Telecom Sector.

Nasser S. Al-Kahtani

2014-05-01

402

Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303±57 to 700±38 ?Gy y-1 with an average value of 455.1±45 ?Gy y-1. The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212±40 to 490±27 ?Sv y-1 with an average value of 318.57±31 ?Sv y-1.222Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from 222Rn and its progeny. The 222Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean 222Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69 Bq m-3 with an average of 18.4 Bq m-3. The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46 mSv y-1

403

Assessment of fluoride concentrations in commercially available mouthrinses in central Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the fluoride concentration of different commercially available mouthrinses in central Saudi Arabia, and compare the obtained measurements with label values. Methods: This cross-sectional study identified 25 brands of mouthrinses in the markets of Riyadh city  between August and September 2013. Nineteen brands of mouthrinses whose labels indicate the percentage of sodium fluoride (NaF and 6 brands not indicating the fluoride percentage were included in the study. Three bottles of 2 manufacturing batches of each brand were acquired, coded, and analyzed after dilution using specific electrodes for fluoride and an ion analyzer at the College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.   Results: The average fluoride concentrations in the tested mouthrinses ranged from 8.4 ppm (Voza to 448.7 ppm (Sensodyne `Pronamel`. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in the fluoride concentration between the studied 25 brands. Almost 60% of the brands’ fluoride concentrations were significantly different (mainly lower from the label value. However, only 5 brands contain fluoride at a concentration not significantly different from the recommended fluoride concentration in daily mouthrinses 0.05% (225 ppm. Conclusion: Most of the studied commercially available mouthrinses contain topical fluoride at concentrations below the manufacturers’ label value, but above the recommended 0.05%. 

Abdullah M. Aldrees

2014-10-01

404

Pattern Of Tinea Capitis In A Hospital-based Clinic In Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp the purpose of this study was to define the demographic features, clinical patterns and associated symptoms and signs of tinea capitis in Saudi Arabia. All patients who attended the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU at Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia and who were diagnosed as tinea capitis between January 1991 and December 2001 were reviewed. The collected data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered as the statistical level of significance. The patients with tinea capitis composed 0.14% of the study population and male to female ratio was 1.8:1. The mean age at presentation was 6.4 + 5.2 years. The most frequent sign was alopecia and the predominant morphological type was the non inflammatory tinea capitis. Micorporum canis was the predominant dermatophyte followed by Trichophyton violaceum.

Aldayel Maha

2004-01-01

405

Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

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