In this briefing, some specific problems facing the petroleum industry in Saudi Arabia over the next few years are considered. They include: marketing difficulties caused by a glut in the Asian market to which Saudi Arabia is increasingly directing sales; the current high cost of maintaining a surplus production capacity that is unlikely to be used in the short term; a need to revise the budget to take into account the unexpected collapse in oil revenues in recent months; a need to prevent gross overproduction by both OPEC and non-OPEC rivals in order to prevent either loss of market share or persistent low prices. (UK)
In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138
This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation
ABSTRACT This article reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, consumption, trade, control, prevention, and treatment of tobacco smoking in Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of current smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% (median = 17.5%). Among school students, the prevalence of current smoking ranges from 12-29.8% (median = 16.5%), among university students from 2.4-37% (median = 13.5%), and among adults from 11.6-52.3% (median = 22.6%). In elderly people,...
Ali, Mohammed T.; Bassiony, Medhat M.
This article reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, consumption, trade, control, prevention, and treatment of tobacco smoking in Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of current smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% (median = 17.5%. Among school students, the prevalence of current smoking ranges from 12-29.8% (median = 16.5%, among university students from 2.4-37% (median = 13.5%, and among adults from 11.6-52.3% (median = 22.6%. In elderly people, the prevalence of current smoking is 25%. The prevalence of smoking in males ranges from 13-38% (median = 26.5%, while in females it ranges from 1-16% (median = 9%. To conclude, smoking is prevalent in the Saudi population at different age groups. The prevalence of current smoking is much higher in males than in females at different ages. More research is needed in the area of prevention and treatment of smoking.
Medhat M. Bassiony
Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and inciden...
Al-jadid, Maher S.
Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)
Saudi patients with narcolepsy have the same clinical presentation as reported in the Western literature. Narcoleptics with cataplexy had disturbed quality compared to narcoleptics without cataplexy. A long time was reported between symptoms onset and diagnosis, which may reflect the under-recognition of the problem among physicians.
Ahmed S. BaHammam
Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potenand Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs
OBJECTIVES The aim of this retrospective study is to delineate the histopathological profile of colorectal cancers seen at King AbdulAziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to compare our findings with 12 other studies published in the literature from other areas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Our study group consisted of 39 colorectal cancer patients, who were examined in the department of Histopathology ...
Ibrahim Mansoor; Zahrani, Ibrahim H.; Syed Abdul Aziz
OBJECTIVES To investigate the prevalence of articular chondrocalcinosis in subjects aged 50 years and above in a radiographic survey through 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Over a period of 7 months extending from September 1998 to March 1999, 153 patients attending 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were interviewed, examined and then requested to have radiographs...
Al-arfaj, Abdulrahman S.; Al-boukai, Ahmed A.
OBJECTIVES Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a well-established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). We designed this study to obtain the prevalence of MS and each of its components in Saudi Arabia. This study is part of Coronary Artery Disease in Saudi Study (CADISS). METHODS We conducted this community-based national epidemiological health survey by examining Saudi subjects in the age group of 30-70 years of sele...
Afifi, Mustafa M.
Saudi–Jordanian relations are a mismatch between broadly identical interests and differing means and capacities to realize them. Saudi Arabia has the potential to advance its interests, but is hamstrung by leadership structure, habit and political culture. Jordan has some advantages in terms of leadership structure, habit and political culture, but has only limited ability to affect its interests. Saudi Arabia’s historic sensitivities concerning its one-time Hashemite rival in Arabia a...
Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.
The first attempt at optometric education in the Middle East, a program developed at King Saud University (Saudi Arabia), is described. The university's second class of optometrists is being trained in the College of Applied Medical Sciences. Professional identity, limited faculty, and development of resources have been problems. (MSE)
McQuaid, Robert D.; Kusztyk, George M.
Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.
Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author) into future vaccines. (author)
On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...
OBJECTIVES To determine the percentage occurrence, demographic and clinical features of psoriasis in adult patients at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS The medical records of all the adult patients with psoriasis were analyzed from January 1991 to December 1994 at the dermatology clinic, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS
Fatani, Mohamad I.; Abdulghani, Magdy H.; Al-afif, Khalid A.
OBJECTIVES To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Al-harbi, Khalid M. 2011-01-01
Al-harbi, Khalid M.
The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installati...
Pazheri, F. R.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…
Objectives: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between 2010 and 2011. Methods: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi ...
OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its correlates among Saudi male adolescents in Riyadh. As well as evaluating their knowledge, attitude and practice towards obesity. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted in intermediate and secondary schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out during a 5-month period, September 2001-January 2002. A sample of 894 Saudi male adolesce...
Al-rukban, Mohammed O.
Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and Decembe...
Alghanmi, Najla M.; Abdullah, Layla S.
The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force. PMID:12233432
De Klebnikoff, S
Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus) is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the polychain reaction techniques (PCR). The patient's renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued. (author)
Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire.
Gari, Abdulatif A.; Al-ghamdi, Yahya A.; Qutbuddeen, Hamed S.; Alandonisi, Munzir M.; Mandili, Faisal A.; Alaa Sultan
Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…
Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih
As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…
Alwadie, Adnan D.
The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…
This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness. Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/17/2010.
The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female decant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)
Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from 22% to 32% of the total population, with the female participation rate varying from 3.5% to 18.5%. In the nonagricultural sector, the average activity rate of women over the age of 15 usually does not exceed 6%. Arab countries are also characterized by their high infant mortality rates. In 1975 these rates ranged from 60 to 200/1000. Illiteracy rates for the group, as a whole, are also high, and they are significantly higher among women than among men. A multipurpose survey conducted in Saudi Arabia during 1976 and 1977 reported a live birthrate of 54.2/1000. This is somewhat above the UN figure of 49.5 for the country and over the average for Arab countries of 46.6 for 1975. The mortality rate for the Saudi population is 14.1/1000. If one accepts the birth and death rates indicated by the multipurpose survey, the population is growing at a national rate of 3% or more per year. PMID:12340437
Looney, R E
Most of the Saudi desalination plants are of the multistage flash (MSF) type. These plants are often constructed as a dual purpose installation, producing power and water. MSF plants are considered to be energy intensive, where the energy cost is a major controlling parameter in the overall cost of desalination. Oil price fluctuations affect the cost of desalted water significantly. On the other hand, nuclear power offers price stability in the long term. Nuclear powered desalination provides long term availability of indigenous fuel, as well as long term fuel price stability. It has a minimum environmental impact if compared with other conventional desalination processes. The operational expenses of nuclear desalination are far lower than those of conventional plants. implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia is essential where large water requirements exist. The CANDU PHWR is the appropriate type of nuclear reactor for Saudi Arabia. A hybrid reverse osmosis/MSF CANDU PHWR is the candidate system for applying dual purpose nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia. (author)
The purpose of this paper is to assess the scope, development, and future of Institutional Repositories (IR) in Saudi Arabia. This paper is based on the authors’ working experience at King Saud University Dspace repository project. To ensure the number of repository projects in Saudi Arabia the directory of open access repositories, (Open DOAR), Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), and the websites of the existing universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been browsed. There i...
Parvez Ahmad; Mohammad Aqil; Mohammad Asad Siddique
Glomerulonephritis (GN) is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS) is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD) encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in ...
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data and summarize the different modalities of management of multinodular goiters (MNG) in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS A total of 135 patients had MNG, which were diagnosed by ultrasonography at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, KSA between January 2003 and June 2004. The data collected includes the age, gender, physical examination of t...
Qari, Faiza A.
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. METHODS This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Med...
Qari, Faiza A.; Maimani, Abdulroaf A.
ABSTRACT The human immunodeficiency virus HIV type 1 has evolved as one of the most important global infectious pathogens. Although the virus had initially emerged among certain high risk groups in developed countries, it quickly gained momentum in developing countries threatening most population groups. The first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was diagnosed in 1984. Twenty years later, by the end of 2003, 1509 patients h...
Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.
OBJECTIVES To present the available susceptibility data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) published in peer-reviewed journals. METHODS In a meta-analysis, studies published between 1966 and 2001 were included. Publication sites include Medline-indexed and non-indexed. Numbers of grown and resistant isolates were tabulated for first-line anti-tuberculosis agents. Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Al-barrak, Ali M. 2002-01-01
Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Al-barrak, Ali M.
Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethriti...
Madani Tariq A
ABSTRACT This paper aims at presenting details of the application of assisted reproductive technology and the impact of the Islamic law (Sharia) on its practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Analysis of the data sourced from manual searches of bibliographies from key articles showed that this technology in KSA is practiced in a strictly religious manner and certain aspects of the technology are completely forbidden. It further showed that lack of an official...
Abduljabbar, Hassan S.; Rubina Amin
In this project we seek to analyse what security issues the country of Saudi Arabia is facing in the Middle East and the Gulf. These issues are analysed from the theoretical framework of Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, and their theory on Regional Security Complex. The analysis framework of securitization is divided into five sectors, our analysis being conducted only in the political, military, economic and societal sectors. This has allowed us to deconstruct and get an understand...
Eriksen, Jonas Nogel; Kababo, Anas Yoseph; Madsen, Signe Røskva; Petersen, Asger Bagge
To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author)d preventive measures implemented (Author).
The article reviews the literature on the problem of nutritional disorders in Saudi Arabia. Most of the studies reveal problems of anaemia and a mild to moderate degree of stunting and wasting among preschool children. The causes are, apparently, ignorance and misconception rather than purely economic. Recently, overnutrition has been observed as a problem among the middle and upper class of urban societies. In general, an improvement in the nutritional status of the Saudis has been observed over the last two decades. This is a repercussion of socioeconomic development and improvement in education, dietary habits, and environmental conditions. The time is ripe to create Saudi standards for health and nutrition. These will be used as yardsticks for planning and evaluation of health and nutritional programmes. PMID:3294076
Sebai, Z A
Objectives: To investigate for the presence of mycobacteria at water dams of Albaha, Saudi Arabia. Methods: An epidemiological study was conducted between 20 - 30 June 2013 in the Albaha region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and twenty samples (sand, wet stones, clay, and decayed vegetation) were collected from 13 dams in the region. These locations were: 3 da...
Alqumber, Mohammed A.
Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.
This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…
This paper focuses on the fast-consolidating energy relationship between the People’s Republic of China (PRC), which is today the world’s second largest oil importer, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which has established itself as the world’s top oil exporter. Due to Saudi Arabia’s dominance of the world oil market, China is increasingly focusing its attention on the Kingdom as a reliable energy partner; while Saudi Arabia sees China as an enormous potential mark...
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to screen the fresh water fungi from different areas of Saudi Arabia viz. Al-Ahsa, Al-Direyah, Al-Haer, Al-Kharj, Al-Qasim and Wadi Laban. Twenty six species were recorded from as an aquatic fungi and thirty two species as an aero-aquatic fungi from fresh water, while twenty-six species were isolated as an aero-aquatic fungi from under water soil of these regions. Percent relative frequency of each fungus was also calculated.
Ibrahim A. Arif
The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as "harrats." The largest of these, Harrat Rahat (Figure 1), produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 C.E. with lava flows traveling within 20 kilometers of the city Al-Madinah, which currently has a population of 1.5 million plus an additional 3 million pilgrims annually. With more than 950 visible vents and periodic seismic swarms, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital.
Lindsay, Jan Marie; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed
ABSTRACT The incidence of Genito-urinary cancer (GUC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) increases with age and is 5-fold higher in men than in women. Genito-urinary cancer accounts for only 9.2% of all cancers in KSA, while the rate in the United States of America (USA) is as high as 24.1%. An epidemiological search on GUC in KSA revealed a relatively low incidence compared to developed countries. This is more evident in prostatic cancer, which is 50 times lower ...
Abomelha, Mohammed S.
A survey was conducted to screen the fresh water fungi from different areas of Saudi Arabia viz. Al-Ahsa, Al-Direyah, Al-Haer, Al-Kharj, Al-Qasim and Wadi Laban. Twenty six species were recorded from as an aquatic fungi and thirty two species as an aero-aquatic fungi from fresh water, while twenty-six species were isolated as an aero-aquatic fungi from under water soil of these regions. Percent relative frequency of each fungus was also calculated.
Arif, Ibrahim A.
The haemoglobin (Hb) patterns of 345 Shiite Saudi Arab cord bloods were examined by alkaline starch-gel electrophoresis. A fast-moving component, identified by structural analysis as Hb Bart's, was found in 52% of cases, the highest incidence of this variant yet recorded. The levels of Hb Bart's ranged from 0.5 to 16% of the total haemoglobin. The relative rates of synthesis of the alpha, beta and gamma-chains, measured by [3H]leucine incorporation, were estimated in 12 newborn Arab infants. There was an excellent correlation between the amount of Hb Bart's and the alpha/non-alpha-globin-chain production ratio. Furthermore there was a significant correlation between the level of Hb Bart's and morphological abnormalities of the red cells and the mean cell haemoglobin (MCH). These findings indicate that elevated levels of Hb Bart's in this population are due to the presence of alpha thalassaemia. The absence of hydrops fetalis and the rarity of Hb-H disease despite the intense inbreeding in this population, points to an alpha-thalassaemia genotype that is, in terms of phenotypic expression, intermediate between the heterozygous state for alpha-thalassaemia I and Hb-H disease. A possible molecular basis for this genotype is suggested. PMID:1238097
Pembrey, M E; Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B; Bunch, C; Perrine, R P
Full Text Available This article, which opens a new line of research, is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added that while documentary evidence and partial studies on this period exist, it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period is scarce. This article also is concerned with describing the evolution of certain striking aspects of the close relation between the pilgrimage to Mecca and Indonesian migrants looking for work. We need to consider the methods of hiring labor, the networks involved in recruiting it, the organization of travel, as well as the increasing indebtedness of the migrants through intermediaries who, more and more professionally, arrange these attempts to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767
The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and lem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)
Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage withinacterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)
Healthcare establishments in Saudi Arabia produce healthcare risk waste. Much care is given by the responsible authorities for the management of that type of waste. A program is being established to formulate standards for healthcare waste management
M. A. Al-Zahrani
Hydroxyurea seems to be effective in decreasing the frequency of vasooclusive crises in patient with sickle cell disease from Eastern Saudi Arabia. In this preliminary analysis no major side effects were observed. Long term side effects need to be monitored.
Ali H. Al-Jam'a
...Mineral Resources announced plans to spend approximately $60...Saudi Arabia's ambitious rail plans are fueling activity in the...infrastructure, airports and seaports--is also part of an ambitious investor-friendly expansion plan. Not surprisingly, these...
Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the cit...
Khalid Al-Ahmadi; Ali Al-Zahrani
OBJECTIVES To describe the pattern of skin disease in the Eastern Province and compare it with similar studies carried out in other regions of Saudi Arabia. METHODS All new dermatology cases reporting at King Fahd Hospital of the University in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, seen between August 2002 to July 2003 were reviewed. RESULTS One thousand and seventy-six new patients within the period of the study were se...
Alakloby, Omar M.
The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar....
Alwakeel, Suaad S.; Nasser, Laila A.
This paper aims at presenting details of the application of assisted reproductive technology and the impact of the Islamic law (Sharia on its practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Analysis of the data sourced from manual searches of bibliographies from key articles showed that this technology in KSA is practiced in a strictly religious manner and certain aspects of the technology are completely forbidden. It further showed that lack of an official government in-vitro fertilization (IVF registry to gather information on the activities of IVF clinics has limited the data available for international comparisons. Sharing information internationally could allow religiously concerned infertile couples to have access to the reproductive services in the Kingdom. It would further improve the quality of care, enhance certain techniques like in-vitro maturation and experimentation on embryos, by providing resources that are currently unavailable, keeping in view the religious beliefs and avoiding conflicts.
Hassan S. Abduljabbar
Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age was 5.97, and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common cause was scalding (81.7%. Approximately 92.8% of patients had burn injuries involving 25% of the total body surface area, or less. The mean hospital stay was 9.51 days. Approximately 92% of patients were treated conservatively. Conclusion: Toddlers are at high risk of having scald burns. We also noted the number of admissions is increasing every year. Therefore, an effective scientific-based prevention program is required.
Abdulatif A. Gari
A total of 2,515 individuals attending a large military hospital in Saudi Arabia who had appropriate radiologic evidence of treponematosis were studied clinically and serologically. The indications are that nonvenereal treponematosis (bejel) exists in considerable numbers among the nomadic communities living in rural areas. In contrast, venereal syphilis is less common in this population and is found almost exclusively in urban populations. Some of the high-risk regions for bejel have been identified. Many individuals from nomadic communities complained of persistent pain in the lower limbs, which was often associated with radiologic evidence of osteoperiostitis of the long bones. It also appears that within the last 30 years bejel has become clinically attenuated, with the majority of seropositive individuals having latent disease. A hypothesis is put forward that persistent lesions are sustained by superinfection and that improvements in hygiene have resulted in a decrease in the incidence of reexposure. Measures to control the infection are outlined. PMID:4012169
Csonka, G; Pace, J
Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.
This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…
Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram
This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) for Room Air Conditioners (RACs) that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC). This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number ...
Al-shaalan, Abdullah M.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs in Saudi Arabia (SA and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%, trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%, gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%, syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%, human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%, genital warts (1382, 3.5%, genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%, and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%. The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.
Madani Tariq A
The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.
Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...
Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.
Mutlaq B. Alotaibi
Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.
Abeer Abdullah Al Saud
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.
Abdel Gader Abdel Galil
This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.
Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.
The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52) and non-smokers (n = 80). Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days....
Al-assaf, Abdullah H.
Full Text Available Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November 2009, when flooded water and sediments (torrents invaded the urban areas and resulted decease of many people and destroyed the infrastructure and civilized zones. The lack of mitigation implements exacerbated the problem. This study implies an assessment of flood hazard risk in Jeddah region. It aims to identify the zones subjected to flood and then inducing the influencing factors at different levels of effect. For this purpose space techniques were utilized, with a focus on IKONOS satellite images, which are characterized by high resolution in identifying terrain features. In addition Geographic Information System (GIS was also used to support space techniques. Thus, damaged areas and the mechanism of flooding process were recognized. This helps avoiding further urban expansion in areas under flood risk and will aid decision maker to put new strategies for hazard management.
Mashael Al Saud
Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand f...
OBJECTIVES Failure to keep appointments poses many problems for patients, physicians and health personnel. The objective of the study is to identify factors influencing appointment failure in Riyadh Central Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS The study sample consisted of 500 Saudi patients selected randomly from Riyadh Central Hospital's records. Two hundred and fifty were selected from patients who broke at least o...
Mohamed, Badreldin A.; Al-doghaither, Abdallah H.
OBJECTIVES Documentation of the morbidity in sickle cell patients presenting at the Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital, Hafr Al Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the burden of delivering care to these patients. METHODS The record charts of all Saudi patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) admitted between June 1994 through to July 2001 were retrospectively analyzed. Focus was on age of patients, frequency of admissions, duration of hos...
Izuora, George I.; Al-dusari, Saad N.; Fakunle, Yisa M.
Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November ...
Mashael Al Saud
Full text: Undoubtedly, easy availability of radiopharmaceuticals is a key element in application of radioisotopes in health care. And, creating self-sufficiency within the country and the geographical region in manufacturing these time-limited products further enhances this prospect. For obvious reasons, on demand availability and timely distribution of products bodes well for a regional programme. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, one such programme began in early 1980s with the installation of the CS-30 (26.4 MeV) cyclotron, with an intention not only to make available the cyclotron products for medical imaging, but also to establish a contemporary research programme in radiotracer development as exemplified by simultaneous installation of a Tomogram (PET scanner) at the time when PET scanning was in its infancy. The first beam on target in 1982 produced the first batch of 67Ga citrate radiopharmaceutical, followed by an addition of various other cyclotron based products over the years. Presently, the Cyclotron Facility routinely produces six cyclotron isotopes (201Tl, 67Ga, 81mKr, 123I, 18F and 13N) which are subsequently formulated into nine different radiopharmaceuticals. Weekly, approximately 25 batches of radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured supporting 35 nuclear medicine facilities within the country and the geographical region. A key montry and the geographical region. A key motivating and driving force for our Centre has been the goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. Consequently, we introduced in Year 2000 the 131I based products for diagnosis as well as for therapy, including on-request manufacturing of 131I labeled mIBG. Good Manufacturing Practice is the cornerstone of any radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program. KFSH and RC is a perfect example of how this operational and guiding principle has been applied and evolved over the years, culminating into an effective quality management system for manufacturing radiopharmaceutical products consistently conforming to specifications. The programme building has been 'work in progress' from the onset and continues to be so, particularly in establishment and implementation of strict operational philosophy of GMP and ISO quality management system. We also realized that people are the most important component of any viable program. For efficient functioning, the staff must be well qualified and appropriately trained to achieve the mission of the organization. This has been achieved through staff selection based upon educational background, followed by extensive on-the-job training, as well as didactic education. Consequently, our facility has had a good mix of young and experienced staff. Furthermore, we have availed of the various IAEA's programmes in specific training and fellowships for in depth exposure to other centres. With embarkation upon new programs, continuing education remains a central theme in ultimate success of the entire program. The experience gained over two decades of continuous operation breeds confidence in the staff to achieve the goal of making Saudi Arabia self-sufficient in all its radiopharmaceuticals needs. Continuing with our commitment to make available to the peoples of the country the most contemporary imaging modality, PET scanner was installed at KFSH and RC in 1995. Along with the routine PET work, we have established a team of scientists to perform research work in developing new radiotracers. KFSH and RC's cyclotron facility has continually focused on an overwhelming goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. To this end, the year 2005 is the beginning of establishing just one such facility through expansion of the program that entails: a new building; a state-of-the-art cyclotron (30 MeV; plus a small cyclotron dedicated for PET isotopes production); advanced clean rooms; more importantly, the establishment of the Tc-99m Generators and Cold Kits manufacturing programs. Presentation will entail past, present
Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed ...
Almuneef, Maha; Al-eissa, Majid
ABSTRACT Sickle cell hemoglobin C (HbSC) is a disease confined to people of West African ancestry and it has not been reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We are reporting 2 patients with HbSC disease from the western province of KSA (Madinah); one patient presented with severe form of the disease which include transient hypertension.
Al-hawsawi, Zakaria M.; Islam, Mohammed S.; Shehata, Nabil S.
OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking, and understand the attitude, practice, and knowledge among medical students. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2009 to May 2010. An anonymous, self-administered, Global Adult Tobacco Survey based questionnaire was completed by the students attending the main Medical College of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RES...
Al-mendalawi, Mahmood D.
To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection.
Hall, Aron J.; Tokars, Jerome I.; Badreddine, Samar A.; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Kuhar, David T.; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A.
Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes
With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion
To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25418612
Tokars, Jerome I.; Badreddine, Samar A.; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Kuhar, David T.; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A.
To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25418612
Hall, Aron J; Tokars, Jerome I; Badreddine, Samar A; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M; Gerber, Susan I; Kuhar, David T; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U; Pallansch, Mark A; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A
Full Text Available A case study about the steps taken for the establishment of the Central Medical Library at the Ministry of Health in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it include historical background, location of the library, staff, collections, automation system, and gives some recommendations about the project.
Mohammed A. Marghalani
Sickle cell hemoglobin C (HbSC is a disease confined to people of West African ancestry and it has not been reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. We are reporting 2 patients with HbSC disease from the western province of KSA (Madinah; one patient presented with severe form of the disease which include transient hypertension.
Zakaria M. Al-Hawsawi
Full Text Available Our goal in this paper is to explorethe validity of Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012 for real oil GDP and Non-oil GDP.Wagner’s Law investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the public sector growth. In the previousstudies have been tested the six versions of Wagner’s law to support the existence of long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth.We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine how far Wagner’s Law validity can be applied in Saudi economy. The results obtained from the analyses find that the Wagnerian proposition can explain the growth of government in Saudi Arabia, which holds for both the oil and non-oil income cases. The findings also note that the existence of strong causality for all of Wagner’s law versions in the long run.
Mohammed Moosa Ageli
The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyrks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)
Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R, a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. Results: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%, psychoticism (14.8%, anxiety (14.3%, and somatization (14.2%. The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8% and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%. Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.
Al Gelban Khalid
Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year ...
Al Gelban Khalid
OBJECTIVES To study the knowledge and attitude of Saudi women towards breastfeeding. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted in 3 major hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period 7 July--22 July 2009. Eight hundred and forty-eight women in the post-natal and post-cesarean section wards were included in the study along with women attending antenatal clinics. An Arabic questionnaire was generated and completed by women. <...
Alwelaie, Yazeed A.; Alsuhaibani, Eyas A.; Al-harthy, Abrar M.; Radwan, Reem H.; Al-mohammady, Rawan G.; Almutairi, Ahmed M.
Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on the...
Al Abiky, Waleed B.
Turki bin Saud bin Mohammed Al-Saud, Vice President, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia, welcomed this opportunity to study the role of nuclear energy with ministers and noted that political decisions and public concerns relate to fear of the risk of the operation and disposal of waste from nuclear plants. He indicated that his government continues to investigate the pros and cons of nuclear energy. He stressed the importance of the verification of nuclear material security. As the world's largest oil producer, he stated that Saudi Arabia looks to balance short and long term benefits for both producers and consumers, looking for a policy of price stability and noting the expectations of an increased demand. He recognized the close relationship between energy and the environment and identified efforts to encourage cleaner oil use. He reminded the conference of the need to ensure continuing support for the IAEA's role in ensuring nuclear security and safety
Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran's I and Anselin's local Moran's I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran's I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin's local Moran's I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin's disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin's disease (r² = 0.49-0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52-0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations. PMID:24351742
Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali
This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...
Al-maghrabi, T.; Dennis, C.
The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA) and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999) for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, an...
Mohammed Moosa Ageli; Amal Mousa Zaidan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bad dietary habits, such as eating high-fat/high-energy food, can contribute to obesity in adolescents, which tends to persist into adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the level and sources of knowledge about foods and healthy diets among male and female adolescents. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of male (n=1240 and female (n=1331 adolescents from third grade, intermediate and all three grades of secondary school students in the Al-Khobar Area, eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Approximately 51% of the male and 65% of the female students recognized unsaturated fats as healthy foods. However, 10% of the males and 8% of females reported saturated fats as healthy food items. About 49% of the males and 66% of the females correctly defined cholesterol. Dietary knowledge of both male and female students on the dangers of unhealthy foods and the benefits of fiber-rich diets was found to be unsatisfactory. The main sources of knowledge about health and disease reported by the male and female respondents were television (58% and 61%, respectively, magazines (31% and 39% and daily newspaper (33% and 34%. Primary health care centers (PHCCs staff were the least source of knowledge (17% and 16%. CONCLUSIONS : Knowledge of healthy diets among school students was inadequate. It is recommended that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in school curricula.
The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)
This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)
Eight species of the genus Cunnolites Barrére (1746) from the Maastrichtian of Central Saudi Arabia are described and illustrated in this paper. These consist of Cunnolites (Cunnolites) macrostoma (Reuss, 1854), C. (C.) tenuiradiata (Fromentel, 1870), C. (C.) elliptica (Lamarck, 1816), C. (Paracunnolites) orbignyi (Fromentel, 1864), C. (P.) undulata (Goldfuss, 1826) var. plana (Oppenheim, 1930), C. (P.) humilis (Quenstedt, 1880), C. (P.) minima (Fromentel, 1863) and C. (Plesiocunnolites) reussi (Fromentel, 1862). Species of the genus Cunnolites from Saudi Arabia are distinguished by their septa of different cycles being highly perforate at the lower, axial and upper parts of the corallum; their granules and pennulae on the lateral sides of septa are numerous but become fewer in the lower part of corallum and by some of their septa being anastomosed.
Ghalib El-Asa'ad, M. A.
Full Text Available The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and English classes in particular. It is believed that if the teacher of English has undergone a pre-service teacher training it is better for the learners of Saudi Arabia. In the other case, those who have not attended pre-service teacher training, they should go for in-service professional development programs in order to equip them further for innovative teaching and educational output.
Intakhab Alam Khan
ABSTRACT Is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia getting value for money invested in health? Quality care is being provided throughout health facilities in the Kingdom, however there is minimal control of utilization in all health sectors, consequently leading to abuse and over utilization, particularly in the public sector. Managed care programs have proven effective in reducing unnecessary inpatient and ancillary service utilization by reducing use of expensive procedures ...
Mufti, M. H.
Demographic developments in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait since World War II are reviewed using data from governmental, international, and other published sources. Following an overview of trends in population size and distribution, attention is focused on internal and international migration and the associated social, economic, and political implications. The concentration of immigrants in cities, migrants' occupations, acculturation, and the security concern arising from the volume of immigration flows are briefly discussed. PMID:12268758
OBJECTIVES To describe and assess gender differences in current cigarette smokers' according to certain variables including prevalence, access to tobacco, knowledge and attitude, environmental tobacco smoke, cessation of smoking, tobacco related advertisements, and education on tobacco in school among adolescents in grades 7-12 in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. METHODS A random sample of schools in Tabuk city was obtained using a 2-stage clu...
Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Al-kaabba, Abdulaziz F.; Saeed, Abdalla A.; Abdulrahman, Badreldin M.; Hein Raat
OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of smoking habits among male medical students at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS We carried out this cross-sectional study using Arabic questionnaires distributed to the medical students in the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA at different educational levels from September 13 to September 25, 2005. A total of 322 med...
Al-turki, Yousef A.
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to demonstrate the clinical laboratory, treatment and course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS A total of 65 patients with positive double strand antibodies were collected at the Immunology Laboratory of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over a 2 year period between January 2000 and December 2001. The data included personal data, clinical manifestations,...
Qari, Faiza A.
OBJECTIVES The present study aims to define the pattern of bacteremia with clinical sepsis in diabetic patients at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), in relation to the type of infection, microbial pattern, source, complication, outcome, and the risk factors associated with high mortality. METHODS Retrospective study of adult diabetic patients with bacteremia and septicemia admitted to KAU...
Qari, Faiza A.
Researchers looking for health statistics on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) may face difficulty. This is partly due to the lack of awareness of potential sources where such statistics can be found. The purpose of this paper is to review various online sources of health statistics on KSA, and to highlight their content, coverage, and presentation of health statistics. Five bibliographic databases where local research can be found are described. National reg...
Al-zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.
ABSTRACT Food poisoning is becoming a very important health problem both internationally and in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Salmonella species (spp) is the most important pathogen, but due to the extensive effort carried by the health authorities to prevent or eradicate communicable diseases, new pathogens are now emerging such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Norwalk like viruses. This review paper highlights the magnitude and determinants of food poisoning...
Al-mazrou, Yagob Y.
OBJECTIVES To present our experience in head and neck cancer, and the development of our own local electronic Makkah Head and Neck Database. METHODS A prospective collection of cases was conducted between October 2007 and November 2008 of patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer within the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS
Al-herabi, Ameen Z.
Objectives: To present the incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and associated anomalies and to compare the findings with published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted during the period January 2011 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of all cases with ARMs admitted at Al-Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1998-2010. The inci...
Almaramhy, Hamdi H.
Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)
Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard
OBJECTIVES To assess physicians views on health insurance and its implication on the health care system. METHODS We carried out a cross-sectional study in 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from January to December 2002 through self-administered questionnaires that were distributed to a total sample of 400 physicians. The instrument consisted of 28 items that focused on assessing physicians' p...
Alnaif, Mohammed S.
OBJECTIVES To explore the role of radiological examination and certain biochemical values in diagnosis and assessing severity of nutritional rickets. METHODS Cases of symptomatic nutritional rickets (age range between 3-36 months) seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period 1997-1999 were studied. Clinical examination by the author of the study, determination of calcium (Ca), phosphate...
Fida, Nadia M.
OBJECTIVES The aim of this work is to evaluate treatment trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which is endemic according to the records of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate so. METHODS A questionnaire was distributed to dermatologists and general practitioners working at health care centers in different parts of KSA through the Department of Preventive M...
Al-jaser, May H.
OBJECTIVES Skin cancer is a common malignant neoplasm in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and it is the most common malignant neoplasm in Al-Baha area. This study was performed to determine the pattern of skin cancers seen at King Fahad Hospital, Al-Baha, KSA. METHODS Histologically diagnosed skin cancers, seen between 1990 and 2003, were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, race and site of distribution. RESUL...
Al-maghrabi, Jaudah A.; Al-ghamdi, Abdulhameed S.; Elhakeem, Howaida A.
A total of 2515 people attending a large military hospital in Saudi Arabia was studied clinically, serologically, and (when appropriate) radiologically for evidence of treponematosis. The indications are that non-venereal endemic syphilis (bejel) is prevalent among the nomadic communities living in rural areas. In contrast, venereal syphilis is much less common, and is found almost exclusively in urban populations. Some of the high risk regions for bejel have been identified, and many people ...
Pace, J. L.; Csonka, G. W.
A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na) is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration w...
Al-zarah, Abdullah I.
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.
Al-wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-younes, Abla; Al-omran, Ola A.
The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia) was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80) moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minut...
Milyani, Rajaa M.
The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW) to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were ...
Khater, Ashraf E. M.; Asma Al-Jaloud; El-taher, A.
Full Text Available People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people in Riyadh. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among 2297 persons of various educational background. It was found that about 82% of the Saudi public in Riyadh were ignorant of radon and its associated health risks. It was also found that only ~18% of educated public knew about radon. It was concluded that Saudi public needs to be educated in this respect properly.
Abdulaziz S. Alaamer
Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA
Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.
Full Text Available Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their businesstransactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations or an external set of factors(related to infrastructure and governmental support. We have noticed that most of the studies in this subjectcovered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studiedeCommerce adoption factors in developing economies center on the environmental, infrastructural andgovernmental areas only, and overlook the organizational factors, while the focus of the subject studied andresearched on developed economies was organizational (SMEs and large enterprises related adoption factors byconsidering the technology infrastructure and government support as taken for granted, which is not the case indeveloping economies.The objectives of this study are 1 to find out the level of eCommerce adoption in Saudi Arabia, and 2 toidentify the factors that affect the adoption of eCommerce. By this, the output of the study can help the policymaker of ICT (Information and Communication Technology in Saudi Arabia to direct the related activitiestoward the most effective local factors that will enable and leverage eCommerce potential and usage on one hand,and on the other hand the study will identify the promising local opportunities for eCommerce infrastructureproviders (local banks, system integrators, IT solution providers, and major telecom operators by discoveringthe distinctive eCommerce adoption factors.
Sulaiman A. Al-Hudhaif
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of epidemiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, population-based survey of COPD was conducted between June 2010 and December 2011 across the country of Saudi Arabia. A total of 56,000 randomly selected telephone numbers were called, which identified 10,001 eligible subjects; of whom 9,779 agreed to participate. A screening questionnaire included 6 questions related to cigarette consumption and water-pipe use was administered to each participant. Subjects with positive screening results were invited to provide input for a detailed COPD questionnaire. Results: The adjusted proportion of subjects who reported a current, or past smoking history was 27.9%. Gender-speci?c smoking rates adjusted by age were 38.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.5-39.9% in men, and 7.4% (95% CI: 6.5-8.3% in women. The epidemiological definition of symptomatic COPD was met by a total of 249 subjects. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of COPD was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.1-2.7%. Overall, COPD was more frequently documented (p<0.0001 in men (3.5% [95% CI: 3-4%] than in women (1% [95% CI: 0.7-1.3%]. Conclusion: The prevalence of epidemiologically defined COPD in the general population of Saudi Arabia is 2.4%, which is lower than that reported in industrialized countries.
Siraj O. Wali
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate for the presence of mycobacteria at water dams of Albaha, Saudi Arabia. Methods: An epidemiological study was conducted between 20 - 30 June 2013 in the Albaha region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and twenty samples (sand, wet stones, clay, and decayed vegetation were collected from 13 dams in the region. These locations were: 3 dams from Alaqiq city (Thrad, Alaqiq, and Almshereq; 4 dams from Almandaq city (Almudlamat, Alkhrar, Alsader, and Medhas; one dam from Albaha city (Shehba’a; and 5 dams from Baljerashi city (Alzarawah, Alareshaen, Almatwah, Alheajh, and Almarbah. Samples from these locations (n=520 were inoculated on Lowenstein-Jensen media. The isolated Mycobacterium (M. obtained were identified by standard culture, enzymatic tests, biochemical characteristics, comparison of mycolic acid profiles, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and restriction fragment patterns of the hsp65 gene polymerase chain reaction product. Results: Mycobacterium isolates were recovered from 79% of the samples obtained from all types of samples and locations. A total of 145 of the isolates were found to belong to the 11 M species: 5 M. intracellulare, 8 M. abscessus, 9 M. szulgai, 12 M. fortuitum, 12 M. avium, 14 M. kansasii, 15 M. simiae, 15 M. gordonae, 16 M. terrae complex, 18 M. chelonae, and 21 M. malmoense. Conclusion: Mycobacterium species is present at high percentages in Albaha dams. The findings support a nationwide study to understand the clinical importance of environmental Mycobacterium in Saudi Arabia.
Mohammed A. Alqumber
Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.
Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria deri...
Sa, Al-aqeel; Jf, Al-sabhan; Ny, Sultan
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the epidemiological and clinical profile of children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) in eastern Saudi Arabia during a 15-year period. METHODS The medical records of children discharged with a diagnosis of HSP from King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between January 1996, and December 2010, were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS Of 78 patients, 46 (59%) ...
Lardhi, Amer A.
The cleptoparasitic bee genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini) is recorded from Saudi Arabia for the first time. Chiasmognathus nearchus Engel was previously known from specimens collected in the United Arab Emirates and Oman. Here we report and figure two individuals captured in central Saudi Arabia.
Alqarni, Abdulaziz; Hannan, Mohammed; Hinojosa-di?az, Ismael; Engel, Michael
Objectives: To review the epidemiology of invasive Candida infections in a single center in Saudi Arabia over a subsequent 10-year period. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in a single center in Saudi Arabia over a 10-year period. Records of all patients with invasive Candida infections (ICI) over the period from Jan...
Omrani, Ali S.; Makkawy, Eyad A.; Kamran Baig; Baredhwan, Abdullah A.; Almuthree, Souad A.; Elkhizzi, Noura A.; Albarrak, Ali M.
Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.
This paper reports on the Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco), the only operator in the country, that has accelerated its production expansion program aimed at boosting capacity from the current 8.5 million bpd to 10 million bpd. Initially expected to be completed by 1999, it now appears a sustainable 10 million bpd rate may be attainable by 1996. By this time next year, at least nine major onshore projects will have been started as well as five offshore. Included will be development of Hawtah, the initial oil discovery in the Central province south of Riyadh. The program also means significantly increased drilling. In fact, 1991 completions should easily double those of last year
Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondentsâ€™ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.
OBJECTIVES To document the distribution of the ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups in a random sample of Saudi students from the King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to compare our results from that of other studies in the Kingdom and elsewhere. METHODS The subjects included in this study were 944 males from the southwest region of Saudi Arabia including Aseer, Jizan, and Najran regions. The ABO blood groups and Rh fa...
Sarhan, Mohammed A.; Saleh, Kamel A.; Bin-dajem, Saad M.
This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)
Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674
Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M
Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a lack of nutritional knowledge among physicians. As there is no published data in nutritional knowledge among physicians in Saudi Arabia, hence the purpose of this current study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nutrition knowledge questionnaire consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions, was mailed to 105 primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was pre- tested in a pilot study. Non-respondents received a second questionnaire and a phone call. Of the 105 primary care physicians, 59 replies were received (56.2%. The mean mark for correctly answered questions was 51.7%. Approximately 75 % of the physicians described their knowledge of nutrition as `Poor`. The results indicate that physicians are generally aware of information which has been publicized in the medical press: nutrient which helps prevent thrombosis (omega-3 fat; the preventive action of fruit and vegetables against cancer; which nutrients are antioxidants; the nutrient associated with the prevention of neural tube defects (folate. By contrast they have a poor knowledge of other important topics in nutrition: the major type of fat in olive oil; hydrogenated fats; source of vitamin B12; Substance raises the blood HDL-cholesterol level (Alcohol; the association between excess protein intake and calcium loss; the type of dietary fiber helpful in lowering the blood cholesterol level (soluble fiber and Nutrient is protective against hypertension. These results support other data that physicians need more education in nutrition. Nutrition should be an essential part in continuing medical education.
Khalid S. Al-Numair
A survey was carried out on Saudi sheep and goats during 1995, at the Veterinary Diagnostic laboratory, Jeddah, to study Setaria infection in small ruminants in Saudi Arabia. Setaria digitata worms were detected in the abdominal cavity of 5 out of 48 goats (10.4%). Sheep were not found to be infected. All infected goats were adults of 2-4 years of age and originating from the Jeddah, Mecca and Al-Leith areas. Four cases were recorded during January-March and one during August. No lesions due to S. digitata were found in the visceral organs and brains of the infected goats. This is the first record of patent infection with S. digitata in goats. PMID:10321587
El-Azazy, O M; Ahmed, Y F
Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.
"This article is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian immigration in Saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 20th century, and to describe the evolution over time of certain striking aspects of the close relation between the pilgrimage to Mecca and Indonesian migrants looking for work.... This paper considers the methods of hiring labour, the networks involved in recruiting it, the organization of travel, as well as the increasing indebtedness of the migrants through intermediaries who, more and more professionally, arrange these attempts to live abroad...." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348180
Full Text Available Academic research represents the backbone of human activity in the way that it improves our quality of life through expanding frontiers of academic knowledge and making further research possible throughout the world. Academic research aims to provide solutions for many current problems. The importance of academic research has grown at universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, fuelled by dramatic increases in governmental and private funding for research. This study focuses on the academic publication processes in Saudi Arabia, the barriers that affect researchers’ ability to carry out and publish research and the potential advantages and disadvantages offered by the Internet in the area of academic publishing. The data collection and analysis presented in this study addresses the extent to which such benefit could be realised in practice. This research reviews the limitations of research publishing in Saudi Arabia by focusing on the nature of academic journals, in terms of their numbers and purpose, the barriers that academic staff faced when they wished to publish their research work in local or international academic journals, and the attitudes of academics towards electronic publishing and publishing in general. This research uses questionnaire tool. The data are tabulated and analysed in a systematic method to show findings in accordance with required objectives. The most prominent findings from this study are the lack of academic staff encouragement to conduct and publish research, lack of financial support to the research publishing sector, lack of a research publishing infrastructure and a lack of private sector support for funding research and publishing. An interesting finding is that unlike many other countries, there is no culture of volunteering for work that does not provide direct financial benefit. This could be an important factor affecting the adoption of an online open publishing approach in which reviewers and editors are not paid directly for the work. This research ultimately aims at proposing and implementing suitable processes and policies to solve these problems and to identifying means of overcoming the research publishing barriers in Saudi Arabia.
Jumaan Abdulqader Alzahrani
BACKGROUND: Rational treatment of pneumonia requires knowledge of the likely aetiological diagnosis in any community. Little is known about the pattern and outcome of pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A total of 567 pneumonic episodes in adult patients from the Al-Qassim area were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 42.7 years, with 103 patients (18%) aged 13 to 20 years and 103 (18%) aged 60 or more. Almost two thirds of the episodes (64%) occurred in men. An aeti...
Kurashi, N. Y.; Al-hamdan, A.; Ibrahim, E. M.; Al-idrissi, H. Y.; Al-bayari, T. H.
Wheat is one of the most grown crops in most of the world countries. Radionuclides may be concentrated in environment in a manner that can pose risk to human health. Accurate knowledge of such radionuclides in human food is of great importance to avoid any risk. In this work, Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ? -spectrometry techniques were applied to determination of uranium in wheat samples. Wheat samples were collected from ten regions through Saudi Arabia. Also bran and white flour samples were investigated. (author)
The effect of energy conservation measures for a typical two-storey residential building in Saudi Arabia are studied. The analysis shows that insulating the walls and the roof (15 mm-thick insulation) results in a significant reduction in the peak cooling load (> 23%) and the annual energy consumption (> 27%). Hence, a significant saving in customer and government equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) will be observed. The effects of additional measures, such as reducing the glazing area and the infiltration rate, are also reported. (author)
Said, S.A.M.; Al-Hammad, A. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))
The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)
This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy
Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF2Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a 137Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 ?R h-1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 ?R h-1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the perception of retail service quality and its relationship withsatisfaction for customers of hypermarkets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Data was collected throughself-administered questionnaires using convenience sampling technique. Out of 220 responses, 185 were finallychosen and analyzed for descriptive statistics as well as significant relationship between hypermarket servicequality and customer satisfaction. The respondents reported high levels of perceived quality and significantrelationship was found between retail service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction. Out of all thedimensions of service quality, physical aspects had the maximum effect on customer satisfaction, which wasattributed to the cultural traits and lifestyle of Saudi society. Retail service providers need to recognize theimportance of service quality dimensions in order of their significance, and implement appropriate strategy forcompetitive advantage over domestic and international players vying for share of an expanding consumer base.
Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1 <16 years, group 2 (G2 ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3 ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery.Results: The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81, and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51.Conclusion: The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed.Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, maternal mortality, maternal morbidity, neonatal mortality, neonatal morbidity
Rapid developments in the field of mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic technologies holds great promise in the search for clinically useful protein biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, and prognosis of disease in general, and for monitoring response to therapy. Proteomics may contribute to finding novel drug targets and unravel molecular pathways associated with disease. Despite the application of clinical proteomics to a wide spectrum of disease research globally, however, there is lack of data with regard to quantitative proteomics in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA for the diseases common to the Saudi population. In this review therefore, we will discuss some aspects of clinical proteomics with regard to the occurrence of common diseases, and outline our perspectives and vision in the context of KSA. Furthermore, we aim to introduce the concept of a national Saudi Proteomics Society in the Kingdom as part of an advanced research and development program.
Abdul A. Peer-Zada
Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)
Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24673080
Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S
Full Text Available An analysis has been carried out on the chorological units of Saudi Arabia. Three chorological units have been identified within the country, based on the richness of endemism. They are: Saharo-Sindian regional zone, Somalia-Masai regional centre of endemism and the Afro-montane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism. The Saharo-Sindian regional zone is divided into three subzones; of which, Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism and the Arabian regional subzone are present in the Kingdom. The boundary line of the Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism within Saudi Arabia has been extended towards the eastern region to cover most of the regions in the western Najd. The Somalia-Masai region contains the highest percentage (25.66% of species. The highest number of uni-regional endemics per unit area is found in the Afromontane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism while the lowest of that is in the Arabian regional subzone.
Ahmed H. Alfarhan
Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indicaA.Juss. is a multipurpose agroforestry tree that is well adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions and has gained worldwide recognition for its pharmaceutical and pesticidal properties.The world's largest pure Neem plantations are available in the plains of Arafat, Saudi Arabia where 50,000 thousands Neem trees were planted to provide shade from the blazing summer sun for the millions of Hajis (Muslim pilgrims. Sporadic mature Neem trees are also found in Medinah, Taif and elsewhereof the Kingdom. The Neem tree is adapted to Arafat under harsh climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia and the plantation may be extended to other parts of the Kingdom as a avenue tree and also to minimize the desertification under changing climatic conditions and to improve the environmental condition of the country. At Arafat mixed plantations may be advocated to save the present plantation which may come from climate change as well as pest and diseases problems. So care must be taken to monitor the diseases of Neem tree at Arafat on a regularbasis. Because of insufficient growth of Neem at Arafat the methods of green cultivation with microbial inoculants, organic fertilizers, mycotrophic green manure plants may be practiced for successful plantation.
M. A. U Mridha
Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials. PMID:25316206
Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G
With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigato avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)
A nationwide survey was carried-out aiming at determination of immunization coverage level against the six killer diseases of childhood (tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles). Variations between geographical zones, urban-rural settings, age, education and mother's employment, father's education, and child's birth order were studied. The standard WHO cluster technique was used. The sample (1102 children) was restricted to Saudi children 1-2 years old. Interviewers were exposed to training and methods of calibration, and involved in a pilot survey. Nationally, the survey showed very high coverage levels, BCG was the highest (99 per cent), measles was the lowest (90 per cent), whereas the three doses of DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) and TOPV (trivalent oral polio vaccine) were in between (98, 96 and 94 per cent, respectively). There was no marked differences between urban-rural settings. The western zone showed the lowest coverage by all vaccines. The national coverage by the six vaccines reached 86 per cent correctly immunized (according to WHO standards), 14 per cent partially immunized and 1 per cent non-immunized. Immunization coverage was higher for children to younger mothers. The non-immunized group belonged exclusively to illiterate mothers (1 per cent). Children to mothers with basic education showed the highest coverage (88 per cent). Birth order had negative effect on coverage. Nationally, 88 per cent of children had immunization certificate while 12 per cent had not. The eastern and central zones had the highest percentages of children with certificates (92 and 91 per cent, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8568952
Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; al-Jefry, M; al-Shehri, S N; Baldo, M H; Farghali, M
Full Text Available AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1 Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2 Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3 Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%. There were 26 (2.2% students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1% and 9 males (1.5%. Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%. The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479, Madinah 1.8% (8/436, and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252. The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.
Abdulrahman M Aljebreen
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER for Room Air Conditioners (RACs that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC. This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number of condenser and evaporator rows, fins density, frontal area, compressor types, and refrigerant types. The experimental data obtained is through testing the units in Calorimeter according to standard ASHRAE-16. Also, the uncertainty in measurements and its propagation are included in this study. This paper reports the results of a set of measurements carried out on a modified RAC and compares them with the tested baseline RAC unit at similar load conditions. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of increasing the number of condenser rows in comparison with other design options considered for achieving higher EER for RACs.
Abdullah M. Al-Shaalan
Introduction Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors. Methods We interviewed 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older (51.1% women) through a multistage survey. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, access to and use of health care, and anthropometric measurements were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews. We first compared sociodemographic factors and body mass index between men and women. Next, we conducted a sex-specific analysis for obesity and its associated factors using backward elimination multivariate logistic regression models. We used SAS 9.3 for the statistical analyses and to account for the complex sampling design. Results Of the 10,735 participants evaluated, 28.7% were obese (body mass index ?30 kg/m2). Prevalence of obesity was higher among women (33.5% vs 24.1%). Among men, obesity was associated with marital status, diet, physical activity, diagnoses of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Among women, obesity was associated with marital status, education, history of chronic conditions, and hypertension. Conclusion Obesity remains strongly associated with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension in the KSA, although the epidemic’s characteristics differ between men and women. PMID:25299980
El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Robinson, Margaret; Daoud, Farah; Jaber, Sara; Mikhitarian, Sarah; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.
The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide an overview of a web-based health educational site created by the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Sources of data included two interviews with Saudi IT personnel, three health educators, and two medical consultants working at KFSH&RC. The interviews ranged between 45 minutes and 120 minutes. The KFSH&RC website was also searched for the type of health information content posted. Results show that the KFSH&RC web-based health educational site provides health information through a medical encyclopedia, a social networking platform, health educational links, and targeted health information for children, which includes tools such as games and coloring books. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of the KFSH&RC web-based health education site in terms of improving knowledge and changing behavior of Saudi patients. The study recommends that targeted web-based health education strategies should be developed to reach large rural populations which have inadequate computer skills and limited access to the internet. PMID:25000016
Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Alsaleh, Mahassen; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa
Background: Data on diabetes-related lower extremities amputations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and perhaps in all of Middle East and North African (MENA) countries are limited, in view of the absence of national registries.
Alzahrani, Hasan Ali
The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...
Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful
...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...
Full Text Available This paper attempts to find out the impact of reforms on insurance industry of Saudi Arabia. The study finds out the impact of reforms vis-à-vis premium growth, regulation of insurance industry and entry of new companies in the industry. The study is based on secondary data collected mainly from the annual reports of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA from 2005 through 2009. The study made a comparative study of the performance of insurance industry in pre and post reforms era. Further it analyzes the impact of reforms on standardization of insurance industry through regulatory framework and participation of new companies from Saudi Arabia and other foreign multinational companies in the industry. Since reform in 2004 Saudi Insurance is growing fast registering remarkably high growth rate in premium. Besides premium large numbers of indigenous companies have entered the insurance market. The government has established sound regulatorysystem to develop the insurance industry of Saudi Arabia to international standard.
Dr. Zaid Ahmad Ansari
Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care
Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro...
Al-khalifah, Nasser S.
Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp the purpose of this study was to define the demographic features, clinical patterns and associated symptoms and signs of tinea capitis in Saudi Arabia. All patients who attended the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU) at Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia and who were diagnosed as tinea capitis between January 1991 and December 2001 were reviewed. The collected data were analyzed using statistical package for social sc...
Aldayel Maha; Bukhari Iqbal
OBJECTIVE: Major sand storms are frequent in the Middle East. This study aims to investigate the role of air particulate matter (PM) level in acute asthma in children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: An aerosol spectrometer was used to evaluate PM 1000 ?g/m3, representing major sand storms, plus the following 5 days and other days with PM10Saudi Arabia. The very high levels of PM, however, deserve further studying especially of their long-term effects. PMID:25593604
Alangari, Abdullah A.; Riaz, Muhammad; Mahjoub, Mohamed Osman; Malhis, Nidal; Al-Tamimi, Saleh; Al-Modaihsh, Abdullah
Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (genus Flavivirus, AHFV) was recently identified as the agent of a viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia and characterized serologically and genetically as a variant genotype of Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV). Since viral diagnosis and vaccine development may be hindered by genetic diversity, this study was intended to address AHFV genetic heterogeneity. Eleven strains isolated from hospitalized patients from 1994 to 1999 in Saudi Arabia were sequenced...
Charrel, Re?mi N.; Zaki, Ali Mohamed; Fakeeh, Mazen; Yousef, Amany Ibrahim; Chesse, Reine; Attoui, Houssam; Lamballerie, Xavier
This paper reports the results of an online survey study, which was conducted to investigate the use of software project management tools in Saudi Arabia. The survey provides insights of project management in the local context of Saudi Arabia from ten different companies which participated in this study. The aim is to explore and specify the project management tools used by software project management teams and their managers, to understand the supported features that might influence their se...
Nouf AlMobarak; Rawan AlAbdulrahman; Shahad AlHarbi; Wea’am AlRashed
Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for con...
Afify, Ahmed R.; Zawawi, Khalid H.
Background and Objectives: We examined the effect of body mass index in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcome since no study in Saudi Arabia has addressed this question. Methods: This prospective cohort study involved women registered for antenatal care during the first month of pregnancy at primary health care centers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from records and by direct interview. Results: The study included 787 women. Compared to normal weight wom...
El-Gilany Abdel-Hady; Hammad Sabry
Full Text Available This study report results of a survey conducted in the EasternProvince of Saudi Arabia to explore the procedures and financialtechniques that large-size contractors utilise in replacingequipment. The results indicated that contractors set severalreplacement alternatives that they evaluate by using a set ofvarious qualitative and quantitative factors. The contractors’business objectives, employee safety and morale, and, contractors’image in the industry were found to be the most influentialqualitative factors affecting the decision of equipment replacement.Inflation, downtime, obsolescence, salvage value, and depreciationare among the top quantitative factors that contractors considerwhile making a decision to replace equipment. Because of theirsimplicity and practicality, the net present value, payback period,and the economic life are the most popular techniques that areutilised for analysing the financial issues of proposed replacementalternatives.
A total of 2515 people attending a large military hospital in Saudi Arabia was studied clinically, serologically, and (when appropriate) radiologically for evidence of treponematosis. The indications are that non-venereal endemic syphilis (bejel) is prevalent among the nomadic communities living in rural areas. In contrast, venereal syphilis is much less common, and is found almost exclusively in urban populations. Some of the high risk regions for bejel have been identified, and many people from these locations complained of persistent pain in the legs, which was often associated with radiological evidence of osteoperiostitis of the long bones. Bejel also seems to have become clinically "attenuated" within the last 30 years, with the majority of seroreactors having latent disease. A hypothesis suggesting a reason for this change is put forward, and ways of controlling the infection are outlined. PMID:6487985
Pace, J L; Csonka, G W
This paper presents a brief description of the general emergency plan for accidents involving radioactive materials in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Uses of radioactive materials and radiation sources and their associated potential accident are specified. Most general accident scenarios of various levels have been determined. Protective measures have been specified to reduce individual and collective doses arising during accident situations. Intervention levels for temporary exposure situations, as established in the IAEA's basic safety standards for protection against ionising radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, are adopted as national intervention levels. General procedures for implementation of the response plan, including notification and radiological monitoring instrumentation and equipment, are described and radiation monitoring teams are nominated. Training programs for the different parties which may be called upon to respond are studied and will be started. (author)
This study examined current level of information technology integration in science education in the Yanbu school district in Saudi Arabia, and barriers to use. Sub-domains investigated included: infrastructure and resources, policy and support, science teachers' personal beliefs, and staff development. Survey determined demographic data and level of technology implementation, personal computer use, and current instructional practice. Mean frequency of information technology use was 1--2 times during a semester. Science teachers rated barriers limiting use of technology in teaching with a scale ranging from 0 (does not limit) to 3 (greatly limits). Results found all four factors were significant barriers: infrastructure and resources (M = 2.06; p teachers' personal beliefs regarding technology (M = 1.15; p Teachers who received in-service training programs used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.41, p = 0.017). Teachers who received both pre-service and in-service training used IT significantly more frequently than those who did not receive any training (t = 2.61, p = 0.01). Low technology users perceived that there was no support or incentives for using technology, while high technology users did not perceive these barriers (r = -0.18, p = .01). High technology users had positive personal beliefs about how information technology benefits learning, while low technology users held negative beliefs about technology use (r = -0.20, p = .003). The more barriers science teachers experienced, the less likely they were to be information technology users (r = -0.16, p = .02). There is a need for more computers in school, more teacher training, more time for teachers to learn to use technology, and more readily-available, technical support staff. Further studies are needed to represent all science teachers in Saudi Arabia, assess technology capacity of all schools, and assess in-service staff development strategies.
Al-Alwani, Abdulkareem Eid Salamah
Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.
Suaad S. Alwakeel
A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...
OBJECTIVES To assess the epidemiology and incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in children <15 years of age in a subpopulation in the eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS This is a subpopulation-based observational incidence study. Admission dates, diagnosis, age, and gender were collected for all Saudi children <15 years of age with new onset type 1 diabetes that received medical care at the Saudi Aramco Me...
Abduljabbar, Mohammad A.; Aljubeh, Jamal M.; Antony Amalraj; Cherian, Mathew P.
The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI) has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestatio...
Al-amro, Al-akloby Omar M.
The paper recounts the history of Saudi Arabia's first national oil company, Petromin, which was originally supposed to take the place of foreign-owned Aramco. As a result of Petromin's inefficiency and personal rivalries among the Saudi elite, however, Petromin was progressively relegated to the sidelines in favour of a gradually 'Saudiised' Aramco. As a result, the organisation of the Saudi oil sector today is very different from - and more efficient than - that of most other oil exporters ...
The atmospheric turbidity has been calculated and averaged for 29 places around the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using a nine years solar radiation data covering the period from 1971 to 1980. The turbidity values were found to range from 0.1 to 0.4, and the overall average of the turbidity was 0.281±0.056. The minimum value was in Sirr-Lasan (0.168±0.028) and the maximum value was 0.474±0.090 in Riyadh. The low value of the turbidity indicates that the sky of Sirr-Lasan (2100 meter above sea level) may be the clearest sky in the country if the turbidity is taken to be the main factor in preliminary site selection for astronomical observatory. Correlations between the turbidity and geographical coordinates have been investigated and have shown a weak relation between them. Also, seasonal variations studies have shown no significant distribution, which means that each station has its own trend. The low values of the turbidity indicate that the Saudi Arabian sky has relatively small disturbance in the atmosphere.
Al-Mostafa, Z. A.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.
Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat
Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.
Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.
Ashraf E.M. Khater
Human hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Its distribution is world wide and it affects mainly the liver, but other organs could be involved. Primary involvement of pelvic organs is very rare. This is a case report of primary ovarian hydatid disease in a postmenopausal woman, diagnosed postoperatively. Surgical excision was adequate. Ultrasonography, particularly high frequency trans-vaginal, computed tomography scan and, more recently, magnetic resonance imaging are more frequently used in the diagnosis of Echinococcus cyst. They appear more reliable than many of the old tests of varying sensitivities. Whereas, there are anecdotal reports of obstetric and gynecological manifestations of echinococcosis from some Middle Eastern and North African countries, this is the first of such report from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is unclear why there is a lack of information about this condition among Saudi women, even though socio-cultural attitude to female involvement in sheep farming and animal husbandry is similar to that in other Arabic and Islamic countries. We endorse the recommendation that every gynecologist, radiologist and histopathologist should maintain a high index of suspicion for hydatid cyst, whenever a septate cystic pelvic mass is found.
Onnuola A. Adewunmi
Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital?s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52 and non-smokers (n = 80. Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days. The results showed that iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in males compared to females. Mean iron intake of males (13.6±3.1 mg/day was adequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean concentrations of hemoglobin (15.89±0.95 g/dL and hematocrit (47.7±3.6% for males were normal. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, but both were normal, which suggested that iron deficiency anemia is not found among adult Saudi males. Mean iron intake of females (10.2±2.8 mg/day was inadequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean hemoglobin level (13.68±0.83 g/gL and mean hematocrit level (38.9±3.2% of females were lower than cutoff values for determining iron deficiency anemia. Based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values, 21.6% and 20.6% of female participants, respectively were anemic. Based on iron intake, 95.1% of female participants had intake lower than the recommendation. Results of this study illustrated that iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent among adult Saudi women in Riyadh City and suggests actions to eradicate iron deficiency anemia. These actions include increasing nutritional awareness and education for the purpose of changing inappropriate consumption patterns as well as fortification of certain foods in combination with additional intakes of iron from supplements.
Abdullah H. Al-Assaf
Full Text Available Higher education sector in Saudi Arabia had a phenomenal growth over the last decade. This study sets out to empirically examine the technical and scale efficiency of government universities in Saudi Arabia. In general, the technical efficiency of Saudi public universities appears to be high. However, majority of public universities relative performance is a dismal when the scale efficiency is taken into consideration. Only two universities out of the total sample of twenty are on the frontier in comparison to five universities based on the VRS efficiency.
Nasser Saad Al Kahtani
Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)
Abstract Background Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to establish cephalometric norms for children living in the western...
Hassan Ali H
Full Text Available Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inadequate information in this area, only the past investment period was considered to determine the effect of past decision on new decision of investment. The government policies, which directed to low grade varieties probably, led to inefficiency as the domestic consumption of dates is very high and growing high quality will lead to higher revenue to farmers with almost the same cost of production. To deal with investment in date palm production locally, Saudi Arabia needs to estimate a very high discount rate to observe any value related or based on the discount rate. The Durbin Watson parameter is significant for both the varieties (Khalas and Ruzaiz at 95% confidence interval (LSD0.05. The past investment appeared very significant for its effect on planting new date trees due to the fact that farmers who planted new trees in the past is continuously carrying with date industry and investing in future. Overall, the investment in tree plantation like date palm is not an easy decision by the farmers, because it needs couple of years spending without revenue. The farmers in the date growing areas were hesitant in providing information about the date variety, number of trees per hectare, tree age, fertilizers, pesticides, land ownership, intercropping, cost of production, total yield, quantity sold and price received. The study suggested further investigations on growing high quality date palms, date production and marketing aspects to harvest maximum profit by the farmers as well as support by the government for facilitating proper market and subsidies to date growers.
Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has witnessed enormous socio-economic changes for the last two decades. Due to this, the standard living of most Saudi people has been improved noticeably. Accordingly, that affects on the consumption expenditure of the Saudi family particularly on the children which has been increased substantially. However, no studies with respect to cost of children have yet been undertaken in Saudi Arabia. This study is to estimate the proportion of expenditure on children, to family’s income in Saudi Arabia by estimating the cost of children in Saudi Arabia; using Jeddah as a case study. In the study, the cost of children is taken to be money expenditure that is the amount that parents actually spent on their children. The study involves a sample of (1500 respondents from the city of Jeddah. Also, explores attitudes and opinions towards certain topics related to cost of children and the family. The study highlights that cost of children rise proportionately to family income, children age, and their numbers.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out what school teachers know about Autism. In addition, this study attemptedto find out if there any significant differences in school teachers’ knowledge about Autism depending on teachers’(gender, position, education level, teaching experience, and contact with students with Autism variables. A total of391 general and special education teachers from various segregated and inclusive schools within the Jeddah in SaudiArabia completed study instrument (Autism knowledge Questionnaire to determine their level of knowledge aboutAutism. An analysis of the collected data, using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance, indicated that schoolteachers had an acceptable approaching to weak level of knowledge about Autism disorder. The results also indicatedsignificant differences in the teachers’ knowledge about Autism depending on teachers’ (position, education level,teaching experience, and contact with students with Autism favoring special education teachers, more advancedlevel of education and teaching experience, and those with previous contact with students with Autism.
Abdulhade I. Haimour
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.
Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin
Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.
The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.
Abdou, Adel A.
Animal fascioliasis has been reported in Saudi Arabia among imported and local sheep. The paper demonstrated the parasitological and clinical features of human fascioliasis in nine out of ten male immigrant manual workers with manifestations suggesting fascioliasis. The sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques proved effect in diagnosing Fasciola species eggs in human stool. The common clinical features were abdominal distension, flatulence, tender right-upper quadrant and easy fatigability and the least was the tinge of jaundice. Others as right upper quadrant pains, colicky abdominal pains & vomiting, epi-gastric pain and mild fever, and tympanitic abdomen were encountered. Anaemia and eosinophlia were also encountered in the ten patients. Fascioliasis patients (nine) were successfully treated with Mirazid as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days. Follow-up clinically and parasitologically was available in only seven fascioliasis patients who were completely cured. Follow-up for the other two fascioliasis patients was out in hand. Other parasites recovered in the stained (eosin, iodine and Zeihl-Nelson stains) smear stool samples was Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Besides, three were free from intestinal protozoan. The results were discussed on the light of the other work carried out regionally. PMID:16363294
El-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H
Full Text Available This study assesses the plant communities and environmental factors that govern species, abundance and distribution in Taif area, western Saudi Arabia, using TWINSPAN analysis. Twenty three vegetation groups were identified visual, seven groups dominated by Aerva lanata, Pergularia tomentosa, Arnebia hispidissima, Salsola spinescens, Capparis decidua, Aizoon canariense and Blepharis ciliaris in the sand plains, Calotropis procera, Dipterygium gluacum, Bassia muricata, Haloxylon scoparium, Aerva gavanica, Anthemis melompodina and Coccinea grandis in the valleys, Halothammus bottae, Anvillea gracinii, Euryops arabicus, Dianthis strictus and Ecobolium gymnostachyum in the slopes and Capparis sinaica, Maerua oblongifolia, Salsola kali and Centaurea schimperi in the plateaus. The application of TWINSPAN classified the community types into 10 clusters at level 15. The existence of vegetation discontinuities along the catena`s depended largely on water table depth and salinity. These parameters decline with increasing altitude, whereas, CaCO3 and organic carbon does not vary along well defined large scale gradients. The relationships of the habitat-floristic groups are not simple and hydromorphism interacts in complex way with halomorphism.
Ragab I. Abdel-Fattah
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen againstcommonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)
For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document
Background.?Hemodialysis is associated with increased risk of healthcare-associated infections but considered a low-risk setting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. We investigated 3 hemodialysis unit (HDU) patients with new HIV infections to determine whether transmission was hemodialysis-associated and to correct factors that contributed to transmission. Methods.?Each patient was evaluated for HIV risk factors. Blood samples were tested to determine relatedness of HIV strains. Clinical data (gathered over 18 months) was reviewed to identify seroconversions at 12 HDUs. Infection prevention and control practices were evaluated at 14 HDUs. Findings.?No other HIV seroconversions were identified during the study. HIV gag, pol, and env gene sequences were consistent with a clonal relationship. HIV and hepatitis C virus prevalence rates at one HDU 1 (5.7% and 6.5%, respectively) were higher than for 11 other HDUs (0% and 0.15%, respectively). Conclusions.?Sequencing supports either patient-to-patient or common-source transmission. Infections occurred despite Saudi Arabia's low HIV prevalence and national dialysis policies that emphasize stringent infection prevention and control practices. PMID:24846636
Mashragi, Faisal; Bernstein, Robert S.; Al-Mazroa, Mohammad; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.; Filemban, Sanaa; Assiri, Abdullah; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Hazmi, Mohammad; Alzahrani, Abdullah; Stephens, Gwen; Memish, Ziad A.
Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole–dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole. (paper)
Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)
Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.
This work is concerned with the environmental impact of the cement industry in the west of Saudi Arabia represented in two cement plants and one cement depository. The concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in samples of cement (raw materials and end product) and soil, collected from the cement plant and its surrounding area, were measured using ?-ray spectrometer employing a HPGe detector. In addition, the levels of 19 major and trace elements were also determined in these samples using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of the 238U series isotopes in soil samples show a clear radiological impact of the cement industry upon the environment. Possible contamination with Ca and some other elements in soil samples that are rich with the fine grain size was observed. Cluster analysis of soil samples using convenient attributes shows an obvious evidence of the cement industry impact upon the environment. The hidden effect of the cement industry upon the environment was observed when the convenient measured attributes were used in cluster analysis of soil samples. (author)
Full Text Available A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking purposes. The Saturation Indices (SI indicated that the regional groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite and aragonite minerals and oversaturated with respect to goethite and hematite minerals. The hardness of groundwater is very high as compared to the established standards. The F contents are within permissible limits for drinking. The nitrate contents are within permissible limits for domestic use. Two water types i.e., Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 dominate the Al-Ahsa whereas Na-Ca-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water types are dominant in Al-Dammam, Al-Khobar and Al-Qatif areas. Overall, the study provided useful information on some important hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of the eastern region. Further studies are required to determine heavy trace metals concentration for multiple uses.
Abdullah I. Al-Zarah
Full Text Available This article describes the tremendous efforts made in the field of measles immunization in Saudi Arabia in the past 20 years, from the control phase to the elimination phase. Mandatory measles vaccination with one-dose Schwartz vaccine was introduced in 1982 by a royal decree, a step aimed at increasing vaccine coverage. In 1991, a two-dose schedule was implemented using Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine , with a first dose at 6 months to protect children younger than 9 months and a second dose of MMR at 12 months of age to protect those who did not respond to the first dose. A marked reduction in the epidemic peak and a shift of infection to older age were noticed. But the same data showed that 50% of measles cases in the 1- to 4-year age group occurred in vaccinated children. In 1998, with the start of elimination phase, an MMR campaign was launched in two phases, targeting school children in 1998 (secondary schools and in 2000 (primary and intermediate schools. Evaluation of the MMR campaign and surveillance data was reflected in the measles immunization policy by shifting the age of measles immunization to 12 months and to preschool using the two-dose MMR schedule.
Samples were collected from 1025 wells supplying drinking water to the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia and analyzed for radon concentrations. The weighted radon median value for the entire country was found to be 4.62 Bq L(-1) with a range of 0.01-67.4 Bq L(-1). The percentage of samples with radon concentration equal to or greater than 11.1 Bq L(-1) (US EPA proposed MCL) was found to be 19.22%. The range of radon in shallow wells varied between 0.06 and 67.4 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.1 Bq L(-1)) and between 0.06 and 40.9 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.34 Bq L(-1)) for deep wells. However, 50% of the samples had radon concentrations equal to or greater than 4.0 and 2.87 Bq L(-1) for the shallow and deep wells, respectively. Correlation of well depth with radon levels revealed that wells drilled in Saq aquifer consisting of predominantly sandstone with significant shale layers in the upper parts, gave higher median radon levels than in Manjur aquifer which consists of predominantly limestone and sandstone. PMID:25244698
Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I
Precambrian accretionary orogens largely contributed to continental growth, owing to their high production rates of juvenile crust compared to Phanerozoic accretionary orogens. The Pan-African orogeny is responsible for the evolution and growth of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Qazaz metamorphic complex in Saudi Arabia is one of the metamorphic complexes that were exhumed due to the activity of the largest Proterozoic shear zone system on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Qazaz complex is an example of an unusual new type of core-complex associated with crustal scale strike-slip faulting. Petrography and thermodynamic modelling were used to study the metamorphic evolution of the complex. The core of the complex records peak metamorphic conditions of 560 - 640 oC and 7-8 kbar. The bounding strike-slip shear zones operated at a temperature range of 400-600 oC while the pressure range varied from 5 to 0.5 kbar over a very short distance within the shear zone. The complex shows exhumation of about 25 km due to the activity of the Najd Fault System.
Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees
The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration Model. The empirical models then are applied to sets of data from 1980 to 2002 for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Venezuela and Norway. The rationale of including other oil-exporting countries is to distinguish whether the shocks are country-specific, regional-specific, or global. Two sets of shocks are considered: international shocks and domestic shocks. Three types of international shocks are chosen: commodity-price (oil price) shock, international financial (interest rate) shock, and international real (output) shock. In addition, five domestic shocks which are non-oil output shock, oil production shock, price level shock, monetary shock, and exchange rate shock. The findings reached in the study demonstrate that the international shocks are responsible for a high proportion of fluctuations in the economic activity in Saudi Arabia. Most importantly, the international financial shocks represented by the US interest rate and oil price shocks are the major sources of fluctuations in the Saudi Arabian economy. Domestically, the economy is mostly affected by the oil production and the non-oil output shocks for Saudi Arabia. These results emphasize that the Saudi Arabia's role in the international oil market and its fixed exchange rate regime have significant implications on the domestic economy. Thus, special considerations should be placed on designing the appropriate policies to lessen the dependency on the oil sector and strengthen the role of private sector to diversify the economic base, and provide an independent sound monetary policy to steer the economy from the fluctuations in the global economy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR, Impulse Response Function (IFR and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 % suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011 in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.
Full Text Available Mohammed Al-OmranThe Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Chair and Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Atherosclerotic disease (AD is the leading cause of death worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Intensive risk reduction therapy plays a major role in reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AD. The level of awareness of this important fact amongst physicians (family physicians, general internists, cardiologists and vascular surgeons in managing these patients in Saudi Arabia is not currently known. This study was conducted to examine the perceptions and knowledge of risk reduction therapy in patients with AD amongst physicians in Saudi Arabia in two clinical presentations; coronary artery disease (CAD and peripheral artery disease (PAD.Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 897 physicians at different hospitals in four provinces in Saudi Arabia.Results: The recommended targets of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, blood glucose, and blood pressure in patients with CAD and PAD were known as 40% and 36%; 70% and 66%; and 32% and 28% of physicians, respectively. The initiation of antiplatelet medications, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, statins, and nicotine replacement therapy for smokers in patients with CAD and PAD were recommended by 98% and 97%; 52% and 34%; 61% and 56%; and 50% and 43% of physicians, respectively. Compared to other specialties, cardiologists had the lowest threshold for initiating risk reduction therapy, whereas vascular surgeons had the highest threshold.Conclusion: The level of physician awareness of atherosclerosis risk reduction therapy across Saudi Arabia has revealed knowledge and action gaps. A call to action to implement effective strategies to encourage health professionals to use risk reduction therapy and increase public awareness is needed.Keywords: coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, risk reduction, atherosclerosis
Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects. PMID:24568491
Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan
The Lower Devonian Jauf Formation in Saudi Arabia is an important hydrocarbon reservoir. However, in spite of its importance as a reservoir, published studies on the Jauf Formation more specifically on the reservoir quality (including diagenesis), are very few. This study, which is based on core samples from two wells in the Ghawar Field, northeastern Saudi Arabia, reports the lithologic and diagenetic characteristics of this reservoir. The Jauf reservoir is a fine to medium-grained, moderate to well-sorted quartz arenite. The diagenetic processes recognized include compaction, cementation (calcite, clay minerals, quartz overgrowths, and a minor amount of pyrite), and dissolution of the calcite cements and of feldspar grains. The widespread occurrences of early calcite cement suggest that the Jauf reservoir lost a significant amount of primary porosity at a very early stage of its diagenetic history. Early calcite cement, however, prevented the later compaction of the sandstone, thus preserving an unfilled part of the primary porosity. Based on the framework grain-cement relationships, precipitation of the early calcite cement was either accompanied or followed by the development of part of the pore-lining and pore-bridging clay cement. Secondary porosity development occurred due to partial to complete dissolution of early calcite cements and feldspar. Late calcite cement occurs as isolated patches, and has little impact on reservoir quality of the sandstones. In addition to calcite, several different clay minerals including illite and chlorite occur as pore-filling and pore-lining cements. While the pore-filling illite and chlorite resulted in a considerable loss of porosity, the pore-lining chlorite may have helped in retaining the porosity by preventing the precipitation of syntaxial quartz overgrowths. Illite, which largely occurs as hair-like rims around the grains and bridges on the pore throats, caused a substantial deterioration to permeability of the reservoir. Diagenetic history of the Jauf Formation as established here is expected to help better understanding and exploitation of this reservoir. (author)
Al Ramadan, K.A.; Hussain, M. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Imam, B. [Dhaka Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Geology; Saner, S. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research Inst.
Full Text Available Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, C. riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L. (Acanthaceae. The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided.
Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281
Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M; Al-Ansari, A M; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A A
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of ...
Abdulrahman Musaiger; Nisreen Zagzoog
Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.
Khaled A. ALASMARI
When analyzing the impact of changes in oil and petroleum prices on Saudi Arabia’s economy the results indicate that adjustments in foreign savings, supporting an unchanged real exchange rate in the context of changes in oil world prices, quite effectively can insulate the domestic economy from international price fluctuations. If the economy is forced to adjust to the fall in world prices without offsetting changes in foreign savings, the resulting loss of export earnings and associated de...
Al-thumairi, Dr Imtithal A.
Background and objectives: Acute pancreatitis is a serious complication of ERCP. Octreotide as prophylaxis against ERCP-induced hyperamylasemia has produced conflicting results. A review article has called for additional controlled studies. This work was undertaken to see the effect of octreotide in ERCP-induced enzyme changes in a predominantly Saudi population. Subjects &methods: The setting was a university teaching hospital, Eastern Saudi Arabia. The study was prospective, randomiz...
Al Awad Naif
Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore...
Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M; Fahmy Alaa-Eldin A; Al-Rethaiaa Abdallah S
This study examined the subject of the Saudi Arabian new vehicle market. The topic addressed involved thesales-cycle within the new vehicle purchase process in Saudi Arabia. The specific research problem identified abreak-down in the sales-cycle or, alternatively, a dysfunctional approach to the final step in the sales-cycle whichinvolves the post-purchase stage where the consumer typically makes referrals or recommendations to family,friends and colleagues regarding the product or service...
Fadye Saud Al Fayad
This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influe...
Rayed AlGhamdi; Jeremy Nguyen; Ann Nguyen; Steve Drew
Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which has a very large labour force from high TB endemic countries. Understanding the epidemiological and clinical features of the TB problem, and the TB burden in the immigrant workforce, is necessary for improved planning and implementation of TB services and prevention measures.
Abouzeid, M. S.; Zumla, A. I.; Felemban, S.; Alotaibi, B.; O Grady, J.; Memish, Z. A.
To explore the role of radiological examination and certain biochemichal values in diagnosing and assessing severity of nutritional rickets. There were cases of nutritional rickets (age range between 3-36 months) seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period 1997-1999 were studied. Determinatin of calcium (Ca), phosphate(PO4),alkaline phosphate(ALP),hand and wrist x-rays,were performed for all cases. 60 cases of nutritional rickets were dignosed within 2 years,38.3% of the patients presented with swollen wristand 28.3% with bowleg.The bone profile at the time of diagnosis: Ca=2.33+-0.23,PO4=1.47+-0.40 and ALP=925+-418. Approximately 81.7% of the patients had a normal of Ca level, 18.3% had low serum PO4 level, 98.3%high value of ALP. X-ray studies indicated that,58.3% of patients have active rickets, 35% had minimal changes, and 6.7% showed healed rickets. Among those having active rickets 20% had low PO4 level ,83% had normal Ca vlaue , and 100% had high ALP.The mean value +- Sd of biochemical values in this group : Ca=2.34+-0.24, PO4= 1.45+-0.42,ALP=1067+-452. The later was significantly higher compared to other groups (P=0.004). Radiological examination and ALP remains essential to confirm clinical diagnosis of rickets and assessment of severity. (author)
We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be studied in escarpment outcrops in the vicinity of the structure.
Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl
Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms in endogenous, exogenous and nosocomial infections was emphasized.
Rajaa M. Milyani
Current data on hypertension in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are lacking. We conducted a national survey to inform decision-makers on the current magnitude of the epidemic. We measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older and interviewed them through a national multistage survey. We used multivariate logistic regressions to describe sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors of hypertensive, borderline hypertensive, and undiagnosed hypertensive Saudis. We found that 15.2% and 40.6% of Saudis were hypertensive or borderline hypertensive, respectively. Risk of hypertension increased among men, with age, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. 57.8% of hypertensive Saudis were undiagnosed. These were more likely to be male, older, and diagnosed with diabetes. Among participants diagnosed with hypertension, 78.9% reported taking medication for their condition. About 45% of participants on medication for hypertension had their blood pressure controlled. The prevalence of hypertension and borderline hypertension is very high in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, control of hypertension is poor. With the majority of hypertensive Saudis being unaware of their condition, a national plan is needed to increase utilization of freely available screening, preventive, and medical services. PMID:25170423
El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Memish, Ziad A.; Tuffaha, Marwa; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.
We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%.
Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup
A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro.
Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-nakhli, H. M.
This survey was conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to investigate the level of awareness of BPR. Respondents (customers, employees, and Managers) had different educational backgrounds and were from private and public sectors. Findings of the study indicate a general awareness of BPR in KSA.
Christopher Chiu; Johnson Agbinya; Zenon Chaczko; Essam Rahali
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the etiology of extremely elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in adolescents and adults at a tertiary care center. METHODS This retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using the Westergren method of determining ESR in adolescents and adults aged >or=12 years. The patients included inpatients and outpatients with medical, ...
Al-mendalawi, Mahmood D.
This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment in the subject mentioned above.
Full Text Available This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment in the subject mentioned above.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are among the leading cause of financial burden, morbidity and employee absenteeism in developed countries because of their chronic remitting and relapsing courses. IBD is estimated to affect the Canadian economy to the tune of 100 million dollars per year. The data regarding exact prevalence in Asian countries, including Saudi Arabia, is still incomplete as there is underreporting and lack of proper registry of the diagnosed cases. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease) has increased over the last decade in Saudi Arabia due to increased IBD awareness among population, as more patients seek medical help and also due to unknown reasons. There is a need of proper registration of IBD patients and establishment of Crohn’s & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA) as in other parts of the world. The Crohn’s & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia will be a forum which will co ordinate IBD treatment and research in the country in addition to health education among IBD population. PMID:23580900
Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Albishri, Jamal
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are among the leading cause of financial burden, morbidity and employee absenteeism in developed countries because of their chronic remitting and relapsing courses. IBD is estimated to affect the Canadian economy to the tune of 100 million dollars per year. The data regarding exact prevalence in Asian countries, including Saudi Arabia, is still incomplete as there is underreporting and lack of proper registry of the diagnosed cases. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) has increased over the last decade in Saudi Arabia due to increased IBD awareness among population, as more patients seek medical help and also due to unknown reasons. There is a need of proper registration of IBD patients and establishment of Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA) as in other parts of the world. The Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia will be a forum which will co ordinate IBD treatment and research in the country in addition to health education among IBD population. PMID:23580900
Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Albishri, Jamal
This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…
Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li
The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…
Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting s [...] ite, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%), the lowest in February (2.52%). Most patients were male (61.8%); the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%). Nocturnal envenomation (47.74%) was more common than diurnal (43.91%); most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%), mainly in the lower limbs (63%). Most envenomings were mild (74.48%) and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828), Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807), and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807) were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.
M. K., Al-Sadoon; B. M., Jarrar.
This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…
El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa
This research aimed to identify the prevalence of the emotional (emo) subculture among students at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia, and to detect differences in emo behavior and orientation among university departments and academic levels. A questionnaire assessing emo behavior/orientation was developed and…
Ashaalan, Latifah; Alsukah, Aljawharh; Algadheeb, Nourah Abdulrhman
OBJECTIVES To determine the nutritional knowledge of primary care physicians. METHODS A validated questionnaire with multiple-choice questions was distributed to 125 physicians, working in the Ministry of Health (MOH) primary health care centers in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between March and August 2006. RESULTS Completed questionnaires were received from 91 of 125 physicians (72.8%). The mean number...
Al-mendalawi, Mahmood D.
This article aims to review the historical development of continuing professional development programmes (CPDPs) for teachers, as well as the policies and objectives of such programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the inception of these programmes until now. Styles of CPDPs that the Education Training Centres (ETCs) offer are…
Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li
This work is an answer, in political terms, to the question : what are, for a petroleum and natural gas exporter country (Saudi Arabia), the data and priorities to take into consideration for the use of natural gas in electric power and industrial development ? (O.L.)
Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…
Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…
Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian
This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational…
Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…
Full Text Available The levels of iron in hair and nails of some healthy volunteer women from Saudi Arabia were determined. The level of iron were found to be lower than that reported from different places in the world. Hair and nails are useful parameters for measurement of the accumulation of metals in the human body.
The study is carried out to list mineralogy and texture of the basalt in Hail region. The basalt flows belong to the Arabian Harrat volcanism. Cenozoic volcanism has produced 13, vast, basaltic fields in western Saudi Arabia, covering a total area of about 100,000 sq. km. The volcanism starts in the late Cretaceous time and continues periodically into the Holocen...
Based on experiences gained by an educator from Indiana University who taught a speech communication course in Saudi Arabia, this paper details the adaptations the educator had to make in order to teach Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) employees and their spouses in the politically difficult period of 1981-82. Following a brief background…
Dick, Robert C.
Background: Cancer of the cervix has been considered as one of the preventable cancers. This study is the first published research addressing the screening of cancer of the cervix in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Aim: This study aims to detect the prevalence of abnormal epithelial changes and its types in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Settings and Study Design: A retrospective study was designed to evaluate all previously conducted cervical smears examined at a secondary care maternity hospital in Saudi Arabia, during the period from 2003 to 2010. During this period, a total of 1171 smears were reported. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of all patients who had undergone Papanicolaou (Pap) smear during this period. After data collection, all cases were recorded as per Bethesda nomenclature. Results: A total of 624 (53.3%) abnormal Pap smears were found, with only 58 cases reported to have epithelial pathological diagnosis (SIL). They represented 4.95% of total taken smears. A majority of the SIL diagnoses in our population were ASCUS, representing 60% of SIL cases. The prevalence of squamous cervical carcinoma was 0.34%. Conclusion: The study has shown a relatively high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in cervical smears in the studied population. The squamous cell carcinoma represented a higher than the overall prevalence compared to World Health Organization (WHO) factsheets about Saudi Arabia. The mean age of epithelial abnormalities and squamous cell carcinoma was in the reproductive years. PMID:22090690
Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Moghannum, Mohammed Saleh; Al Ghowinem, Naema; Al Omran, Souad
The nematode Subulura brumpti is described from the caecae of the domestic fowl collected from Taif, Saudi Arabia. The surface topography of the worms is described using scanning electron microscopy. This included the description of mouth opening, sensory papillae, cuticular surface, copulatory spicules and copulatory papillae. PMID:23697032
Ashour, Ameen A; Al-Gody, Mansour H
Full Text Available Air quality deterioration in urban areas; high energy demand and consumption due to regional population growth and economic development; concerns about safe drinking water supplies due to a scarcity of fresh water; air quality deterioration, industrial pollution, waste management, and pollution in coastal areas; and subsequent stress on marine ecosystems are all major environmental challenges being faced by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective protection of the environment, an interdisciplinary approach within a sustainable framework, which integrates human needs with economic development and environmental protection, is required. This paper presents an overview of Saudi Arabia’s major environmental problems and challenges and offers opportunities to use economic growth, social equity, and protection of the environment as interrelated components. The role of active participation by governments, stakeholders, businesses, academic institutions, and individuals in the decision-making process and an inter-disciplinary research approach will be identified for each major environmental issue.
Health care has evolved rapidly in Saudi Arabia, based on a Western model of service that incorporates multidisciplinary professional teams. Social work practice forms part of patient care. Within the cultural context of Saudi Arabia, social work education is developing and so too is the role of the practitioner in the hospital system. However, little is known about how social workers are integrated into the hospital setting. This study explores how Saudi social workers perceive their role and how they describe their practice. A quantitative methodology was employed using a self-administered questionnaire design. Analyses showed a number of perceived limitations that precluded effective performance in practicing social workers; these included difficulties related to updating job skills, followed by a perceived deficiency in current supervisory support. PMID:23301933
Albrithen, Abdulaziz; Yalli, Nadir
Abstract Objectives: There were two main objectives of this study: to establish normative values of hand grip strengths for 6-12-year-old children in Saudi Arabia and to compare results with existing Western data. Methods: Five-hundred twenty-five children from the central area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were recruited. Hand grip strength was measured using a standard adjustable electronic hand dynamometer. Results: The grip strength increased with advancing age in both genders, but grip strength for boys was significantly stronger than that of girls. There was no significant difference in hand grip strength according to the type of hand dominance. The hand strength of the Saudi children appeared to be lower than that of Western children. Conclusion: The reported values of hand grip strength will allow therapists to compare scores from typical and atypical children according to the age, gender, and body measures. PMID:25325246
Omar, Mohammed Taher Ahmed; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al Baker, Shaheerah
Full Text Available This study aims to explore the relationship between cytology and palynology relationship between the species under consideration. Pollen morphology and cytology of three species (Solanum forsskalii, S. macracanthum and S. glabrata var. sepicula of genus Solanum of the family Solanaceae from Saudi Arabia has been investigated by using Light Microscope (LM and electron microscope (SEM and TEM. Pollen grains are generally radially symmetrical, isopolar, tricolporates, zonoaperturates, prolate and with non perforate tectum. Tecta scabrate often punctuate. The dimensions of the pollen of the three species vary according to polar and equatorial axis. On the other hand according to pollen shape, two distinct pollen types are recognized, prolate-subprolate for Solanum forsskalii and S. macracanthum and prolate-spheroidal for S. glabrata var. sepicula. In addition, on the basis of exine columella, three types are recognized, viz., S. glabrata var. sepicula (regularly columellate, S. forsskalii (less and irregular columellate and Solanum macracanthum (columella indistinct. It is obviously that solanaceae is considered an europalynous family. Chromosomal characters of the three species provides that Solanum forsskalii and S. glabrata var. sepicula are cytologically stable and higher pollen fertility (80-90% while Solanum macracanthum shows irregular meiosis and less pollen fertility (35%. The Pollen fertility and cross-pollination between the studdied species were also discussed. These data could furnish adequate information that support the relation characters between the species.
Hussein M. Al-Wadi
Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.
Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.
Aim: To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. Materials and methods: This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Conclusion: Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia – A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47. PMID:24155577
Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah
Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all patients. Secondary polycythemia was seen in 38.9% of patients. D-Dimer level was high in all patients. In 61.1% of patients, exploratory laparotomies were done based on clinical, laboratory, abdominal ultrasound and plain x-ray findings without performing CT angiography due to presentation with marked peritoneal signs. In all patients gangrenous lesions were detected during surgery and resection of these parts was done. Gangrene and in turn resection, was extensive in 14/36 patients (38.9% and they developed short bowel syndrome. There were 22/36 patients (61.1% with superior or/and inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis, 10/36 patients (27.8% with superior mesenteric artery thrombosis, in one of them there is associated focal thrombosis of aorta and renal arteries and 4/36 patients (11.1% with superior mesenteric artery embolism. All patients received postoperative anticoagulant therapy. Patients with short bowel syndrome were prepared to receive total parental nutrition (TPN for life. Intra-operative deaths were 3/36 (8.3%.There were 5/36 deaths (13.9% accruing within one month after surgery and all died secondary to sepsis and its sequalae with total deaths of 8/36 patients (22.2%. Conclusion: Acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI especially of venous type will represent a challenging problem in Taif and related districts. The surgeon must pay intensive attention to patients presented by unexplained central abdominal pain and he has to be with high index of suspicion especially if it meets with the classic teaching of "pain out of proportion to physical findings ". Early diagnosis, aggressive approach to early resuscitation of the patients, correction of metabolic and hemodynamic derangements, and performing laparotomy as soon as these derangements were corrected would decrease morbidity and mortality. In some patients it is necessary to perform second look operation for re-evaluation of the viability of the intestine
Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. Methods: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93 affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012. The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded. The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. Results: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%. The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades. North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p Conclusion: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. Methods: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93 affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012. The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded. The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. Results: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%. The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades. North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p<0.05. Conclusion: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia.
Asim M. Makhdom
The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data and summarize the different modalities of management of multinodular goiters (MNG) in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 135 patients had MNG, which were diagnosed by ultrasonography at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah, KSA between January 2003 and June 2004. The data collected includes the age, gender, physical examination of the thyroid gland ( trifluorothymidine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroid stimulating hormone), ultrasonographic findings and Tc 99 radioiodine nuclear scan of the thyroid gland, fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the gland and antithyroid antibodies. The study group was divided according to the thyroid status: nontoxic euthyroid MNG, hypothyroid MNG and toxic hyperthyroid MNG. The management of MNGs according to patient's clinical presentations and thyroid status was reviewed. The mean age was 39+- 12.66 years with a range of 10-79 years. Forty-two patients (31%), with no history of thyroid cancer, had ultrasound guided FNA; 41(97.6%) of the FNAs were benign. One FNA (2.3%) was positive for papillary carcinoma in a 56-year-old female patient. Thyroid antibodies (anti-microsomal antibodies and anti-thymoglobulin antibodies) were measured in 50 patients (37%). thirty-one (62%)were positive, 11(35%) of which were positive in patients with documented hypothyroidism. All patients with hypothyrodism were treated with levothyroxine ; however, only 25.6ed with levothyroxine ; however, only 25.6% with euthyroid MNG were treated with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Twelve patients (44.4%) with toxic MNG were treated with antithyroid medications. Radioiodine therapy was not given to any patient with nontoxic MNG; however, 48% of those with hyperthyroid MNG received radioactive iodine treatment. Surgery was carried out 25.6% of patients with euthyroid nontoxic MNG and in 11 patients with toxic MNG (46.5%)and 14.8% of those with a subclinical hyperthyroid MNG refrained from any therapy. They were followed up by their clinician in the outpatient clinic. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels, ultrasound and fine needle biopsy were the cornerstones of the diagnostic evaluations of patient with MNG. Review of the management of these patients was comparable to that found in the literature. The treatment strategy was similar to the recommendations by the American Thyroid Society; however, radioactive iodine treatment was not used as a treatment for patients with nontoxic goiters. (author)
This study presents the findings of the first population-based tumor registry in the Eastern region (ER). Data on all cancer sites, in 1987 and 1988, were captured from all health facilities in the ER. A regional population census was obtained from regional health authorities. Cancer deaths were obtained from death registries. Age-specific rate, crude incidence rate (CIR), age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) and relative age-standardized incidence rate (%ASR) were compared with available population-based data from 137 tumor registries. 1559 primary cancer cases were captured. The CIR and ASR/100,000/year for cancer among Saudi males were respectively 59.8 and 125.7. The corresponding rates among Saudi females were 43.6 and 95.5. These rates rank very low on the international scale. Cancer sites with the highest %ASR among Saudi males were lung, lymphomas, leukemias, urinary bladder and tumors of uncertain primary. For Saudi females, these sites were breast, leukemias, tumors of brain and nervous system, thyroid and tumors of uncertain primary. Lung cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer among Saudi males. The first regional population-based cancer registry in Saudi Arabia was established in 1987. The overall cancer ASR in the ER is low. The leading cancer sites with the highest %ASR are lung in Saudi males and breast in Saudi females. PMID:17372393
Al Tamimi, T M; Al-Bar, A; Al-Suhaimi, S; Ibrahim, E; Ibrahim, A; Wosornu, L; Gabriel, G S
This study presents the findings of the first population-based tumor registry in the Eastern region (ER). Data on all cancer sites, in 1987 and 1988, were captured from all health facilities in the ER. A regional population census was obtained from regional health authorities. Cancer deaths were obtained from death registries. Age-specific rate, crude incidence rate (CIR), age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) and relative age-standardized incidence rate (%ASR) were compared with available population-based data from 137 tumor registries. 1559 primary cancer cases were captured. The CIR and ASR/100,000/year for cancer among Saudi males were respectively 59.8 and 125.7. The corresponding rates among Saudi females were 43.6 and 95.5. These rates rank very low on the international scale. Cancer sites with the highest %ASR among Saudi males were lung, lymphomas, leukemias, urinary bladder and tumors of uncertain primary. For Saudi females, these sites were breast, leukemias, tumors of brain and nervous system, thyroid and tumors of uncertain primary. Lung cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer among Saudi males. The first regional population-based cancer registry in Saudi Arabia was established in 1987. The overall cancer ASR in the ER is low. The leading cancer sites with the highest %ASR are lung in Saudi males and breast in Saudi females. PMID:17377466
Al Tamimi, T M; Ibrahim, E M; Ibrahim, A W; Al-Bar, A A; Assuhaimi, S A; Gabriel, G S; Mishriky, A M; Al-Idrissi, H Y; Al-Sohaibani, M O; Al-Sibai, M A
Objectives: To classify community pharmacies (CPs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in terms of the quality of medicines sold by them, using the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) technique with a predefined threshold. Methods: Riyad...
Khojah, Hani M. J.; Henrik Pallos; Naoko Yoshida; Manabu Akazawa; Hirohito Tsuboi; Kazuko Kimura
...Mineral Resources announced plans to spend approximately $60...Saudi Arabia's ambitious rail plans are fueling activity in the...infrastructure, airports and seaports--is also part of an ambitious investor-friendly expansion plan. Not surprisingly, these...
The National Tobacco Control Programs is apparently working effectively but differentially against smoking. The program needs to be evaluated systematically and accordingly and intensified further to reduce smoking among youths in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Abdullah M. Al-Bedah
Wheat and other grain samples were separately analysed to identify the presence of fungi and their mycotoxins. The mycological profile of the retail in different markets at Riyadh (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) was studied. Sixteen samples were collected from storage shops importer from Saudi Arabia. The most common genera were Alternaria (isolated from 68.96% of the tested samples), Aspergillus (24.14%) and in a lesser extent Fusarium (6.9%). Myc...
Muneera Al-kahtani, D. F.
Strategic planning at school level is a new concept in the field of education in Saudi Arabia, where the educational system is centralised and directly controlled by the Ministry of Education. The aim of this research was to investigate the consequences of implementing a specially devised strategic planning model in individual schools in Saudi Arabia. Twelve schools of average size were chosen as a representative sample: four elementary, four middle and four secondary schools. Interviews ...
This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals) is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. T...
Al-farraj, Abdullah S.; Mohammad Al-Sewailem; Anwar Aly
Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…
Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara
The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)ades of liver disease. (author)
Teachers in Saudi Arabia are attempting to advance their teaching in mathematics to address specific reforms by the Ministry of Education. Saudi teachers must improve their students' thinking through engagement in problem solving. This qualitative study investigated how teachers use knowledge of student mathematical learning and how they…
Alsaeed, Maha Saad
Conclusion: Prevalence of osteopenia is higher than osteoporosis in the Saudi women above 40 years in the Northern part of Saudi Arabia. The major cause of low BMD is lack of exercise even though there is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 274-278
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few studies have been conducted in Saudi Arabia to estimate the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of visual impairment, and identify its causes and associated factors among the adult population attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Aljouf province, in northern Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study during the year 2005 in PHC centers in Aljouf province in northern Saudi Arabia PATIENTS AND METHODS: A sample of 620 Saudi adults, of age 18 years and older, from the catchment area of the Aljouf PHC centers, were randomly selected through a multistage random sampling technique. Data were collected using a questionnaire about socioeconomic and related information and a visual acuity test was performed using the Snellen chart (E). Diagnosis was established according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Visual impairment was categorized into blindness for a visual acuity of less than 3/60 (20/400, 0.05) in the better eye with the best correction and low vision for a best corrected visual acuity of less than 6/18 (20/60, 0.3) but not less than 3/60 (20/400, 0.05) in the better eye. Regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of visual impairment. RESULTS: Of 617 adult Saudis interviewed and examined, 269 (43.6%) were females. The mean (SD) age was 38.6 (16.2) years. The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 13.9% (95% CI: 11.4%-16.9%). The main medical causes of visual impairments were refractive errors (36.0%) followed by cataract (29.1%) and diabetic retinopathy (20.9%), and the least leading cause was glaucoma (5.8%). The most prominent determinants of visual impairment were age (P<.05), sex (P<.001), and a history of previous eye injury (P<.05). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of visual impairment in the study population from the Aljouf area is high. It is recommended that regular checks of visual acuity be conducted for all Saudis of age 50+ years, who attend the PHC centers. PMID:21911984
Al-Shaaln, Farhan Fayez; Bakrman, Marwan Abdurrahman; Ibrahim, Adel Mohammad; Aljoudi, Abdullah Srour
Full Text Available When analyzing the impact of changes in oil and petroleum prices on Saudi Arabia’s economy the results indicate that adjustments in foreign savings, supporting an unchanged real exchange rate in the context of changes in oil world prices, quite effectively can insulate the domestic economy from international price fluctuations. If the economy is forced to adjust to the fall in world prices without offsetting changes in foreign savings, the resulting loss of export earnings and associated depreciation have major impacts on aggregate absorption, and the structure of production.
Dr. Imtithal A. AL-Thumairi
Currently, dengue fever is considered as main health problems in Mekkah and Jeddah of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with dramatically increase in the number of cases reported every year. This is associated with obvious failure in the recent control and management programs for the mosquito vector (Aedes aegypti). Here, we suggested promoting the health education and public awareness among Saudi people to improve the control of dengue mosquito vector. Several suggestions and recommendations were highlighted here to ensure effectiveness in the future control and management programs of dengue mosquito vector in KSA. PMID:25403705
Aziz, Al; Al-Shami, Salman; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Hatabbi, Mesed; Ahmad, Abu; Md Rawi, Che
Aim. We surveyed the uptake of nickel-titanium rotary files (NTRFs) among all dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methodology. A questionnaire encompassing endodontic performance and NTRF uptake was e-mailed to all members of the Saudi Dental Society. Data were collected from participants during a three-month period and were analyzed using ?2 tests and correlation coefficients. Level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results. The overall response rate was 30.6% (n = 490), and 82.9% were found to pe...
Our results show that the most frequent blood group in Saudis is O-positive. Blood group A is observed at a lower frequency relative to values from Western populations, whereas a significant increase in blood group B combined with a slight increase in blood group AB was recorded. Knowledge of the frequencies of the different blood groups in Saudi Arabia is very important for Blood Banks and transfusion service policies. Knowledge of blood group phenotype distribution is also important for clinical studies (for example disease association, as well as for population studies.
L. A. Bashwari
This paper attempts to find out the impact of reforms on insurance industry of Saudi Arabia. The study finds out the impact of reforms vis-à-vis premium growth, regulation of insurance industry and entry of new companies in the industry. The study is based on secondary data collected mainly from the annual reports of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) from 2005 through 2009. The study made a comparative study of the performance of insurance industry in pre and post reforms era. Further...
Dr. Zaid Ahmad Ansari
Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition, provenance and tectonic history of the sand dunes. Geochemical analysis indicated that most of sand dunes are quartz arenite type, except in the Red sea, basement related central Saudi Arabia and Najran areas, the sand dunes are sub-arkoses, sub-litharenite and litharenite. The concentration of major,trace and rare elements showed active continental margins as a tectonic setting of Red sea, basement related Najran and central Arabia sand dune. In contrast, passive continental margins for the other locations. The distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements showed similarity in chemical composition between basement related sand dunes in Red sea, Najran and central Arabia.
Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman
A Malaise trap was used during different time periods between 2002 and 2006, in the Asir province of Saudi Arabia at different localities. Nine known species of Milichiidae (some of them of medical importance) have been identified. These are: Desmometopa m-nigrum (Zetterstedt, 1848); D. varipalpis Malloch 1927; D. singaporensis Kertesz 1899; Leptometopa rufifrons Becker 1903; L. latipes (Meigen 1830); L. nilssoni Sabrosky, 1987; Milichia pubescens Becker 1907; Milichiella lacteipennis (Loew 1866); Enigmilichia dimorphica Deeming, 1981, from South-Western Saudi Arabia, the last seven species of the above are recorded for the first time. Biological information and distribution of these species are included. The fauna of Milichiidae found in this study is much more of Afrotropical than Palaearctic origin. (author)
Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.
Nadia Al Tamimi
Full Text Available There is a lack of information on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as environmental pollutants in Saudi Arabia. The current study focuses on the risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs,in the Holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during Hajj season 1431H. Atmospheric particulate matter was collected using High Volume samplers. Samples of 24h were collected at three sampling sites, Al-Shebakah, Al-Aziziah and Mina. PAH compounds were quantified by using GC. The total PAH concentrations (ng/m3 ranged from 103.5 - 195.2 with mean values of 164.67, 137.81 and 132.40 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, respectively. The higher percentages of the total carcinogenic compounds were recorded at Al-Shebakah, with a maximum value of 63.5 % in PM10. The carcinogenic PAHs, dibenzo[a]pyrene was found at low concentrations.
Turki M. Habeebullah
Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (genus Flavivirus, AHFV) was recently identified as the agent of a viral hemorrhagic fever in Saudi Arabia and characterized serologically and genetically as a variant genotype of Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV). Since viral diagnosis and vaccine development may be hindered by genetic diversity, this study was intended to address AHFV genetic heterogeneity. Eleven strains isolated from hospitalized patients from 1994 to 1999 in Saudi Arabia were sequenced in the envelope, NS3, and NS5 genes. Homologous sequences were compared and used to look for patterns reflecting specific evolution associated with spatiality, temporality, infection pathway, and disease prognosis. Genetic analyses showed low diversity, which suggests a slow microevolution. Evaluation of divergence times showed that AHFV and KFDV ancestral lineage diverged 66-177 years ago, and the diversity observed within the studied AHFV strains reflected a 4- to 72-year period of evolution. PMID:15890119
Charrel, Rémi N; Zaki, Ali Mohamed; Fakeeh, Mazen; Yousef, Amany Ibrahim; de Chesse, Reine; Attoui, Houssam; de Lamballerie, Xavier
The geographical distribution of Alpha and Beta-Thalassemias differ markedly. Alpha-Thalassemia being particularly prevalent in Southeast Asia and Beta-Thalassemia in the Mediterranean basin. Thalassemia syndromes are common in Saudi Arabia: the Beta-Thalassemia genes occur with variable frequency in different regions of Saudi Arabia and both B+ and Bo thalassemia have been reported. Alpha-Thalassemia is also highly prevalent here and the interaction with the sickle cell gene is commonly observed. Over the last few years, a great deal of information regarding the clinical, molecular and management of these disorders has accumulated in the literature. In this paper we summarize some of the recent studies on the subject along with our experience and our attempt to highlight a number of questions still awaiting answers.
B. H. Al-Awamy
Following Chernobyl reactor accident, King Abdulaziz University (KAU) was assigned the responsibility of monitoring food imports reaching the western ports of Saudi Arabia. This includes the three western seaports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Jizan and the airport of Jeddah. Through the seaport of Jeddah, the largest in Saudi Arabia, essentially all kinds of foodstuffs are entering. Chilled meat, fresh vegetables and other items that can not be stored for long time are coming through Jeddah airport, while Jizan and Yanbu handle mainly barley and animal feed. The monitoring program started in the middle of June. This is the time when pilgrimage season starts and about one million persons come from different parts of the world to the city of Mecca. Food imports drastically increases during this time and large number of live sheep and cows are imported for religious sacrifice
Full Text Available Thirty-one patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD were offered continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD at the Dammam Central Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia over a period of five years. The group included 21 women and 10 men with a mean age of 41.3 ± 17.2 years. The main indication for CAPD was poor or failed vascular access (51.4%. Peritonitis remained the major complication with an overall incidence of 0.62 episode per patient year. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the main causative organism. Therapy with CAPD lasted a mean of 26 ± 7.4 months. Our results, showing good technique survival and low peritonitis rate, suggest that CAPD should be promoted to become a full arm of the integrated care of ESRD in Saudi Arabia.
Community knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices are essential in any diarrhoea research. This cross-sectional study addresses these questions ill a semi-urban community in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The study included 344 subjects and 276 controls v/’ all age groups. Most people had reasonable knowledge of diarrhoea. Mothers o/’ children with diarrhoea continued to fired them during the attack. However, some community practices were found to be harmful. The majority of di...
Bella, Hassan; Ai-freihi, Hussein; El-mousan, Mohammed; Danso, Kingsley Twum; Sohaibani, Mohamed; Khazindar, Ms Samar
Some new projects are considered in the eastern coasts of Dammam city, Saudi Arabia Dredging operations would significantly alter coast hydrological and sediment transport processes. It is important that the project areas must keep flushing the fresh sea water in and out with good water quality parameters, which are currently facing increased pressure from urbanization and navigation requirements in conjunction with industrial developments. A suspended solids or sediments are expected to affe...
Saudi Arabia is often treated as an exceptional case by both political scientists and regional specialists. This is true in many regards, but both communities seem to overlook the fact that the nature of the kingdom as an »outlier« makes the testing and comparison of broader hypotheses of comparative politics all the more rewarding. This is especially the case with recent institutional changes in the political field, which partially fit patterns witnessed in many other authoritarian countri...
A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995) and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scale...
Nadia Al Tamimi; Tulika Jaiswal; Ina Grau; Rainer Banse
Spatial data is a vital national resource necessary for a country’s efficient and sustainable economic, social and environmental development, and so must be properly developed and managed. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), there is lack of knowledge and no clear framework describing the optimal way for stakeholders, users, providers or administrators, to collaborate effectively in establishing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). Moreover, the complex, multi-layer and multi-ju...
Alshehri, Saad Abdulrahman F.
This paper presents general guidelines for the management of diabetic patients within the primary health care (PHC) system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It intends to enhance PHC physicians’ knowledge and improve clinical practice to ensure better management of people with diabetes mellitus. A stepwise (Algorithm) management approach for different categories of diabetic patients, including diet, exercise, and drugs, is suggested. The peculiarities of Family Medicine, e.g., adopting ...
Al-faris, Eiad A.
Variability of wintertime surface air temperature (SAT) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is studied. The study is based on time series over thirty one years in length (1978-2008). For the analysis, we use the coefficient of variability (COV) Mann-Kendal statistical test, running mean and cumulative annual mean (CAM). The coefficient of variability (COV) for wintertime SAT decreases gradually from the north to the south of KSA. The higher values for COV occur in northern and northeastern K...
Abdel Rahman Khalaf AL-Khalaf; Hosny Mohamed Hasanean
Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, ...
Elawad, Nagi A. M.; Alibrahim, Osama A.; Nabilla Al-Sadat
Integration of ICT in education is a complex idea that requires practical interpretation to get significant outcomes. As a developing country, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (the KSA) does not have a proper technological infrastructure as developed countries. Efficient strategies are vital in improving the application of ICT in the KSA’s primary schools effectively. Improving the usage of ICT in the KSA primary schools achievement entails integrating ICT into classroom. However, some barriers ...
Gafar Almalki; Neville Williams
Background: The prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been escalating to levels that are threatening the public health of the entire KSA population, especially the female population. However, both physical activity (PA) education and research have only focused to a limited extent on women’s health status. Objectives: The overall aim of this thesis was to increase our knowledge on the current health situation of both a hospital-based and...
Energy recovery from waste is not a new field of study, but its implementation continues to be a challenge in some Arab countries. Although there is abundance of useful waste in the urban markets, practices aiming at waste to energy conversion are still negligible. In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, so-called green markets are abundant with renewable energy potential, but the practical implementation of this potential is missing. Therefore the objective of this paper is the evaluation of waste g...
Muhammad Sadiq Munfath Khan; Zakariya Kaneesamkandi
Spring water samples collected from saudi arabia were subjected to isotopic analysis. The isotopic composition of deuterium, oxygen-18 and tritium shows that spring water represents a mixture of water recharged from different sources including rain and paleowater (depleted in the environmental stable isotopes). The correlation between the deuterium content and the salinity as well as the major anions has been studied to determine the recharge sources.8 fig.,1 tab
This paper addresses the language maintenance and language shift among the young Tigrinya-speaking Eritrean immigrants in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixty-four Tigrinya-speaking teenager immigrants in Riyadh participated in this study. Forty of them are females and twenty-four are males. These respondents are students enrolled in the Eritrean International School in Riyadh. The results reveal that respondents have a limited ability to understand, speak, read, write, and translate orally...
Hussein Ali Habtoor
-The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is considered one of the most important commercial crops in the Arab world. A trial to obtain a natural potentially active extract with anticancer activity from the Saudi Arabia plant and more safe for human. Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) was used to evaluate MARE on mice after 24 and 48 hours of tumor inoculation at levels of (200mg/ml) as antitumor activity to show the sufficient value which causes EAC cells nonviable. The treatment ...
Mohammad Safar Al-Shahrani; Almehdar, Hussein A.
OBJECTIVES To assess the nature of occupational exposures occurring to students and to assess the rate of reporting of incidents. METHODS A self-administrated questionnaire was circulated to third, fourth and final year undergraduate dental students in Dental College of King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April 2004 to May 2004. The questionnaire was consisted of 4 domains: personal details, hepatitis B vaccinatio...
Abstract Background The term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refers to all the effects of iodine deficiency on growth and development in human and animal populations that can be prevented by correction of the iodine deficiency. The objective of this paper was to determine the iodine nutrition status among schoolchildren in the Jazan Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), by measuring urinary iodine concentrations and by clinical assessments of goiter rate. Meth...
Alsanosy Rashad Mohammed; Gaffar Abdelrahim; Khalafalla Husam Eldin; Mahfouz Mohamed; Zaid Abdel Naser; Bani Ibrahim
This is a questionnaire based survey designed to determine the current status of customers’ views on community pharmacies in Riyadh and focus strategies to expand and promote community pharmacy services in Saudi Arabia. Personal interview survey of 187 consumers, in Riyadh city, was obtained over a period of six weeks (23rd December 2007 to 8th February 2008). The interview questionnaire was designed to ask choice of pharmacy to seek advice, the frequency and the range of health areas...
Al-hassan, M. I.
Objectives: To evaluate the medical and dental health status of orphan children from 4 to 12-years-old, and compare them with children living with their parents. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study took place in 3 government orphanages and 3 ordinary schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2011 to January 2012. All orphans aged 4-12 year were selected (N...
Al-jobair, Asma M.; Al-sadhan, Salwa A.; Al-faifi, Areej A.; Andijani, Reem I.; Al-motlag, Sarah K.
Caffeinated energy drinks have become more popular in the last decades, especially amongst adolescents and young adults in different parts of the globe. The study aims to investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in an arbitrary group of adults and adolescents living in Hail/Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted and included which randomly selected 1062 participants (86
Mo’ez Al-Islam Ezzat Faris 2014-01-01
Mo’ez Al-Islam Ezzat Faris
Often referred as Government to Citizen (G2C) e-government services, many governments around the world are developing and utilizing ICT technologies to provide information and services to their citizens. In Saudi Arabia (KSA) e-government projects have been identified as one of the top government priority areas. However, the adoption of e-government is facing many challenges and barriers including technological, cultural, organizational which must be considered and treated carefully. This pap...
Mohammed Alshehri; Steve Drew; Osama Alfarraj
Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially unnecessary desalination infrastructure that is likely to become more energy and cost efficient in future. PMID:22504624
Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz
Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors...
Hussein Aqeely; El-gayar, Eman K.; Darakhshan Perveen Khan; Abdullah Najmi; Ayesha Alvi; Ibrahim Bani; Mohamed Salih Mahfouz; Saif Elden Abdalla; Elhassan, Ibrahim M.
With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can hel...
Al-kahtani, Nasser S.; Nawab Ali Khan
OBJECTIVES To identify the pediatric age group and most affected gender by asthma, and to determine the significant predictors of severity of asthma, and assess the appropriateness of asthma medication administration. METHODS This cross-sectional study was carried out at Emergency Department (ED) of children's Hospital at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January to March 2009. Interviews were carried ou...
Al-yami, Sami M.; Mohajer, Khaled A.; Al-jeraisy, Majed I.; Batarfi, Ahmed M.; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A.
Background/Aims: The crude frequency of colorectal cancer (CRC) is second to breast cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To assess the future burden of CRC in the country, we designed a model that takes into consideration the recent lifestyle pattern and the growth and aging of the population. Methods: We compared CRC statistics for KSA (using data from the National Cancer Registry) with that from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) databases of the ...
Ibrahim Ezzeldin; Zeeneldin Ahmed; El-Khodary Tawfik; Al-Gahmi Aboelkhair; Bin Sadiq Bakr
Wadi Al-Jufair, a tributary of Wadi Nisah, is one of the important wadis of Najd region (Saudi Arabia) sheltering a rich diversity of higher plants. The study area is extended into approximately 15 km2 encompassing the commonest geomorphological features encountered in desert wadis. The wadi supports several rare plants, including Maerua crassifolia Forssk., a regionally endangered tree, and Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf., a rare shrub with restricted distribution. The present study aims...
Alatar, Abdulrahman; El-sheikh, Mohamed A.; Thomas, Jacob
Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients' expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received.Methods: A cross- sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients us...
Al Momani, M.; Al Korashy, H.
A survey of sand flies was conducted in the Hanifah Valley, Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Four species of sand flies were identified, Phlebotomus papatasi, P. beregeroti, P. sergenti and Sergentomiya antennatus. Among those species, P. papatasi accounted for 97% of the total catch. Sand flies had two peaks, one in the middle of July and the other in the middle of October. More sand flies were caught in the southern part of the Valley compared to the northern on...
Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.; Alahmed, Azzam M.; Kheir, Salah M.; Hussein, Saied M.
Natural feed ingredients (corn, barley and wheat bran) and compound feed (manufactured pellet) are two types of fodder used for animal feeding, especially camel in Saudi Arabia. Twenty samples of each type of fodder were collected from seven different regions and screened for the presence of fungi, aflatoxins, ochratoxin and zearalenone. Fungal isolation of natural feed ingredients yielded 10 genera and 38 species of different fungi. Compound fodder samples were contaminated with 16 genera an...
Bokhari, Fardos M.
Abstract Background Review of post-operative morbidity reports for pediatric dental care under general anesthesia (GA) show great variations. Until now, no morbidity data has been available to estimate the safety of pediatric patients under GA for dental rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia. The purposes of this study were to (1) investigate post-operative complications associated with dental care under GA and (2) correlate morbidity reports with patient's characteristics, dental p...
Almushayt Abdullah; Boker Abdulaziz; Ba'akdah Rania; Farsi Najat
OBJECTIVES To bring to light issues surrounding water safety practices and the impact of such incidents on these practices in our community. METHODS We conducted a prospective observational study at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of all children <12 years of age presenting with submersion injury in the period between January 1999 through December 2004 noting the demographics and the pattern of water saf...
Hijazi, Omar M.; Shahin, Amr A.; Haidar, Nasser A.; Sarwi, Muna F.; Musawa, Eman S.
Objectives: To determine the major research priorities in the field of Primary Health Care (PHC) in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey including academicians, researchers, and PHC program managers in Qassim. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the survey instrument. A scale of 1-5 was given for prioritizing the health issues (5=highest priority; 1=lowest priority). A list of PHC research topics including ...
Saulat Jahan; Al-saigul, Abdullah M.; Nimir, Suad E.; Mustafa, Amani S.
OBJECTIVES To explore the views of undergraduate medical students regarding the presence and sources of barriers to effective feedback in their setting. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, King Saud bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April to June 2010. A self-administered questionnaire was used to explore the objec...
Al-haqwi, Ali I.; Al-wahbi, Abdullah M.; Abdulghani, Hamza M.; Molen, Henk T.
Soil pollution by heavy metals is one of theglobalenvironmental problems.There are various soil remediation methods, including:physical, chemical and biological methods. Among the latter isPhytoremediation using native plants which can be potentially used.In the present study, accumulation of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn by five native plant species growing at industrial area in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia were assessed. These are: Dipterygiumglaucum, Indigoferaspi...
YahyaM. Al-Zahrani; Hajar, Abdulrahaman S.
Because of very limited information of the clay minerals of Southern Jazan region (Saudi Arabia), the mineralogy of the clay fraction has been studied. A total of nineteen soil samples from five sites representing the main landforms in the region were studied. X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermo gravimetric analyses were carried out on the samples. Smectite, kaolinite and illite were found to be the predominant soil minerals. Other minerals present in small quantities inc...
Al-farraj, A. S.
Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information w...
Alasmari, Khaled A.
Background: Extremes of maternal age adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. Teenage ?pregnancy is a public health problem and is known to be associated with adverse pregnancy ?outcomes. Advanced maternal age is a risk factor for pregnancy outcome. Saudi Arabia suffers ?the dual burden of teenage pregnancy and older pregnancy.?Objectives: To explore the effects of maternal age on pregnancy and its outcome among mothers ?adequately covered with maternity care. ?Methods: A retrospectiv...
Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Sabry Hammad
The pattern of scoliosis in our study is comparable in many aspects with other studies carried out elsewhere, with the exception of delay in patients age at referral. We believe that our data could reflect a possible pattern of the epidemiology of scoliosis in Saudi Arabia, given the fact that there is no National Registry. To avoid delay in management, community education will help in the early detection of cases.
A. M. Al-Arjani
OBJECTIVES To determine the accuracy of the current oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) detection test used in Makkah hospitals in comparison with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method. METHODS A total of 500 S. aureus clinical isolates and it's oxacillin sensitivity patterns were collected from the 4 main hospitals in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between April 2003 and January...
Momenah, Aiman M.; Asghar, Atif H.; Bukhari, Syed Z.; Azhar, Essam I.; Ashi, Ahmed M.; Tayeb, Mohammed T.
The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were establis...
Asiri, Yousif A.
Full Text Available The potential implementation of photovoltaic (PV energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia was analyzed in this paper. HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewable software was used to perform the technical feasibility of the system. The feasibility of PV energy system was analyzed based on solar irradiances. Stand-alone PV systems with battery storage element will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV and battery storage on electric energy production.
OBJECTIVES To study the clinical and laboratory characteristics of hyperbilirubinemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient male newborns from Al-Ahsa area (Ahsais). METHODS The medical records of inborn male infants at King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH) in Al-Ahsa area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2008 through April 2009 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were healthy non-polycythemic G6PD-deficient Ahsai males born at l...
Al-abdi, Sameer Y.; Mousa, Taher A.; Al-aamri, Maryam A.; Ul-rahman, Najeeb G.; Abou-mehrem, Ayman I.
The Abbott Cell Dyn 3500 haematology analyzer was employed to study haematological parameters in 41 adult and young Friesian cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Comparison was made with clinically healthy adult and young Friesian cattle. Changes in blood parameters in T. annulata-infected cattle indicated severe macrocytic hypochromic anaemia, panleukopenia, lymphocytopenia, eosinopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia but no reticulocytosis. PMID:12072222
Omer, O H; El-Malik, K H; Mahmoud, O M; Haroun, E M; Hawas, A; Sweeney, D; Magzoub, M
In this study, an endogenous investigation of the long run relationship between the demand for money, narrow definition of money (M1), and its determinants in Saudi Arabia was conducted. A structural break date was estimated by applying the Andrews (1993) and Andrews and Ploberger (1994) methods. These tests illustrated that there is evidence of a structural break for all of the variables, namely money demand, real income and nominal short-term interest rates when they are considered toget...
Waheed Abdulrahman Banafea
This paper presents the measured annual performance of 10 roof and 14 wall assemblies in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. A comparison of the performance of different roof and wall panels based on the annual net heat flow data is carried out. Two sets of results are discussed. The first set pertains to discussion and ranking of the panels based on net heat flow. The second set of results is a comparison of concrete masonry units to other roof and wall constructions.
Said, S.A.M.; Al-Hammad, A.; Grondzik, W. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
Food poisoning during Hajj season is one of the main hazardous issues where most of the health services in Saudi Arabia are targeting to minimize every year during Hajj seasons. Ordinarily, food handlers are subjected to medical examination before assignment to work. However, they are mostly lacking proper training in food handling operations, mass feeding, and sanitary practices. This situation may encourage causing food poisoning especially with staphylococcus enterotoxins. 1516 clinical sp...
Anas Serag Dablool; Saeed Saeed Al-Ghamdi
Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1), bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological...
Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud; Mohamed Rabie Yousef; Samir Mohamed Ali; Mohamed Hamad Al-Blowi
Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical studen...
El-Gilany Abdel-Hady; Amr Mostafa; Hammad Sabry
Full Text Available This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS and Organizational Learning (OL, might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1 the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2 the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is practical, according to its purpose, and descriptive according to its data collection method. Three groups of employees at Saudi banks were reviewed. Of the 335 questionnaires that were distributed, 285 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 85%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards LS and OL. Also, this study reveals that the aspects of LS have a significantly direct effect on OL.Accordingly, the study provides a set of recommendations that included the need for Transactional Leadership Styles (TALS in general, and Transformational Leadership Style (TFLS in particular, in order to achieve the best response to the needs and wishes of the workers at Saudi banks to increase their contribution to the achievement of OL on the one hand, and raise the level of their performance and enhance competitive advantage of these organizations on the other hand.
Wageeh A. Nafei
Full Text Available In this study, an endogenous investigation of the long run relationship between the demand for money, narrow definition of money (M1, and its determinants in Saudi Arabia was conducted. A structural break date was estimated by applying the Andrews (1993 and Andrews and Ploberger (1994 methods. These tests illustrated that there is evidence of a structural break for all of the variables, namely money demand, real income and nominal short-term interest rates when they are considered together. The results of the Hansen stability test support the idea that the instability of money demand could be related to the structural breaks. Since there is evidence of a structural break, the Gregory and Hansen procedure was used to test for the cointegrating equation of money demand. This test allows for a one time structural break in the relationship among the money demand variable, real income and nominal short-term interest rates. The results of this test affirm stable money demand in Saudi Arabia. The monetary aggregate in Saudi Arabia seems to be an appropriate indicator in the formulation of monetary policy.
Waheed Abdulrahman Banafea
Full Text Available Energy recovery from waste is not a new field of study, but its implementation continues to be a challenge in some Arab countries. Although there is abundance of useful waste in the urban markets, practices aiming at waste to energy conversion are still negligible. In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, so-called green markets are abundant with renewable energy potential, but the practical implementation of this potential is missing. Therefore the objective of this paper is the evaluation of waste generation in KSA for the energy recovery purpose, and to show that the conversion of green waste into biofuel is not only environmentally friendly but also financially rewarding. Since the result illustrate that the major portion of the waste generated is organic waste, anaerobic digestion is proposed waste to energy technology because of its feasibility for biodegradation of moist organic wastes into biogas. Diversion of waste into biogas and bio-fertilizer will ensure that it is treated in such a way that it becomes a useful product instead of harmful one. Furthermore as the policy makers and planners in renewable energy sector have intended for kingdom of Saudi Arabia to be andquot;kingdom of sustainable energyandquot; as well, hence they are needed to give special attention toward the largest Saudi Arabia's green market and should invest more to implement this plan.
Muhammad Sadiq Munfath Khan
Dust event significantly influences surface radiation and energy balance, and also results in a variety of environmental problems. Saudi Arabia (16°-33°N, 34°- 56°E) is mainly covered by the Arabian Desert, and dust storm is a severe environmental problem in this region. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed aerosol optical depth (AOD), which has the newly developed satellite aerosol algorithm called "Deep Blue" integrated, were used to investigate the dust emissions in the research region during 2004-2009. In order to explore the reasons for dust emission variations, we analyzed the precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Besides precipitations, dust emission is also associated with land surface conditions. Therefore, the influences of surface vegetation distribution and elevation on dust emissions were inspected with hyperresolution modeling, which integrated the MODIS Land Cover Type product into the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our main conclusions are: 1) during 2004-2009, most severe dust events happened in June and July, and centralized in southeastern Saudi Arabia; 2) the first and the second highest AOD values in each year were rising; 3) AOD seasonal mean was also increasing in boreal spring and summer; 4) these variations are associated with precipitation variations in Saudi Arabia; 5) dust emissions are sensitive to surface vegetation distributions, and reducing the areas covered by trees and grasslands results in increased dust emissions.
Shi, M.; Yang, Z.; Tao, W.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Kalenderski, S.
The demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia has grown rapidly, and a number of factors account for this growth. The aim of this paper is to estimate the level of this demand and test for its main determinants. Cross-sectional data (i.e. regional) spanning the period 1980-92 and several estimators are used to achieve reliable estimates of the short-run and long-run own-price and income elasticities. The findings seem to be quite reasonable. First, the fixed effects method seems to fit the data better. Secondly, both the sign and the size of virtually all the elasticity estimates lie within the plausible range and most of them are statistically significant at ten per cent. Overall, the empirical evidence suggests that the demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia is both price- and income-inelastic. However, the influence of urbanisation on electricity consumption is clearly larger than that of real income. Thirdly, the estimated speed of adjustment implies very short adjustment lags in the demand for electricity in Saudi Arabia. And finally, among the policy issues that are of relevance is the current pricing policy, which has been making the whole electricity sector suffer a loss
Background The epidemiology of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease is yet to be fully understood since the virus was isolated in 1994 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Setting Preventive Medicine department, Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design Retrospective analysis of all laboratory confirmed cases of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever disease collected through active and passive surveillance from 1st-January 2009 to December, 31, 2011. Results Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHFV) disease increased from 59 cases in 2009 to 93 cases in 2011. Cases are being discovered outside of the region where it was initially diagnosed in Saudi Arabia. About a third of cases had no direct contact with animals or its products. Almost all cases had gastro-intestinal symptoms. Case fatality rate was less than 1%. Conclusions Findings in this study showed the mode of transmission of AHFV virus may not be limited to direct contact with animals or its products. Gastro-intestinal symptoms were not previously documented. Observed low case fatality rate contradicted earlier reports. Close monitoring of the epidemiology of AHFV is recommended to aid appropriate diagnosis. Housewives are advised to wear gloves when handling animals and animal products as a preventive measure. PMID:24516520
Memish, Ziad A.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Osman Ali, Ahmed; AlHakeem, Rafat; Elnagi, Fathelrhman M.; Bamgboye, Elijah A.
This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire interview was carried out to ask about some risk factors of infection. Among the 487 studied pregnant women, 38.8 % were seropositive for anti T. gondii IgG while 6.2 % were positive for anti T. gondii IgM and 3.3 % were positive for both anti T. gondii IgG & IgM. The only risk factor associated with seropositive anti T. gondii IgM was the history of the intake of immunosuppressive drugs. Regarding anti T. gondii IgG seropositivity, it was found to increase significantly with increased age, number of gravida and parities, and previous history of toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG & IgM by ELISA among pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia is considerable with few identifiable significant risk factors reported. PMID:24505169
Almushait, Mona A; Dajem, Saad M Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M; Eskandar, Mamdoh A; Al Azraqi, Tarik A; Makhlouf, Laila M
Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.
Indoor radon concentration measurement in the dwellings of Al-Jauf region of Saudi Arabia was carried out using passive radon dosemeters. The objective of this radon survey was to obtain representative indoor radon data of Al-Jauf region. The study is a continuation of radon survey in main cities of Saudi Arabia which constitutes a baseline for Saudi Arabia in the Radon World Atlas. A total of 318 passive radon dosemeters were distributed randomly in the region and placed for a period of 1 y starting from April 2004 to April 2005. The results of indoor radon concentration measurement in 136 dwellings distributed in Al-Jauf region are presented. The remaining dosemeters were lost in the dwellings or mishandled. The results showed that the average, minimum, maximum radon concentrations and standard deviation were 35, 7, 168 and 30 Bq m-3, respectively. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of the radon distribution were found to be 28 and 1.83, respectively. (authors)
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is emerging as a major public health probelm in Saudi Arabia in parallel with the worldwide diabetes pandemic, which is having a particular impact upon the Middle East and the third world. This pandemic has accompanied the adoption of a modern lifestyle and the abandonment of a traditional lifestyle, with a resultant increase in rates of obesity and other chronic non-communicable diseases. The indigenous Saudi population seems to have a special genetic predisposition to develop type 2 diabetes, which is further amplified by a rise in obesity rates, a high rate of consanguinity and the presence of other variables of the insulin resistance syndrome. We highlight the epidemiology, clinical and complications profiles of diabetes in Saudi people. Diabetes is well studied in Saudi Arabia; however, there seems to be little research in the area of education and health care delivery. This is of paramount importance to offset the perceived impact on health care delivery services, to lessen chronic diabetes complications, and to reduce the expected morbidity and mortality from diabetes.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors. The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors. Conclusions: Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students.
Full Text Available This study examined the subject of the Saudi Arabian new vehicle market. The topic addressed involved thesales-cycle within the new vehicle purchase process in Saudi Arabia. The specific research problem identified abreak-down in the sales-cycle or, alternatively, a dysfunctional approach to the final step in the sales-cycle whichinvolves the post-purchase stage where the consumer typically makes referrals or recommendations to family,friends and colleagues regarding the product or service in question. In this case, the data collected for this studyin the form of an informal, anonymous survey of people that have purchased a new vehicle in the Saudi marketfound that the satisfaction rates with dealers were an abysmal 50 to 60% depending on the specific aspect ofservice quality addressed. The secondary data found that there are more than 700 thousand new vehicles sold inSaudi Arabia on average annually and this figure is expected to surpass one million in several years. Additionally,with the after sales market in service, parts and warranties continuing to expand to more than $1 billion, thispost-purchase process in the sales-cycle can no longer be ignored by new car dealerships in the market. Therecommendation is that new car dealerships develop and integrate social media into a customer loyalty programin the new car sales-cycle in order to improve customer satisfaction and referral rates.
Fadye Saud Al Fayad
Diabetes mellitus is emerging as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia in parallel with the world wide diabetes pandemic, which is having a particular impact on upon the Middle East and the third world. This pandemic has accompanied the adoption of a modern life style and the abandonment of a traditional lifestyle, with a resultant increase in rates of obesity and other chronic non-communicable diseases. The indigenous Saudi population seems to have a special genetic predisposition to develop type 2 diabetes, which is further amplified by a rise in obesity rates, a high rate of consanguinity and the presence of other variables of the insulin resistance syndrome. We highlight the epidemiology, clinical and complication profile of diabetes in Saudi people. Diabetes is well studied in Saudi Arabia: however, there seems to be little research in the area of education and health acre delivery. This is of paramount importance to offset the perceived impact on health care delivery services, to lessen chronic diabetes complications and to reduce the expected morbidity and mortality from diabetes. (author)
The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of "medical and pharmacy education" is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of "pharmacy education" to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective. PMID:23960737
Asiri, Yousif A
Full Text Available Some 12.8 million in the age group 5–15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were selected using multistage sampling method form 30 primary schools located in the three different areas of Al Hassa. School children were interviewed to collect demographics and vision data using a special data collection form followed by screening for refractive errors by trained optometrists within the school premises using a standardized protocol. Assessment of visual acuity and ocular motility evaluation were carried out and cover-uncover test was performed. Children detected with defective vision were referred for further examination employing subjective refraction with auto refractometer and objective refraction using streak retinoscopy after 1% cyclopentolate. Of the screened school children (N=2002, the overall prevalence of refractive errors was 13.7% (n=274, higher among females (Odds ratio, OR=1.39, P=0.012 and significantly more among students of rural residence (OR=2.40, P=0.001. The prevalence of refractive errors was disproportionately more among those aged 12-14 years (OR=9.02, P=0.001. Only 9.4% of students with poor vision were wore spectacles for correction. Myopia was the most commonly encountered refractive error among both genders (65.7% of the total errors encountered. Uncorrected refractive errors affected a sizable portion of primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Primary schoolchildren especially females, rural and older children represents high risk group for refractive errors for which the included children were unaware.
Fahd Abdullah Al Wadaani
Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowled...
Alexeyenko, A. V.; Bartko, K. M.; Adebiyi, I. A.; Faraj, O. A.; Campo, C.
ABSTRACT The Saudi health sector has witnessed significant progress in recent decades with some local hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this has not been accompanied by advancement of the electronic-health e-health field, whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals to achieve certain objectives such as enhancing the quality of healthcare, and reducing the time and cost for healthcare delivery. In this paper we investigate the advan...
Altuwaijri, Majid M.
The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, ur...
Halawani, Mona R.
OBJECTIVES To study the clinical presentation of adult celiac disease. METHODS A retrospective study of adult patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease based on findings of small intestinal biopsy, response to gluten free diet and exclusion of other causes of malabsorption or vitamin deficiency over a period of 5 years from 1998-2002. The study was carried out at the King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Ar...
Qari, Faiza A.
Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED). Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI) would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific...
Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate intake of macronutrients and its relation to Body Mass Index (BMI as well as intake of selected micronutrients in urban and rural healthy adults in Riyadh region-Saudi Arabia. 170 health adults were recruited, 85 of which were urbans and 85 were rurals. Three consecutive days food records were collected and dietary intakes were analyzed by the food processor and other food composition tables. Results showed high intake of macronutrients and prevalence of overweight and obesity in both groups with no significant differences. Subjects of both groups also had high intake of saturated fat. Results also showed inadequate intake of vitamin D, calcium and folate. Few of the participants of both groups had inadequate intake of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamin B1, vitamin B3, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and vitamin B2 was adequate. No significant differences between the two groups were observed except for vitamin D, calcium and vitamin B2 that their mean intakes were significantly higher in urban group compared to rural group. Mean intake of vitamin B3 was higher in rural group compared to urban group. These findings suggested that overweight and obesity among adult Saudis are due to high intake of macronutrients combined with inadequate intake of some micronutrients, which are results of non-balanced diet and inappropriate consumption patterns. The study also suggests that there is a need of increasing the nutritional education and awareness among adult Saudi males.
Abdullah H. Al-Assaf
Europe and Asia except, all the differentials of prices have readjusted in fall in the month of april. For United States, the fall of differentials have been varied between $0.05/b and $0.15/b according to the qualities. For Europe, similar falls have been decided for crude and middle oils and are following the strong increases of february, provoked by the cold spell of the two first months of the year. In an other point of view, the production and the benefits of the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (Sabic) reach record levels of 22 Mt and $1.67 milliards in 1995. The Saudi Petrochemical Company (Sadaf), joint venture between Sabic and Pecten Saudi Arabia, affiliate of American Shell Oil, will begin next july the production, in experimental phase of its new unit of 700 000 t/year of MTBE/ETBE (methyl or ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). It will be the first worldwide factory of this capacity to produce MTBE/ETBE. The National Plastic Company (Ibn Hayyan) has created a new affiliate Ibn Hayyan Plastic Products Company to build a new factory in its complex of Joubail, which will produce 40 000 t/year of plastic products. Finally, the construction at Joubail of the 50 000 t/year of caustic soda factory, the Arabian Industrial Development Company (Nama) will be achieved in january 1997 and the production start is planned two months later. (N.C.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.
Obeidat Sadek A
Passive acoustic monitoring has been successfully used on many elasmobranch species, but no such study has yet been published for the whale shark (Rhincodon typus). In some ways this is surprising as the known whale shark aggregation sites would seem to be ideal targets for this method. For this dissertation, two acoustic studies were carried out in Saudi Arabia and Tanzania. Each was performed in parallel with visual surveys and the Saudi population was also studied using satellite telemetry. Sighting and acoustic data were compared at both sites, and the results were mixed. The acoustic monitoring largely confirmed the results of visual surveys for the Saudi Arabian sharks, including seasonality, residency and a degree of parity and integration between the sexes that is unique to this site. Satellite tracks of tagged Saudi sharks were used to confirm that some animals migrated away from the aggregation site before returning in subsequent seasons, confirming philopatric behavior in this species. In contrast, the acoustic results in Tanzania demonstrated year-round residency of whale sharks in the area, despite seasonal declines in visually estimated abundance. Seasonal changes in habitat selection render the sharks at this site temporarily cryptic to visual sampling. The differing results are compelling because both the philopatric behavior demonstrated in Saudi Arabia and the cryptic residency of the Tanzanian sharks could explain the seasonal patterns in whale shark abundances reported at other aggregation sites. Despite their differences, both sites in this study can be classified as secondary whale shark nurseries and each may be a vital feeding ground for its respective population.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh, Abdallah A AdlanKing Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Informed consent is considered the most important step in clinical interventions. The aims of this study were (1 to assess the quality of informed consent for invasive procedures with regard to consent process and information given about risks and alternative treatments, and (2 to determine patients' attitude toward informed consent at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 162 adult patients in different wards after undergoing surgery or invasive procedures within 1–2 days of signing the informed consent, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Data on patients' characteristics, type of invasive procedure, and some informed consent-related issues were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of the percentage mean score of quality of informed consent, and significance was considered at P ? 0.05.Results: The quality of informed consent was generally poor (% mean score = 50.98 ± 17.49. About two-thirds of patients were told during the informed consent process that they have to sign merely as routine, 48% thought that if they refused the treatment plan they would lose the interest of the treating physician to help them, 42% thought that by saying no they would lose the good relationship with their physician, and 42.6% were not interested in having a copy of the informed consent document. Significantly higher quality was predicted when the physicians were the ones who explained the informed consent (t = 4.15, P < 0.001 and when informed consent was explained to younger patients (t = 2.754, P = 0.007. The overall attitude of the patients toward the process of informed consent was satisfactory (% mean score = 76.31 ± 7.63.Conclusion: The results suggest either that patients are not aware of their rights or that physician paternalism is practiced in Saudi Arabia. Cultural barriers should not be an argument to diminish the role of informed consent. Further studies should focus on how the value of autonomy can be appreciated in the Saudi culture.Keywords: informed consent, quality, invasive procedure, Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001. Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%. The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%, to ‘try them’ (51.9% and ‘to get energy’ (43%, albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001. About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively. The greater majority (67% considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.
Full Text Available Objectives: Unconventional therapy (UT is a therapeutic practice of alternative and complementary medicine that is not currently considered an integral part of modern medical practice. The aim of this article is to investigate the experience of Saudi patients with UT modalities in the treatment of asthma. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study of asthma patients referred to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2004. Information was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire administered through interviews. Results: Two hundred consecutive patients with a mean age of 52.3 years (±18.7 were included in this study. Sixty-nine (34.5% of those patients used some form of UT in the previous year. There was a tendency to use UT among the older age group ( P = 0.029 and among those with longer duration of disease ( P = 0.009. However, there was no significant correlation observed between the use of UT and gender, FEV 1 , or disease control. The most commonly used form of UT was recitation of Holy Quran (9%, honey (24.5%, herbs (23.5%, cautery (12%, and blackseed (10%. There was no significant correlation between disease control and the use of modalities. Conclusion: Unconventional therapy is frequently practiced by asthma patients in Saudi Arabia, who commonly believe that UT will lead to improvement. The lack of evidence necessitates the fostering of a national project to address the practice of UT.
Al Moamary Mohamed
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS. Correlations between imaging findings, risk factors and pathological findings were analyzed. Results: Between September 2007 and April 2008, 1215 women were enrolled. The median age was 45 years, and median body mass index was 31.6 kg/m 2 . Sixteen cases of cancer were diagnosed. No cancer was diagnosed in 942 women with R1/R2 scores, and only 1 case of cancer was diagnosed in 228 women with R0/R3 scores. However, among 26 women with R4/R5 scores, 50% had malignant disease and 35% had benign lesions. No correlation was found between known risk factors and imaging score or cancer diagnosis. Conclusions: Public acceptance of the breast cancer screening program was encouraging. Longitudinal follow-up will help in better determining the risk factors relevant to our patient population.
Full Text Available Often referred as Government to Citizen (G2C e-government services, many governments around the world are developing and utilizing ICT technologies to provide information and services to their citizens. In Saudi Arabia (KSA e-government projects have been identified as one of the top government priority areas. However, the adoption of e-government is facing many challenges and barriers including technological, cultural, organizational which must be considered and treated carefully. This paper explores the key factors of user adoption of e-government services through empirical evidence gathered by survey of 460 Saudi citizens including IT department employees from different public sectors. Based on the analysis of data collected the researchers were able to identify some of the important barriers and challenges from these different perspectives. As a result, this study has generated a list of possible recommendations for the public sector and policy-makers to move towards successful adoption of e-government services in Saudi Arabia.
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; Penergy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (Pdrinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364
Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen
The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Pallister, J.S.; McCausland, W.A.; Jonsson, S.; Lu, Z.; Zahran, H.M.; El, Hadidy S.; Aburukbah, A.; Stewart, I.C.F.; Lundgren, P.R.; White, R.A.; Moufti, M.R.H.
More than 2000 Primary Healthcare Centers (PHCs) in Saudi Arabia refer the cases of patients who require additional healthcare services to general hospitals and specialized hospitals. Improving the method of communication between PHCs and the hospitals decreases the number of clinical visits to hospitals and improves patient care. The development of health information technology in Saudi Arabia over the last 5 years has improved the communication system between the primary healthcare and specialist physicians. The purpose of this case study is to report on the experiences of implementing the EHALA electronic referral system at a local Saudi hospital. The e-referral system "EHALA" was implemented in 2013 by the MOH in the central region as a unified health information system that connected almost 380 PHCs and more than 40 hospitals. The KSHCD was among the hospitals that benefited from the e-referral system. The hospital has advanced and improved communication with PHCs and hospitals in less than one year. Early findings suggest that the EHALA has streamlined and expedited the communication process for the PHCs and the hospital, which has improved the patient's continuity of care. However, several challenges remain such as lack of computer skills by staff, lack of interest in using EHALA, and lack of a clear change management strategy which is impacting the usability of the EHALA system. PMID:25000035
Alshami, Mohammed; Almutairi, Safar; Househ, Mowafa
Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.
Background and objective The present study was undertaken to assess the pattern of skin malignancies in Qassim region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods Data of histopathological confirmed cases of skin malignancies were collected from all the referral hospitals of Qassim region during a period from January 2000 to July 2009. Results Out of 94 cases majority (90.4%) were Saudis, and males (74.5%). The most common malignant skin lesion was BCC (58.5%) followed by SCC (18.1%) and MM (11.7%), respectively. Other malignancies seen were DFSP (4.3%), sebaceous carcinoma (2.1%) and skin secondaries from lung, lymphoma and stomach (4.3%). The most common site was face for BCC, trunk for SCC, and limbs for MM. The DFSP did not show any particular pattern. Conclusion All major types of skin malignancies were seen with patterns similar to those reported from various other regions of Saudi Arabia and other countries except for Kaposi’s sarcoma which was not encountered in our study. PMID:23559906
Alzolibani, Abdullateef A.; Al Shobaili, Hani A.; Robaee, Ahmad Al; Khan, Athar; Haque, Imran Ul; Rao, Nagendra Seethapathi; Alrejaie, Abdulaziz
Full Text Available Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand (Saudi Aramco. 2010.During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.The Multidisciplinary task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both companies and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011. All targets set for the SHALE-1 well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.
Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = ? 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be und plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ? New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ? Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ? Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ? Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the attractiveness factors influencing shoppers’ satisfaction, loyalty, and word of mouth in Saudi shopping mall centers. The independent variables were attractiveness factors represented by these variables namely aesthetic, convenience and accessibility, product variety, entertainment, and service quality. The dependent variables were shopper satisfaction, loyalty and WOM. A structured questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 600 shopping mall customers, representing all of the shopping malls shoppers in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A purposive sampling technique was employed in this research. The multiple regression analysis showed the impact of shopping malls attractiveness factors on the shopper satisfaction. The attractiveness factors aesthetic, convenience and accessibility, product variety, entertainment, and service quality, had a positive effect on Saudi shopping mall shoppers’. The most significant factor was product variety. This research potentially contributes to shopping malls attractiveness factors and their impact on shoppers’ satisfaction in shopping malls of Saudi Arabia.
Ala'Eddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad
This study aimed to evaluate what impact service quality that underlies the SERVQUAL model has on customer satisfaction in Saudi Arabia’s banking sector. The study was quantitative in nature and involved distributing a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire that was based on a convenience method to 412 customers of various bank in the Saudi capital city of Riyadh, during the fall of 2014. The response rate was 67 percent and the study data was analyzed using SPSS and a reli...
Objectives: To assess the awareness of interventional radiology (IR) among final-year medical students and medical interns at a Saudi University. Analysis of such awareness could help to improve the future of IR in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on anonymous surveys administered over a one month period (1st - 31st December 2012). One hundred and nineteen medical s...
Alshumrani, Ghazi A.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of automated external defibrillator (AED) training have become widespread in Saudi Arabia and the need permeated in all sectors of healthcare profession. Healthcare providers are required to renew their certification every 2 years for an optimal practice, and it has become a requisite for healthcare providers in Saudi Commission for Health Specialties and medical and nursing students prior to internship. The dis...
Alamin Berhanu; Manal Al Nasser
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Saudi Arabia is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD among smokers more than 40 years of age attending primary healthcare clinics in Saudi Arabia. Setting and Design: A questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional collection of demographic data and other items related to diagnosis of COPD in patients visiting primary healthcare clinics. Methods: Eligible subjects were current or ex-smokers and aged 40 years or above. Spirometry was performed according to American Thoracic Society criteria. Airflow obstruction was classified according to the 2003 update of the World Health Organization and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. COPD was defined as a ratio less than 0.70 of post-bronchodilator-predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC <0.70. Results: Because of incomplete data or poor performance on spirometry, of 1380 subjects eligible for the study, only 501 subjects were eligible for data analysis. Seventy-one patients had an FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70, comprising 14.2% of the study population, of which 95.8% were males. Current smokers comprised 57 (80.3% subjects. Of the 71 subjects who fulfilled the criteria for COPD diagnosis, none were found to be in COPD stage I; 40 (56.3% were in stage II and 31 (43.6% were in stage III of the disease. Conclusion: Underdiagnosis of COPD in primary healthcare clinics in Saudi Arabia is common, but its extent is not different from the corresponding data available in the literature for other countries. Use of spirometry as a routine test for all patients older than 40 years of age and with a smoking history can help in early detection and proper diagnosis of COPD, which subsequently will help in implementation of preventive measures.
Al Ghobain Mohammed
In the absence of permanent rivers or bodies of water, half of the Saudi Arabia domestic water consumption is provided through desalination. The other half is derived from groundwater. Groundwater from the Disi aquifer is already used for drinking water in parts of Jordan and, more extensively, in Saudi Arabia, where it is known as the Saq aquifer. Some of the geological analyses of the host sandstone aquifer rocks show 228Ra and 226Ra. The usefulness of chromosomal aberrations analysis as a bioindicator for ionising radiation effect was tested in underground water well workers of Saudi Arabia in this industry producing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations was evaluated using the metaphase analysis method in the lymphocytes of peripheral blood of 10 persons working in underground water well. The age range of the workers was 25-40 y and their duration of service ranged from 3-7 y. For comparison, blood samples were also collected from 10 subjects (controls) who belonged to same age and socioeconomic status. Subjects in the both groups were non-smokers and non-alcoholics. Results showed that the mean frequencies of dicentrics and acentrics in underground water well workers are significantly higher than those in controls. The higher frequency of chromosomal aberration in lymphocytes of underground water well workers compared with controls could be due to the accumulative effect o could be due to the accumulative effect of radiation. The results of this study demonstrated that occupational exposure to radiation leads to a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers engaged in underground water well. (authors)
Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.
A model for the emission of PM 10 dust has been constructed using the concept of a threshold friction velocity which is dependent on surface roughness. Surface roughness in turn was correlated with geomorphology or soil properties for Kuwait, Iraq, part of Syria, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. The PM 10 emission algorithm was incorporated into a Lagrangian transport and dispersion model. PM 10 air concentrations were computed from August 1990 through August 1991. The model predicted about the right number of dust events over Kuwait (events occur 18% of the time). The model results agreed quantitatively with measurements at four locations in Saudi Arabia and one in Kuwait for one major dust event (>1000 ?g/m 3). However, for smaller scale dust events (200-1000 ?g/m 3), especially at the coastal sampling locations, the model substantially over-predicted the air concentrations. Part of the over-prediction was attributed to the entrainment of dust-free air by the sea breeze, a flow feature not represented by the large-scale gridded meteorological data fields used in the model computation. Another part of the over-prediction was the model's strong sensitivity to threshold friction velocity and the surface soil texture coefficient (the soil emission factor), and the difficulty in accurately representing these parameters in the model. A comparison of the model predicted PM 10 spatial pattern with the TOMS satellite aerosol index (AI) yielded a spatial pattern covering a major portion of Saudi Arabia that was quite similar to the observed AI pattern.
Draxler, Roland R.; Gillette, Dale A.; Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S.; Heller, Jack
Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula and has an area of 872,722 sq miles, or 2,260,350 sq km. The ancient Arabian Shield of igneous and metamorphic rocks comprises most of the western third of the country. The shield contains many extinct volcanoes surrounded by lava beds. Sloping eastwards are the newer sedimentary areas in which rich oil fields are found. In Saudi Arabia oil is paramount and less effort has been put into searching for mineral deposits than in other countries of similar size and geology. Pour aerial radiometric surveys have been undertaken and some of the anomalies discovered in the earlier ones were ground checked by an IAEA expert in 1963-64. Two anomalies warranted more detailed work, these were the Jabal Said anomaly in the Central Shield area and the Al Ghrayyat in Wadi Sawawin about 70 miles from the Jordan border. The Jabal Said anomaly consists of a zone of altered rocks consisting largely of pegmatite and pegmatite granite= Allanite, pyrochlore, cyrtolite, xenotime and monazite are the ore minerals,, The deposit was estimated to have 2.2 million tons of ore grading 0.2 - 0.3 percent Nb2O5 and 0.03 - 0,05% U3O8. The other occurrence at Al Ghrayyat is similar but with much lower grade uranium content. In view of the huge size of Saudi Arabia, the existence of many geologically favourable rock types and the poor coverage by sophisticated uranium exploration techniques, the Speculative Potential is placed between 10,000 and 50,000 Tonnes uranium. (author)
Four main phases of the history of Saudi-Arabian mineral oil politics are described, each of which marks one stage on the way to full oil-related sovereignty of the kingdom: 1. finding concession-holders for mineral oil, 2. Cooperation with ARAMCO in order to build up the country's mineral oil industry, 3. Cooperation with other OPEC-states in nationalising the oil industries, 4. participation in the 2nd Gulf War in order to achieve full sovereignty in matters of energy politics. Special attention is given to the specifically Saudian connection of foreign - and oil politics and the importance of historical ''coincidences'' for the success of Saudi Arabia's type of mineral oil politics. (orig./UA)
Diminishing groundwater resources and a growing need of water in arid countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia necessitate increased reuse of treated wastewater. Therefore a characterization study was carried out to determine the seasonal variations in the quality of secondary effluent for agricultural purposes produce from the AI-Khobar wastewater treatment plant. All the basic parameters such as chlorides, TSS, TDS, BOD, pH, turbidity total coliform including metals, nutrients, and oil and grease were studied. A comparison between the treated wastewater quality from the AI-Khobar and other Gulf region WWTPs was also made. Moreover the secondary effluent quality was also compared with the Saudi Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) discharge standards and the Ministry of Agriculture (MA) irrigation standards. Results showed seasonal variations in the effluent quality. Based on the methodology used in the present study suggestions have been given to improve the wastewater quality and application areas in the field of agriculture. (author)
Full Text Available A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea, fig (Ficus carica, grapes (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, citrus (Citrus spp., pomegranate (Punica granatum and pear (Pyrus communis. Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah, Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad, Rhynchaphytoptus ficifolia (Keifer and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer, belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites.
Fahad J. Al-Atawi
A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptusficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites. PMID:21916261
Al-Atawi, Fahad J; Halawa, Alaa M
Full Text Available The purpose and the goal of the paper is to show how Geographical Information Systems (GIS can be used to support health planning and demanding on a micro-scale and explore the possibilities of using GIS for health care services in hospitals at Saudi Arabia sub_areas. GIS as a computer system that stores and links non-graphic attributes or geographically referenced data with graphic map features to allow a wide rang of information processing and display operations, as well as map production, analysis, and modeling. GIS has several useful functions and tools that can be used in health planning field.
Magdy Shayboub Ali Mahmoud
The objective of the present study is to describe and examine nutrition and food consumption patterns in KSA, namely to analyze and assess: the trends of per capita supply of major food groups (g/capita/day) from 1961-2007 and dietary energy supply, distribution by macronutrient and diversity of the food supply. Only secondary data were used. Saudi Arabia annual food balance sheet for the period form 1961-2007 which produced by FAO were used to drive the average per capita micronutrients (Die...
Ahmed Adam; Salih Osama; Khan Ibrar Muhammad
Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8×23.2 (22-27×20-25) µm, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6×8.3 (10.5-13×7.5-9) µm, with a prominent Stieda body, but wi...
Alyousif, Mohamed Saleh; Al-dakhil, Mohamed; Al-shawa, Yaser
Full Text Available Disi is a fossil groundwater shred between Jordan and Saudi Arabia with a very high quality properties, this water is limited and has been used for irrigation purposes between both countries, this study helps in highlighted the importance of this water as stratigic reserve to be use later on. This study shows that the amounts of groundwater affected by the thickness of the saturated zone in the aquifer, the porosity of the aquifer and the groundwater flow in the basin. Abstraction from the aquifer will affect water quality so this point must be clearly understood all the time.
Alsharifa Hind Jasem
Toxoplasma 3 main clonal lineages are designated as type I, II, and III; however, atypical and mixed genotypes were also reported. This study was conducted for detection of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in rats (Rattus rattus) in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. PCR test on T. gondii B1 gene was conducted on ELISA IgM positive samples for confirmation of the infection. However, genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine T. gondii genotypes using PCR-RFLP technique. PCR test on T....
Elamin, Maha H.
Over the past couple of years, the frequency and magnitude of flash floods are increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective planning and mitigation purposes, it is necessary to identify and visualize areas that are vulnerable to the flooding. In this paper, we will first create a flash flood social and physical vulnerability index for the city of Riyadh based on physical and social-economic data. Building upon the index, the areas of Riyadh that are highly vulnerable to flash floods will be identified and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Finally, possible mitigation measures that can be used to reduce the impacts of flooding will be discussed in details.
Tauhidur Rahman, Muhammad; Aldosary, Adel S.; Nahiduzzaman, Khondokar Mohammad
A petrochemical study of some rock samples was carried out using different experimental techniques. The rock samples were collected from the Al-Mizil area, Saudi Arabia. This area consists of Precambrian metasediments which belong to the Halaban Formation. The plutonic rocks intruded later into the Halaban Formation. Major oxides and the trace elements in these rocks are presented. The study indicates that the rocks are mainly of granitic composition. The petrochemical data suggest a magmatic origin for Al-Mizil granitic rocks. (author)
The vegetation composition of the central coastal low lands of Eastern Saudi Arabia was analyzed. The appearance and distribution of the studied plant groupings were affected by atmospheric, by edaphic conditions as well as topography. Eighty seven species belonging to (33) families of flowering plants were recorded in the following seven plant communities which are dominated and co-dominated by (Zygophyllum qatarense), (Lasiurus scindicus and Lycium shawii), (Alhagi graecorum and Cynodon dactylon), (Phoenix dactelifera and Tamarix aphylla),(Aeluropuslagopoides and Sporobolous ioclados), ( Halocnemum strobilacium and Arthrocenemum macrostachyum) and (Avicennia marina). (author)
Full Text Available A survey of sand flies was conducted in the Hanifah Valley, Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Four species of sand flies were identified, Phlebotomus papatasi, P. beregeroti, P. sergenti and Sergentomiya antennatus. Among those species, P. papatasi accounted for 97% of the total catch. Sand flies had two peaks, one in the middle of July and the other in the middle of October. More sand flies were caught in the southern part of the Valley compared to the northern one due to the presence of water stream in the southern part. However, numbers of sand flies are more positively correlated to temperature than to relative humidity
Abdulrahman S. Aldawood
Endemic syphilis (bejel) is an endemic, contagious, non-sexually transmitted treponematosis of primitive communities which, if not treated, can cause deformities and defects of the face in its late stage. Several burned-out cases from Saudi Arabia are shown, and the techniques of plastic surgical repair are presented by word and illustrations. We describe in detail a total rhinoplasty (with panfacial reconstruction) in which a scalping flap was used as outer cover and superimposed on a classical island forehead flap based on a subcutaneous pedicle containing both frontal vessels for inner lining. PMID:6387735
Erdelyi, R L; Molla, A A
In Saudi Arabia, including regions of Riyadh and Al Ahsa, pseudoparticle neutralisation (ppNT) and microneutralisation (MNT) tests detected no antibodies to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in sheep (n= 100), goats (n= 45), cattle (n= 50) and chickens (n= 240). Dromedary camels however, had a high prevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infected sera from cattle had no cross-reactivity in MERS-CoV ppNT or MNT, while many dromedary camels’ sera reacted to both BCoV and MERS-CoV. Some nevertheless displayed specific serologic reaction profiles to MERS-CoV. PMID:24342517
Hemida, M G; Perera, R A; Wang, P; Alhammadi, M A; Siu, L Y; Li, M; Poon, L L; Saif, L; Alnaeem, A; Peiris, M
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ? 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ? 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.Keywords: quality of life, skin disease, Saudi Arabia
The aim of this study was to estimate the intake level of glutamate and caffeine from some snacks and drinks. The survey was carried out during 2008 to 2009 in 3 selected governorates (Al-Hassa, Al- Katif and AD-Dammam) localized in the eastern area of Saudi Arabia. The age of study participants (298) was ranged between less than 4 – over 30 years. The snacks and drinks consumption data were gathered and calculated using the frequency methods. Forty nine samples of snacks and beverages were...
Al-abbad, Najat A.; Hassan, Magda I.
This is an additional contribution to the comprehensive study of the scorpion sting syndrome in Saudi Arabia, which was collected from two regions (Al-Baha and Hail). It deals with identification of the existing and newly discovered species and their medical importance. The survey covered the major sites of Al-Baha, (Al-Queed, Al-Qura, Al-Mandig, Al-Makhwaa, Galwaa, Al-Baha and Baljurashy) and Hail, (Hail city, Baqaa, Al-Shenan, Al-Ghazala). There were 2421 specimens collected from Al-B...
Al-asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-saief, Abdulaziz A.; Abdo, Nasreddien M.; Al-moutaery, Khalaf R.
Specimens from 181 patients with diarrhoea were examined by a Military General Hospital in a 3-month period during deployment of troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990/1. DNA probes for heat labile (LT) and heat stable (ST) enterotoxin genes identified enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in 47 of the specimens (26%) and 49 ETEC strains were isolated. The majority (55%) belonged to a novel ETEC serotype having the O-antigen 159 and a flagellar antigen designated as a provisional new type. They pro...
Willshaw, G. A.; Cheasty, T.; Rowe, B.; Smith, H. R.; Faithfull-davies, D. N.; Brooks, T. G.
Full Text Available Abdulsalam M Alaithan,1 Javed I Memon,1 Rifat S Rehmani,2 Arif A Qureshi,1 Abdul Salam31Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center – Eastern Region (KAIMRC-ER, Al-Hasa, Saudi ArabiaBackground: There is little data surrounding the survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are admitted to the critical care unit with exacerbation of symptoms. We conducted a study to measure the in-hospital and intensive care unit (ICU outcomes of patients admitted with COPD exacerbation, and identified the related prognostic factors.Method: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who were admitted to the adult ICU between January 2006 and July 2011 for COPD exacerbation in King Abdulaziz National Guard Hospital, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia.Results: During the study period, a total of 119 patients were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure attributed to COPD exacerbation. The mean age was 72 ± 13 years, and 44 (37% were females. The main cause of respiratory failure was infection, which occurred in 102 (86% patients. Thirty-nine (33% of the admitted patients were mechanically ventilated, and the median duration was 2.6 (1–42 days. The median lengths of the ICU and hospital stays were 3 (1–40 and 9 (2–43 days, respectively. The ICU mortality was 6%, and hospital mortality was 11%. Low Glasgow Coma Scale on admission, intubation, duration of mechanical ventilation, current smoking, tracheostomy, cardiopulmonary arrest, and the development of acute renal failure were associated with higher hospital mortality.Conclusion: Early ICU and hospital mortality is low for COPD patients who have been admitted to the ICU with exacerbation. Low Glasgow Coma Scale scores on admission, intubation, prolonged use of mechanical ventilation, and the development of acute renal failure were identified as risk factors associated with increased hospital mortality.Keywords: intensive care unit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mortality rates, acute respiratory failure
Disi is a fossil groundwater shred between Jordan and Saudi Arabia with a very high quality properties, this water is limited and has been used for irrigation purposes between both countries, this study helps in highlighted the importance of this water as stratigic reserve to be use later on. This study shows that the amounts of groundwater affected by the thickness of the saturated zone in the aquifer, the porosity of the aquifer and the groundwater flow in the basin. Abstraction from the aq...
Alsharifa Hind Jasem; Shammout, Maisa A.; Dheaya AlRousan; Marwan AlRaggad
There is no doubt that the laboratory is the backbone for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. Only through testing in the laboratory can the physician confirm suspicion of TB despite any previous clinical and x-ray findings. Recent visits to several laboratories in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia showed that some need considerable improvement. Unless there are standardized procedures to diagnose TB, and safety measures are implemented in all laboratories, it will be impossible to diagnose accurately and control TB. The laboratories should be redesigned to conform to international TB Diagnostic Centers, with well trained staff and proper safety procedures.
Sahal A. Al-Hajoj
Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.
Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro
Full Text Available Background : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is an important pathogen in gastrointestinal disorders. Seroprevalence among asymptomatic and chronically diseased children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was determined to gain insight into its prevalence. Methods : Serum samples obtained from 1432 children; 543 asymptomatic and 889 chronically diseased children (diabetes, chronic asthma, chronic hemolytic anemia, neurological impairment and Down?s syndrome; were tested by ELIZA for H. pylori IgG antibodies. Demographic data obtained including nationality, gender, age and disease status. Results : One hundred and twenty eight (23.6% of 543 asympatomatic children were seropositive with no significant difference in seroprevalence of infection between Saudi and non-Saudi (p< 0.09 and between boys and girls (p< 0.67, but significant rise was notice with increasing age (p< 0.001. An increase in risk of H. pylori among chronically diseased children was observed (diabetes: 34.4%, chronic asthma 20.4%, chronic hemolytic anemia: 31.7%, neurological impairment: 32.1%, and Down?s syndrome: 29.2% which increased significantly in chronic anemia and neurological impairment (p< 0.01 and p< 0.05 compared to controls. The prevalence did not differ according to nationality and gender but significantly increased with age in chronic asthma, chronic anemia and neurological impairment (p< 0.01 for all and also increased significantly with duration of illness, number of blood transfusions, number of hospital admission and mode of feeding. Conclusion : Infection with H. pylori seems to occur early in life and its prevalence increased with age in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The risk of H. pylori infection was significantly increased within children suffering from chronic hemolytic anemia; neurological impairment compared to controls and was significantly related to severity of the chronic disease.
Full Text Available Recent developments in the field of internetcommunication in the last decade worldwide have crossed allthe physical boundaries laid down by human being and this erawitnessed a major development in the field of InformationTechnology and made a large number of computer users in theworld. Every common man is influenced by this new world ofcommunication named as cyber world. But there are alwaystwo aspects associated with every technology; the destructiveside is threats associated with this internet communication incyberspace. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formationof laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem.This paper discusses the stand of Saudi Arabian governmentagainst cyber crime and its IT act. It analyzes the cybercrimein the Kingdom and the associated legislation to combat thesame.
Naasir Kamaal Khan
Animal protein is one of the most important food products essential for normal growth of human body. The main objective of this study were to assess the demand of Saudi red meat, to estimate the system of Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) on various types of red meat and study the variances of price elasticity, cross elasticity and income elasticity according to the types and sources of meat in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Mean spending (billion Saudi Riyals) on different types of meat ranged...
Al-shuaibi, Abdulaziz M.
This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women. PMID:24859807
Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A
Thirteen selected Saudi Arabian plants, belonging to seven different families, were tested for possible anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenin-induced paw edema model in rats. The methanolic extracts of Vernonia schimperi, Trichodesma trichodesmoides var. tomentosum, and Anabasis articulata exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity. The active extracts were further subjected to fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol and tested together with their mother liquor for their anti-inflammatory activity in the same rat model. The most potent fractions were the n-butanol fractions of Anabasis articulata and Vernonia shimperi and the aqueous mother liquor of Trichodesma trichodesmoides. Nevertheless, the three potent methanolic extracts showed higher anti-inflammatory activities than their individual fractions. The antioxidant properties were assessed by their in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. It was concluded that the anti-inflammatory activity is dependent, at least in part, on the reduction of prostaglandin (PGE2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity. PMID:24772817
Abdallah, Hossam M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Ashour, Osama M; Shehata, Ibrahim A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A
Full Text Available Businesses today consider mergers and acquisitions a new strategy for their company’s growth. Companies aim to grow through sales’ increase, assets purchase, profits’ accumulation and market share gains. The better way for achieving these targets is by getting into either a Merger or an Acquisition. As a matter of fact, growth through mergers and acquisitions has been a critical part of the success of many companies operating in the new economy. Mergers and Acquisitions are an important factor in building up market capitalization. Based on three detailed and in depth structured interviews with major Saudi Arabian banks it has been found that, Mergers motivated by economies of scale should be approached cautiously. Companies should also approach vertical mergers cautiously because it is often difficult to gain synergy through a vertical merger and firms should also seek out mergers which allow the firm to acquire specialized knowledge. It has also been found that the firms should look for mergers that increase market power and avoid unrelated or conglomerate mergers.
Basmah Al Qudaiby (Basmah, A. Q.,
Ertaa (Calligonum comosum) and Ghada (Haloxylon persicum) are two important multipurpose indigenous shrubs in the desert of Saudi Arabia, supplying firewood and fodder to the local populations. Their environmental benefits in connection with sand dune fixation and microenvironment improvement are commendable. Due to over-exploitation and habitat destruction, populations of these two shrubs have become severely degraded. This study helps in the development of the appropriate techniques for their regeneration and evaluates their relative growth rate under different irrigation schedules. Productivity in the natural population and biological growth under cultivation were also evaluated. Seeds of Ertaa required no special treatment while the seeds of Ghada showed higher percentage of germination when soaked in cold water for 1 hour. The seeds of Ghada are photoblastic, which require adequate light for germination while those of Ertaa are negatively photoblastic. The growth rate of both species under different irrigation schedule proved that the increase of irrigation frequency may not proportionally influence the growth rate. The estimated productivity of natural stands in Saudi Arabia was much less than the productivity of both species from other parts of the world. The estimated biological growth function under cultivation was found to reasonably match with the natural growth for both species are in their initial growth stage. (author)uthor)
Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics is a branch of health economics related to the most economical and efficient use of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacoeconomic research identifies, measures and compares the costs and outcomes (clinical, economic and humanistic of pharmaceutical products and services. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation can play a significant role in the efficient allocation of resources in healthcare systems with constrained budgets. Countries are trying to control the rising costs of health care in their aging population. They are all asking the same question: Is the new drug good value for money; and if so, what is the society willing to pay for it? This article reviews the importance of, and the need for, adaptation of pharmacoeconomic analysis to the conditions in Saudi Arabia. It will shed some light on the important steps for converting the concept into practice, including the need for identifying the willing-to-pay (WTP or the threshold cutoff, the existence of a real cost for each utility, the nonexistence of an pharmacoeconomic advisory forum, pharmaceutical budget allocation, and the impact of pharmaceutical marketing. It will also provide recommendations for easing any challenges that might jeopardize the conduct of such analysis in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to survey and record the plant species associated with Citrullus colocynthis in different altitudinal localities in the West of Saudi Arabia. Depending on the presence of Citrullus colocynthis L. species, seven stands on the West of Saudi Arabia; expending from 25 m up to 2220 m a.s.l. height and 330 km long were selected for this study. Soil samples were collected from the studied localities and the soil properties were investigated. Also, plant species associated with C. colocynthis were collected, recorded and prepared as herbarium specimens. The studied localities were represented by different ecological, geographical and edaphic sites. A list of 127 species belonging to 41 families present in all locations was recorded. Calotropis procera was the representative species with C. colocynthis in all localities. The percentage of presence of the associated species were different between species in each location and also from location to other. Three different ecological areas could be distinguished in the study area. The area near the red sea characterized by salty sandy soil and low vegetation represented the first area. The second one was the coastal plain and West slope which characterized by low rainfall and xerophytic plants. The third one was the mountainous area which characterized by high altitude, more rainfall and high density of vegetation.
The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish) were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio) in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp.) in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%), while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%). Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors. PMID:25517520
Khalil, Mokhtar Ibrahim; El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad; Abdelkader, Hussein Saad
To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6%) were immune (IgG positive); the remaining 866 (8.4%) were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15-19 years) and the oldest age group (40-49 years) (P = 0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.7). Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6%) but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection. PMID:25045356
Alsibiani, Sharifa A
Full Text Available Groundwater scarcity in arid regions may hinder development plans and cause many inconveniences for the population and authorities. Saudi Arabia has limited groundwater resources stored in the sedimentary sequence of the Arabian Shelf. Some of these resources were classified as major aquifers, secondary and minor aquifers, and some were considered as aquicludes. The Jubaila Limestone is one of the secondary aquifers of Saudi Arabia. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the groundwater resources of the Jubaila Limestone in Riyadh area, with emphasis on groundwater quality. Groundwater was found to occur in fractures and within solution openings of the Jubaila Limestone at depths which range between 19 and 210 m. The transmissivity value was 1.7 × 10–3 to 7.2 × 10–3 m2/s; the storage coefficient was of 1.3 × 10–4. The electrical conductivity for collected water samples ranged between 831 and 7670 µS/cm. The major ionic relationships were Na > Ca > Mg and SO4Cl > HCO3. The groundwater evolves from NaCl dominated at the southern end of the study area, into Ca, MgSO4 water in the north. The main chemical process responsible of this variation was found to be dissolution of anhydrite and gypsum. The groundwater was not found suitable for drinking purposes but can be used by livestock and for some agricultural purposes.
Mohammed Tahir Hussein
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the attitudes of managers in Saudi Arabia towards the effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia. The study includes 143 firms in three sectors of activities; private manufacturing, private service and public firms. The study reveals that the five most significant benefits are; safer environment, improvement of image of the certified firms with the international environmental organizations, ensure the safety of workers inside the organizations, improvement of firms image with customers and the reduction of pollution. When using Factor Analysis, it produces five factors; employee morale, efficiency and quality, relations with government, safety of products and relations with environmental organizations. Furthermore, the study shows that the five most difficulties are related to the costs and fees; fees of consultants, costs of changing within organizations, costs of maintain the system, fees of the certification agencies and costs of internal auditing. The Factor Analysis suggests two factors for difficulties namely; preparation and documentation and costs and fees. The study also finds that there is an overwhelming satisfaction about ISO 14001 among managers where the private service firms come first followed by public firms then the private manufacturing firms.
Nasser Akeil Kadasah
Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. PMID:25460975
Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I
Varying amounts of data have been collected on concentrations of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, sulphur-34, carbon-13, and carbon-14 at 400 sites in an area of about 800,000km2 in Saudi Arabia. Carbon-13 concentrations cluster into groups related to the aquifer matrix, with mean values of -9.089% for sandstone aquifers and -6.008% for limestone aquifers. Most of the recharge to the aquifers in Saudi Arabia took place about 20,000 years ago, and relatively little water is being recharged currently. The oxygen-18 and deuterium concentrations also cluster into groups related to the aquifer matrix, with heavier concentrations being found in the sandstone aquifers and lighter concentrations in the limestone aquifers. There are significant areal variations in the oxygen-18 and deuterium concentrations although the isopleths for these two isotopes tend to be essentially parallel. The oxygen-18 concentration varies areally from about -2.05% in the outcrop areas to about -6.05% downdip. Stable isotope data show that the Umm-Er-Radhuma aquifer is leaking upwards into the Khobar and Neogene aquifers in the Hofuf area. The Wasia aquifer, however, is hydraulically isolated from the overlying aquifers. (author)
Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.
Full Text Available With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can help the public sector telecom companies of Saudi Arabia to combat the future challenges on the basis of these variables: Quality of Work Life and Welfare Measures, Organizational Development, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards and Participative Management. The present study brings out the fact that appropriate HRD Practices provide an essential springboard for enhancing the Satisfaction and Commitment of the employees in the Telecom Industry. Appropriate Practices in HRD are subjective. What is best for one company may not be best for another. ‘Appropriate practices are not a set of discrete actions but rather a holistic approach to management. Thus, to study the appropriateness of the HRD Practices, an attempt was made to identify those HRD practices that are prevalent in the Telecom Sector.
Nasser S. Al-Kahtani
The purpose of this study is to use geophysical imaging methods to identify the conjectured location of the ‘Qadimah fault’ near the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’, Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 2-D resistivity and seismic surveys were conducted at two different locations, site 1 and site 2, along the proposed trace of the ‘Qadimah fault’. Three processing techniques were used to validate the fault (i) 2-D travel time tomography, (ii) resistivity imaging, and (iii) reflection trim stacking. The refraction traveltime tomograms at site 1 and site 2 both show low-velocity zones (LVZ’s) next to the conjectured fault trace. These LVZ’s are interpreted as colluvial wedges that are often observed on the downthrown side of normal faults. The resistivity tomograms are consistent with this interpretation in that there is a significant change in resistivity values along the conjectured fault trace. Processing the reflection data did not clearly reveal the existence of a fault, and is partly due to the sub-optimal design of the reflection experiment. Overall, the results of this study strongly, but not definitively, suggest the existence of the Qadimah fault in the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’ region of Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Despite the recognition of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT in English language learning classes in different contexts, its successful implementation in EFL contexts has attracted insufficient attention. As an offshoot of communicative language teaching, TBLT can provide EFL language learners with ample opportunities to embark on using language for more communicative purposes through interaction and engaging in collaborative tasks. The present study adopts an action research approach to implementing TBLT in a traditional language learning context at a major international university in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it intends to determine the students’ (N = 25 learning styles using Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM and to use varying tasks to tackle the common learning problems such as lack of participation in learning activities and low motivation. The analysis of data from different data collection instruments revealed that applying TBLT approach in this context helped students enhance their interaction with their classmates and teacher and used English for more authentic purposes while performing a series of learning tasks. In addition, the implementation of TBLT in this context motivated students to engage in different learning activities. At the end, implications of the findings for further research are discussed.Keywords: TBLT; FSLSM; action research; EFL; Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the fluoride concentration of different commercially available mouthrinses in central Saudi Arabia, and compare the obtained measurements with label values. Methods: This cross-sectional study identified 25 brands of mouthrinses in the markets of Riyadh city between August and September 2013. Nineteen brands of mouthrinses whose labels indicate the percentage of sodium fluoride (NaF and 6 brands not indicating the fluoride percentage were included in the study. Three bottles of 2 manufacturing batches of each brand were acquired, coded, and analyzed after dilution using specific electrodes for fluoride and an ion analyzer at the College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: The average fluoride concentrations in the tested mouthrinses ranged from 8.4 ppm (Voza to 448.7 ppm (Sensodyne `Pronamel`. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in the fluoride concentration between the studied 25 brands. Almost 60% of the brands’ fluoride concentrations were significantly different (mainly lower from the label value. However, only 5 brands contain fluoride at a concentration not significantly different from the recommended fluoride concentration in daily mouthrinses 0.05% (225 ppm. Conclusion: Most of the studied commercially available mouthrinses contain topical fluoride at concentrations below the manufacturers’ label value, but above the recommended 0.05%.
Abdullah M. Aldrees
Horizontal wells are commonly used in Saudi Arabia because they have proven advantages in optimizing production and cost. However, in order to ensure proper production, these wells occasionally require downhole measurements of the flow profile; wellbore parameters such as water entry points; and productivity index for remedial action, such as water shut off or well stimulation. Evaluating the performance of a well also contributes to a better understanding of sweep, water production and cross flow, particularly in long reach wells. The most common flow regime at downhole conditions is a stratified flow regime in which lighter oil flows on top and heavier water flows on bottom. Slugging and bubbling flow regimes are typical of low oil flow rate and are considered unstable flow regimes. This paper described a new generation of production logging tools (PLTs) that have been used on some horizontal wet producers located in Saudi Arabia. The new PLTs consists of arrays of spinners and sensors to log the entire cross section to describe the horizontal flow regime and measure the downhole production and phases. In an effort to find the best logging procedure, the PLT was tested using two methods, notably coiled tubing (CT) and wireline tractor. It was concluded that PLTs are reliable and accurate. Case studies involving planning, deployment, data acquisition, and detailed analysis of PLTs were presented. 35 refs., 1 tab., 20 figs.
Al-Buali, M.H.; Dashash, A.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); El Gammal, T.; Arevalo, F.; Torne, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)
Toxoplasma 3 main clonal lineages are designated as type I, II, and III; however, atypical and mixed genotypes were also reported. This study was conducted for detection of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in rats (Rattus rattus) in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. PCR test on T. gondii B1 gene was conducted on ELISA IgM positive samples for confirmation of the infection. However, genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine T. gondii genotypes using PCR-RFLP technique. PCR test on T. gondii B1gene showed that 22 (81.5%) out of the 27 ELISA IgM positive samples have T. gondii DNA. Genotypic analysis shows that, of the total 22 PCR positive samples, only 13 (59.1%) were of type II, 7 (31.8%) were of type III, and 2 (9.1%) were of an unknown genotype. It is obvious that the prevalence of both type II and III is high in rats. No reports have been available on T. gondii genotypes among rats in Riyadh region, and only little is known about its seroprevalence in rats. Future studies on T. gondii genotypes in rats using multi-locus markers is needed in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia for better understanding of T. gondii pathogenesis and treatment in humans and animals. PMID:25031465
Elamin, Maha H
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,092 women attending urban primary health care centers in Abha City southwestern Saudi Arabia about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and related practices. Only 22.0% heard about mammography, and 41.5% heard about breast self-examination (BSE). More than half of the women in the study identified changes occurring in case of breast cancer and identified risk factors. Only 8.3% were examined by clinical breast examination (CBE), 6.2% were examined by mammography, and 29.7% performed BSE. The study points to the insufficient knowledge of women and the low practice of BSE, CBE, and mammography. Public awareness should be enhanced by all available means including mass media, schools, social gatherings, and waiting areas in primary health care centers. There is an urgent need for continuing medical education programs for health care workers in the region concerning breast cancer. PMID:23797712
Mahfouz, Ahmed A; Hassanein, Mervat H A; Nahar, Shamsun; Farheen, Aesha; Gaballah, Inasse I; Mohamed, Amani; Rabie, Faten M; Aftab, Razia
Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important optimisation tool, which aid in identifying abnormally high dose levels. These are currently not available in Saudi Arabia, and this research aims to remedy this. CT dose data (DLP and CTDIvol) were collected for a minimum number of 10 adult patients of average size (60-80 kg) presenting for a range of CT examinations from public hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. These include routine chest, high-resolution chest (HRCT), pulmonary angiography (CTPA), abdomen and pelvis (AP) and the combined chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) CT examinations. Mean values for each site were calculated, and the 75th percentile of DLP and CTDIvol was used as a basis for DRLs. Data for 550 patients were collected from 14 hospitals over a 7-month period. The rounded third-quartile CTDIvol and DLP were 18 mGy and 630 mGy cm(-1) for chest CT, 20 mGy and 600mGy cm(-1) for HRCT, 18 mGy and 480 mGy cm(-1) for CTPA, 15 mGy and 800 mGy cm(-1) for AP, and 16 mGy and 1040 mGy cm(-1) for CAP, respectively. Regional DRLs have been proposed from this study. Dose variations across CT departments have identified an urgent need for optimisation to improve distribution of observed doses for CT examinations. PMID:25468993
Qurashi, Abdulaziz A; Rainford, Louise A; Foley, Shane J
Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4
Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud
The aim of the present study was to survey and record the plant species associated with Citrullus colocynthis in different altitudinal localities in the West of Saudi Arabia. Depending on the presence of Citrullus colocynthis L. species, seven stands on the West of Saudi Arabia; expending from 25 m up to 2220 m a.s.l. height and 330 km long were selected for this study. Soil samples were collected from the studied localities and the soil properties were investigated. Also, plant species associated with C. colocynthis were collected, recorded and prepared as herbarium specimens. The studied localities were represented by different ecological, geographical and edaphic sites. A list of 127 species belonging to 41 families present in all locations was recorded. Calotropis procera was the representative species with C. colocynthis in all localities. The percentage of presence of the associated species were different between species in each location and also from location to other. Three different ecological areas could be distinguished in the study area. The area near the red sea characterized by salty sandy soil and low vegetation represented the first area. The second one was the coastal plain and West slope which characterized by low rainfall and xerophytic plants. The third one was the mountainous area which characterized by high altitude, more rainfall and high density of vegetation. PMID:19806808
Al-Ghamdi, F A; Al-Zahrani, H S; Al-Amer, K H
Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Reflecting effective and psychomotor skills to teaching environment are as important as cognitive skills in learning process. In this context, values are important to develop skills in affective domain. In this study, the opinions of the students who have been studying in three different countries (Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkey) were aimed to be…
Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes were…